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# TRANSVERSE STABILITY

BY
S. LOGESH KUMAAR
SAHIL MISHRA

STABILITY
DEFINITION
Tendency of a ship to go back to its
original position when tilted by some
angles.
Ship stability is an
area of naval architecture and
ship design that deals with
how a ship behaves at sea,
both in still water and in
waves.

PRINCIPLES OF
STABILITY

## Floating object is acted on by

forces of gravity and forces of
buoyancy
Static equilibrium
Fi = 0

equilibrium:

tipped

## Neutral: when rotated, will come to

rest in any position

## Unstable: will come to rest in new

position if force acts on it

Archimedes Principle

## Law: a body floating or

submerged in a fluid is buoyed
up by a force equal to the
weight of the water it
displaces
Depth to which ship sinks
depends on density of water (
= 1 ton/35ft3 seawater)

Archimedes Principle

## Ship sinks until weight of

water displaced by the
underwater volume is equal to
the weight of the ship

Forces of gravity:
=Wship
Forces of buoyancy:
waterVdisplaced

Wship = waterVdisplaced

G = mshipg
B=

Archimedes Principle

## Forces act everywhere on ship

-> too tough to analyze
Center of Gravity (G): all
gravity forces as one force
acting downward through
ships geometric center
Center of Buoyancy (B): all
buoyancy forces as one force
acting upward through
underwater geometric center

Archimedes Principle

## Changes position only by

change/shift in mass of ship
Does not change position with
movement of ship

## Center of Buoyancy (B):

G
Changes position
with movement
of ship -> underwater geometric
center moves
Also affected by displacement

Hydrostatics
Terminology

## Displacement: total weight of ship =

total submerged volume of ship
(measured in tons)
Draft: vertical distance from
waterline to keel at deepest point
(measured in feet)
Reserve Buoyancy: volume of
watertight portion of ship above
waterline (important factor in ships
ability to survive flooding)
Freeboard: vertical distance from
waterline to main deck (rough

Hydrostatics
Terminology

## As draft & displacement

increase, freeboard and reserve

Moments

## Defn: tendency of a force to

produce rotation or to move an

## Distance between the force and

axis of rotation is the moment
arm

## Couple: two forces of equal

magnitude in opposite and
parallel directions, separated
by a perpendicular distance

## G and B are a couple

Moments

Depending on
location of G and B,
two types of
moments:

Righting moment:
tends to return ship to
upright position
Upsetting moment:
tends to overturn ship

Magnitude of righting
moment:

RM = W * GZ (ft-tons)
GZ: moment arm (ft)

Metacenter

Defn: the
intersection of
two successive
lines of action of
the force of
buoyancy as
ship heels
through small
angles (M)

If angle too

Metacenter

Metacentric
Height (GM)

Determines size
of
righting/upsettin
g arm (for angles
< 7o)
GZ = GM*sin
Large GM ->
large righting
arm (stiff)
Small GM ->

Metacenter

## G under M: ship is stable

G = M: ship neutral
G over M: ship unstable

STABLE

UNSTABLE

MOMENTS

## A ship or a submarine is designed to float

in the upright position.

## RIGHTING MOMENT: exists at any angle

of inclination where the forces of weight
and buoyancy act to move the ship
toward the upright position.

## HEELING MOMENT: exists at any angle of

inclination where the forces of weight
and buoyancy act to move the ship away
from the upright position.

## For a displacement ship,

W.L

G---Center of Gravity,
Buoyancy

B---Center of

## M--- Transverse Metacenter

If M is above G, we will have a righting

## RIGHTING LEVER GZ (RESTORING

ARM)
GZ GM sin

Restoring moment Wg GZ

FOR SUBMARINES
(immersed in water)
B
G

## If B is above G, we have righting moment

If B is below G, we have heeling moment

M

Z
B1
G M

POSITIVE

B1
M

NEUTRAL

B1

NEGATIVE

## Effects of a suspended weight on the

righting arm
When a ship inclines at a
small angle d, the
suspended object moves
transversely

M heeling w h d

## Transverse movement of the

weight = h d , where h is
the distance between the
suspended weight and the
hanging point
The increase in the heeling
moment due to the
transverse movement

## In the presence of a suspended object, the

righting moment & righting arm are
decreased due to a heeling moment of the
suspended object. The reduced righting
moment M & metacentric height GM are:

I ox
w
M M M heeling w d
Z B Z g
h
w

I ox
w
w
GM GM
h
ZB Zg
h
w

## In other words, the C.G of a suspended object

is actually at its suspended point

## Because the suspension weights & liquid

with free surface tend to decrease the
righting arm, or decrease the initial
stability, we should avoid them.
1. Filling the liquid tank (in full) to get
rid of the free surface. (creating a
expandable volume)
2. Make the inertial moment of the free
surface as small as possible by

## Free Surface Effect can become

a problem in a partially flooded
vessel.

