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Chapter 9
9.1 (a) =2.5003 is a parameter (related to the population of all the ball bearings in the
container and x =2.5009 is a statistic (related to the sample of 100 ball bearings). (b) p =7.2%
is a statistic (related to the sample of registered voters who were unemployed).
9.2 (a) p = 48% is a statistic; p = 52% is a parameter. (b) Both xcontrol = 335 and xexperimental =
289 are statistics.
9.3 (a) Since the proportion of times the toast will land butter-side down is 0.5, the result of 20
coin flips will simulate the outcomes of 20 pieces of falling toast (landing butter-side up or
butter-side down). (b) Answers will vary. A histogram for one simulation is shown below (on
the left). The center of the distribution is close to 0.5. (c) Answers will vary. A histogram based
on pooling the work of 25 students (250 simulated values of p ) is shown below (on the right).
As expected, the simulated distribution of p is approximately Normal with a center at 0.5.
60

2.5

Count of sample proportions

Count of sample proportions

3.0

2.0
1.5
1.0

40

30

20

10

0.5
0.0

50

0.35

0.40

0.45
0.50
0.55
Simulated proportion

0.60

0.65

0.300

0.375

0.450
0.525
0.600
Simulated proportion

0.675

0.750

0.5 0.5
 0.1118 . The
20
simulation above for the pooled results for 25 students produced a standard deviation of 0.1072.
(e) By combining the results from many students, he can get a more accurate estimate of the
value of p since the value of p approaches p as the sample size increases.

(d) Answers will vary, but the standard deviation will be close to

9.4 (a) A histogram is shown below. The center of the histogram is close to 0.5, but there is
considerable variation in the overall shape of the histograms for different simulations with only
10 repetitions.

204

Chapter 9

(b) A histogram for 100 repetitions is shown below (on the left). The distribution is
approximately Normal with a center at 0.50.

(c) The mean and the median are extremely close to one another. See the plot above (on the
right). (d) The spread of the distribution will not change. To decrease the spread, the sample
size should be increased.
9.5 (a) The scores will vary depending on the starting row. Note that the smallest possible mean
is 61.75 (from the sample 58, 62, 62, 65) and the largest is 77.25 (from 73, 74, 80, 82). One
simulation produced a sample of 73, 82, 74, and 62 with a mean of x = 72.75 . (b) Answers will
vary. A histogram for one set of 10 simulated means is shown below (left). The center of the
simulated distribution is slightly higher than 69.4. (c) Answers will vary. A histogram for a set
of 250 simulated means is shown below (right). The simulated distribution is approximately
Normal with a mean very close to 69.4. The average of the 205 simulated means is 69.262.
40

Count of sample mean

Count of sample mean

68

69

70

71
72
Simulated Mean

73

74

75

30

20

10

62

64

66

68
70
Simulated mean

72

74

76

Sampling Distributions

205

9.6 (a) There are 45 possible samples of size 2 that can be drawn. The frequency table below
shows the values of the sample mean for samples of size 2, the number of times that mean occurs
in the 45 samples, and the corresponding percent.
Mean2
60.0
61.5
62.0
63.5
64.0
65.0
65.5
66.0
67.0
67.5
68.0
68.5
69.0
69.5
70.0
71.0
72.0
72.5
73.0
73.5
74.0
76.0
76.5
77.0
77.5
78.0
81.0

Count
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

Percent
4.44
2.22
4.44
4.44
4.44
2.22
4.44
2.22
4.44
4.44
4.44
2.22
6.67
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
2.22
2.22
2.22
4.44
2.22
2.22
2.22

A probability histrogram is shown below.


