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BY

S. LOGESH KUMAAR

SAHIL MISHRA

STABILITY

DEFINITION

Tendency of a ship to go back to its

original position when tilted by some

angles.

Ship stability is an

area of naval architecture and

ship design that deals with

how a ship behaves at sea,

both in still water and in

waves.

PRINCIPLES OF

STABILITY

forces of gravity and forces of

buoyancy

Static equilibrium

Fi = 0

equilibrium:

tipped

rest in any position

position if force acts on it

Archimedes Principle

submerged in a fluid is buoyed

up by a force equal to the

weight of the water it

displaces

Depth to which ship sinks

depends on density of water (

= 1 ton/35ft3 seawater)

Archimedes Principle

water displaced by the

underwater volume is equal to

the weight of the ship

Forces of gravity:

=Wship

Forces of buoyancy:

waterVdisplaced

Wship = waterVdisplaced

G = mshipg

B=

Archimedes Principle

-> too tough to analyze

Center of Gravity (G): all

gravity forces as one force

acting downward through

ships geometric center

Center of Buoyancy (B): all

buoyancy forces as one force

acting upward through

underwater geometric center

Archimedes Principle

change/shift in mass of ship

Does not change position with

movement of ship

G

Changes position

with movement

of ship -> underwater geometric

center moves

Also affected by displacement

Hydrostatics

Terminology

total submerged volume of ship

(measured in tons)

Draft: vertical distance from

waterline to keel at deepest point

(measured in feet)

Reserve Buoyancy: volume of

watertight portion of ship above

waterline (important factor in ships

ability to survive flooding)

Freeboard: vertical distance from

waterline to main deck (rough

Hydrostatics

Terminology

increase, freeboard and reserve

Moments

produce rotation or to move an

object about an axis

axis of rotation is the moment

arm

magnitude in opposite and

parallel directions, separated

by a perpendicular distance

Moments

Depending on

location of G and B,

two types of

moments:

Righting moment:

tends to return ship to

upright position

Upsetting moment:

tends to overturn ship

Magnitude of righting

moment:

RM = W * GZ (ft-tons)

GZ: moment arm (ft)

Metacenter

Defn: the

intersection of

two successive

lines of action of

the force of

buoyancy as

ship heels

through small

angles (M)

If angle too

Metacenter

Metacentric

Height (GM)

Determines size

of

righting/upsettin

g arm (for angles

< 7o)

GZ = GM*sin

Large GM ->

large righting

arm (stiff)

Small GM ->

Metacenter

G = M: ship neutral

G over M: ship unstable

STABLE

UNSTABLE

MOMENTS

in the upright position.

of inclination where the forces of weight

and buoyancy act to move the ship

toward the upright position.

inclination where the forces of weight

and buoyancy act to move the ship away

from the upright position.

W.L

G---Center of Gravity,

Buoyancy

B---Center of

If M is above G, we will have a righting

ARM)

GZ GM sin

Restoring moment Wg GZ

FOR SUBMARINES

(immersed in water)

B

G

If B is below G, we have heeling moment

M

Z

B1

G M

POSITIVE

B1

M

NEUTRAL

B1

NEGATIVE

righting arm

When a ship inclines at a

small angle d, the

suspended object moves

transversely

M heeling w h d

weight = h d , where h is

the distance between the

suspended weight and the

hanging point

The increase in the heeling

moment due to the

transverse movement

righting moment & righting arm are

decreased due to a heeling moment of the

suspended object. The reduced righting

moment M & metacentric height GM are:

I ox

w

M M M heeling w d

Z B Z g

h

w

I ox

w

w

GM GM

h

ZB Zg

h

w

is actually at its suspended point

with free surface tend to decrease the

righting arm, or decrease the initial

stability, we should avoid them.

1. Filling the liquid tank (in full) to get

rid of the free surface. (creating a

expandable volume)

2. Make the inertial moment of the free

surface as small as possible by

adding the separation longitudinal

plates (bulkhead).

a problem in a partially flooded

vessel.

the water in her, will respond to

the craft's heave, , pitch, roll,

surge, sway or yaw, e.g as the

vessel rolls to port the water

inside will move, so that much of

it is now on the port side of the

vessel, and this will move the

craft's centre of gravity and

Effects of free

surfaces of liquids

on the righting arm

When a liquid tank in a ship

is not full, there is a free

surface in this tank.

The effect of the free

surface of liquids on the

initial stability of the ship is

to decrease the righting

arm.

I OL

For a small parallel

angle

G0G1

d

tan k

inclination,

the movement of C.G. of liquid

If there is no influence of free-surface liquids, the

righting moment of the ship at a small angle

d is:

I ox

M GM

w d

ZB Zg w d

righting moment is decreased due to a heeling

moment of free-surface liquid. The reduced

righting moment M is

M M M heeling w

I ox

F I ol

d

Z B Z g

I OX

F I OL

GM

ZB Zg

decreasedby

an amount,

F I OL

w

increase in height of C.G. w.r.t. the

baseline.

F I OL

Z g Z g

Longitudinal subdivision: reduce the width b, and

thus reduces

I b3l

OL

liquid with free

surface tend to

decrease the righting arm, or decrease

the initial stability, we should avoid

them.

1. Filling the liquid tank (in full) to get

rid of the free surface. (creating a

expandable volume)

2. Make the inertial moment of the free

surface as small as possible by

adding the separation longitudinal

plates (bulkhead).

Stability Curve

GZ CURVES

(curves of statical

tability)

Restoring

arm variation

problems

The ship is unstable beyond B. (even if the upsetting moment

is removed, the ship will not return to its upright position).

