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External: Chidambaram Sir

Internal: GopiKrishnan Sir

Function 4b:
1.What is a Viscotherm
Is a equipment used for the control of viscosity and temperature of a fluid, in particular of fuel oil. It
uses a measuring capillary and a small pump. The pump produces a constant force the measured liquid
through the capillary. The viscosity then determined by taking pressure through the capillary
2.Water washing Procedure in Turbocharger both turbine side and Blower side .
Reeds book. General
3.Alternative Grit Washing Procedure?
Donot know
4.Difference Between M/E and G/E Governor and reason. Why constant speed for A/E
Main engine it is important to maintain a constant load, speed is not a criteria. Hence the function of
the governor is to maintain a constant load. Where as the generator fitted on board the main function is
to maintain a constant frequency thus depended on the rpm of the gen thus the governor fitted on the
generator is constant speed. According to the IACS the governor fitted on the generator should prevent
transient frequency variation in electrical equipment should not be more than 10% of the rated
5.Blr Accumulation Test and Type of Safety Valve
All safety valves are to be set under steam to a pressure not greater than the approved pressure of the
boiler. As a working tolerance the setting is acceptable provided the valves lift at not more than 103 per
cent of the approved design pressure. During a test of 15 minutes with the stop valves closed and
under full firing conditions the accumulation of pressure is not to exceed 10% of the design pressure.
During this test no more feed water is to be supplied than is necessary to maintain a safe working
water level. The accumulation test is carried out to check the capacity of the safety v/v and duration of
the test is 7min for water tube boiler and 15 min for fire tube boiler.
6.Crank Shaft Deflection Why Taken
It is known that the crankshaft is the member which supports all the running member in the unit and
the downward gas force resulting due to combustion, the whole weight is in turn supported by the main
bearing of the engine over a time period the main bearing starts to wear. This wear is not uniform
leading to bending of the crankshaft in slight degree upward or downward direction which is not visible
to naked eye but sufficient enough to cause fatigue failure to the crankshaft. Thus crankshaft deflection
is taken for preventing this.
7.Why do we heat fuel oil and why is it desirable to have less viscous fuel.
Viscosity is the measure of the internal resistance to flow. Viscosity depends on the temperature and
the temperature increase the viscosity decrease in case of fuel oil. Viscosity is measured in
centistrokes. When the viscosity of the fuel oil is high it is difficult to pump and also transfer the oil. In
case of engine the high viscosity will lead to improper atomization and also high penetration thus
resulting in increase in carbon deposit, crown burning increase wear and also maintenance cost. Thus
we need to heat the fuel such that the inlet viscosity of the fuel is around 12cst. for proper combustion.
8.EGB cleaning precautions during cleaning in the port.

Before cleaning ensure the drains are open and the clear
Open the turbocharger drain to prevent water from entering.
Ensure the tan drain are closed and if the eductor system is used all valves are closed.
use only fresh water for washing.
Washing should be carried out only after the EGB has be sufficiently cooled and the circulating
pump is switched off.
Ensure spare manhole gasket is available on board.
Gas inlet to the EGB from the turbocharger should be covered with canvas.
Avoid EGB cleaning if the ship might proceed in a narrow passage as the spark will be evident
during narrow passage.

Function 6:
1.Diiference Between Vane and Ram type Steering Gear
Basically there r 2 types of electrohydrualic steering gear. Rotary vane type and Ram type steering
gear. Ram type steering gear uses cylinder and high pressure oil acting on the piston arrangement. The
piston is connected to the ram, ram connected to the tiller. Tiller connected to the rudder stock which
creates the rudder movement. In the vane steering uses the high pressure
Acting the the side of the vane. In the rotary vane unlike ram type type the vanes or directly connected
to the boss which fixed with the rudder stock in turn moving the rudder.
2.Types of Heat Exchangers
Mac George book.
3.FWG Condensor and Evaporator Cleaning
Cleaning procedure varies with the type of FWG. However the condenser should be cleaned every
6monthly and evaporator should be cleaning should be done every 3 monthly as a thumb rule.
In a plate type

The pump should be stopped, vaccum released and the FWG is drained. Shell cover opened.
Measurements have to be taken from the end plate to the shell or to the end to the bolt and
these measurements are noted for reference.
The end plate nuts have to be loosened evenly and the end plate removed
Now the plates have to be removed and care should be taken to note the order of the plates
After cleaning the plates all the gaskets to be checked and the plates arranged in the same
order as taken out.
End plates put back and the bolts evenly tightened to the measurements which was taken
Now the JCW inlet to the FWG is opened slowly and then evaporator is checked for leakages.
Then same procedure is carried out for the condenser.

4.Refrigerator suction pipe cold and iceing is found on the pipe surface What is the reason

Thermostatic valve not working properly.

Thermostatic valve bulb broken
Thermostatic valve stuck in open position.
Moisture in the system.
Oil in the system leading the stucking of valves.

5.Compressor valve leaking how will u find and what is the tool used for lapping

By conducting performance test. Time taken for filling the air bottle from 24bar- 30bar is noted
and kept as reference any increase in time will indicate valve leakage.
By measuring the air outlet temperature of the compressor.
After taking the valve carry out a leak test or Persian blue test on the valve plate and the valve
It is called as lapping tool in general but I dont know the right name.

6.Emergency Fire Pump not developing Enough Pressure reasons

Suction valve shut partially

Suction filter chocked.
Discharge valve shut partially.
2 or more Hydrants kept open on deck.
Wear ring worn out.

Function applied: 3 & 4b
Surveyor: Mrsenthilkumar sir
Function 3:
1.What is bonjean curve?

a curve formed by plotting transverse sectional areas measured up to each waterline against a vertical
axis representing the waterline; thus the horizontal distance measured from the curve to the vertical
axis gives the area of the section from the baseline to that particular waterline; usually sets of curves
are obtained for each section; these curves facilitate immersed volume to be obtained for waterlines
that are not parallel to baseline

2.What happens to draft when ship sail from fresh water to sea water, why, if density change will mass
Density =mass/volume. Mass remains a constant thus density is inversely proportional to the volume.
Thus when the density increase the volume decreases and when the density decreases the volume
increases. Volume is given by the formula L*B*Draft. Thus in this we can get the change of volume is
due to the change in the draft.

3.Draw and Explain LOA, LBP & LCF?

Reeds book.

4.Annex 1: discharge criteria? Engine room & pump room discharge criteria ?
Discharges outside special areas
2. Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from ships of 400 gross tonnage and above shall be
prohibited except when all the following conditions are satisfied:
.1. the ship is proceeding en route;
.2. the oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment meeting the requirements of this
.3. the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million;
.4. the oily mixture does not originate from cargo pump room bilges on oil tankers; and
.5. the oily mixture, in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
Discharges in special areas
Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from ships of 400 gross tonnage and above shall be
prohibited except when all of the following conditions are satisfied:
.1. the ship is proceeding en route;
.2. the oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment meeting the requirements of
regulation 14.7 of this Annex;
.3. the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million;
.4. the oily mixture does not originate from cargo pump room bilges on oil tankers; and
.5. the oily mixture, in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
4. In respect of the Antarctic area, any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship shall
be prohibited.

5. Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit a ship on a voyage only part of which is in a special area from
discharging outside a special area in accordance with paragraphs 2 of this regulation.
From cargo area of an oil tanker
Discharges outside special areas
.1. the tanker is not within a special area;
.2. the tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land;
.3. the tanker is proceeding en route;
.4. the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres per nautical mile;
.5. the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for tankers delivered on or before
31 December 1979, 1/15,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a
part, and for tankers delivered after 31 December 1979, 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular
cargo of which the residue formed a part; and
.6. the tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank
any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from the cargo area of an oil tanker shall be prohibited
while in a special area
5.Explain OWS, ODME?
Oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage and above shall be equipped with an oil discharge monitoring and
control system approved by the Administration. The system shall be fitted with a recording device to
provide a continuous record of the discharge in litres per nautical mile and total quantity discharged, or
the oil content and rate of discharge. This record shall be identifiable as to time and date and shall be
kept for at least three years. The oil discharge monitoring and control system shall come into operation
when there is any discharge of effluent into the sea and shall be such as will ensure that any discharge
of oily mixture is automatically stopped when the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil exceeds that
permitted by regulation 34 of this Annex. Mainly used in the discharge of the bilge generating from the
cargo area. any ship of 400 gross tonnage and above but less than 10,000 gross tonnage shall be fitted
with oil filtering equipment. If more than 10,000 gross tonnage Oil filtering equipment shall also be
provided with arrangements to ensure that any discharge of oily mixtures is automatically stopped
when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 parts per million. Mainly used in the discharge of engine
room bilges.
6.What is TPC?
Tonnes per centimeter is defined as the tons loaded or discharged from a ship in order to change the
draft by 1cm in salt water. It enables the master to make a quick calculation mainly in case of fire on
board. Knowing the no of hose used for fire fighting and the dia of the nozzles the mass of water
entering or used for fighting fire can be known then change in trim can be calculated. Quickly.

7.How will you differentiate ships by its length?

Dont know

Function 4b:

1.What is mean effective pressure?

Is a valuable measurement of the engines capacity to do work that is independent of the engine
displacement. It is also called as the average pressure exerted on the piston during the power stroke.
Mean effective pressure depends on the compression ratio, timing of fuel injection, amount of fuel
injected for combustion.

2.Where does exhaust gas goes after turbocharger?

From the turbocharger to goes to the EGB or Economiser of the boiler depending on the design and
then to the uptake and then atmosphere.

3.What all will you inspect in SCAVENGE space?

Isolate the engine.

Scavenge space to be consider as enclosed spaces hence permit has to be obtained and the
atmosphere tested.

Inspection through scavenge space.

Inspect the piston for carbon deposit.

Intact piston crown

Inspect the piston crown for burning by means of template.

Leakages such as L.O, water, fuel oil.

Piston ring inspection for intact ring, carbon deposit, free movement. Position of the butt to be
noted and checked each time to find out the ring is rotating or not, measure the butt clearance if
possible. If the piston rings r black its a indication of blow back.

Liner to be inspected, machining marks to be seen, cylinder lubricated manual this is checked.
General condition of the exhaust valve and fuel injected can be seen.

Condition of the piston rod any corrosion

Scavenge box sludge

Non return valve flap valves inspection

Water mist catcher inspection for corrosion, cracks and drain to be free

Blower flap used be free.

4.Draw characteristic curve of centrifugal pump?

Mac George book
5.Draw& explain discharge valve of fuel pump?
6.Explain the principle of FRESH WATER GENWRATOR to a layman?

Date: 20/09/13
Internal: choudhry
Applied: all function
Function 3:
1.annex 6 reg, documents carried
Annex 6 mainly deals with

Green house gases(CO2 emission, Volatile gases from the cargo)

NOx, Sox limits (Acid rain).

Ozone depletion.

Fuel oil quality

Hence documents carried on board are

NOx technical file, EIAPP certificate, IAPP certificate.
Fuel oil BDN.
Incinerator type approval certificate.
Annex 6 record book. Which keeps a record of all ODP gas such as ref gases on board ROB.
Consumption of LSHFO. Start of change over ROB before and after consumption.
Ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP).

2.ISM, doc carried

International safety management. It was developed for

To ensure safety procedure on board

To prevent human injury

To avoid damages to environment

To avoid damage to property

ISM became mandatory in 1998. ISM consist of two parts Part A and Part B
Part A are mandatory and consist of 12 elements
Part B are certification and verification.
Documents carried are DOC which is issued to the company and renewed at a period of 5yrs, a copy of
DOC kept on boad ship. SMC is issued to ship and renewed at a period of 5 yrs. (DOC- Documents of
compliance, SMC- safety management certificate).

3.GT,NT,Deducted spaces, displacement

Gross tonnage- by adding the underdeck tonnage, the tonnage of all enclosed space, between upper
deck and 2nd deck, the tonnage of all enclosed spaces above the upper deck together with any portion
of hatchway exceeding % of the gross tonnage.
Net tonnage- is obtained by deducting from gross tonnage, the tonnage of spaces which are required
for the safe working of the ship.
Deducted spaces are

Master accommodation

Crew accommodation

Wheel house, chart room, radio room and navigation aids room

Chain locker, steering gear spaces, anchor gear spaces

Spaces for batteries and safety equipments

p/p room if outside the engine room

Displacement- the mass of the ship and everything it contains. A ship has different valves of
displacement at different draughts.

Function 4b
1.cyl l.o properties.

Adequate viscosity at working temperature which enables the oil to spreads over the entire liner

Effective seal between rings and the liner.

Only to form a soft deposit when burnt

Alkalinity level must match the acidityof the oil being burnt

Detergency and dispersancy properties in order to hold the deposit in suspension thus keeping
the surface clean

3.viscosity index:
Is the arbitrary measure for the change of viscosity with variation in temperature. The lower viscosity
index the greater the change in viscosity of the oil with temperature. The viscosity index has be set up
by Society of automotive engineer(SAE).

4.prismatic co efficient.
The ratio of the volume of displacement of a ship to that of a prism equal in length to the distance
between perpendiculars of the ship and in cross section to that of the immersed midship section.

5.centrifugal p/p principle.

The basic principle on which a centrifugal pump works is that when a certain mass of liquid is made to
rotate by an external force, it is thrown away from the central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is
impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level. Now if more liquid is constantly made available
at the center of rotation, a continuous supply of liquid at higher level may be ensured. Since in these
pumps the lifting of the liquid is due to centrifugal action, these pumps are called centrifugal pumps

Function 5:
1.battery room safeties
Refer Mac George book.

2.alternator maintenance,
Isolate the alternator and also the space heater.
Check the wiring for damages, tightness of the connection, and condition of the insulation.
Signs of oil and water on the terminal connection.
Air intake filter to be changed.
Cleaning of the stator winding and rotor winding.
Check for minor abrasion can be repaired by application of dry varnish.
Insulation testing of stator and rotor winding after the disconnection of the electronic equipments.
Air gap measurement 1.5 to 2.5 mm max.

3.voltage is not devoloping, reasons

AVR not functioning properly.
Loose connection.
Governor not functioning properly.
Mistakely adjusted Voltage trimmer on the switchboard.

Function 6:
1.fwg s not producing vacuum, y?

Eductor pump filter chocked.

Pump not developing pressure.

Sea water inlet to the fresh water generator is chocked.

FWG shell gasket leaking.

Aux. connection such as vacuum gauge, temperature gauge etc are leaking.

Eductor chocked.

Sea water outlet/ overboard valve closed or partially shut.

Drain valve of FWG opened.