7
6

Percent

5
4
3
2
1
0
. 0 .5 . 0 .5 . 0 . 0 . 5 . 0 .0 . 5 .0 . 5 . 0 .5 . 0 .0 . 0 .5 . 0 . 5 .0 . 0 .5 . 0 .5 . 0 . 0
60 61 62 6 3 64 6 5 65 66 67 67 6 8 68 6 9 69 70 71 72 7 2 73 7 3 74 76 76 77 7 7 78 8 1

Mean of 2 observations

(b) The shapes and spreads are different, but the centers are the same. The distribution for n = 2
is roughly symmetric, but it does not have the general shape of a Normal distribution. For n = 4,
the distribution of the sample mean resembles the shape of a Normal distribution. Both
distributions are roughly centered at 69.4. However, the spread is a little larger for the
distribution corresponding to n = 2.
9.7 (a) A histogram is shown below (on the left). (b)  141.847 days. (c) Means will vary with
samples. The mean of our first sample was 120.833. (d) Our four additional samples produced
means of 183.4, 212.8, 127.3, and 119.7. It would be unlikely (though not impossible) for all

206

Chapter 9

five values to fall on the same side of . This is one implication of the unbiasedness of x : Some
values will be higher and some lower than , but not necessarily a 50/50 split. (e) The mean of
the (theoretical) sampling distribution is  141.847 . (f) Answers will vary. A histogram for 100
sample means of size 12 is shown below (on the right). The distribution of sample mean looks
more Normal than the population distribution of survival times, but it is still skewed to the right.
The center of the distribution is about 145.9 and the means ranged from a low of 88.75 to a high
of 260.42. The standard deviation of the 100 means was 33.02.
35

mean
141.8

18
16
Count of sample means

Count of guinea pigs

30
25
20
15
10

12
10
8
6
4

5
0

14

2
120

240
360
Survival time (days)

480

600

90

120

150

180
Sample mean

210

240

9.8 The table below shows the count, sample proportion, frequency, and percent for each
distinct value. A probability histogram is also provided.
Sample_Prop
0.045
0.065
0.070
0.075
0.080
0.085
0.090
0.095
0.100
0.105
0.110
0.115
0.120
0.125
0.130
0.135
0.140
0.150

Frequency
1
3
2
5
11
12
12
9
7
5
6
7
10
4
1
2
2
1

Percent
1
3
2
5
11
12
12
9
7
5
6
7
10
4
1
2
2
1

mean = 0.0981
12
10
8
Percent

Count
9
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
30

6
4
2
0

0
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
5
04 06 07 07 08 08 09 09 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15
0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
Sample Proportion

(b) The distribution is bimodal, with a very small bias. (c) The mean of the 100 observed values
of the sample proportion is 0.0981. The center of the sampling distribution is about 0.0019
below where we would expect it to be, so there appears to be a very small bias. (d) The mean of
the sampling distribution of p is 0.10. (e) By increasing the sample size from 200 to 1000, the
mean of p would stay the same, 0.10, but the spread in the distribution of p would be smaller.
9.9 (a) Since the smallest number of total tax returns (i.e., the smallest population) is still more
than 100 times the sample size, the variability will be (approximately) the same for all states. (b)
Yes, it will changethe sample taken from Wyoming will be about the same size, but the

Sampling Distributions

207

sample in, e.g., California will be considerably larger, and therefore the variability will be
smaller.
9.10 (a) Large bias, large variability. (b) Small bias, small variability. (c) Small bias, large
variability. (d) Large bias, small variability.
9.11 Both p = 40.2% and p = 31.7% are statistics (related, respectively, to the sample of smallclass and regular-size-class black students).
9.12 The sample mean x = 64.5 inches is a statistic and the population mean = 63 inches is a
parameter.
9.13 (a) If we choose many samples, the average of the x -values from these samples will be
close to . In other words, the sampling distribution of x is centered at the population mean
we are trying to estimate. (b) The larger sample will give more information, and therefore more
precise results. The variability in the distribution of the sample average decreases as the sample
size increases.
9.14 (a) Use digits 0 and 1 (or any other 2 of the 10 digits) to represent the presence of egg
masses. Reading the first 10 digits from line 116, for example, gives YNNNN NNYNN2
square yards with egg masses, 8 withoutso p = 0.2. (b) The numbers and proportions of
square yards with egg masses are shown below. A stemplot is also shown below (right). The
mean of this approximately Normal distribution is 0.2.
Eggmasses
0
3
2
2
2
4
3
3
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
3
1

p-hat
0.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.1

Stem-and-leaf of p-hat
Leaf Unit = 0.010

1
8
(5)
7
2

0
1
2
3
4

= 20

0
0000000
00000
00000
00

(c) The mean of the sampling distribution of p is 0.2. (d) The mean of the sampling
distribution of p is 0.4 in this other field.
9.15 (a) A probability histogram for the number of dots on the upward facing side is shown
below. The mean is = 3.5 dots and the standard deviation is = 1.708 dots.

