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WATERSAVER AEROBAC: an alternative way to clean and conserve water with the use of aero

bacteria water treatment setup

An Investigatory Project Submitted as Entry to the

Division Intel Science Fair 2011

Mary Rose R. Santos

Robert Joshua G. Saddi
Louie Anne K. Pangilinan
Arrianne Joyce O. Guevarra
Riyah Camille P. Obien
Kim Allen J. Espineda
Arriel Joshua Gamez
Gionolito Sumanga II
Catherine V. Cortez
Jolina G. Bautista

Saint John Academy

Dinalupihan, Bataan

Under the Guidance of

Mrs. Emerlie F. Santos

This study aims for the conservation and protection of the marine life and water system. Water is
an important part of our daily lives and we cannot live without clean water. This study aims to use and
maximize the abilities of the aero bacteria or activated sludge bacteria in cleaning the water.
There are four stages that the wastewater undergone before it was thoroughly cleaned, these
stages were: Filtration stage, for the wastewaters filtration before entering the treatment plant,
equalization stage where the wastewater will be equalized, aeration stage where the activated sludge is
placed and where the wastewater will be process into cleaning. Lastly, to produce the treated water the
wastewater will be treated and chlorinated in the effluent tank. Small amount of chlorine is mix with the
treated water for purification.
Three plastic gallons are involved in making the tanks for each stage and a huge plastic container
from the water dispenser. To pump the water from each tanks, the researchers used water pumps that was
being used for the aquariums for changing the water in it.
The researchers observed the whole process for four hours until the bacteria settle down in the
aeration tank. After this, the water is pump to the last tank wherein some amount of chlorine is use to
make the water clearer.
The treated water is currently undergoing water analysis particularly BOD test (Biochemical
oxygen demand) in DOST to determine the amount of dissolved oxygen needed to break down organic
material in water.

The researchers are very thankful to the following people who give their time and best of
supports to make this study possible to conduct.
The researchers would like to express their warmest gratitude to the following people
who gave their best to help the researchers finish this project. The researchers especially acknowledge the
guidance of their Physics teacher, Mrs. Emerlie F. Santos who supervised them throughout the study and
patiently answer their questions.
Mr. Gary M. Francisco, who integrated his idea to the researchers and gave them,
samples of activated sludge bacteria.
Mrs. Anna Bellie D. Morales, class adviser for her moral support.
Department of Science and Technology (DOST), for the water analysis particularly the
BOD test needed to prove this research.

Their beloved parents, who love, support and motivated them to give their best by
providing their needs painstakingly. And their classmates for their encouragements that push the
researchers to make this study achievable.
And most of all, to Almighty God, who created everything and gave them life,
hope, strength and wisdom.

Table of Contents
Title Page .. i
Abstract ......ii
Acknowledgment ...iii
Table of Contents ...iv
Introduction ....1
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Review of Related Literature
Methodology .

General Procedures/Treatments
Conceptual Paradigm
Results and Discussions................................
Survey Sheets.

Background of the Study
Water is one of the most important substances that we need to maintain, for our body to be
healthy. And water is one of the most important factors that balance our ecosystem, where many living
organisms live.
But nowadays, our water system is quite contaminated with different harmful substances that can
kill any organisms that are living within it.
Scientists and other institutions have developed many ways on how to conserve and clean water
but mostly, these methods are very expensive and some effects are not suitable for some organisms to
All of the above reasons have made the researchers think, develop, study and produce a new way
of treating the water in a good way wherein, organisms that are living naturally in the water can live
without any threats that can end up their lives.
Statement of the Problem
This study is mainly focused in using aero bacteria to cleanse and treat the water that can
produce a healthy and beneficial habitat for the marine species.
This research is made to answer these following questions:
1. How can sludge bacteria (aero bacteria) treat and clean the water?
2. What can be the results of using these bacteria to the water after cleansing it?
3. What are the differences between the water that was treated with aero bacteria and the water
that was treated in many commercialize way?
Significance of the Study
When the time passed by, each one of us will surely notice that the big part of bodies of water
were completely destroyed. Many people will suffer from different diseases because of contaminated
water. Imagine our world after 10 years, we are surrounded by oceans of trash. Do you think we can
sustain living in this kind of nature?