2.purifier s vibrating, y
The main reason for purifier are
Too much sludge deposit.
Bearing worn out.(vertical shaft bearing)
If the purifier has been opened for overhaul then improper boxing up of the bowl not following the

4.bilge p/p s not taking suction, y

Filter chocked.

More than 2 suction valve kept opened.

Hole in the pipeline.

Vent leaking or opened or the filter not boxed back properly.

Suction pressure gauge connection leaking or holed.

Damaged to the stator, rotor.

Open the cam case and when the fuel cam reaches its top, indicates the unit is in its firing stroke or
compression stroke. During this period the inlet and exhaust valve are in closed position. This can be
checked by rotating the push rods inlet and exhaust valve these push rod must be free to rotate. With
this position the tappet clearance can be taken.


Pump main housing, Impeller, Impeller seal, bearing, shaft seal, shaft sleeve, shaft. Impeller nut,
couplings, wear ring

MMD Chennai:

Internal: Nil
1.Dead weight, Light weight, Displacement,
Light weight- is the mass of the empty ship, without stores, fuel, water, crew or their effect.
Dead weight- the mass of cargo, fuel, water, stores etc.. a ship carries. The deadweight is the difference
between the displacement and the lightweight.
Displacement-the mass of the ship and everything it contain.
2. What is freeing port?
Large opening must be cut in the bottom of the bulwark to allow the water to flow off the deck when a
heavy sea is shipped. These opening are called freeing port. Failure to clear the water could cause the
ship to capsize.
4. Ism chapter & implementation year.
Implantation yr is 1998
Consist of 12 chapter.
Ships safety and environmental policy
Companys responsibility and authority
Designated person
Masters responsibility and authority
Resources and personnel
Development of plans for ship board operations
Emergency preparedness
Report and analysis of accidents (risk assessment)
Maintenance of ship board equipments
Company verification and review and evaluation.
5. Annex 6, NOX & SOX values. Allowable values of Nox& Sox in normal & special areas.
Tier I
constructed on or after 1 January 2000 and prior to 1 January 2011 is prohibited, except when the
emission of nitrogen oxides (calculated as the total weighted emission of NO 2) from the engine is within
the following limits, where n = rated engine speed (crankshaft revolutions per minute):
.1. 17.0 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm;
.2. 45 n(-0.2) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000 rpm;
.3. 9.8 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more.
Tier II
constructed on or after 1 January 2011 is prohibited, except when the emission of nitrogen oxides
(calculated as the total weighted emission of NO2) from the engine is within the following limits, where
n = rated engine speed (crankshaft revolutions per minute):
.1. 14.4 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm;
.2. 44 n(-0.23) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000 rpm;
.3. 7.7 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more.

Tier III
constructed on or after 1 January 2016:
.1. is prohibited except when the emission of nitrogen oxides (calculated as the total weighted emission
of NO2) from the engine is within the following limits, where n = rated engine speed (crankshaft
revolutions per minute):
.1.1 . 3.4 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm;
.1.2 . 9 n(-0.2) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000 rpm; and
.1.3 . 2.0 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more;
Emission Control Area
6. For the purposes of this regulation, emission control areas shall be:
.1. the North American area, which means the area described by the coordinates provided in appendix
VII to this Annex; and
.2. any other sea area, including any port area, designated by the Organization.
General Requirements
1. The sulphur content of any fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:
.1. 4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012;
.2. 3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012; and
.3. 0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020.
2. The worldwide average sulphur content of residual fuel oil supplied for use on board ships shall be
monitored taking into account guidelines developed by the Organization. see footnote
Requirements within emission control areas
3. For the purpose of this regulation, emission control areas shall include:
.1. the Baltic Sea area and the North Sea
.2. the North American area; and
.3. any other sea area, including any port area, designated by the Organization
4. While ships are operating within an emission control area, the sulphur content of fuel oil used on
board ships shall not exceed the following limits:
.1. 1.50% m/m prior to 1 July 2010;
.2. 1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 2010; and
.3. 0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015.

6. CO2 room weekly check.

Exhaust fan and lighting in CO2 room
General condition of the co2 bottles.(securing means, corrosion of the bottle base)
CO2 manifold pressure gauge this is a indication of CO2 leaking
General condition of the wire ropes greasing of the wire.
Condition of the damper whether it is free to close and open.
Air ductings in the room.(corrosion, duct free to operate)
Finally any water accumulation.
Fn 4B:

1.What is back pressure valve in refrigeration plant.

The ref gas used on board the ship has the ability to bring the temp of less than -22 oc. but in case of
the veg room the temp required is around +4oc. thus it is not required to allow the ref gas to expand.
Since saturating temp is directly proportional to saturation pressure. Thus back pressure valve is used
to restrict the pressure drop so that the desired temp is obtained. When the pressure is increased by
back pressure valve the temp required to evaporate the ref liq is also increased. This is the main reason
for using back pressure valve in veg room. In some text book they also say that the back pressure valve
also prevents the back flow of ref from meat and fish room into veg room. Since the temp required for
the veg is less hence the solenoid valve is shut when the meat room and fish room temp is not attained
then there can be a flow of ref gas from these room into veg room.
3. Fire point, flash point
Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the volatile combustible substance produces sufficient
vapors which continues to burn in air when introduced with a source of ignition.
Flash point is the lowest temperature at which the volatile combustible substance produces sufficient
vapours which produces a momentary fire/flames when introduced with a source of ignition.
What is brushless generator.
Mac George.

Steering gear motor safeties.

Overload alarm
Single phasing protection.
Emergency power source.
Power failure alarm.
Automatic change over of motor.
Thicker windings for the motor, motor will burn out on overload but will not trip.
Reverse direction interlock.(pawl and ratchet, direction valve)
Then as far as possible its own separate circuit supplied from a steering gear power circuit from
a point within the steering gear compartment, or directly from switchboard busbars supplying
that steering gear power circuit at a point on the switchboard adjacent to the supply to the
steering gear power circuit.

ESBD supply machineries.

emergency lighting:
.1. in all service and accommodation alleyways, stairways and exits, personnel lift cars and personnel
lift trunks;
.2. in the machinery spaces and main generating stations including their control positions;
.3. in all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at each main and emergency switchboard;

.4. at all stowage positions for firemens outfits;

.5. at the steering gear;
.6. at the fire pump at the sprinkler pump, if any, and at the emergency bilge pump at the starting
positions of their motors; and
.7. in all cargo pump-rooms of tankers
all internal communication equipment, the fire detection and fire alarm system; and
.4. intermittent operation of the daylight signalling lamp, the ships whistle, the manually operated call
points and all internal signals that are required in an emergency;

Alternator specification
Ship specific.

Boiler gauge glass blow down procedure.

Ref reeds general for diagrams
Close the water inlet and steam inlet valve
Open the drain valve.
Now open the water side valve to confirm that the water side valve is not chocked.
Close the water side valve.
Open the steam side valve and confirm the steam side is not chocked. Then close the valve.
Close the drain valve.
Open the water side valve check if drain valve is leaking.
Now open the steam side valve.
Water side valve has a ball to prevent water coming out in case of glass breakage and steam
has a orifice as protection

Cascade tank is mixed with oil. what is the action.