From 0 to B, the range of angles represents the range of

stabilities.

stability

1. Vertical movement (usually due to the correction of G.C

position after inclining experiment.)

stability

2. Transverse movement (due to the transverse movement of

some loose weight)

G1Z1 GZ GG1 cos

wh

GG1

left to the right

1. Rises steadily from the origin and for the first few degrees is

practically a straight line.

Near the origin GZ = * slope & slope = ?, why?

2. Usually have a point of inflexion, concave upwards and

concave downwards, then reaches maximum, and afterwards,

declines and eventually crosses the base (horizontal axis).

1

radian

large extent a function of the freeboard.

(the definition of freeboard)

Larger freeboard

stability

range of stability

Computation Procedures

1. The transverse section area under waterline I, II, III, IV, V

2. The moment about the vertical y-axis (passing through C.G)

3. By longitudinal integration along the length, we obtain the

displacement volume, the distances from the B.C. to y-axis

(i.e. the righting arm GZ) under the every W.L.

o

o

4. For every 5 ,10 ,L , we obtain and GZ for W.L. I - V

These curves show that the righting arm (GZ) changes with the

change of displacement given the inclination angle of the ship.

here is a 3-D plot of cross curves of stability.

The curved

surface is

GZ f ( , )

G

Z

BONJEAN CURVES

Draw the given W.L.

Find the intersection of the W.L. & each

station

Find the immersed area of each station

Use numerical integration to find the

ANGLE OF LOLL

describe the state of a ship

which is unstable when upright

(ie: has a negative metacentric

height, GMt) .

When a vessel has negative

GM i.e., is in unstable

equilibrium, any external

force, if applied the vessel, will

cause it to start heeling. As it

heels, the moment of inertia of

change in KB of the vessel,

the KM of the vessel

increases.

Stability

Static Stability: Studying the

magnitude of the righting moment given

the inclination (angle) of the ship*.

amount of work done by the righting

moment given the inclination of the ship.

The study of dynamic Stability is based on

the study of static stability.

Static Stability

1) The initial stability (aka stability at small

inclination) and,

2) the stability at large inclinations.

) The initial (or small angle) stability: studies

the right moments or right arm at small

inclination angles.

) The stability at large inclination (angle):

computes the right moments (or right arms) as

function of the inclination angle, up to a limit angle

at which the ship may lose its stability (capsizes).

Initial stability

Righting Arm: A symmetric ship is inclined at a

small angle d. C.B has moved off the ships

centerline as the result of the inclination. The

distance between the action of buoyancy and

weight, GZ, is called righting arm.

Transverse Metacenter: A vertical line through

the C.B intersects the original vertical centerline at

GZ GM sin d

point, M.

GMd if d = 1

Metacenter

Transverse metacentric height : the

distance between the C.G. and M (GM). It

is important as an index of transverse

stability at small angles of inclination.

GZ is positive, if the moment is righting

moment. M should be above C.G, if GZ

>0.

If we know the location of M, we may find

GM, and thus the righting arm GZ or

righting moment can be determined

given a small angle d.

When a ship is

inclined at small

angle d

W1L1 Inclined W.L

Bo C.B. at upright position, B1 C.B. at inclined

position

- The displacement (volume) of the ship

v1, v2 The volume of the emerged and immersed

g1, g2 C.G. of the emerged and immersed wedg

stability

1. Vertical movement (usually due to the correction of G.C

position after inclining experiment.)

stability

2. Transverse movement (due to the transverse movement of

some loose weight)

G1Z1 GZ GG1 cos

wh

GG1

left to the right

Dynamic Stability

Static stability: we only compute the righting arm (or

moment) given the angle of inclination. A true measure of

stability should considered dynamically.

Dynamic Stability: Calculating the amount of work done

by the righting moment given the inclination of the ship.

W w GZ d Wmax

0

max

GZ d

Dynamic stability

Steady heel

angle

(Test)

Purpose

1.To obtain the vertical position of

C.G (Center of Gravity) of the

ship.

2.It is required by International

convention on Safety of Life at

Sea. (Every passenger or cargo

vessel newly built or rebuilt)

M: Transverse

Metacenter (A

vertical line

through the C.B

intersects the

original vertical

centerline at

point, M)

Due to the

movement of

weights,

heeling the

heeling moment

is of the moving

where w is the total weight

objects and h is the moving distance.

wh

(Continue)

wh

GG1

wh

The righting moment = The heeling

moment

GM W tan wh

GM

GG1 cot( )

W tan( )

2.

is measured by a pendulum known as

stabilograph.

3. The total weight W can be determined given the

draft T. (at FP, AP & midship, usually only a very

small trim is allowed.)

1.(Continue)

The experiment should be carried out in calm water &

nice weather. No wind, no heavy rain, no tides.

2. It is essential that the ship be free to incline (mooring

ropes should be as slack as possible, but be careful.)

locked in position and there should be no loose

fluids in tanks.

4. The ship in inclining test should be as near completion

as possible.

5. Keep as few people on board as possible.

6. The angle of inclination should be small enough with

the range of validity of the theory.

Conclusion: to increase GM

( Transverse metacenter height)

1. increasing the beam, B

2. decreasing the draft, T

3. lowering C.G (ZG)

4. increasing the freeboard will increase the ZG,

but will improve the stability at large

inclination angle.

5. Tumble home or flare will have effects on the

stability at large inclination angle.

6.Bilge keels, fin stabilizers, gyroscopic

stabilizers, anti-rolling tank also improve

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