Watersaver Aerobac is the researchers newly proposed project which will help cleansing
different types of contaminated water. The main purpose of this study is to distribute clean water to the
different bodies of water, which will help the organisms live abundantly and at the same time conserve
water and lessen water pollution. The researchers thought that this kind of project will become one of the
best solutions to lessen water pollution.
To the people, they can possibly use the treated water in their daily activities but excluding the
use of it as drinking water. They can also benefit when the organisms that they consume and use as part of
their livelihood, flourish and become productive.
Scope and Limitations
The investigative research study was focused mainly on the possibility of using activated sludge
bacteria for wastewater treatment and purification. No other commercialize water treatment were used to
transform the wastewater into clean water.
Only four stages were considered in making the wastewater clean. Ongoing water analysis is
being conducted in the DOST laboratory. The researchers are waiting for results for more clarification
about the studys coverage.
Review of Related Literature
Activated sludge bacteria
Based on the facts from Norweco webmaster Aerobic floc in a healthy state are referred to as
activated sludge. While aerobic floc has a metabolic rate approximately ten times higher than anaerobic
sludge, it can be increased even further by exposing the bacteria to an abundance of oxygen. Compared to
a septic tank, which takes several days to reduce the organic material, an activated sludge tank can reduce
the same amount of organic material in approximately 4-6 hours. This allows a much higher degree of
overall process efficiency. In most cases treatment efficiencies and removal levels are so much improved
that additional downstream treatment components are dramatically reduced or totally eliminated.
Husks and shells

According to Wikipedia, coconut husk and shells can be used for fuel and are source of charcoal.
Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell is considered superior to those obtained from other
sources, mainly because of small macrospores structure which renders it more effective for the adsorption
of gas and vapor and for the removal of color, oxidants, impurities and odor of compounds.
A dried half coconut shell with husk can be used to buff floors. It is known as a bunot in the
Philippines and simply a "coconut brush" in Jamaica. The fresh husk of a brown coconut may serve as a
dish sponge or body sponge. Tempurung as the shell is called in the Malay language can be used as a soup
bowl andif fixed with a handlea ladle. In India, coconut shells are also used as bowls and in the
manufacture of various handicrafts, including buttons carved out of dried coconut shell. Coconut buttons
are often used for Hawaiian Aloha shirts. In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to
produce healthy forest tree saplings. The process of husk extraction from the coir bypasses the retting
process, using a custom-built coconut husk extractor designed by ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed
Centre (ACFTSC) in 1986. Fresh husks contain more tannin than old husks. Tannin produces negative
effects on sapling growth.[44] In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel
Half coconut shells are used in theatre Foley sound effects work, banged together to create the
sound effect of a horse's hoof beats. Dried half coconut shells are used as the bodies of musical
instruments, including the Chinese yehu and banhu, along with the Vietnamese n go and AraboTurkicrebab. In the Philippines, dried half shells are also used as a music instrument in a folk dance
called maglalatik.
In World War II, coast watcher scout Biuki Gasa was the first of two from the Solomon Islands to
reach the shipwrecked, wounded, and exhausted crew of Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 commanded by
future U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a
message inscribed on a husked coconut shell. This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is
now in the John F. Kennedy Library.

Water filters work to remove harmful contaminants from water. Most domestic use involves
coconut husk as the medium of filtration; it absorbs the impurities (including bacteria and mold) as the
water passes through.
Urea, also called carbamide, is an organic chemical compound which essentially is the waste
produced when the body metabolizes protein. It is a compound not only produced by humans but also by
many other mammals, as well as amphibians and some fish. Urea was the first natural compound to be
synthesized artificially using inorganic compounds a scientific breakthrough.