## The partially flooded vessel and

the water in her, will respond to
the craft's heave, , pitch, roll,
surge, sway or yaw, e.g as the
vessel rolls to port the water
inside will move, so that much of
it is now on the port side of the
vessel, and this will move the
craft's centre of gravity and

Effects of free
surfaces of liquids
on the righting arm
When a liquid tank in a ship
is not full, there is a free
surface in this tank.
The effect of the free
surface of liquids on the
initial stability of the ship is
to decrease the righting
arm.
I OL
For a small parallel
angle
G0G1
d
tan k
inclination,

## The increase in the heeling moment due to

the movement of C.G. of liquid

## M heeling F tan k G0G1 F I OL d

If there is no influence of free-surface liquids, the
righting moment of the ship at a small angle
d is:
I ox

M GM
w d
ZB Zg w d

## In the presence of a free-surface liquid, the

righting moment is decreased due to a heeling
moment of free-surface liquid. The reduced
righting moment M is

M M M heeling w

I ox
F I ol
d
Z B Z g

I OX
F I OL
GM
ZB Zg

decreasedby
an amount,
F I OL
w

## The decrease can also be viewed as an

increase in height of C.G. w.r.t. the
baseline.
F I OL
Z g Z g

## How to decrease IOL:

Longitudinal subdivision: reduce the width b, and
thus reduces
I b3l
OL

## Because the suspension weights &

liquid with free
surface tend to
decrease the righting arm, or decrease
the initial stability, we should avoid
them.
1. Filling the liquid tank (in full) to get
rid of the free surface. (creating a
expandable volume)
2. Make the inertial moment of the free
surface as small as possible by

Stability Curve

GZ CURVES
(curves of statical
tability)
Restoring
arm variation
problems

## For each angle of , we compute GZ, the righting arm.

The ship is unstable beyond B. (even if the upsetting moment
From 0 to B, the range of angles represents the range of
stabilities.

## Influences of movement of G.C on curve of static

stability
1. Vertical movement (usually due to the correction of G.C
position after inclining experiment.)

## Influences of movement of G.C on curve of static

stability
2. Transverse movement (due to the transverse movement of
some loose weight)
G1Z1 GZ GG1 cos
wh
GG1

## Weight moving from the

left to the right

## Features of A Curve of Static Stability

1. Rises steadily from the origin and for the first few degrees is
practically a straight line.
Near the origin GZ = * slope & slope = ?, why?
2. Usually have a point of inflexion, concave upwards and
concave downwards, then reaches maximum, and afterwards,
declines and eventually crosses the base (horizontal axis).

1

## The maximum righting arm & the range of stability are to a

large extent a function of the freeboard.
(the definition of freeboard)
Larger freeboard
stability

## Using the watertight superstructures

range of stability

## Cross Curves of Stability

Computation Procedures
1. The transverse section area under waterline I, II, III, IV, V
2. The moment about the vertical y-axis (passing through C.G)
3. By longitudinal integration along the length, we obtain the
displacement volume, the distances from the B.C. to y-axis
(i.e. the righting arm GZ) under the every W.L.
o
o
4. For every 5 ,10 ,L , we obtain and GZ for W.L. I - V

## Cross Curves of Stability

These curves show that the righting arm (GZ) changes with the
change of displacement given the inclination angle of the ship.

## For the sake of understanding cross curves of stability clearly,

here is a 3-D plot of cross curves of stability.
The curved
surface is
GZ f ( , )

G
Z

BONJEAN CURVES

## How to use Bonjean Curves

Draw the given W.L.
Find the intersection of the W.L. & each
station
Find the immersed area of each station
Use numerical integration to find the

ANGLE OF LOLL

## Angle of loll is a term used to

describe the state of a ship
which is unstable when upright
(ie: has a negative metacentric
height, GMt) .
When a vessel has negative
GM i.e., is in unstable
equilibrium, any external
force, if applied the vessel, will
cause it to start heeling. As it
heels, the moment of inertia of

## Since there is relatively little

change in KB of the vessel,
the KM of the vessel
increases.