208

Chapter 9

0.18
0.16
0.14

Probability

0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

3
4
Number of dots

(b) This is equivalent to rolling a pair of fair, six-sided dice. (c) The 36 possible SRSs of size 2
and the sample averages are shown below.
x =1.0
1,1;
2,1; 1,2;
x =1.5
3,1; 2,2; 1,3;
x =2.0
4,1; 2,3; 3,2; 1,4;
x =2.5
5,1; 2,4; 3,3; 4,2; 1,5;
x =3.0
6,1; 2,5; 3,4; 4,3; 5,2; 1,6;
x =3.5
6,2; 3,5; 4,4; 5,3; 2,6;
x =4.0
6,3; 4,5; 5,4; 3,6;
x =4.5
6,4; 5,5; 4,6
x =5.0
6,5; 5,6;
x =5.5
6,6;
x =6.0
(d) The sampling distribution of x is shown below. The center is identical to that of the
population distribution, the shape is symmetrical, single-peaked, and bell shaped and the spread
(  1.2076 ) is smaller than that of the population distribution.
0.18
0.16
0.14

Probability

0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0
3.5
4.0
Sample mean

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

9.16 Answers will vary. A histogram of the x3 -values is shown below. While the center of the
distribution remains the same, the spread in this distribution is smaller than the spread in the
sampling distribution of x for samples of size n = 2.

Sampling Distributions

209

Percent of sample averages

30

25

20

15

10

1.6

2.4

3.2
4.0
Sample average

4.8

5.6

9.17 Assuming that the polls sample size was less than 870,00010% of the population of
New Jerseythe variability would be practically the same for either population. (The sample
size for this poll would have been considerably less than 870,000.)
9.18 (a) The digits 1 to 41 are assigned to adults who say that they have watched Survivor:
Guatemala. The program outputs a proportion of Yes answers. For (b), (c), (d), and (e),
answers will vary; however, as the sample size increases from 5 to 25 to 100, the variability in
the sampling distributions of the sample proportion will decrease.
9.19 (a) The mean is p = p = 0.7 and the standard deviation is
p =

p (1 p )
0.7 0.3
=
 0.0144 . (b) The population (all U.S. adults) is clearly at least 10
n
1012

times as large as the sample (the 1012 surveyed adults). (c) The two conditions, np = 10120.7
= 708.4 > 10 and n(1 p) = 10120.3 = 303.6 > 10, are both satisfied. (d) P( p 0.67 ) = P(Z
2.08) = 0.0188. This is a fairly unusual result if 70% of the population actually drinks the
cereal milk. (e) To half the standard deviation of the sample proportion, multiply the sample size
by 4; we would need to sample 10124 = 4048 adults. (f) It would probably be higher, since
teenagers (and children in general) have a greater tendency to drink the cereal milk.
9.20 (a) The mean is p = p = 0.4 and the standard deviation is p =

0.4 0.6
 0.0116 . (b)
1785

The population (all adults) is considerably larger than 10 times the sample size (n = 1785 adults).
(c) The two conditions, np = 17850.4 = 714 > 10 and n(1 p) = 17850.6 = 1071 > 10, are
0.37 0.4

0.43 0.4

both satisfied. (d) P ( 0.37 p 0.43) = P


Z
 P ( 2.59 Z 2.59 ) =
0.0116
0.0116

0.9952 0.0048 = 0.9904. Over 99% of all samples of size n = 1785 will produce a sample
proportion p within 0.03 of the true population proportion.
0.4 0.6
 0.0283 and the probability is
300
0.37 0.4
0.43 0.4
approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 1.06 Z 1.06 ) = 0.8554 0.1446 =
0.0283
0.0283

9.21 For n = 300, the standard deviation is p =

210

Chapter 9

0.7108. For n = 1200, the standard deviation is p =


0.37 0.4

0.4 0.6
 0.0141 and the probability is
1200

0.43 0.4

approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 2.13 Z 2.13) = 0.9834 0.0166 =
0.0141
0.0141

