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Disciplina

Estágio de Elaboração e Aplicação de Material Didático
Coordenador da Disciplina

Prof.ª Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
4ª Edição

Copyright © 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edição ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poderá ser reproduzida,
transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrônico, por fotocópia e outros, sem a prévia autorização, por escrito, dos autores.
Créditos desta disciplina
Realização

Autor(es)
Prof.ª Débora Pamplona
Prof.ª Maria Cristina Micelli Fonseca

Sumário
Class 01: Some Theoretical Foundations ................................................................................................ 01
Topic 01: What is involved in Materials Design.................................................................................... 01
Topic 02: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) .......................................................................... 04
Topic 03: Language Learning Styles ..................................................................................................... 06
Topic 04: A Learner-Centered Lesson ................................................................................................... 08
Class 02: ..................................................................................................................................................... 10
Topic 01: Commonly Found Instructional Sequences ........................................................................... 10
Topic 02: What to Teach – The Language Skills/Elements .................................................................. 12
Topic 03: Developing a Grammar Lesson ............................................................................................. 13
Topic 04: Developing Vocabulary Lessons ........................................................................................... 18
Class 03: Developing Your Own Materials ............................................................................................ 21
Topic 01: Developing Speaking Lessons ............................................................................................... 21
Topic 02: Developing Listening Lessons .............................................................................................. 22
Topic 03: Developing Pronunciation Lessons ....................................................................................... 23
Class 04: Developing and Evaluating Your Own Teaching Materials................................................. 27
Topic 01: Developing Writing Lessons ................................................................................................. 27
Topic 02: The Climax Factor ................................................................................................................. 29
Topic 03: Evaluating Teaching Materials .............................................................................................. 30
Class 05: .................................................................................................................................................... 33
Topic 01: Recipes ................................................................................................................................... 33
Topic 02: Comic Strip ............................................................................................................................ 38
Topic 03: Letters to the Editor ............................................................................................................... 39
Class 06: .................................................................................................................................................... 45
Topic 03: Single Topic........................................................................................................................... 45

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 01: SOME THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
TOPIC 01: WHAT IS INVOLVED IN MATERIALS DESIGN

MULTIMÍDIA
Ligue o som do seu computador!
OBS. Alguns recursos de multimídia utilizados em nossas aulas, como
vídeos legendados e animações, requerem a instalação da versão mais
atualizada do programa Adobe Flash Player©. Para baixar a versão mais
recente do programa Adobe Flash Player, clique aqui!

VERSÃO TEXTUAL

Olá alunos e bem-vindos a este curso sobre a elaboração e
aplicação de material didático.
Meu nome é Débora Pamplona e eu ensino inglês na Casa de
Cultura Britânica da UFC. Sempre gostei de desenvolver meus
próprios materiais didáticos e em 1994 fui convidada a escrever dois
volumes de inglês para o Vestibular para uma escola de Fortaleza.
Anos depois, no mestrado, desenvolvi um material para ensinar inglês
através de textos bíblicos para comunidades cristãs, uma coleção de 6
volumes e 150 lições, minha maior produção acadêmica, que foi
adotada em várias cidades do Brasil.
Essa produção me rendeu muita experiência na área de
desenvolvimento de materiais instrucionais, tema que pretendo
explorar nesse curso. Todo professor em algum momento precisa
produzir seus próprios materiais didáticos, quer seja por necessidades
muito específicas, quer por carência no mercado de materiais
apropriados para sua necessidade. Neste curso, você vai ler textos e
responder várias questões para discussão sobre esse tema que postarei
a cada semana.
Você será convidado a refletir sobre a questão da produção de
materiais instrucionais, sobre os critérios que devem ser utilizados
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durante o processo, desde os objetivos do material até a elaboração
das lições. A partir desses critérios, determinaremos formas de
avaliação dos materiais elaborados. Revisaremos alguns conceitos
importantes sobre teorias de aprendizagem e metodologia de ensino
de línguas estrangeiras, que servirão de base para a produção de
qualquer material instrucional. Discutiremos sobre os tipos de grade
curricular, sobre sequências básicas e planos de aula, assim como
sobre o conteúdo de lições e cursos.
Basicamente, aprendemos a responder estas perguntas simples:
qual material didático é apropriado para o meu público? Como posso
melhorar meu material, tirando dele o melhor proveito? Convido-os a
uma emocionante viagem de exploração. O curso irá ajudá-lo não só
em como você pode produzir e/ou avaliar os materiais didáticos em
sua vivência profissional, mas também irá ajudá-lo a se tornar um
professor mais crítico em relação a produção didática como um todo.
Os resultados devem ser muito interessantes e você irá produzir seu
próprio material e o apresentará para a turma.
Então vamos começar e nos divertir, aprendendo juntos.

Let’s start our course with some theoretical foundations. We will
review some theoretical aspects of language learning that will influence the
production of the materials you plan to develop.
Every teacher is in one way or another a materials designer in that every
time you plan a lesson – whether it is in a course book you adopt or in a
lesson you design yourself – you will be making choices about adapting it to
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your needs.
But you might need to actually design new, fresh materials, In this case,
the process behind materials design, the most important part is PLANNING.
Before actually writing your materials, you must have in mind the following
criteria:
1. Needs analysis – the activities involved in gathering information
that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the
learning needs of a particular group of students.
2. The objective of the course – General English, ESP, Specific Skills
(grammar, Speaking, Vocabulary, etc).
3. The target group – adults, children, teenagers, business people,
specific groups.
4. The approach – communicative language teaching is the most
effective approach that I know.
5. The syllabus – grammatical, functional-notional, situational, lexical
– what and in what sequence to organize the content of the course – the
Common European Framework – CEF can be a great tool.

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6. The organization of the units and lessons – each book has a
specific layout and organization and you can learn a lot by observing
features of other course books.

7. The organization of the lessons – the lessons must follow a
certain logical pattern, making sure that there is room for flexibility. If
the lessons are too fixed, they can become boring). There should be a
basic outline, such as beginning with a dialogue or task. It is also
important that every item in the lesson be numbered and signposted in
order to make it clear for the learner where they should be.
8. The length of the course – number of hours.

Another fundamental ingredient is CREATIVITY. Without that it is
impossible to develop materials. If what you are going to write is already
available, it does not make sense to take your time to do it and you had better
just adopt what is already on the market. Your materials must contain a
feature not found in other course books or lessons.
The third ingredient is TESTING. No materials should be printed that
have not been piloted, tested, proved and approved. Revising and rewriting
is usually necessary. A nice layout and good images also help in the results of
the lesson. It is advisable for the materials to be tested by someone other
than the author so that the feedback is accurate and unbiased.
Not unlike many skills, materials design is something you learn by doing
and keep in mind that PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT. The more you do it,
the better you become at doing it.

FORUM 1
Discuss about producing your own materials:
Have you ever felt the need to produce teaching materials?
Have you ever produced ELT materials? What? If so, describe the
process.
Why or why not write your own teaching materials?
Read the text: “Developing your own classroom teaching
materials” (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.) and
summarize the author’s opinion about writing your own materials.
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 01: SOME THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
TOPIC 02: COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)

According to Brown (1995, p. 141), “a strong consensus has built up
worldwide in recent decades in support of this approach”. This approach has
been adopted by language course books launched on the market by the main
publishers. In the past, language learning was seen as a way to train the
mind, which basically involved memorizing lists of words, as well as
analyzing the structure of the language by means of translation or
manipulation of classic texts. As research developed, a theory in psychology
called behaviorism was adapted which focused on the nature of language
learning as habit formation. This theory was widely adopted in teaching
materials for decades and it was called audiolingualism. What this theory did
not take into account was that language learning involves cognitive aspects,
that is, reasoning, thinking, and hypothesis formation – it is not an
automatic, mechanical process. In the 1970, the concept of communicative
competence led to the development of the communicative approach, which
revolutionized language learning and, consequently, materials development.
The basic tenet of this approach is to promote communicative competence in
the learners. In other words, the goal of language learning is to do things in
the target language.
But what is Communicative Competence?