Confirm the cascade tank is mixed with oil
Open the manhole or the inspection door provided on the cascade tank. Check the filter condition these
give a fair condition of the oil leakage.
Donot drain the cascade tank.
The best way is overflow the cascade tank so that oil comes out
Meantime check the return steam trap to check which of the heaters coils r leaking. When found isolate
In most case oil might not enter the boiler as the boiler feed p/p suction is at the bottom and the oil
floats at the top.
As a precaution it is better to keep a close eye on the alkalinity of the boiler water by chemical test.
Donot blowdown the boiler.
And also as precaution add liquid coagulant in case the oil entered is small amount and flash bottom
If there is a doubt the oil entered is too much then stop the boiler cool down the boiler open the access
hole and overflow the boiler. Then carry out chemical cleaning by adding NaOH and detergents and
circulate to remove the oil. Manual gives the procedure better to follow the manufactures instruction.
E/R watch take over procedure.
Start from the top for easy understanding.
Come atleast 15 min before the watch time.
Fire station room to check the air pressure of quick closing valve, drain the air bottle and top up the air

Go outside and check the colour of the smoke from the funnel
Use the funnel door and come in. check all the lighting are proper
As we come down check whether the fire detectors are functioning properly by seeing the blinking light
on the detector.
Check the EGB backpressure and inlet and outlet temp. circulating pump pressures.
As we take round check all the motor temp by touch and also vibration. Check the p/p pressures and
Boiler gauge glass blowdown.
Check boiler pressure and also soot blow the EGB and Boiler.
Check air bottle pressure and drain the air bottle.
Drain the settling tank and service tank.
Check the purifier condition flow rate, back pressure, temp ampere, vibration manually discharge the
Check the supply and booster p/p of m/e, generator engine, boiler
Check the backwash filter condition and manually backwash the fuel oil filters of M/E and A/E.
Check the FWG, vacuum, shell temp, JCW inlet and outlet, sea water inlet and outlet temp and press
chemical dosing
Check the HT cooler, Lt coolers, Lo cooler inlet and outlet temp and press and also for leakages
Check the running A/E for exhaust temp, JCW temp and press, F. O temp and press, scavenge air temp
and press, Lo cooler temp and press. Fuel pump area, T/C check for vibrations, check crankcase door
for leakage. Rpm.
Check STBY A/E for the priming p/p running, JCW temp, F.O temp and press, starting air press, whether
in auto and remote starting.
Check the M/E parameter such as JCW press, temp, Lo temp and Press, scavenge temp and press,
exhaust temp. T/C temp inlet and outlet. Air cooler CW inlet and oulet temp, Air inlet and Outlet temp,
fuel p/p index. Exhaust valve rotation, check the drain of the scavenge box.
Check the cascade tank level and temp and also for oil. Boiler feed p/p press and ampere.
Air compressor oil level and wait to check a compressor water press, each stage air pressure water
flow and oil level and pressure.
Check all sea water p/p pressure and ampere. Check the fire p/p is in remote mode and if any p/p is in
isolated mode.
Check the mgps and the iccp and the sea suction which is in use
Check the bilges for leakage and also level. Take overflow tank soundings, bilge tank, sludge tank, oily
bilge tank, M/E Lo sump.
Check the oil level in stern tube aft seal and also fwd seal tank and check the p/p press and stern oil
Check the emergency escape for lighting.
Check the temp of thrust bearing, Lo flow in the intermediate bearing, piston Lo flow, touch and feeling
the crankcase door.
Now go to the steering room check for leakage and also any oil accumulation in the steering gear bilge.
Check the emergency fire p/p space for leakages and also lighting.
Check the emergency generator room for leakages and check whether the generator is in auto and
remote mode.
Come into the ctrl room check the load on the generator, other generators are on standby, no of pump
running and also the amperes, check whether the 24 V dc is in stby. M/E rpm, load, T/c rpm
Alarm history. And watch keeping note to see the work done during the previous watch any adjustments
Make a brief discussion with the other watch keeper about the adjustments and any prob faced during
his watch and take over the watch.
These are brief if any point is missed plz do add.

What checks to be made in motors , when taking rounds In watch.

Touch and feel the temp.
Take a temp gun and check the temp of the bearing fwd and aft bearing of the motor.
Check for vibrations.
Check the ampere.
Grease the motor weekly.

Stby motor to be rotated to check whether they are free to rotate.

surveyor: Mr.Chowdary&Mr.Gopikrishna
1. Bulkcarrier safeties
Solars chapter XII deals with additional safeties for bulk carrier
It main deals with 8 main points.
Damage stability(L>150 m, ship remains afloat even with one cargo hold full flooded with cargo density
Structural strength
Stability booklet(should be provided with damage stability booklet)
Water ingress alarm( two alarm 1) 0.5 m from bottom and 15% or not more than 2m from bottom in the
cargo hold,

Alarm location bridge)

2) Tanks fwd of collision bkd with a alarm of 10% of the tank capacity.

Loadicator. (L>150 m provided with software for calculating the stree and strain on the griders)
Dewatering for comparements.(should facilitate remote operation of v/v from bridge/ctrl room for
pumping out of water in
hold or tanks fwd of collision bkd)
Solid cargos density declaration (prior loading the shipper to declare the density of the cargo)
ESP(enhanced survey program)(L>150m and 10 yrs and above)

2. why tanker less freeboard compare to bulk carrier.

Cargo density of the tanker is more or less equal to the sea water density whereas cargo density
in bulk carrier is more than 1000kg/m3

Longitudual framing in oil tankers whereas in bulk carriers are transverse framed becos of hold
space openings

Cargo spaces water ingress chances are less as the deck opening are small in oil tankers
whereas in bulk carrier deck open in form of hatches are large hence chance of water ingress is

Permeability of the cargo space in oil tanker is almost zero but in case of bulk carrier it is
considered 0.65-0.90 depending on cargo. Thus in case of water there is added weight.

3. Cargo hold bilges alarms in bulk carrier where it will indicates.

M/c ctrl room
Cargo ctrl room

function 4b:

1. why generator exhaust gas temperature going high for a particular unit reasons.

Exhaust valve leaking.

Fuel rack adjusted too much.

Timing adjusted early injection fuel valve.

Early opening of exhaust v/v.

Tappet adjustment wrongly adjusted.

Shims or adjustment bolts wrongly adjusted.

2. Generator lube oil flow explain elaborately.

From lo p/p takes suction from sump
Goes to
One branch to
Main bearing via drill holes into bottom end bearing and also piston pin and in some cases piston crown
cooling back to sump.
Liner lubricated by means of splash lubrication from the bottom end bearing.
Another branch goes for cam shaft lubrication, fuel rack lubrication, rocker arm lubrication, T/C bearing.

3. Generator Lube oil properties.

Anti-oxidation properties
Disperant and detergent
High viscosity index
High TBN valve

Able to reduce friction between moving parts such bearing lubrication, and also piston liner lubrication.

function 5:
1. How many methods of paralling.
There are 2 main method for paralleling on board


Three lamp method.

We can also lamp method and also voltmeter for paralleling only as a emergency method.

2. Explain synchronoscope detail.

Given in Mac George electrical

3. what is intrensically safe.

Equipment is called intrinsically safe when it doesnt produce a spark or thermal effect which is capable
of ignition a flammable atmosphere under normal or at fault condition.

5. Reverse power trip explain.

Mac George book.
6.Transformer working principle.
fuction 6:
4. M/E not starting while giving air, reasons.

Remember the maneuvering diagram.

Air bottle v/v not opened.

Main starting air valve shut.

Pilot air valve shut.

Main engine ctrl at different location.

Reversing of distributor not completed.

Control air pressure low

Emergency stop activated

Solenoid valves sluggish mainly happens in cold weather.

Turning gear engaged.