Synthetic urea is created from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide and can be produced as a
liquid or a solid. The process of dehydrating ammonium carbamateunder conditions of high heat and
pressure to produce urea was first used in 1870 and is still in use today. Uses of synthetic urea are
numerous and therefore production of it is high. In fact, approximately one million pounds of urea is
manufactured in the United States alone each year, most of it used in fertilizers. Because
the nitrogen in urea makes it water soluble, it is highly desired in this application. Urea is also used
commercially and industrially to produce some types of plastics, animal feed, glues, toilet bowl cleaners,
dish washing machine detergents, hair coloring products, pesticides, and fungicides. Medicinally, it is
used in barbiturates, dermatological products that re-hydrate the skin, and diuretics

Physicians can use urea levels to detect diseases and disorders that affect the kidneys, such as
acute kidney failure or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the
urine urea nitrogen (UUN) tests, which measure urea nitrogen levels in the blood and urine, are often used

to assess how well a patient's kidneys are functioning. Increased or decreased urea levels, however, do not
always indicate kidney problems, but instead may reflect dehydration or increased protein intake.

Brown Sugar
As we all know, the raw sugar that we consume is a product of the sugarcane. At this point it is
worth mentioning the fact that there is a different between brown sugar and raw sugar.
When we talk of brown sugar, we are talking about refined sugar that is then mixed with molasses
to give it the distinctive brown hue. Raw sugar is simply unrefined sugar. The understanding of this subtle
difference is crucial to knowing the full brown sugar benefits. The darker color can also be achieved by a
long boiling period during the manufacturing process. With raw sugar we are told that we will get an
improved blood circulation and blood cell production. Others say that it tends to increase their appetite
and improve the function of the digestive system. The glucose within the brown sugar can be absorbed by
the body and go straight to its designated functions.
It is said that it is better for women to have some sort of brown sugar benefits during their
pregnancy or after the menstrual cycle. This is apparently one of the ways in which they can replenish the
lost nutrients and avoid the pains of menstrual cramp. Those who are just new parents will notice that the
brown sugar benefits include helping the contraction and recovery of the womb. Therefore sugar is not all
bad. In fact if used sensibly it can actually improve the health of the person. Rather than cutting sugar
completely out of the diet, it is far better to look at ways of mitigating some of its negative effects.

Based on Wikipedia facts chlorine is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. As
the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and
necessary to most forms of life, including humans. Chlorine has highest electron affinity and the third
highest electronegativity of all the elements. In its elemental form (Cl 2 or "dichlorine") under standard
conditions, chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants, as well as an
essential reagent in the chemical industry. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used
in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing
molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.
In addition, History of water filters stated that chlorine was first recognized as a valuable
chemical in treating water when John Snow used it to purify the cholera-causing water of the Broad Street
Pump. Noting the disinfecting nature of chlorine and its ability to curb cholera deaths, government
officials in Great Britain began to chlorinate the public drinking water. This application of chlorine






from typhoid,





After the tremendous success of drinking water chlorination in England, chlorination began in New Jersey
and soon spread through the entire United States. Chlorination of drinking water, combined with the use
of sand water filters resulted in the virtual elimination of such waterborne diseases as cholera, typhoid,
and dysentery. In fact, chlorine was so effective at eliminating the outbreak and spread of waterborne
diseases that Life magazine named water chlorination as probably the most significant public health





Chlorine has now been a major part of municipal water treatment for nearly 100 years. About 98% of
municipal water treatment facilities now use chlorine disinfectant as their disinfectant of choice, and
about 200 million U.S. residents receive chlorinated drinking water through their home faucets