MULTIMEDIA
Watch the video below and summarize what it says about
Communicative competence:

(Para Assistir o Vídeo Acesse o Ambiente Solar.)
Grammatical competence
Discourse competence
Sociocultural competence
Strategic competence
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CHAT 1
In the video, what did you understand about each of the four
communicative competences?
In what way does CLT influence materials design?

REFERENCES

Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Principles. Prentice Hall: New Jersey,
1994.
Brown, James Dean. The Elements for Language Curriculum. Heinle &
Heinle: Boston, MA, 1995.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 01: SOME THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
TOPIC 03: LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLES

Each of us has our own preferred way of learning that is determined by
our cultural and educational background and our personalities. Language
researchers have categorized the various learning styles in numerous ways.
Some researchers have identified different perceptual styles: the visual, the
tactile and kinesthetic, and the auditory. Others have looked at cognitive
styles and distinguished between field-independent and field-dependent
learners. Still others have examined the personality styles of reflectivity and
impulsiveness. Let’s briefly examine each of these styles:

VISUAL LEARNERS
Usually enjoy reading and prefer to see

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[1]

the words that they are learning. They also
like to learn by looking at pictures and
flashcards.

AUDITORY LEARNERS
Prefer to learn by listening. They enjoy

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[2]

conversations
and
the
chance
for
interactions with others. They don’t need to
see words written down (A recent study has
found that Koreans and Japanese students
tend to be visual learners, whereas Englishspeaking Americans prefer the auditory
learning style.)

TACTILE / KINESTHETIC LEARNERS
Learn by touching and manipulating
objects – this is known as “hands-on” work.
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[3]

OTHER TYPES OF LEARNING STYLES
ANALYTIC / REFLECTIVE LEARNERS
Like to concentrate on the details of language, such as grammar rules,
and enjoy taking apart words and sentences. They are sometimes unable to
see the “big picture” because of their attention to its parts. They like to think
about language and how to convey their message accurately. They tend not to
make so many mistakes because they take time in formulating what they
want to say.

GLOBAL / IMPULSIVE LEARNERS
focus on the whole picture and do not care so much about the details.
For example, they are more interested in conveying an idea they are worried
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about whether it is grammatically correct. They take risks with the language.
They are more concerned with speaking fluently than speaking accurately,
and so make more mistakes.

IMPLICATIONS OF LANGUAGE
LANGUAGE LEARNING

LEARNING

STYLES

ON

The first implication of the language learning styles on language
learning is that the awareness of your preferred learning style may help to
explain why some aspects of language learning seem to come easier than
others or are more enjoyable.
The second implication follows from the first. Learners who are in a
position to choose how they acquire a new language can ensure that their
preferred style matches the teaching methodology of the particular language
course they want to enroll in. For example, reflective learners may not fare so
well in purely conversational classes and auditory learners will probably
want to avoid a course with a heavy reading requirement.

VERSÃO TEXTUAL

Despite the amount of research that has been done into learning
styles over the last few years, there is no clear evidence that any one
style is generally better than another. This is just as well, because we
cannot do very much to alter how we prefer to learn. What is much
more important in influencing the rate of progress in learning a
language are the strategies that are employed in the particular learning
situation.

FORUM 2
DISCUSS

1. Put yourself into one or more of the categories that have been
identified above. Most people will not find it difficult to identify
themselves as a particular kind of learner although some may feel that
their style varies according to the learning situation and the language task.
2. What are the implications of language learning styles on materials
design?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.a2lc.com/Portals/16856/images/visual-auditorykinesthetic-resized-600.jpg
2. http://www.a2lc.com/Portals/16856/images/visual-auditorykinesthetic-resized-600.jpg
3. http://www.a2lc.com/Portals/16856/images/visual-auditorykinesthetic-resized-600.jpg
4. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 01: SOME THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
TOPIC 04: A LEARNER-CENTERED LESSON

Tell me and I forget; teach me and remember; involve me and I learn.
Benjamin Franklin

In today’s language teaching methodology, it is believed that lessons are
more effective if they are centered on the learner rather than on the teacher.
A lecture class when the teacher is the center of attention and the
participants are merely listeners is not appropriate for a language learning
scenario. There is a general assumption that the learner must be involved in
the process. Some principles can help make your lesson more learnercentered.
1. THE TEACHER’S AND THE STUDENTS’ POSITIONS

Traditionally, the teacher stands in the front of the class. In a learnercentered lesson, the ideal basic seating arrangement is the semi-circle, with
the teacher either joining the circle or not. Throughout the lesson, the ideal
thing to do is to vary both the students’ and the teacher’s position for each
different task. This will allow maximum students’ participation and
interaction among them.
TASK:
1. Describe different teachers and students positions/interactions that
you are familiar with.
2) One day a teacher who adopted the principles of CLT was going to be
observed by a very traditional director of his school. The teacher was doing
group work. At one point, the director told him, “I’ll be in my office. Please,
let me know when you start your class because I want to observe it.”
Comment on that event.
2. THE TEACHER’S AND THE STUDENTS’ ROLES

Traditionally, the teacher was the only source of information in a class
and that was the basic teacher’s role, that of an informant. With the focus on
the learner, both the teacher and the students play different roles:
Teacher: informant, model, manager, monitor, facilitator, counselor,
social worker, friend, co-communicator, etc.
Learner: listener, recipient of information, communicator, informant,
model, friend, observer, etc.
TASK: Which of the roles listed above do you and your students play
in the classroom?

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3. THE CORRECTION TECHNIQUES

Traditionally, the teacher was the one who was supposed to correct the
students, but the students’ potential for correction or self-correction should
not be underestimated. Some techniques will allow for the learners to take
responsibility for their own learning.
Give time for self-correction or peer correction.
Collect important mistakes for correction with the whole class.
Show where the mistakes are and elicit the correction from the students.
In a freer activity, place the students in groups and one will act as an
observer to note mistakes for discussion.

EXERCISING
Which of the correction techniques listed above do you use in the
classroom? Are you familiar with any other correction techniques?
4. THE TASKS

Modern textbooks will reflect this principle of learner centeredness.

POTFOLIO 1
TASK 1) Find a communicative lesson in a textbook. Scan it and
comment on the aspects of CLT which are present.
TASK 2) Use the following link. It’s a sample from Oxford’s New
English File – 3rd edition. Do tasks A to D: Link [1]
A) Topic 1 – Identify the sample book above according to the criteria
described in 2 to 7.
B) Topic 2 – Find the four types of communicative competence in one
of the lessons.
C) Topic 3 – Find examples of tasks or exercises that favor the
different learning styles.
D) Topic 4 – Comment on the learner-centeredness of one of the
lessons.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://elt.oup.com/catalogue/items/global/adult_courses/english_file_
third_edition/?cc=br&selLanguage=en
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 02
TOPIC 01: COMMONLY FOUND INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCES

The most important consideration you have to make before you write
your own teaching materials is planning the content of the lessons. Once you
know what you want to teach, the objective, the approach you are going to
use, in short, the eight elements presented in Class 1, Topic 1, you have to
start considering how you are going to organize the lesson itself. The
SEQUENCE of your lesson is a key element in it.
There are three main ways of conducting a lesson in the language
classroom:

VERSÃO TEXTUAL

1. Making things plain to students;
2. Helping students find out for themselves;
3. Encouraging students to use and refine their learning.