0.9668. For n = 4800, the standard deviation is p =


0.37 0.4

0.4 0.6
 0.0071 and the probability is
4800

0.43 0.4

approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 4.23 Z 4.23)  1 . Larger sample
0.0071
0.0071
sizes produce sampling distributions of the sample proportion that are more concentrated about
the true proportion.
9.22 (a) The distribution of the sample proportion is approximately normal with mean 0.14 and
0.14 0.86
 0.0155 . (b) 20% or more Harley owners is unlikely:
500
0.2 0.14

P ( p 0.2 )  P Z
= P ( Z 3.87 ) < 0.0002 . (c) There is a fairly good chance of finding
0.0155

0.15 0.14
at least 15% Harley owners: P ( p 0.2 )  P Z
= P ( Z 0.64 ) = 1 0.7389 = 0.2611.
0.0155

standard deviation p =

9.23 (a) The sample proportion is 86/100 = 0.86 or 86%. (b) We can use the normal
approximation, but Rule of Thumb 2 is just barely satisfied: n(1 p) = 10. The standard
deviation of the sample proportion is p =

0.9 0.1
 0.03 and the probability is
100

0.86 0.9

P ( p 0.86 )  P Z
= P ( Z 1.33) = 0.0918. (Note: The exact probability is 0.1239.)
0.03

(c) If the claim is correct, then we can expect to observe 86% or fewer orders shipped on time in
about 12.5% of the samples of this size. Getting a sample proportion at or below 0.86 is not an
unlikely event.
9.24 If p is the sample proportion who have been on a diet, then p is approximately Normal
0.7 0.3
 0.02804 . The probability is
267
0.75 0.7
approximately equal to P ( p 0.75 )  P Z
= P ( Z 1.78 ) = 1 0.9625 = 0.0375.
0.02804

with mean 0.7 and standard deviation p =

(Software gives 0.0373). Alternatively, as p 0.75 is equivalent to 201 or more dieters in the
sample, we can compute this probability using the binomial distribution. The exact probability is
P ( X 201) = 1 P ( X 200 ) = 1 0.9671= 0.0329.
9.25 (a) The mean is p = p = 0.15 and the standard deviation is p =

0.15 0.85
 0.0091 . (b)
1540

The population (all adults) is considerably larger than 10 times the sample size (n = 1540). (c)
The two conditions, np = 15400.15 = 231 10, n(1 p) = 15400.85 = 1309 10, are both

Sampling Distributions

211
0.13 0.15

0.17 0.15

satisfied. (d) P ( 0.13 p 0.17 ) = P


Z
 P ( 2.20 Z 2.20 ) = 0.9861
0.0091
0.0091

0.0139 = 0.9722. (Software gives 0.972054.) (e) To reduce the standard deviation in (a) by a
third, we need a sample nine times as large; n = 13,860.
0.15 0.85
 0.0252 and the probability is
200
0.13 0.15
0.17 0.15
approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 0.79 Z 0.79 ) = 0.7852 0.2148 =
0.0252
0.0252
0.15 0.85
0.5704. For n = 800, the standard deviation is p =
 0.0126 and the probability is
800
0.13 0.15
0.17 0.15
approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 1.59 Z 1.59 ) = 0.9441 0.0559 =
0.0126
0.0126
0.15 0.85
0.8882. For n = 3200, the standard deviation is p =
 0.0063 and the probability is
3200
0.13 0.15
0.17 0.15
approximately equal to P
Z
 P ( 3.17 Z 3.17 ) = 0.9992 0.0008 =
0.0063
0.0063

9.26 For n = 200, the standard deviation is p =

0.9984. Larger sample sizes produce sampling distributions of the sample proportion that are
more concentrated about the true proportion.
9.27 (a) The sample proportion is p = 62/100 = 0.62. (b) The mean is p = p = 0.67 and the
standard deviation is p =

0.67 0.33
0.62 0.67

 0.0470 . P ( p 0.62 )  P Z
 P ( Z 1.06 )
0.047
100

= 0.1446. (c) Getting a sample proportion at or below 0.62 is not an unlikely event. The sample
results are lower than the national percentage, but the sample was so small that such a difference
could arise by chance even if the true campus proportion is the same.
9.28 (a) The mean is p = p = 0.52 and the standard deviation is p =