Air pressure too low.

Slow turning in activation

Main starting vavle stuck.

Indicator valves not activated not allowing the engine to get Ready To Start signal.(mainly due to
vibration, loose connection)

5. Purifier desludge operation manually.

Stop the oil feed
Open the main water valve
Open the sealing water for 10 sec or until water can be seen from the sight glass
Close the sealing water. Open the bowl opening water we can hear the desludge sound close the bowl
opening water.
Open the bowl closing water for 10 sec. open the sealing water and check the water coming out. Close
the sealing water start the oil feed.
Check the back pressure and feed rate.
Check the inspection port of the de sludge chamber for leakage.

7. Define atomisation.
Atomization is the process of splitting the fuel oil into smaller size. Which enables the fuel oil to mix
well with the air for good combustion in the engine.

Date: 23-9-2013
Function :3,4b
Surveyor: mathews,gopiKrishnan,reddy

Function 3..mathews,gopiKrishnan,reddy.
Marpol-describe generally. Annex
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on 2
November 1973 at IMO and covered pollution by OIL , chemicals, harmful substances in packaged
form, sewage and garbage. The Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol) was adopted at a Conference on Tanker
Safety and Pollution Prevention in February 1978 held in response to a spate of tanker accidents in
As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed
the parent Convention. The combined instrument is referred to as the International Convention for the
Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
(MARPOL 73/78), and it entered into force on 2 October 1983.

MARPOL 73/78

Has two protocol Protocol I and protocol II

Protocol I
Mainly deals with the types of reporting and reporting procedures.
This marine environmental convention consists of six implemented annexes for controlling and
eliminating of marine pollution. They are as follows:
Annex I: Regulation for prevention of pollution by oil (October 1983).
Annex II: Regulations for control of pollution by Noxious Liquid Substance in bulk (April 1987).
Annex III: Regulation for prevention of pollution by harmful substance carried at sea in packaged
form (July 1992).
Annex IV: Regulation for prevention of pollution by sewage from ships (Sep 2003).
Annex V: Regulation for prevention of pollution by Garbage from ships (Dec 1998).
Annex VI: Regulation for prevention of Air pollution from ships (May 2005).
Explain annex 1 and 6-certificates and endorsements regards to annex 6
Annex 1.
Iopp certificate
Type approval certificate for Ows, incinerator
Form A for bulk carrier and Form B for oil tankers.
Oil record book part1 and part 1 and 2 for oil tanker
Annex 6
Incinerator type approval certificate
Annex 6 record for recording the ROB of Ref gas and LSHFO
NOx technical file.
Thats all I can remember.

Draw the collision bulkhead for your ship(PCC), water tight doors..arrangements...packing material that
makes it weather tight? Wer cab u find these water tight doors. Draw the dog handle.
ALL given in reed naval book

From fwd perpendicular

5%L or 10 m MIN
8%L or 5%L + 3m

If bulbous bow is ther

o From mid sec of bulbous bow
o 3m from fwd perpendicular
o 1.5% L from fwd perpendicular
No manhole doors, no ventilation, if requ, 1 or 2 holes for ballasting / de ballasting fpt. (2 holes if
2 types of liquids are handled)
If super sct is in fwd, then col bh should have an extension
Extension is not directly on top
5% L from collision bh
Ramp and bow door are fitted whre ramp not > 2.4 m height. If > 2.4 m height then it s not
considered as an extention

Function 4b- gopi Krishnan and reddy.

Alarms in main engine.
Are of 2 main types

Auto shut down

Overspeed trip
Lo low pressure trip
Camshaft Lo low press trip
JCW low press trip
Piston cooling low press trip
Thrust bearing high temp trip
OMD alarm(in case of excess oil mist)
Spring air press low trip
Manual emergency trip

Auto slow down.

Lo high temp

JCW high temp

Piston cooling high temp

OMD alarm

Thrust bearing Lo high temp

Control air low press

Scavenge air high temp

Exhaust gas high temp

Safety devices
Crankcase relief door

Scavenge space relief door

Cylinder head relief v/v
Starting air relief v/v
Starting airline flame trap
Oil mist detectors
Rotational direction interlock
Turning gear interlock

Safeties between automatic air start valve to main engine staring air valve.

Flame trap

Drain v/v

Bleed v/v

Relief valve in the manifold

Bursting disc.

Boiler mountings-reasons for high water level alarm-what happens if the water level of the boiler is
high-flame failure alarms reasons-draw the smoke furnace of the smoke tube boiler.
Boiler mounting are those items which are necessary for safe boiler operation

Pressure gauge

Steam stop v/v

Blow down v/v

Safety v/v

Gauge glass

Fusible plug


Reasons for high level

RWL controller not functioning properly

Three way v/v leaking.

Manual feed water opened

Manual feed water v/v leaking.

If 2 boiler have common blow down v/v and both are leaking then there is reason for high

If the chemical dosing pot line has been left in opened position.

Problems with high level

Water starts getting carried with the steam

Water hammering in the steam line

If steam is used as atomizing steam for the burner then the flame becomes unsteady

In case of superheaters water carried with the steam cause scale formation in the superheater
tube and can lead to tube failure

In case steam turbine are used then water carried causes damage to the turbine.

Flame failure

Low f.o temp

Low F.o press

Low atomization steam/ air press

Flame failure sensor faulty.

Pilot burner not firing properly

Igniter not sparking.

Swirler plate chocked.

Nozzle chocked by carbon deposit

Air draft too high.

F.o inlet filter chocked

Main inlet solenoid v/v chocked.

Q. Significance of firing order and firing order of my engine-explain -load variation among cylinders-how
to find-what all effect it will have-why pressure is more important inside cylinder-why we take indicator
cards-procedure of taking the same.
Marine engine firing order is designed to distribute the engine power on the crankshaft bearings evenly.
It should also be the optimum firing order to ensure the least engine vibration through balancing the
power output along with consideration given to torsion and axial characteristics. The firing order of
these engines depends on the number of cylinders and the approach to vibration and fatigue taken by
the engine designer and manufactures

The Importance of Correct Firing Order to a Marine Diesel Engine

A ships diesel engine such as MAN, B & W, and Sulzer are all designed to have a firing order to meet
the following requirements;
1. Engine Vibration
Torsional Vibration caused by the reciprocating components, this is a highly undesirable condition in a
marine engine. Not only for the comfort of passenger and crew, but also for the durability of the engine
through undue fatigue.
2. Engine Balance
Imbalance of components is once again the cause of fatigue of the rotating components, especially the
crankshaft. It is imperative that the firing order compliments not only the balancing of the components,
but balances the power output from the cylinders spreading the load over the length of the crankshaft.
3. Gas Forces
Enormous gas forces are produced in the cylinders on the compression/firing stroke. These create
individual cylinder torque characteristics that are transmitted downwards into the engine block, and
bedplate via the main crankshaft bearings.

MAN-B&W 6S60MC 6 cylinder, 2 stroke, reversible, slow speed marine diesel engine - firing order
cylinder pressure is the constantly changing pressure inside the cylinder. There are certain
characteristics of this pressure which people may want identified, like peak (maximum) cylinder
pressure near TDC, or peak cranking compression pressure (pressure at TDC without combustion), or
average cylinder pressure (IMEP, indicated mean effective pressure). They are all just measures of
cylinder pressure at certain times (or averaged over certain times). These in turn give the condition of
combustion inside the cylinder. Condition of fuel injector, exhaust valve, and also timings.