Coursebooks will usually contain combinations of these three ways. The
most common types of instructional sequences are:
PRESENTATION – PRACTICE – PRODUCTION (PPP)

In the presentation stage, the language is introduced through the
setting up (or modeling) of a situation. In the practice phase, the learner is
encouraged to produce the situation in a controlled way. The production
phase is when the learner produces the language in a freer way.
TEST – TEACH - TEST

First the teacher finds out what the learner can do in a certain area.
Then they attempt to teach the learner some of the things they apparently
can’t do. After that, the teacher checks if the learning has taken place.
TASK-BASED LEARNING (TBL)

First the topic is introduced followed by the learners doing the task
without correction.
Then the teacher gives input based on the learners’ performance. The
they analyze the language, review and practice again the way suggested by
the teacher and reviewed by the learners.
The ideal sequence is one that encourages the learners to find out things
for themselves and then using and refining their understanding. There will
always be room for the teacher to make things plain to students, but allowing
for them to use and refine what they know should always be present in an
effective language lesson.

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EXERCISE
Look at the lesson from the course book below, The Way to English
Book 3, Lesson 4 (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste
arquivo.). Try to locate the instructional sequence used in it.

Condensed and adapted from Planning lessons and courses, by Tessa
Woodward, Cambridge handbooks for language teachers

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 02
TOPIC 02: WHAT TO TEACH – THE LANGUAGE SKILLS/ELEMENTS

Once you decide what type of sequence you are going to follow, you can
start the development of your lesson.
Teaching a language can be broken up into the teaching of FOUR
SKILLS and THREE basic elements which will compose the structure of the

language. These will be the components of a language lesson:

Since language cannot be broken up into pieces, it is ideal to integrate
the elements above in your lessons, although it is possible to focus on one
skill or another. Therefore, most textbooks nowadays will present all the
skills above in an INTEGRATED way.
Lessons usually begin with a warm-up or lead-in task. Then, there is a
focus on one of the skills or elements above, always keeping them integrated.
For example, there is a reading activity. Before the students actually start
reading, they are asked to discuss the topic of the passage (speaking). After
they read, they are given a vocabulary task to do. The following can be a
grammar task that is based on a structure that was presented in the text.
There can also be a follow-up activity when the students write about what
they have just read. This way the skills are INTEGRATED.

EXERCISE
Look at the same lesson from The Way to English Book 3, Lesson 4
(Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.). Check if the
language skills/elements are integrated.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

12

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 02
TOPIC 03: DEVELOPING A GRAMMAR LESSON

In this topic we are going to focus on the writing of a GRAMMAR
lesson. But before presenting the ideal sequence to a grammar lesson, it is
important to define some concepts and make some considerations. You will
have to make some decisions about what concepts you are going to adopt in
your materials.

DEFINING CONCEPTS
TASK-CENTERED LANGUAGE TEACHING

Teaching whose focus is on having learners do tasks with the language,
such as introducing themselves or ordering in a restaurant. It is opposed to
teaching language for the sake of knowing about the language, which was
the focus of language teaching for many centuries. With advances in
transportation and communication systems, the need for learning a
language in order to get something done with it has been increasing. As far
as grammar is concerned, it should be taught in order to accomplish this
major goal of helping learners do tasks with the target language.
FLUENCY VS. ACCURACY

This age-old discussion is still up-to-date. Should we as teachers focus
on teaching learners how to become fluent or accurate users of the
language? I believe we want a balance between both worlds. However, if we
are to favor one over the other, I believe fluency is more important as long
as communication takes place. Students will make mistakes no matter how
much we want to avoid them, because mistakes are a part of the learning
process. Teaching grammar should focus at giving them as many
opportunities as they can so as to practice the target grammar point and to
give them a chance to master it.
TEACHER-CENTERED VS. STUDENT-CENTERED EXPLANATIONS

Traditionally, grammar explanations are given by the teacher. I believe
that student-centered explanations should be present in a grammar lesson
so as to give the learners a chance to figure out the target structure before it
is introduced by the teacher. This should be done as group work before the
explanation is shared with the whole class. The learners can count on their
previous knowledge of the subject as well as their peers’ (element present
more often than we think), and on the reference material from the
textbook. This process will help with their autonomy and will make them
feel more confident. Also, it agrees with the Hypothesis Formation Theory,
which advocates that language learners unconsciously formulate
hypothesis about language. This is explained in Figure 1.

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INDUCTIVE VS. DEDUCTIVE PRESENTATIONS

This is a philosophical question: Do we learn from rules to examples or
from examples to rules? I believe we learn both ways. Nevertheless, our
native language is naturally learned inductively, which means we are
exposed to language in use and just then we are able to put it into use.
Therefore, I believe a foreign language should be introduced likewise. First,
the learners should see the target grammar point used in a meaningful
way. After that, attention is drawn to the mechanics of the structure, which
is then analyzed and practiced. Obviously, this sequence is not strict and
there may be times when it is more profitable to teach from the rule to the
example.
DETAILS OF GRAMMAR VS. FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR

The question to what grammar points should be taught is a complex
one, but to the average language learner, especially in beginning levels, the
question to what we should teach can be simply addressed if we as teachers
focus on what they will probably need to use outside the classroom setting.
For example, why teach the plural form of nouns that they will probably
never have to use, such as stratum, radius, or oasis? I am in favor of
including in our programs a functional corpus that is likely to be necessary
for the learners to perform realistic tasks.
From my experience, I believe that teaching grammar must be TASKCENTERED/COMMUNICATIVE. There is no point in teaching grammar if
not to use it in a real-life and in class the teacher can provide a semi-real
context. Therefore, the grammar lesson must finish with a task where the
learners will put that knowledge into practice.
As far as the FLUENCY/ACCURACY discussion we teachers should aim
at BOTH. The more analytic learners will benefit more but the more

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impulsive ones will also be favored if the lesson focuses on both fluency and
accuracy.
I believe in a grammar class where the LEARNERS will play an
important role in the DISCOVERY AND EXPLANATION of the rules, but
there is always room for the teacher’s input. However, the emphasis must be
placed on LEARNER CENTEREDNESS. As the idiom says, the ball is in the
students’ court!
I personally prefer INDUCTIVE learning because I believe it promotes
more learner autonomy and independence and will lead to more learning in
the end.
I also prefer teaching FUNCTIONAL grammar in that it is what students
will really need in their experience with the language in their daily lives.

THE IDEAL SEQUENCE TO A GRAMMAR LESSON
A key element to any lesson production is the SEQUENCE of the
exercises and tasks. There is an ideal sequence to a grammar lesson, which
has been used in most up-to-date textbooks.

PRESENTATION
The presentation has two purposes
a. To introduce the topic in a contextualized and interesting way
b. To activate students’ previous knowledge about the subject
c. To involve the students in the material.
This phase of the lesson can be done by using pieces of authentic
language, such as letters, articles, forms, diagrams, poems, song lyrics, etc.
In this phase, the focus is on fluency.

ISOLATION
This is done in order to extract the grammar point you want to teach
from the text used in the presentations. The purpose is to concentrate in
accuracy and in the structures.

EXPLANATIONO
This should be a student-centered, discovery activity. Based on the
isolated grammar point, the students can try to come up with a rule that
explains the system behind the structure.
In groups, the students refer to the explanation in the reference book
in order to accomplish the task. They may also use their own knowledge.
This task also focuses on accuracy.

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FEEDBACK OR TEST
The students do exercises to focus on accuracy.
4.1 BASIC TYPES OF GRAMMAR EXERCISES
– Simple manipulation exercises – the learner can complete it in
a mechanical way regardless of their understanding of the words
themselves.
Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
We should get our houses ___________ (paint).
– Meaningful manipulation exercises – the learner needs to
understand the sentence in order to complete the task.
Add the past participle plus your own words if necessary.
We should get our house ____________.