0.52 0.48
 0.0223 (b)
500

The population (all residential telephone customers in Los Angeles) is considerably larger than
10 times the sample size (n = 500). The two conditions, np = 5000.52 = 260 > 10, n(1 p) =
5000.48 = 240 > 10, are both satisfied. P ( p 0.5 )  P Z

0.5 0.52
= P ( Z 0.90 ) = 1
0.0223

0.1841 = 0.8159.
9.29 (a) The mean is p = 0.75 and the standard deviation is p =

0.75 0.25
= 0.0433.
100

0.7 0.75

P ( p 0.7 )  P Z
= P ( Z 1.15 ) = 0.1251. (b) The mean is p = 0.75 and the
0.0433

0.75 0.25
0.7 0.75

standard deviation is p =
 0.0274 . P ( p 0.7 )  P Z
= P ( Z 1.82 ) =
0.0274
250

0.0344. (c) To reduce the standard deviation for a 100-item test by a fourth, we need a sample

212

Chapter 9

sixteen times as large; n = 1600. (d) Yes, the answer is the same for Laura. Taking a sample
sixteen times as large will cut the standard deviation by a fourth, for all values of p.
9.30 (a) One of the two conditions in Rule of Thumb 2 is not satisfied; np = 150.3 = 4.5 < 10.
(b) Rule of Thumb 1 is not satisfied. The population size (316) is not at least 10 times as large
as the sample size (n = 50). (c) P ( X 3 ) = binomcdf(15, 0.3, 3)  0.2969.
9.31 (a) The mean is x = = -3.5% and the standard deviation is x =

26
5

 11.6276% . (b)

5 (3.5)

P ( X > 5)  P Z >
= P ( Z > 0.33) = 1 0.6293 = 0.3707. (c)
26

5 (3.5)

P ( x > 5)  P Z >
= P ( Z > 0.73) = 1 0.7673 = 0.2327. (d)
11.6276

0 (3.5)

P ( x < 0)  P Z <
= P ( Z < 0.30 ) = 0.6179. Approximately 62% of all five-stock
11.6276

portfolios lost money.


21 18.6
= P ( Z > 0.41) = 1 0.6591 = 0.3409. (Software gives
5.9

5.9
 0.8344 . These
0.3421.) (b) The mean is x = 18.6 and the standard deviation is x =
50

9.32 (a) P ( X > 21)  P Z >

results do not depend on the distribution of the individual scores. (c)


21 18.6

P ( x > 21)  P Z >


= P ( Z > 2.88 ) = 1 0.9980 = 0.002.
0.8344

9.33 (a) The standard deviation is x =

10
3

 5.7735 milligrams. (b) Solve

10
n

= 3; n = 11.1, so n

= 12. There is less variability in the average of several measurements than there is in a single
measurement. Also, the average of several measurements is more likely to be close to the true
mean than a single measurement.
9.34 (a) If x is the mean number of strikes per square kilometer, then x = 6 strikes/km2 and
x =

2.4
10

 0.7589 strikes/km2. (b) We cannot calculate the probability because we do not know

the distribution of the number of lightning strikes. If we were told the population is Normal,
then we would be able to compute the probability.

9.35 The sample mean x has approximately a N 1.6,1.2


probability is approximately equal to P ( x > 2 )  P Z >

0.

200  0.0849 distribution. The

2 1.6
= P ( Z > 4.71) , which is essentially
0.0849

Sampling Distributions

213

9.36 The central limit theorem says that over 40 years, the mean return x is approximately
Normal with mean x =13.2% and standard deviation x =

17.5
40

 2.7670% . Therefore,

15 13.2

P ( x > 15% )  P Z >


= P ( Z > 0.65 ) = 1 0.7422 = 0.2578 and
2.767

10 13.2

P ( x < 10% )  P Z <


= P ( Z < 1.16 ) = 0.1230.
2.767

9.37 (a) No this probability cannot be calculated, because we do not know the distribution of the
weights. (b) If W is total weight and x = W 20 , the central limit theorem says that x is
approximately Normal with mean 190 lb and standard deviation x =