Scientists are now beginning to examine the possible byproducts and side effects of using chlorine in
drinking water. Chlorine is listed as a known poison; it undoubtedly has an adverse effect on our body
systems. Chlorinated water has been linked to the aggravation and cause of respiratory diseases like
asthma. Also, because chlorine vaporizes at a much faster rate than water, chlorinated water presents a
significant threat to the respiratory system when used for showering. Recent discoveries of the health
concerns of chlorine have led many people to install shower filters or whole house water filter
systems into their homes. Such installations are the next step in the evolution of water filtration
As determined by Wikipedia because oxygen comprises most of the mass in water, oxygen
comprises most of the mass of living organisms (for example, about two-thirds of the human body's
mass). All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates,
and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and
bone. Elemental oxygen is produced by cyanobacteria, algae and plants, and is used in cellular
respiration for all complex life. Oxygen is toxic to obligately anaerobic organisms, which were the
dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere. Another form
(allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O3), helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation with the highaltitude ozone layer, but is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog. At even
higher low earth orbit altitudes atomic oxygen is a significant presence and a cause of erosion for
spacecraft. Oxygen




by fractional

distillation of




of zeolites with pressure-cycling to concentrate oxygen from air, electrolysis of water and other means.
Uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles; rocket propellant; oxygen therapy;
and life support in aircraft, submarines, spaceflightand diving.


As laid down by Wikipedia, Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface,[3] and is vital for all
known forms of life.[4] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of
water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water
particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[5] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice
caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the
Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.






a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching

the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.
Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has
improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world. [6][7] There is a
clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita.[8] However, some observers have
estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.

A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world,

water demand will exceed supply by 50%. [10] Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it
functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and
transportation. Approximately 70% of the fresh waterwhich is actively handled by humans, is consumed
by agriculture.

According to Wikipedia, Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality
by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial
properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and
concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad
spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources.
Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to
mean any waste water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste
products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier.
The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its
origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage.
The water treatments website testify that the removal of dissolved and suspended carbonaceous
BOD and the stabilization of organic matter found in wastewater is accomplished using a variety of
microorganisms, principally bacteria. Microorganisms are used to oxidize the dissolved and suspended
carbonaceous organic matter into simple end products and additional biomass. This is achieved by
providing the favourable environment to microorganisms with food, DO, pH, temperature etc. The
organic solids present in the wastewater serve as food for the aerobic microorganisms. The only thing to
be provided is the DO, which is essential for the respiration of the aerobic organisms. In the biological
treatment processes the DO is supplied either through natural means or by mechanical means by agitation.
Anaerobic organisms can multiply in the absence of DO and do the decomposition, but the end products
are undesirable fowl smelling gases like H 2S, CH, etc. Hence anaerobic decomposition process is not
generally preferred. However, anaerobic treatments are also adopted in certain situations because of

certain specific advantages. Examples of anaerobic treatment processes are Septic tanks, UASB,
Anaerobic Sludge digesters.

A. Materials and Equipments
Materials such as 3 water gallons, 2 water pumps from the aquariums, a big water container (the
researchers used a container that is used for water dispenser), epoxy primer (Vulca Seal), some
adhesive tapes, 2 oxygen pumps, knife (or any sharp edges), brown sugar, urea, coconut husks,
coconut shells waste water, water and activated sludge bacteria.
B. General procedures
The researchers first put some urea and brown sugar to the bacteria while supplying them with
Oxygen. When doing the setup, the researchers used the first gallon as a filter and that was cut in the
middle to make a large opening to put the coconut husks and shells. To finish the filter, holes were
made below the plastic bottle. The upper part of the cut bottle was used as a funnel for the pre-

aeration tank or equalization tank for it to easily catch the filtered wastewater that goes right through
the filter. The second plastic gallon was used as an equalization tank wherein the upper part of the
first bottle was used as a funnel and was connected to the opening of the second bottle. Two holes
were made in this bottle for the water pump hose to go through and the other hole was used for the
oxygen pump. The huge water container was used as an aeration tank wherein the bacteria were
placed and the cleaning process was taking place. There were two holes that were created in it for the
hose from the equalization tank can go and the hose going to the last tank will be able to suck and
pump some water; for the transfer of water from a certain tank to another. The last gallon was used as
the last tank wherein the final product will go. It is also in the tank where the chlorination is taking


Gathering of the

Maintaining the
life of the

Making the setup.

Securing the
safetiness and
cleanliness of the
final product.

Using the bacteria

in water

Analyzing the final

product (with the
help of DOST).