PRACTICE
This phase will focus on fluency. I suggest using a task-centered /
communicative exercise – the aim is to do a task and indirectly the
structure will be used.
Work in pairs. Make a list of the things you get done in you houses
instead of doing them yourselves. Compare your lists.
I get my house painted / decorated / renovated, etc.
What usually happens is:
– Teachers omit task-centered exercises or do them only if they have
time (and they usually do not);
– A lot of textbooks which suggest task-centered exercises (you should
get lucky if they do because many of them do not) leave it up to the
teachers to do them or not and suggest them as optional activities. In my
opinion, the task-centered, communicative exercises are the most
important ones in that they will be the learners’ chance to apply that
grammar point to a real or semi-real activity. There are a lot of resource
books for teachers which suggest wonderful activities in order to practice
the grammar presented in a task-based way (see the bibliography below).
SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR TASK-CENTERED / COMMUNICATIVE
EXERCISES – RESOURCE BOOKS FOR TEACHERS

ELEMENTARY COMMUNICATION GAMES
INTERMEDIATE COMMUNICATION GAMES
ADVANCED COMMUNICATION GAMES
GRAMMAR GAMES
16

GRAMMAR PRACTICE ACTIVITIES
FIVE-MINUTE ACTIVITIES
DISCUSSIONS THAT WORK
GAMES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING
GRAMMAR GAMES – COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE AND DRAMA
ACTIVITIES FOR THE EFL STUDENTS
MORE GRAMMAR GAMES – COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE AND
DRAMA ACTIVITIES FOR THE EFL STUDENTS
KEEP TALKING
RECIPES FOR TIRED TEACHERS
MORE RECIPES FOR TIRED TEACHERS
FUN WITH GRAMMAR
AWESOME HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHING GRAMMAR
LESSONS FROM NOTHING
THE STAND-BY BOOK: ACTIVITIES FOR THE LANGUAGE
CLASSROOM

FORUM 3
1. Do you agree with the choices above for the teaching of grammar?
2. Do Task 1 in Portfolio 2, Class 2, Topic 4.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

17

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 02
TOPIC 04: DEVELOPING VOCABULARY LESSONS

1. Some Considerations About Vocabulary Teaching and Learning:





THE IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY
It is stating the obvious to go deeply into the importance of including the
teaching of words in a language program. It is universally agreed that a
language does not function without words. Children learn words before they
learn how to form sentences. Although the learning of a second language is a
different process from a child's acquisition of the mother tongue, early stages
of second or foreign language learning is basically developed around lexical
items or notions.

THE SELECTION OF THE WORDS TO BE TAUGHT
That is both the teacher's and the students' responsibility. The teacher
will introduce vocabulary from:
a. the course book
b. supplementary materials / activities
c. the students – from unanticipated and unpredictable questions or errors

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING WORDS
a. frequency
b. cultural factors
c. need
d. level

RECEPTIVE VS. PRODUCTIVE VOCABULARY
a. Receptive – items which can be recognized and comprehended in the
context of reading and listening material
b. Productive – items which the learner can recall and use appropriately in
speech and writing
c. Educated native speakers are able to understand between 45,000 to
60,000 words but his productive vocabulary would not approach this figure.

HOW MANY ITEMS TO TEACH
a. During the lesson – 8 to 12 productive items
b. During the course (60 to 100 hours) – between 300-500 words

GROUPING ITEMS OF VOCABULARY
18

There seems to be a clear case for presenting items in a systematic
manner to help internalizing and illustrating. The lexical sets, or semantic
fields below are common:
a. items related by topic
b. items which form pairs
c. items along a scale
d. items within word families (derivation)
2. Approaches and Techniques Used in the Presentation of New
Vocabulary Items:
2.1. Visuals – flashcards, photographs, blackboard drawing, wallcharts,
realia
2.2. Mime and gesture
2.3. Verbal – illustrative situations, synonyms, definitions, opposites,
scales, examples, translation

THE IDEAL SEQUENCE TO VOCABULARY LESSONS
The Organization of a Vocabulary Activity
• Presentation
• Introduction – introducing the new words (see item 2 above). It is
possible and fruitful to start by eliciting from the students the words in that
semantic field that they already know.
• Process – It is ideal to play games or to do fun activities in which the
words will be used. Some suggestions are:

Activities to practice the vocabulary learned:
• Matching, finding pairs, grouping, labeling
• Crossword puzzles
• Making lists
• Reviewing (preferably some time later, say, on the following
day)
• Dictation (picture, definition, peer-dictation)
• Drawing semantic maps
• Completing tables
• Taking notes
• Games (pelmanism, pass the message, piling up stones,
etc.)

19

• Feedback – the groups report the results of the activities /games
above.

EXERCISING
Find three vocabulary activities in your current textbook. See if they
fit the patterns

PORTFOLIO 2
TASK 1) Study the grammar lesson (Visite a aula online para realizar
download deste arquivo.) in the pdf file below. See if it fits the patterns
above. Comment on it taking into consideration the concepts in Topic 2.
Then do the same with a grammar lesson from a course book you select.
A) Topic 1 – What instructional sequence is used in the lesson?
B) Topic 2 – What concepts are adopted in the lesson?
C) Topic 3 – Does the lesson follow the ideal sequence suggested in
Topic 3?
TASK 2)
A) Design a grammar activity for later discussion with the rest of the
group. Follow the principles suggested in Topics 1 to 3.
B) Design a vocabulary lesson for later discussion with the rest of the
group. Follow the principles suggested in Topic 4.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

20

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 03: DEVELOPING YOUR OWN MATERIALS
TOPIC 01: DEVELOPING SPEAKING LESSONS

In this class we are going to focus on the production of teaching
materials for the two oral skills – SPEAKING and LISTENING – and on
PRONUNCIATION.
1. Presentation
a) Introduction – telling the students about the activity, assigning a
specific task (see types of activity below).
b) Grouping – determining the groups that will work together.
2. Process – Group Work – in order to maximize the Student’s
Talking Time, the students work in pairs or groups to do the task while the
teacher walks around the class giving assistance, suggesting alternatives,
helping with vocabulary and giving guidance towards the completion of the
task.
Types of Speaking Activities for the Process Phase
Find someone
who...

Putting
order

Ranking

in

Problemsolving

Explanations

Debates

Role-plays

Publicity
campaigns

Games

Surveys

Brainstorming

Choosing
candidates

Interviews

Questionnaires

Planning
projects

Picture games

3. Feedback
a) Ending – the teacher determines what time the groups should stop and
encourage them end sooner and early groups are given a new task.
b) Result – the groups report the results of the task.

EXERCISING
Do Task 1 (speaking part) of the portfolio in Topic 3.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

21

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 03: DEVELOPING YOUR OWN MATERIALS
TOPIC 02: DEVELOPING LISTENING LESSONS

The main difficulty of a listening lesson is finding soundtracks that fit
exactly your purpose and needs. And producing your own soundtracks is a
costly and time-consuming task in that you would have to preferably
record the track in a studio setting, unless special audio equipment is
available to you. Therefore, I suggest using ready-made tracks although if
you plan to publish it you would need original audio, for copyright reasons.

THE ORGANIZATION OF A LISTENING LESSON
The ideal sequence of a listening lesson usually follows the sequence
below.
1. Pre-listening
a) the students are told what the listening passage is about or what
information is in it.
b) the teacher asks the students questions about what they already know
about that topic.
c) the teacher assigns a task to give the students a reason to listen.
2. Listening – the students listen to the passage individually, trying to
do the task assigned in the pre-reading. Don’t play the CD more than 3 times.
If necessary, stop where the answer is given.
3. Post-listening – the students give feedback on the task assigned.