35
20

 7.8262 lb. Thus,

200 190

P (W > 4000 ) = P ( x > 200 )  P Z >


= P ( Z > 1.28 ) = 1 0.8997 = 0.1003. There is about
7.8262

a 10% chance that the total weight exceeds the limit of 4000 lb.
9.38 (a) The mean is x = 40.125 mm and the standard deviation is x =

0.002
4

= 0.001 mm. These

results do not depend on the distribution of the individual axel diameters. (b) No, the
probability cannot be calculated because we do not know the distribution of the population, and n
= 4 is too small for the central limit theorem to provide a reasonable approximation.
9.39 (a) Let X denote Sheilas glucose measurement.
140 125

P ( X > 140 ) = P Z >


= P ( Z > 1.5 ) = 1 0.9332 = 0.0668. (b) If x is the mean of four
10

measurements (assumed to be independent), then x has a N 125,10

N (125mg/dl, 5mg/dl ) distribution and P ( x > 140 ) = P Z >

4 =

140 125
= P ( Z > 3.0 ) =1 0.9987 =
5

0.0013. (c) No, Sheilas glucose levels follow a Normal distribution, so there is no need to use
the central limit theorem.
9.40 The mean of four measurements has a N (125mg/dl, 5mg/dl ) distribution, and
P ( Z > 1.645) = 0.05 if Z is N(0, 1), so L = 125 + 1.6455 = 133.225 mg/dl.

9.41 (a) ) Let X denote the amount of cola in a bottle.


295 298

P ( X < 295 ) = P Z <


= P ( Z < 1) = 0.1587. (b) If x is the mean contents of six bottles
3

(assumed to be independent), then x has a N 298,3


and P ( x < 295 ) = P Z <

6 = N ( 298ml,1.2247ml ) distribution

295 298
 P ( Z < 2.45 ) =0.0071.
1.2247

214

Chapter 9

8  N ( 55000 miles, 1591 miles )

9.42 (a) The sample mean lifetime has a N 55000, 4500


distribution. (b) P ( x < 51,800 ) = P Z <

51,800 55,000
 P ( Z < 2.01) = 0.0222.
1591

9.43 (a) The approximate distribution of the mean number of accidents x is

N 2.2,1.4

52  N ( 2.2, 0.1941) . (b) P ( x < 2 ) = P Z <

2 2.2
 P ( Z < 1.03) = 0.1515. (c) If
0.1941

X denotes the number of accidents at an intersection per year, then


1.9231 2.2

P ( X < 100 )  P ( x < 100 / 52 ) = P Z <


 P ( Z < 1.43) = 0.0764.
0.1941

9.44 The mean of 22 measurements has a N 13.6,3.1

22 distribution, and

P ( Z < 1.645) = 0.05 if Z is N(0, 1), so L = 13.6 1.6450.6609 = 12.5128 points.

9.45 The mean loss from fire, by definition, is the long-term average of many observations of
the random variable X = fire loss. The behavior of X is much less predictable if only a small
number of observations are made. If only 12 policies were sold, then the company would have
no protection against the large expense that would be incurred if at least one of the 12
policyholders happened to lose his or her home. If thousands of policies were sold, then the
average fire loss for these policies would be far more likely to be close to , and the companys
profit would not be endangered by the few large fire-loss payments that it would have to make.
9.46 The approximate distribution of the average loss x is

N $250,$300

10, 000 = N ( $250,$3) and P ( x > $260 ) = P Z >

260 250
 P ( Z > 3.33) = 1
3

0.9996 = 0.0004.
CASE CLOSED!
(1) The central limit theorem suggests that the mean of 30 lifetimes will be approximately
Normal with mean x = 17 hours and the standard deviation of x =

0.8
30

 0.1461 hours. (2)

16.7 17

P ( x < 16.7 )  P Z <


= P ( Z < 2.05 ) = 0.0202. (3) There is only about a 2% chance of
0.1461

observing a sample average as small or smaller than the one observed ( x 16.7 ) if the process is
working properly. This small probability provides evidence that the process is not working
properly. (4) Let p denote the sample proportion of unsuitable batteries among a random
sample of n = 480 batteries. The mean is p = p = 0.1. The population (all batteries produced)
is clearly at least 10 times as large as the sample (n = 480), so Rule of Thumb 1 suggests that the
standard deviation p =