## Static Stability & Dynamical

Stability
Static Stability: Studying the
magnitude of the righting moment given
the inclination (angle) of the ship*.

## Dynamic Stability: Calculating the

amount of work done by the righting
moment given the inclination of the ship.
The study of dynamic Stability is based on
the study of static stability.

Static Stability
1) The initial stability (aka stability at small
inclination) and,
2) the stability at large inclinations.
) The initial (or small angle) stability: studies
the right moments or right arm at small
inclination angles.
) The stability at large inclination (angle):
computes the right moments (or right arms) as
function of the inclination angle, up to a limit angle
at which the ship may lose its stability (capsizes).

Initial stability
Righting Arm: A symmetric ship is inclined at a
small angle d. C.B has moved off the ships
centerline as the result of the inclination. The
distance between the action of buoyancy and
weight, GZ, is called righting arm.
Transverse Metacenter: A vertical line through
the C.B intersects the original vertical centerline at
GZ GM sin d
point, M.

GMd if d = 1

## Location of the Transverse

Metacenter
Transverse metacentric height : the
distance between the C.G. and M (GM). It
is important as an index of transverse
stability at small angles of inclination.
GZ is positive, if the moment is righting
moment. M should be above C.G, if GZ
>0.
If we know the location of M, we may find
GM, and thus the righting arm GZ or
righting moment can be determined
given a small angle d.

When a ship is
inclined at small
angle d

## WoLo Waterline (W.L) at upright position

W1L1 Inclined W.L
Bo C.B. at upright position, B1 C.B. at inclined

position
- The displacement (volume) of the ship
v1, v2 The volume of the emerged and immersed
g1, g2 C.G. of the emerged and immersed wedg

## Influences of movement of G.C on curve of static

stability
1. Vertical movement (usually due to the correction of G.C
position after inclining experiment.)

## Influences of movement of G.C on curve of static

stability
2. Transverse movement (due to the transverse movement of
some loose weight)
G1Z1 GZ GG1 cos
wh
GG1

## Weight moving from the

left to the right

Dynamic Stability
Static stability: we only compute the righting arm (or
moment) given the angle of inclination. A true measure of
stability should considered dynamically.
Dynamic Stability: Calculating the amount of work done
by the righting moment given the inclination of the ship.

W w GZ d Wmax
0

max

GZ d

Dynamic stability
angle

## The Inclining Experiment

(Test)
Purpose
1.To obtain the vertical position of
C.G (Center of Gravity) of the
ship.
2.It is required by International
convention on Safety of Life at
Sea. (Every passenger or cargo
vessel newly built or rebuilt)

M: Transverse
Metacenter (A
vertical line
through the C.B
intersects the
original vertical
centerline at
point, M)
Due to the
movement of
weights,
heeling the
heeling moment
is of the moving
where w is the total weight
objects and h is the moving distance.

wh

(Continue)
wh
GG1

## where W is the total weight of the ship.

wh
The righting moment = The heeling
moment

GM W tan wh

GM
GG1 cot( )
W tan( )

## 1. w and h are recorded and hence known.

2.
is measured by a pendulum known as
stabilograph.
3. The total weight W can be determined given the
draft T. (at FP, AP & midship, usually only a very
small trim is allowed.)

## The Inclining Experiment

1.(Continue)
The experiment should be carried out in calm water &
nice weather. No wind, no heavy rain, no tides.
2. It is essential that the ship be free to incline (mooring
ropes should be as slack as possible, but be careful.)

## 3. All weights capable of moving transversely should be

locked in position and there should be no loose
fluids in tanks.
4. The ship in inclining test should be as near completion
as possible.
5. Keep as few people on board as possible.
6. The angle of inclination should be small enough with
the range of validity of the theory.

Conclusion: to increase GM
( Transverse metacenter height)
1. increasing the beam, B
2. decreasing the draft, T
3. lowering C.G (ZG)
4. increasing the freeboard will increase the ZG,
but will improve the stability at large
inclination angle.
5. Tumble home or flare will have effects on the
stability at large inclination angle.
6.Bilge keels, fin stabilizers, gyroscopic
stabilizers, anti-rolling tank also improve