Air compressor-safeties-air bottle safeties-why we require fusible plugs-purpose of bursting discpurpose of unloader-un loader not working. How will you start the compressor manualy.

Air compressor safeties

Overload protection.

JW high temp

JW low press

Air outlet temp high

Bursting disc

Relief v/v


Auto cut-off/cut-in

Lo low press cut off/trip

Auto-Drain v/v

Air bottle Safeties

Auto drain/ manual drains

Fusible plug

Low press alarm

High press alarm(if fitted)

Relief v/v

Slow opening valves to prevent erosion

The main purpose of fusible plug is in case of fire in the engine if we are not able to release the air
press manual due to heat the air press in the bottle will increase and will lead to bottle rupture and also
releasing more air into the engine thus reducing the efficiency of the fixed fire extinguisher such as
CO2. With help of fusible plug when the temp raises the fusible plug melts and release air to the deck
by means of piping thus prevent the release of air in the engine

Unloader is mainly used for reducing the load on the motor during starting since the starting of the
motor at the time of start is nearly 6 times the normal running load.
If the un-loader is faulty then after each stage there is a intercooler with manual drain valve connected
to the auto drain v/v the connection has to be removed and the manual v/v has to be operated manual.
To be kept open at the start and close during running. And kept open at stop condition. Compressor at
this stage has to be started and stopped manually not in auto.

date 24-09-13
function 3 nd 5.. Mr.Venugopal
func 3..
3. draw and explain plimsoll load line??

5. IOPP comes in SOLAS under which regulation and why??

IOPP comes under the MARPOL convention Annex 1. The certificate consist of list of tanks, capacity of
the tk, incinerator capacity.

6. Certificates and docs in ship?

International tonnage certificate

International loadline certificate

International loadline exemption certificate

Certificate of master and crews

Medical certificate of the crew members


Copy of DOC and Safety management certificate.

Cargo ship safety certificate(Safety construction, safety equipment, safety radio certificates)

Certificate of insurance

Type approval certificate of OWS, incinerator, sewage plant.


Oil record book

Garbage record book and garbage management plan.

Damage control booklet

Minimum safe manning document


Intact stability booklet

Enhanced survey report file

7. DCP extinguisher content and duration ??toatally he asked me to expalin ??

Extinguisher contains sodium bicarbonate powder with a waterproofing agents such as stearate to
prevent caking. The container holds a cartridge containing the liquid co2.
Duration of the discharge is 15s.
Hydraulic pressure tested -35 bar.

8. SCBA?? construction , safety and capacity.. (nearlly 10 cross question.. like quantity in litres ? y?
duration ?? how wil u plan ur rescue in pump room task for 20 mins??

Each cylinder is charged to a press of 200bar and contains enough air to sustain a app. 20 mins at hard
working rate or 40 min if he is at rest. A reducing valve, set at a press of about 5.5 bar is fitted on the
cylinder outlet pipe together with a press gauge and also a bypass valve. A non return valve in the face
mask permits the expulsion of air. Capacity of the bottle in litres is 1800 L.
The warning device shall activate at a predetermined pressure (usually 55+/-5 bar) which will alert the
user before the volume of the air in the cylinder has been reduced to no less than 200 litres.
Duration of the BA cylinder is given by the D = P * C/ 40 * N (p-pressure, c-capacity, n-charging

Made from steel alloys.

12. manilla amendments

The 2010 amendments
The Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and Code were adopted on 25 June 2010, marking a
major revision of the STCW Convention and Code. The 2010 amendments are set to enter into force on
1 January 2012.
Amongst the amendments adopted, there are a number of important changes to each chapter of the
Convention and Code, including:

Improved measures to prevent fraudulent practices associated with certificates of competency

and strengthen the evaluation process (monitoring of Parties' compliance with the Convention);

Revised requirements on hours of work and rest and new requirements for the prevention of
drug and alcohol abuse, as well as updated standards relating to medical fitness standards for

New certification requirements for able seafarers;

New requirements relating to training in modern technology such as electronic charts and
information systems (ECDIS);

New requirements for marine environment awareness training and training in leadership and

New training and certification requirements for electro-technical officers;

Updating of competence requirements for personnel serving on board all types of tankers,
including new requirements for personnel serving on liquefied gas tankers;

New requirements for security training, as well as provisions to ensure that seafarers are
properly trained to cope if their ship comes under attack by pirates;

Introduction of modern training methodology including distance learning and web-based


New training guidance for personnel serving on board ships operating in polar waters; and

New training guidance for personnel operating Dynamic Positioning Systems

14. survey on ur ship what all things they will check??

This depends on the survey which is going to be carried out.
IOPP survey preparation.
Following certificates are to be submitted for the survey
Previous IOPP Certificate with Supplement Form A and Form B exemption certificate (If any)
Type approval certificate for the OWS equipment
Type approval certificate for Oil content meter (15 ppm equipment)
Type approval certificate for ODMC
Type approval certificate for oil water interface sensing probe
Operating and Instruction manual for OWS
Operating and Instruction manual for COW

Operating manual for CBT operation

SOPEP plan should be approved by Flag state adminstration
E/R Bilge piping system and Ballast piping system plans should be approved by class
Verify the following
15ppm alarm function test by simulation.
Automatic stopping and change over of OVBD discharge in case of 15 ppm alarm
wARNING NOTICE for penality/consequences in case of UNAUTHORIZED DIRECT oil/oil mixture OVBD
discharge, oil spillage near the OWS ovbd vv,standard discharge connection oin deck,bunker station.
Electronic Record keeping of oily bilge water ovbd discharge on the 15 ppm equipment.
Check physically the oil content(traces) of ovbd discharge
E/R Bilges check for any oil accumulation
Oil discharge monitoring equipment is to be checked for proper operation.Check the external condition
of system & equipment.
Functioning of the equipment including automatic/manual stopping of discharge and interlockfor
starting the pump to be verified. This may be done by simulating inputvalues for flow rate (based on
pump characteristics), ships speed, oil contentetc.
The rate of instantaneous discharge should not exceed 30 liters per nautical mile. Check the associated
audio-visual alarms and indicators on thecontrol panel.
Check that recording/indicating devices are working properly,check the printouts for last few weeks
(records showing date, time, positionetc should be retained for 3 years),
verify with oil record book entries foroverboard discharge, check supply of consumables (paper, ink
Check segregated ballast tanks (SBT) for contamination with oil (visualexamination as practicable).
Check SBT lines for any cross connection withcargo line, if a portable spool piece is fitted check that a
non-return valve isfitted and notice is posted for restricted use. Check dedicated clean ballasttank for
func 5..

1. alternator safety? 3. safeties in generator and trip ??? explain all the trip and how will u test all
trips like preferential trip, overload trip, short circuit and others too
OCIT(over current inverse time relay): monitors general balanced overloading and has current/time
OC(over current inst.): instantaneous trip to protect against extremely high overcurrent caused by short
circuit fault.
NPS(negative phase sequence) relaydetermines the amount of unbalance in the stator current which is
an indirect measure the generator stator and rotator temp. A relatively small unbalance cause a
significant increased temp rise
DIFF(differential measurement) of current at each end of the stator phase winding. This comparison of
current is to detect an internal fault in the stator winding which may be caused by partially shortcircuited coil turns and or earth fault

EL(earth leakage) detects fault current returning back through the earthed neutral connection. In ships
HV generator system the earth fault current is limited by a high impedance or earthing transformer so
the pick up current setting is very low.
UV/OV(under/over voltage) monitored by the relay to prevent under/over voltage
UF/OF(under/over frequency) monitored by relays to protect the generator from under/over frequency
RP(reserve power) generator intended to run in parallel must have reserve power protection. This
monitors the direction of the power flow from generator to load . if the prime mover act as a motor the
relay would detect this fault and acts to trip the generator.
OCIT and preferential trip are same they are mainly to maintain continuous power supply to equipment
which are necessary for safe navigation of a ship. All non essential equipments trip such as deck m/c,
galley equipments, etc.