0.1 0.9
 0.0137 is appropriate. The two conditions, np = 4800.1 =
480

48 > 10 and n(1 p) = 4800.9 = 432 > 10, are both satisfied, so Rule of Thumb 2 suggests that

Sampling Distributions

215

the distribution of p is approximately Normal. (5)


40
0.0833 0.1

P p
 P Z
= P ( Z 1.22 ) = 0.1112. (6) There is about an 11% chance of
480
0.0137

observing a sample proportion this small or smaller, if the true proportion of unsuitable batteries
produced is 0.1. A good plant manager would require a smaller probability and evaluate the
overall process before sending this shipment.
9.47 (a) p = 0.68 or 68% is a parameter; p = 0.73 or 73% is a statistic. (b) The mean is p = p =
0.68 and the standard deviation is p =

0.68 0.32
 0.0381 . (c)
150

0.73 0.68

P ( p > 0.73)  P Z >


= P ( Z > 1.31) = 1 0.9049 = 0.0951. There is about a 10%
0.0381

chance of getting a sample proportion of 0.73 or greater, if the population proportion is 0.68.
Thus, the random digit device appears to be working fine.
9.48 (a), (b) Answers will vary. In one simulation, we obtained a total of 8 simulated values of
less than or equal to 0.65, a percentage of 16%. This estimated probability suggests that the
customs agents have given us reasonable information about the chance of getting a green light.
(c) Let p denote the sample proportion of passengers who get the green light among a random
sample of n = 100 travelers going through security at Guadalajara airport. The mean is p = 0.7.
The population (all travelers going through security at Guadalajara airport) is clearly at least 10
times as large as the sample (n = 100), so Rule of Thumb 1 suggests that the standard deviation
p =

0.7 0.3
 0.0458 is appropriate. The two conditions, np = 1000.7 = 70 > 10 and n(1
100

p) = 1000.3 = 30 > 10, are both satisfied, so Rule of Thumb 2 suggests that the distribution of
0.65 0.7
p is approximately Normal. (d) P ( p 0.65)  P Z
= P ( Z 1.09 ) = = 0.1379. This

0.0458

probability (or 14% chance) is reasonably close to the 16% obtained in our simulation. (e) For n
= 1000, p is again approximately normal, with mean p = 0.7 and standard deviation
p =

0.7 0.3
 0.0145 . (The conditions for Rule of Thumb 2 are clearly satisfied, but some
1000

students may wonder whether or not the standard deviation is reasonable in this situation because
the may worry about having less than 10,000 travelers pass through security at this airport.)
0.65 0.7

P ( p 0.65)  P Z
= P ( Z 3.45) = 0.0003. The sample proportion p is less variable
0.0145

for larger sample sizes, so the probability of seeing a value of less than or equal to 0.65
decreases.
9.49 (a) Let X denote the WAIS score for a randomly selected individual.
105 100

P ( X 105) = P Z
 P ( Z 0.33) = 1 0.6293 = 0.3707. (Software gives 0.3695.)
15

216

Chapter 9

(b) The mean is x =100 and the standard deviation is x =

15
 1.9365 . (c)
60

105 100

P ( x 105) = P Z
 P ( Z 2.582 ) = 1 0.9951 = 0.0049 (d) The answer to (a) could
1.9365

be quite different; the answer to (b) would be the same (it does not depend on normality at all).
The answer we gave for (c) would still be fairly reliable because of the central limit theorem.
9.50 (a) Let p denote the sample proportion of women who think they do not get enough time
for themselves in a random sample of n = 1025 adult women The mean is p = 0.47. The
population (all adult women) is clearly at least 10 times as large as the sample (n = 1025), so
Rule of Thumb 1 suggests that the standard deviation p =

0.47 0.53
 0.0156 is appropriate.
1025

The two conditions, np = 10250.47 = 481.75 > 10 and n(1 p) = 10250.53 = 543.25 > 10, are
both satisfied, so Rule of Thumb 2 suggests that the distribution of p is approximately Normal.
(b) The middle 95% of all sample results will fall within two standard deviations (20.0156 =
0.0312) of 0.47 or in the interval (0.4388, 0.5012). (c)
0.45 0.47