EXERCISING
Do Task 1 (listening part) of the portfolio in Topic 3.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

22

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 03: DEVELOPING YOUR OWN MATERIALS
TOPIC 03: DEVELOPING PRONUNCIATION LESSONS

SOME CONSIDERATIONS
Teaching pronunciation is nowadays viewed as a key to gaining full
communicative competence. Rather than attempting only to build a learner's
articulatory competence, today's approaches to teaching pronunciation give
priority to all the relevant features of pronunciation – both segmental
(vowels and consonant phonemes) and supra-segmental features (stress,
rhythm and intonation).
Many learners of foreign languages aim to attain 'accent-free' speech.
Not only is this unattainable for an adult learner but also accents are quite
acceptable in a multi-cultural, multilingual world and valued as a symbol of
the learner's cultural heritage.
Contents of pronunciation lessons:

VERSÃO TEXTUAL

• segmental features – phonemes – vowels and consonants
• supra-segmental features – word stress, sentence stress, intonation,
rhythm, weak forms (reductions), linking
• Materials that could be used in teaching pronunciation features –
phonemic chart and phonemic cards; mouth diagram; dictionary(ies)
with phonetic transcriptions, websites and phonetic internet tools

AN IDEAL SEQUENCE OF A PRONUNCIATION LESSON
1. Introduce the topic – practice the topic mechanically through
repetition or reciting as many times as necessary for the learners to master
the mechanics of the phonetic feature.
2. Practice the topic meaningfully – a game, a task-based activity, such
as the ones suggested below.
PRONUNCIATION ACTIVITIES

1. Games in general (bingo, tic-tac-toe, hangman, odd word out, etc) –
adapt to sounds instead of words.
2. Working with texts – locating sounds (variation: locating spelling
and figuring out what are the sounds of the letters, transcribing the
vowels / consonants of chosen words, locating words with two or more
syllables in order to identify the word stress in them, locating the weak
forms (reduced words), locating linking in the words (according to the
topic being taught;
23

3. Comparing country names – Ss compare the names of countries
which are spelled the same way in their native language with the way
they are pronounced in English. They tell the difference.
4. Minimal pairs – give the Ss a list of minimal pairs (enclosed).
4.1. Read one of the words – the Ss identify which ones you’re reading
(Variation: the Ss read the words and the teacher identifies what word
they are reading)
4.2. The Ss form sentences or dialogues with the minimal pairs
4.3. Throw a phoneme – sit in a circle and silently mime a phoneme
and ‘throw’ it to a S. They say the phoneme aloud and repeat the
activity with another S.
4.4. Phoneme chanting – a S chants a phoneme while the others listen
with eyes closed. Then the Ss try to identify the phoneme now with
eyes open.
5. Sounds Vocabulary Game – decide on a number of general
vocabulary categories. Give the Ss a sound. They have to write a word
in that category which has this sound. For example:
Food

Language

Part of the body

Sport

Color

/i:/

cheese

Greek

cheese

cheek

green

/e/

bread

French

leg

tennis

red

6. Tongue twisters – have the Ss read the sentences without making a
mistake.

• The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the
throne throughout Thursday.
• She sells sea shells at the sea shore.
• Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?
• Roberta ran rings around the Roman ruins.
• I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish.
• Clean clams crammed in clean cans.
• If Stu chews shoes, should Stu choose the shoes he
chews?
• I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream!
• We surely shall see the sun shine soon.

7. Find someone who… has a word with your sound – give out a
(preferably one-syllable) word and a phoneme on cards to each S. They
circulate until they find someone with a word which contains the
sound they have.
24

8. Word building.
8.1. Give some sounds to a pair or group. The Ss try to make up as
many words as they can.
8.2. Say a word. The Ss try to transcribe it phonemically.
8.3. Give the Ss three phonemes. They try to write a word with
these sounds. They are allowed to add up to two phonemes if they
need.
8.4. Give a group a sheet with a sound at the top of the sheet. They
have to write down as many words as they can remember given a
time limit.

9. Word stress.
9.1. Give sample words which fit the various intonation patterns.
The Ss try to come up with other words which fall in the same
pattern.
9.2. The Ss receive a sheet with some multisyllabic words (they can
be taken from a text, for example). They try to guess where the
stress falls.

CHAT 2
Talk about the difficulties that you have been facing regarding the
production of your own teaching materials.

PORTFOLIO 3
TASK 1) Find a speaking and a listening lesson in a textbook. See if
they fit the patterns above. Comment on them.
TASK 2) Study the pronunciation lesson in the pdf file below taken
from The Way to English, Book 2, Lesson 16 (Visite a aula online para
realizar download deste arquivo.). Check if it follows the sequence
suggested in Topic 3.
TASK 3)
A) Design a speaking lesson for later discussion with the rest of the
group. Follow the principles suggested in Topics 1.
B) Design a listening lesson for later discussion with the rest of the
group. Follow the principles suggested in Topic 2.
C) Design a pronunciation lesson for later discussion with the rest of
the group. Follow the principles suggested in Topic 3.

REFERENCES

25

Bowen, Tim & Marks, Jonathan. The Pronunciation Book. Longman,
England:1992.
Brown, Douglas. Teaching by Principles. Prentice Hall. New
Jersey:1994.
Prator, C. & Robinett, B.W. Manual
Pronunciation. Harcourt, Florida:1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

26

of

American

English

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 04: DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING YOUR OWN TEACHING MATERIALS
TOPIC 01: DEVELOPING WRITING LESSONS

In this class, we are going to focus on the last skill – WRITING – and we
are going to discuss the CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING teaching materials,
such as lessons or textbooks. We are going to base the evaluation on the
criteria we use for the production of the materials, but we are going to extend
it further by focusing on other aspects that were not covered in the
production section.

THE PURPOSE OF A WRITING ACTIVITY
The purpose of writing is to communicate through a written text, so we
should make every effort to reproduce this in the language classroom. The
student’s written production should be exchanged among the learners after it
is done instead of just given out to the teacher for checking errors.

THE ORGANIZATION OF A WRITING ACTIVITY
In my opinion, the model approach is very adequate to a foreign
language learning setting. This approach is based on a model passage, such
as a letter, an informal e-mail, or an ad, which will serve as a model that the
learners will use to produce their own texts. An ideal sequence follows.

PRESENTATION OF TASK
The presentation has two purposes
a. To introduce the topic in a contextualized and interesting way
b. To activate students’ previous knowledge about the subject
c. To involve the students in the activity.
d. To prepare the students to write by giving them the necessary vocabulary
or structures required to carry on the task.
In this phase of the lesson samples of authentic language should be
introduced, such as letters, articles, forms, diagrams, poems, song lyrics,
which are similar to what the teacher desires the learners to produce (Model
approach).

PRODUCTION
At this point the learners are asked to do the task assigned previously,
which should be done individually or in groups depending on the purpose of
the exercise. As the learners set out to do the task, the teacher should walk
around the classroom giving assistance where needed.

COMMUNICATIVE PHASE
The pieces of written text should be read by other students, for they are
a real audience. There must be a purpose in this exchange, other than mere
error correction in order to make the activity communicative and
meaningful.

REVISION OR EVALUATION
27

The teacher (and/or the other learners in the group, if possible) here has
the opportunity to evaluate the piece of writing making sure not just
linguistic comments are made, but also comments that will be pertinent to
the development of the desired skill.

REWRITING
At this phase, if necessary, the students are required to improve their
production after the teacher has commented (preferably in writing) on
weaknesses and strengths.