2. generator principle
Generator works on the electromagnetic induction principle. When rotating a coil in a magnetic field or
rotating the magnetic field around a stationary coil will induce a emf in the coil the voltage induced will
depend on the No of coils, Strength of the magnetic field, The speed at which the coil/magnetic field is

4. faults that can occur in electrical circuits ?? explain how and y

There are 3 basic faults that can occur in an electrical circuit
Open circuit :- is due to a break in the conductor so that a current cannot flow.
Earth fault :- is due to a break in the insulation allowing the conductor to touch the hull or an earth
metal enclosure.
Short circuit :- is due to a double break in the insulation allowing bith the conductor to be connected so
that a very large current by passes or short circuit the load.

5. transformer principle??
Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. When the current in the primary is changed the
flux linkage with the secondary also changes, which induces a flux in the secondary. Transformer is
mainly used for step up/step down the voltage without any change in frequency.

6. AVR circuit diagram ??explain each component and trace its current flow with arrow mark?
Given in Mac George book.

applied 3, 4b, 5
Internal: Senthilkumar
External: T Mohan

Func 3
Q Hw Will u convert 1 Teu into kg
1 TEU is twenty foot equivalent unit which is used to measure the ships cargo carrying capacity. The
max gross mass of a twenty foot container would be 24000 kg

Q admiralty coefficient
Admiralty coefficient is a constant given to a ship. It relates the displacement of the ship speed and
Admiralty coefficient = displacement




Q wen a mass of D is added to fwd of d ship wat s d formula of centre of gravity shift
Whenever a mass is added to the ship the center of gravity moves in the direction of the mass added
and shift in the center of gravity is given by the formula
GG 1 =


Q wen a longitudinal division s introduced to counter free surface effect Hw Wil u put it in a formula
If a tank is sub-divided by n longitudinal forming equal tk then


(n+1) 2


Q electrical fire.. wat extinguisher u ll use? Y won't u use foam?

Electrical fire is mainly due to short circuit in electrical circuits hence the first and the formost step in
fighting a electrical fire is to switch off the main breaker/power for the circuit. Then use CO2
extinguisher. There are also foam extinguisher which are of approved type for fighting electrical fire but
follow the manufacture instructions. These instructions are written on the foam extinguisher cylinder
read to know whether the extinguish is suitable for electrical fires.

Q fire control plan wat all wil b der... wil u find lifeboat station in plan?
As per the solas all ship must have a general arrangement plans shall be permanently exhibited for the
guidance of ships officers showing clearing for each deck, the ctrl stations, various fire section

enclosed by class A division and class B division sprinkler installations, the fire fighting appliances,
means of access to different compartment, deck etc ventallation arrangement for the compartment,
including the ctrl position for the ventilation. Any alteration also shall be included in the plan. A copy of
these plan must be also kept either side of the deck house also for the shore side fire fighting personnel
Func 4b
Q draw mechanical seal n explain
Mac George
Q why scavenging is required
For a better combustion of fuel OIL inside a marine diesel engine, an adequate supply of fresh air is
needed. The method by which sufficient amount of air is provided to the engine's cylinder is known as
scavenging. Scavenging also helps in remove of exhaust gas from the combustion chamber.
Scavenging is generally provided by the engine's turbo-charging system. The more efficient the
scavenging, the better is the fuel combustion and power output of the engine.Turbochargers are
provided with the engine to use the exhaust gases in order to supply a consistent flow of fresh air inside
the main engine.
Q valve rotator hw it operates
The main fn of the valve rotator is to rotate the valve. This helps in reduced wear and the valve seat
and valve and uniform temp of the valve. Rotation of the valve also helps in removing the carbon
deposit on the valve seat. In main engine exhaust valve has vanes on the valve stem when the exhaust
gas pass through the vanes they rotate the exhaust valve.
Func 5
Q conditions for paralleling? wathpns wen u synchronize out of phase?
There are four main condition for paralleling.
Voltage to be same
Frequency to be same
Phase connection should be same(i.e R-R, Y-Y, B-B)
Phase sequence should be same.
At 11 o clock then breaker is pushed so that that the at 12 o clock position the breaker closes.
When the phase sequence is not same that is when R phase of the incoming generator doesnt reaches
it max when the R phase of the bus bar reaches max and then incoming generator is made to
synchronize then a large current flows in-between the incoming generator and the bus bar. This current
tends to speed up the incoming generator but this in turn slows the generator on load. If the difference
in phase is too large then the breaker will trip resulting in black out.

Q msb safeties
Ebonite rod
Rubber mat in front of the MSB
Rear side at a space of 0.6m for passage and also a rubber mat

Dead front/ Power off before opening the panel.

Fuse/ Circuit breakers
Earth fault indicator.
Panel door earthed
No oil/water/steam line passing over the switchboard
Overcurrent trip/ preferential trip
Reverse current trip.
Over/under voltage trip
Over or under frequency.
Tie breaker
Q hwwil u take insulation test in alternator? wat precautions u ll take prior insulation test
Measure the insulation of the stator and the rotor winding to the earth and between stator phase
(assuming the netural point is available for disconnection at the terminal box).
Precaution to be taken while insulation test is to remember to disconnect or short-circuit any electronic
components which are likely to be damaged by high voltage insulation test. Consult the wiring diagram
and manufacture instruction before testing.

Q isolated neutral system. y such system in ship..

there the neutral is isolated or insulated. In a insulated neutral system when a earth fault occurs on one
line of the insulated distribution system will not cause any protection devices to operate and the
system will continue to operate normally. As single earth fault doesnot provide a complete circuit so no
earth fault current will flow.
When a second fault occurs in another line, the 2 fault will be equivalent to short circuit fault and
resulting in large current which would operate the protection devices and cause disconnection of the
Hence insulated neutral is more preferred than earthed neutral.

Date: 24/09
fun 6:
P.O. Sekar
Explain blow down procedure?
Boiler blow down procedure

Change the generator, main engine and if required boiler to diesel oil and top up diesel oil tk

Stop all steam heating and tracing lines

Change over from automatic to manual firing of boiler.

Stop firing the boiler and purge the boiler manually.

Switch off the power for the boiler panel and hand notice

Shut the main steam stop valve.

Let the boiler to cool down dont blow down and take feed water for cooling as this cause
thermal cracking in boiler due to temperature variation

When the boiler is around 4 bar carry out the blow down

When the boiler pressure is slightly higher than atmospheric pressure say 1.5-2.0 bar then open
vent to prevent vacuum formation

Let the boiler to cool down

How will u take bottom end bearing clearance? What position? How much is the clearance?