P ( p < 0.45)  P Z
= P ( Z 1.28 ) = 0.1003. (Software gives 0.0998.)
0.0156

9.51 (a) The mean is x = 0.5 and the standard deviation is x =

0.7
 0.0990 . (b) Because this
50

distribution is only approximately normal, it would be quite reasonable to use the 689599.7
rule to give a rough estimate: 0.6 is about one standard deviation above the mean, so the
probability should be about 0.16 (half of the 32% that falls outside 1 standard deviation).
Alternatively, P ( x 0.6 )  P Z

0.6 0.5
= P ( Z 1.01) = 1 0.8438 = 0.1562.
0.0990

9.52 (a) Let X denote the number of high school dropouts who will receive a flyer. The mean is
X = np = 25,000 0.202 = 5050 . (b) The standard deviation is
X = np(1 p ) = 25,000 0.202 0.798  63.4815 and
5000 5050

P ( X 5000 )  P Z
= P ( Z 0.7876 )  0.7845 .
63.4815

9.53 (a) Let p denote the sample proportion of Internet users who have posted a photo online in
a random sample of n = 1555 Internet users. The mean is p = 0.2. The population (all Internet
users) is clearly at least 10 times as large as the sample (n = 1555), so Rule of Thumb 1 suggests
that the standard deviation p =

0.2 0.8
 0.0101 is appropriate. The two conditions, np =
1555

15550.2 = 311 > 10 and n(1 p) = 15550.8 = 1244 > 10, are both satisfied, so Rule of Thumb
2 suggests that the distribution of p is approximately Normal. (b) Let X = the number of in the
sample who have posted photos online. X has a binomial distribution with n = 1555 and p = 0.2.

Sampling Distributions

P ( X 300 ) = P p

217

300
0.1929 0.2

 P Z
= P ( Z 0.7 ) = 0.2420. (The exact probability
1555
0.0101

is 0.25395.) Note: Actually, X has a hypergeometric distribution, but the size of the population
(all Internet users) is so much larger than the sample that the binomial distribution is an
extremely good approximation.
9.54 (a) Let X denote the level of nitrogen oxides (NOX) for a randomly selected car.
0.3 0.2

P ( X > 0.3) = P Z
= P ( Z 2.0 ) = 1 0.9772 = 0.0228 (or 0.025, using the 689599.7
0.05

rule). (b) The mean NOX level for these 25 cars is x = 0.2 g/mi, the standard deviation is
x =

0.05
0.3 0.2

= 0.0100 g/mi, and P ( x 0.3) = P Z


= P ( Z 10 ) , which is basically 0.
0.01
25

9.55 The mean NOX level for 25 cars has a N(0.2, 0.01) distribution, and P(Z > 2.33) = 0.01 if
Z is N(0, 1), so L = 0.2 + 2.330.01 = 0.2233 g/mi.
9.56 (a) Noa count only takes on whole-number values, so it cannot be normally distributed.
(b) The approximate distribution is Normal with mean x =1.5 people and standard deviation
x =

0.75
1.5375 1.5

 0.0283 . (c) P ( X > 1075)  P ( x > 1.5357 ) = P Z >


= P ( Z > 1.26 ) = 1
0.0283
700

0.8962 = 0.1038.
9.57 (a) The mean is p = 0.5, and the standard deviation is p =

0.5 0.5
 0.0041 . (b)
14941

0.51 0.5
0.49 0.5
P ( 0.49 < p < 0.51)  P
<Z<
= P ( 2.44 < Z < 2.44 ) = 0.9927 0.0073 =
0.0041
0.0041

0.9854.
9.58 (a) If samples of size n = 219 were obtained over and over again and the sample mean was
computed for each sample, the center of the distribution of these means would be at grams.
In other words, the expected value of the sample mean is grams. (b) No, the population
distribution of birth weights among ELBW babies is likely to be skewed to the left. Most ELBW
babies will be above a certain value, but some babies will even be below this value. (c) Yes, the
central limit theorem suggests that the mean birth weight of 219 babies will be approximately
Normal.