EXERCISING
Do Task 1 of the Portfolio 4 in Topic 3.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

28

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 04: DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING YOUR OWN TEACHING MATERIALS
TOPIC 02: THE CLIMAX FACTOR

An element that should be included in every lesson plan is what I call
"the climax factor". The climax factor corresponds to the most enthusiastic
part of a lesson. Compared to the climax of a wave, or the climax of a story,
and in our context, it means the climax of the class, when the students are
totally involved in the class subject and their learning devices are running in
the highest speed.
In some coursebooks, lessons tend to follow a monotone – a level series
of activities without much change during the whole lesson. Having an
increasing sequence of activities means including an activity that is more
enthusiastic than the others or that promotes more involvement – a climax,
really, in its literal meaning has shown to be more efficient, making a lot
better results.
THESE ARE THE FEATURES OF A CLIMACTIC ACTIVITY

• Communicative
• Fluency-based
• Success oriented
• Fun
• Functional
• Related to students’ experiences/real life
• Games
• Activities where the students move / stand up / change positions
THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE IS SUGGESTED AS IDEAL.

1. Warm up
2. Presentation of the activity
3. Accuracy practice
4. Climactic activity
5. Cool down – Feedback
A LESSON WITHOUT THE CLIMAX FACTOR

• Monotonous – all the activities have the same intensity
• Only quiet, accuracy-based, individual activities – result: boring, tedious
• Only highly enthusiastic activities – one game after another, for example,
or a series of communicative activities – hyper, students get tired because
there is too much activity going on.

EXERCISING
Do Task 2B of the Portfolio 4 in Topic 3.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

29

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 04: DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING YOUR OWN TEACHING MATERIALS
TOPIC 03: EVALUATING TEACHING MATERIALS

Fonte [1]
Our last class will be about evaluating what we have done so far in this
course. The evaluation process is important in that it is a way of checking
your own or others' production. It is necessary for when you are in the
process of adopting a new textbook or even assessing your current teaching
materials.
A good systematic way to assess teaching materials is by using a
checklist, like the one below, even though no pre-arranged checklists are
complete, so feel free to add, omit or adapt it to your needs or to meet your
personal criteria.

FORUM 4
Discuss
Click here to see the list below.Is there anything missing that you
would like to add or anything you would like to omit/ignore?
EVALUATION CHECKLIST
TITLE:
...........................................................................................................................
PUBLISHER:
................................................................................................................
CONTENTS
• How are the contents organised? (Units, modules, etc.)
• Is there a story line?
• Is the syllabus carefully planned and graded?
• Are the four skills developed systematically and in a balanced way?
• Do the topics provide the students with the vocabulary required to
interact in the situations occurring most frequently in daily life?
• Is the pronunciation syllabus closely linked to the language
syllabus?
• Can the students learn about the customs and cultures of English
-speaking countries and about other cultures related to the English
speaking world?
30

GRAMMAR FOCUS:
• Are the students helped to acquire grammar rules with a variety of
techniques?
• Are new structures presented along with language functions?
• Is there enough reinforcement and practice of the structures?
• Does grammar learning involve problem solving, comparing and
contrasting the rules of English and Italian?
LEVELS:
• Are the levels carefully planned and indicated?
• Are the activities appropriate for each level?
• Are the students enabled to test their knowledge and revise the
main grammatical and functional exponents previously acquired?
MATERIALS:
• Are the material presented authentic and interesting?
• Are they intended to increase motivation as the students progress
from one unit or module to the next?
• Is there a set of audio-cassettes or CD for the student?
• Does the teacher's guide provide useful and detailed suggestions?
• Do the activities encourage learner autonomy?
• Are the various sections clearly indicated?
METHODOLOGY:
• Is there enough emphasis on the consolidation of communicative
abilities as well as structural and lexical knowledge?
• Are the communicative activities and language work carefully
integrated?
• Are the language items dealt with through a clear presentation
stage?
• Are the tasks and activities creative?
• Are the students trained to become good language learners and
encouraged to make their own decisions about how best to study?
• Are the students exposed to real spoken and written materials
ADVANTAGES:
...........................................................................................................
DISADVANTAGES:
.....................................................................................................
(Fiorella Biocchi, 2000)

PORTFOLIO 4
TASK 1) Find a writing lesson in a textbook. See if they fit the
patterns from Topic 1 above. Comment on it.
TASK 2)
A) Design a writing activity for later discussion with the rest of the
group. Follow the principles suggested in Topic 1.
31

B) Revise the lessons you have designed for this course. Try to locate
the climax factor described in Topic 2.
C) Select one of the lessons from two classmates. Evaluate the two
lessons using the criteria suggested in Topic 3.
D) Select a textbook – it can be a current book you are adopting, for
example. Evaluate the book using the criteria suggested in Topic 3.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Knx0UDhvFqI/Ta96Ev0xFoI/AAAAAAAAAE
s/NI8qYeIGuHw/s1600/grupo%2Bde%2Bestudos%2B019.JPG
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

32

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 05
TOPIC 01: RECIPES

DEVELOPING READING LESSONS
VERSÃO TEXTUAL

Following what we have studied about speech genre in the
discipline Gêneros Textuais em Língua Inglesa, this Reading part will
focus on the transposition of theoretical and methodological concepts
studied in Gêneros Textuais em Língua Inglesa as well as other
subjects which aimed at empowering pre-service teachers to develop
reading materials to real Ensino Fundamental and Médio classrooms.

This transpositon will be carried out through the development of
didactic sequences (DOLZ, SCHNEUWLY, 2010) whose goal is construct the
reading process of English as Foreign Language with students of regular

schools.
The didactic sequences have been built having the OCEM and PCNs as
framework as well as theories concerning speech genre, teaching and
learning.
In this class we are going to pick different texts as examples of speech
genres and build didactic sequences, developing the didactic sequence
(henceforth DS) step by step, we are going to justify the reason for each
activity and how to group activities and exercises into modules.

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 (BEGINNERS)
Although it's said that teachers should grade the task but not the text,
meaning the teacher should not worry about the linguistic difficulty of the
text but rather make sure the tasks are suitable for the students'level,
beginners for example, it's advisable to start out with a speech genre
students will feel more comfortable with. Our suggestion here is a recipe. But
other types are also possible.
From the citizenship standpoint discussed in Gêneros Textuais em
Língua Inglesa, to work with a recipe may lead to more general topics that
are worth a debate, such as hunger, good and balanced diets, food that can
be harmful in the long run, etc.
Having in mind the figure borrowed from Dolz, Noverraz and
Schneuwly, 2010, we are going to start by introducing the topic.

33

INTRODUCING THE TOPIC
We can say that this is the most important part of the class, because a
motivating opening of a DS is able to engage the students for whole modules.
We have to present the DS as a project by which they will tell their
classmates what his/her favorite dish is and how to prepare it.
Remember that this project is not to learn English, but to be able to tell
people how to prepare food, or to learn how to cook a dish you see in the
internet in English. In order to achieve this goal, students have to learn some
English.
The first thing to be done is to raise the topic: What's your favorite
food?
ThThe teacher should be prepared to provide students with words they
might not know in English, especially if they are beginners. If you know your
students you might have an idea the sort of vocabulary you might need: rice
and beans, barbecue, chicken, pasta, fish, pizza and so on.
Having done that, you can move to their favorite dessert. The same
process might be followed. What's your favorite dessert? Chocolate cake,
jelly, cheese and marmalade, pudding, etc.
Vocabulary work: just provide them with words you believe
are really essential. Don't give them all the words. It's important
for them to be able to go through the text with words they don't
know, so they can infer the meaning, guess, etc.

34

BEFORE READING

Spend some time talking about what a chocolate cookie is. Invite them
to have a look at the picture. Elicit from students what ingredients might
be necessary to prepare a chocolate chip cookie. Don't answer. Encourage
skimming, scanning, cognate, etc. Activate their schemata.
Ask one or two very general questions, such as:
1. What two ingredients are necessary to make a chocolate cookie?
2. How long does it take to prepare the cookies?
WHILE READING

Ask meaningful questions, so students have a purpose in reading.
AFTER READING

This is the moment to bring the text into the class. You may ask
questions such as:
1. Have you ever eaten Chocolate chip cookies?
2. Have you ever cooked something similar?
At this part of the class you bring issues related to their citizenship to
be discussed, such as:
1. Do you ever check the amount of calories of a dish or serving?
2. Do you think chocolate cookies are healthy food?
3. Do you care about eating a balanced diet?
4. Do you know what cholesterol is?
5. Do you believe all Brazilians eat a balanced diet? Why? Why not? And so
on.
At this point you can provide students with the vocabulary items they
were no be able to find the counterpart in Portuguese.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
PAGINA 01

BEST CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES
By: Dora "Crisp edges,
chewy middles."
Prep Time:
20 Min
Cook Time:
10 Min
Ready In:
1Hr
Servings:
PAGINA 02

Ingredients
• 1 cup butter, softened
• 1 cup white sugar
• 1 cup packed brown sugar
35

• 2 eggs
• 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
• 3 cups all-purpose flour
• 1 teaspoon baking soda
• 2 teaspoons hot water
• 1/2 teaspoon salt
• 2 cups semisweet chocolate chips
• 1 cup chopped walnuts
cookie recipe available at http://allrecipes.com/recipe/bestchocolate-chip-cookies/ [3] on January 25, 2012.
PAGINA 03

Directions
1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
2. Cream together the butter, white sugar, and brown sugar until
smooth. Beat in the eggs one at a time, then stir in the vanilla. Dissolve
baking soda in hot water. Add to batter along with salt. Stir in flour,
chocolate chips, and nuts. Drop by large spoonfuls onto ungreased
pans.
3. Bake for about 10 minutes in the preheated oven, or until edges are
nicely browned.
PAGINA 04

utritional Information
Amount Per Serving Calories: 298 | Total Fat: 15.6g |
Cholesterol: 38mgPowered by ESHA Nutrient Database
Cookie recipe available at http://allrecipes.com/recipe/bestchocolate-chip-cookies/ [4] on January 25, 2012.

First Written Production
If all the problems concerning the text are solved, students should be
invited to write the recipe of their favorite food. You can bring a PortugueseEnglish dictionary to class and ask students to look up words they do not
know. If you do not know the words, don't be ashamed to tell the students.
An English teacher is not a walking dictionary!
Modules
As mentioned in the discipline Gêneros Textuais, this first production is
for the teacher to diagnose what students need in order to be able to write
their recipe in English.
This type of speech genre will demand more vocabulary work than
grammar work.
Assign one module for each linguistic topic.
Final Production

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Assign one class for the writing activity. Correct the written assignments
and give them time to rewrite them.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1.
2.
3.
4.

http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
http://allrecipes.com/recipe/best-chocolate-chip-cookies/
http://allrecipes.com/recipe/best-chocolate-chip-cookies/

Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

37

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 05
TOPIC 02: COMIC STRIP

A Comic Strip Can Be A Way To Introduce This Genre.
Introducing the Topic
At this point you can ask them if they know this genre, what their
favorite comic strip is and why. You should follow the same steps mentioned
in the previous topic for this one.

First Written Production
You might ask your class to either produce a comic strip of their own or
use characters they know.
At this point they might have lots of problems with both vocabulary and
past tense of verbs. Don't worry. Remember this the time or them to realize
what they need to learn in order to create a strip of their own.
Modules
This DS will demand working with both vocabulary and grammar.
Assign at least one class for each topic.
This is the moment to introduce the past tense of verbs, regular and
irregular verbs and exercises for them to memorize all this stuff.
Final Production
Assign one class for the writing activity. Correct the written assignments
and give them time to rewrite them. If your class likes drawing, assign one
class for that. Let them have fun. You may collect all the strips and bind
them, as comic book. I'm sure they will be proud of it.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

38

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 05
TOPIC 03: LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Sometimes you may start out with more reading exercises, especially if
your group is at an intermediate level.

Our suggestion for this time is to first read the newspaper article and
then read the letters to the Editor generated by the article.
The final production would be to write a comment, a twit, a post to be
posted it in their facebook about cell phones ringing when they shouldn't.

Ringing Finally Ended, but There's No Button to Stop Shame
By DANIEL J. WAKIN
Published: January 12, 2012
They were baying for blood in the usually polite precincts of
Avery Fisher Hall.
Fonte [1]

Alan Gilbert accepted an audience member's apology on Thursday.
RELATED

ArtsBeat: New York Philharmonic Interrupted by Chimes Mahler
Never Intended(January 11, 2012)
The unmistakably jarring sound of an iPhone marimba ring
interrupted the soft and spiritual final measures of Mahler's
Symphony No. 9 at the New York Philharmonic on Tuesday night. The
conductor, Alan Gilbert, did something almost unheard-of in a concert
hall: He stopped the performance. But the ringing kept on going,
prompting increasingly angry shouts in the audience directed at the
malefactor. After words from Mr. Gilbert, and what seemed like weeks,
the cellphone owner finally silenced his device. After the audience
cheered, the concert resumed. Internet vitriol ensued. But no one, it
seems, felt worse than the culprit, who agreed to an interview on
Thursday on condition that he not be identified — for obvious reasons.
"You can imagine how devastating it is to know you had a hand in
that," said the man, who described himself as a business executive
between 60 and 70 who runs two companies. "It's horrible, horrible."
The man said he had not slept in two days. The man, called Patron X
by the Philharmonic, said he was a lifelong classical music lover and
20-year subscriber to the orchestra who was friendly with several of its
members. He said he himself was often irked by coughs, badly timed
applause — and cellphone rings. "Then God, there was I. Holy
smokes," he said. "It was just awful to have any role in something like
39

that, that is so disturbing and disrespectful not only to the conductor
but to all the musicians and not least to the audience, which was so
into this concert," he said by telephone. "I hope the people at that
performance and members of the orchestra can certainly forgive me
for this whole event. I apologize to the whole audience." Patron X said
he received a call from an orchestra official the day after the concert.
He had been identified by his front-row seat. The official politely asked
him not to do it again, he said, and the man took the opportunity to
ask to speak to Mr. Gilbert, to apologize in person. The men talked by
telephone (it was a land line) on Thursday afternoon. Mr. Gilbert said
he told Patron X, "I'm really sorry you had to go through this," and
accepted his apology. Before that, the disruption became the marimba
ring tone heard round the world, prompting feverish commentary on
blogs and comment forums about performance interruptions. In a
Twitter message, the composer Daniel Dorff said, "Changed my
ringtone to play #Mahler 9 just in case." A YouTube poster
superimposed a marimba sound over a performance of the piece by
Leonard Bernstein. The episode seemed to serve as an extreme
example of how one of the staples of modern life can disrupt a live
performance, because of both Mr. Gilbert's reaction and the guilty
party's long delay in shutting off the cellphone. Actually, Patron X said
he had no idea he was the culprit. He said his company replaced his
BlackBerry with an iPhone the day before the concert. He said he
made sure to turn it off before the concert, not realizing that the alarm
clock had accidentally been set and would sound even if the phone was
in silent mode. "I didn't even know phones came with alarms," the
man said. But as Mr. Gilbert was glaring in his direction, he fiddled
with the phone as others around him did, just to be sure, pressing
buttons. That was when the sound stopped. It was only in the car going
home that his wife checked the settings on his phone and found that
the alarm had been set. Cellphones often go off during all sorts of
performances, but the Mahler incident was a rarity: It happened
during one of music's most sublime moments, it did not stop after a
few seconds, and it emanated from the front row, where it was
impossible for Mr. Gilbert to ignore. The Philharmonic said the ushers
at Avery Fisher Hall — who work for Lincoln Center, not the orchestra
— should have intervened. Lincoln Center said it was investigating.
Both Mr. Gilbert and Patron X found something positive in the
episode. "It shows how important people still feel live performance is,"
Mr. Gilbert said. "This is something people either consciously or
implicitly recognize as sacred." The patron agreed. The incident
underscored "the very enduring and important bond between the
audience and the performers," he said, adding, "If it's disturbed in any
significant way, it just shows how precious this whole union is." James
Barron contributed reporting. This article has been revised to reflect
the following correction:
Correction: January 12, 2012
An earlier version of this article misspelled the surname of the
composer who sent a Twitter message about the cellphone
40

interruption as Dorf. A version of this article appeared in print on
January 13, 2012, on page A16 of the New York edition with the
headline: Ringing Finally Ended, but There's No Button to Stop
Shame.

TO THE EDITOR:

Re "Ringing Finally Ended, but There's No Button to Stop
Shame" (news article, Jan. 13): Thanks for two striking emblems of
Nishant Choksi Published: January
13, 2012

our society's dysfunction. First, cellphone blockers installed in theaters
and concert halls are long overdue — the logical solution, yet it is never
done. Typical! And second, there is the fact that "Patron X" put his
device in silent mode, and it disrupted the concert anyway. That is
because we just adore the geeks who run rampant with their bells and
whistles in practically everything they design, forcing us with their
dazzling cleverness into absurdities like marimbas during Mahler's
sublime music. How utterly typical! DALE RAMSEY
New York, Jan. 13, 2012

TO THE EDITOR:
In Austria, I have seen an excellent way to ensure that cellphones
are turned off during performances. Just before a performance begins,
the ushers in theaters and concert halls walk around with their loudly
ringing cellphones held high. It is a gesture that is impossible to
overlook or to misunderstand. It is also rather amusing. And it works.
ANGELIKA POHL Decatur, Ga., Jan. 13, 2012 A version of this letter
appeared in print on January 14, 2012, on page A20 of the New York
edition with the headline: They Came to Hear Mahler, Not an iPhone.

A MAESTRO SET THE TOME

SOMETHING historic happened at the New York Philharmonic
on the evening of Jan. 10, about an hour into Mahler's Ninth
Symphony. During the introspective, achingly beautiful fourth
movement, an audience member's cellphone loudly rang. And rang.
And rang again. It was the kind of marimba riff we've all heard at some
point on the street from a stranger's phone. From my seat in Row L of
the orchestra section, I could see from their body language the
41

horrified discomfort of my fellow audience members. We all wondered
whether and how the maestro Alan Gilbert would react. I noticed that
some of the violinists were looking down to the seats in the front rows,
trying to find the source of the noise and, by their glares, silence it. I
closed my eyes, hoping the sounds of the orchestra would prevail over
the obnoxious ringing. Suddenly, in my reverie, there was silence. The
orchestra had stopped playing; Mr. Gilbert had halted the
performance. He turned from his podium to the offender, who was
seated in the front row, and said something to this effect: "Are you
going to turn it off? Will you do that?" There was some "discussion"
between the conductor and the cellphone owner — was the offender
pleading his case? — but the dialogue went unheard. From the rear
orchestra-level and the upper-tier seats of Avery Fisher Hall, shouts of
outrage rained down on the hapless cellphone owner like discordant
notes. Some people stood and demanded that he leave the hall. The
audience was so enraged that I could have pictured them hauling him
from his seat on to the stage, tying him to a stake, setting him alight
and stoking the fires with the busted-up wood of cellos and violas —
maybe even wheeling in one of the orchestra's shiny Steinways for
added pyrotechnics. When it seemed as if the "power off" button on
the phone had finally been located and put to use, Mr. Gilbert turned
to the audience. "Usually, when there's a disturbance like this, it's best
to ignore it," he said. "But this was so egregious that I could not allow
it." With that, the audience applauded as if Mahler himself, the
orchestra's music director from 1909 to 1911, had suddenly been
resurrected onstage. Mr. Gilbert neither smiled nor acknowledged the
cheers. Instead he turned to the orchestra, instructing the players to
resume, several measures back from the point at which he had stopped
the performance. Just before he raised his baton, he turned again to
the audience and said, this time with a smile, "We'll start again." A few
seconds later, the percussionist struck his cymbals and the fourth
movement resumed. For the fans of the Philharmonic, this episode
was, I think, a defining moment in the career of Mr. Gilbert, who was
appointed music director in 2007. Like other longtime concertgoers,
I'd had some difficulty embracing Mr. Gilbert. I'm old-fashioned. I
can't help thinking a conductor has to be older and Eastern European,
and should arthritically mount that podium with a furrowed brow,
brooding over every note. Like many New Yorkers, I define eras of my
life by the mayor in office — but also by the Philharmonic conductor in
office. I look back on the Zubin Mehta years, when I first arrived in the
city after college, as being filled with glamorous, if sometimes overthe-top, showmanship. The Kurt Masur years were stern, even
humorless. He once stormed off the stage when someone kept
coughing at the start of a dreary Alban Berg piece, returning after
several minutes only to lecture the audience on when it was
appropriate, and inappropriate, to cough. Lorin Maazel's term was
often described as lackadaisical to the point of indifference. He would
sometimes lean against the railing of the podium and wave the baton
without looking at the orchestra or score, as if he were counting out
42

the time to intermission. Mr. Gilbert is different. He's a youngish 44.
He appears healthy, plump and cheerful when he comes from the
wings. He is generous in pointing to orchestra members to stand and
receive recognition for solo moments they've played in a piece. Yes, he
lacks that gravity of face and body that I associate with a maestro. (The
fact that his mother, the violinist Yoko Takebe, often sits two rows
away from him doesn't help.) But in his calm response to the cellphone
mishap, Mr. Gilbert hit all the right notes. At the symphony's
conclusion, after the last note had sounded, he kept his hand and
baton raised, willing the audience to be silent — to let the silence
continue to sound in the hall. One person, after several seconds,
clapped once, but Mr. Gilbert held him, and everyone else, at bay. He
was conducting us. That last silent note sounded long and true. Mr.
Gilbert's brave decision that night, to halt a performance and remedy a
problem with firmness and dignity, brought new music to the
Philharmonic. David Masello is an essayist and poet.

FORUM
The forum will be open all the time so you can solve your doubts with
either your classmates or the tutor.

PORTFOLIO
There are two different speech genres attached, pick one and prepare
a DS.
DS

43

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2012/01/13/nyregion/PHILHAR
MONIC-sub/PHILHARMONIC-sub-popup.jpg
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

44

ESTÁGIO DE ELABORAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO DE MATERIAL DIDÁTICO
CLASS 06
TOPIC 01: SINGLE TOPIC

In this class you are going to pick a speech genre and develop a DS.
The forum will be open all the time for you solve your doubts with your
classmates and tutor .
This is the Timeline you are supposed to follow:
18/5 post the chosen text, example of speech genre
29/5 Post the activities of "Introducing the Topic"
5/6 Post the activities of "First Written Production" and the activities of
"Modules", of each module.
12/6 Post the activities of "Final Production"

PORTFOLIO
This is the Timeline you are supposed to follow:
18/05- post the chosen text, example of speech genre
29/05- Post the activities of "Introducing the Topic"
05/ 06- Post the activities of "Introducing the Topic"
12/06- Post the activities of "Final Production"

FORUM
To be available all the time.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
Responsável: Professora Débora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

45