Turn the unit to BDC and take the clearance using feeler gauge. Clearance will be around 0.40.8mm

Func 3:
what r all d special areazs?
Special Areas:
Annex I: Oil

Mediterranean Sea
Baltic Sea
Black Sea
Red Sea
"Gulfs" area
Gulf of Aden
Antarctic area
North West European Waters
Oman area of the Arabian Sea
Southern South African waters

Annex II: Noxious Liquid Substances

Antarctic area

Annex IV: Sewage

Baltic Sea (1 Jan 2013)

Annex V: Garbage

Mediterranean Sea
Baltic Sea
Black Sea
Red Sea
"Gulfs" area
Antarctic area (south of latitude 60 degrees south)
Wider Caribbean region including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

Annex VI: Prevention of air pollution by ships (Emission Control Areas)

Baltic Sea (SOx)

North Sea (SOx)
North American (SOx, and NOx and PM)
United States Caribbean Sea ECA (SOx, NOx and PM)

(1 Jan 2014)

what is EEDI?
EEDI (energy efficiency design index) and SEEMP (ship energy efficiency management plan)
EEDI and SEEMP are the two major instruments that form IMOs package of technical and operational
measures for the reduction of the GHG emissions for shipping. SEEMP is an operational measure which
aims to improve energy efficiency of existing fleet through active energy management and IMO is also
voting at MEPC on whether to make this mandatory as well. SEEMP is more than just a list of actions:
measuring the operational energy efficiency of the ship, setting targets and monitoring the
performance against them is also required, and IMO has suggested another tool called the EEOI (Energy
Efficiency Operational Indicator) for doing that . EEOI itself is not mandatory and operators can in fact
choose other key performance indicators (KPIs and this is the last acronym for today) which may be
more suitable to their ship and operation. However, the target setting and monitoring element is part of
the SEEMP, regardless of which tool is being adopted. , EEDI is a number accounting for the amount of
CO2 generated per tonne-mile of cargo carried. A higher EEDI indicates a less energy efficienct ship (by
design). The idea is that future ships will need to be built with a minimum energy efficiency standard,
as defined by the EEDI
Margin line :is a line drawn at 76 mm/ 3 inch below the upper surface of the bulkhead deck at the side above which
the ship should not sink.

what is duct keel?

Duct keels run from the fwd of the engine to the collosion bkd & untilized to carry the double bottom
pipings. This arrangement allows pipes to be carried beneth the hold spaces and are thus protecting
cargo from damage due to leakages. Duct keels are particularly important in insulated ship allowing
access to the pipes without disturbing the insulation.
Duct keel are formed by two longitudinal girders up to 1.83 m apart. This distance should not increase
as the girders must be supported by keel block during docking
Func 4b:
for a good combustion of fuel oil what all u require




Injection timing

Spray pattern

Compression press

Injection press (since depended on the rpm of engine overcome by RT flex engine by common

Ignition delay of the fuel

Scavenge air press and temp.

Air-fuel ratio.

advantages of intercoolers? how volumetric efficiency is increased if intercoolers are fitted?

during compression the energy applied is converted into heat and any consequent rise in air temp this
will reduce the volumetric efficiency of the cycle. To minimize the temp rise, this heat must be removed
although some can be removed through the cylinder walls but due to reduced time availability the heat
removal by this is not possible
hence by this purpose intercoolers are used. Thus pressure due to compression remains after

liner lubrication as high temp leads to Lo film being broken

cooling of compressor parts

reduces the oil being burnt thus reduces the carbon deposit on the valves.

types of turbo charger? what is constant pressure? what is pulse type turbocharger? what are the
advantages? which is used where? (constant pressure and pulse pressure)
there are two type of turbo chargers

constant pressure turbocharger

pulse pressure turbocharger

Constant pressure turbocharger :- in constant pressure system the exhaust gas from all the
cylinder is discharged into a common manifold of large dia and volume. The pressure in the
exhaust manifold is reduced below that of the scavenge pressure and is maintained at a steady
pressure for any given engine load, this leads to greater efficiency at higher loads. Thus best
suitable for MAIN ENGINE.

Also help in delaying the opening of exhaust valve which results in higher thermal efficiency for the

Constant pressure system do not react as quickly to load changes and are in efficient at low loads. Thus
uses the auxiliary blower for lower loads.
Pulse System :- use the kinetic energy and the heat energy from the exhaust gas when the exhaust
valve opens to drive the turbocharger. The exhaust system is tuned , pipes are of small dia, bends are
smoothly radiused to maintain exhaust gas pressure and to avoid energy loss within the system.
The pulse system is very responsive to engine load change and ideally suited for generators
They donot know auxiliary blowers
Func 5:
what is megger?howll u take insulation resistance?what are all the safety precautions to be taken while
taking insulating resistance and in MEGGER?
Megger is an instrument for taking insulation resistance on the circuit.
Safety Precautions are high voltage 500V is used for insulation measurement hence the care must be
taken that the circuit is isolated properly. Since high voltage is used all electronic equipments such as
diode etc must be isolated or short circuit.
Insulation resistance is taken between phase and and between phase and earth.

Func 6:
crankcase inspection full procedure? what r all d safety precautions u take before u do crankcase

stop the Lo pump only after 30 min if the engine has been running.

Inform bridge and get propeller clearance.

Engage the turning gear.

Open the crankcase and ventilation for atleast 24 hours.

Since the crankcase is considered as an enclosed space permit has to be obtained, atmosphere
tested for Oxygen

Open the indicator cocks

Shut the main air starting valve and hang notices

Turn the engine for one full revolution

Use clean boots, bump caps, disposable boiler suits, cotton gloves and rags as stby, hand torch
and lamps

When entering the crankcase keep a track of the rags and tools that are taken inside, empty the
boilersuit pockets

Keep a responsible person outside and also establish communication


Firstly check OIL condition for any smell, discoloration or degradation.

Turn the engine to BDC and start checking from under stuffing box area for any sign of black OIL
, an indication of stuffing box leaking.
Check the piston rod surface for scoring marks and roughness.

Check piston palm bolts and locking device for slackness and fretting.

Check the guide and guide shoe bearing general condition and the area around frame where
guide is attached for any visible cracks.
Check that the guide shoe end cover bolts are in place and not slack.

Check cross head bearing general condition.

Evaluate top and bottom end of connecting rod bolt, nut and locking device for slackness, signs
of fretting, etc.
Check for sliding of bottom end bearing (axial movement) or floating of connecting rod.

Check for slip of web and journal by checking the reference mark.

Check web in the area of stress concentration and check tie bolt (bottom side).

Check cross grider, area around main bearing and bearing keep for sign of cracks and check
around main bearing.
All bearings must be checked for silvery color (indicates bearing wiping).

Check the surroundings of the OIL pan area of all units for any sludge deposits, bearing metal
pieces, etc.
Check crank case relief door- wire mesh (should be wet), spring tension, sealing ring condition,
Check the teeth of transmission gear for sign of wear.

Check chain drive for tightness.

Use OIL mist detector on sampling pipe to check for clear passage.

Clear all the foreign materials from the crank case, and make sure all tools are accounted for.

Start lube oil pump and cross head lubricating pump and check for the oil flow and distribution.

Check crankcase door sealing condition and close the crankcase door.

Inform chief engineer (for satisfactory checking of crank case) and duty officer.

surv-sentilkumar and another fat guy
1.draw the transverse cross sectin indicating km g etc
Reeds naval book
how do u prepare the running boilr 4r survey..
Check for spares eg manhole/access hole gasket, gauge glass, packing and steam joint.
Check tools required eg gagging tool, torque spanner, rope, chain block
Briefing the engineers of the work

Change the generator, main engine and if required boiler to diesel oil and top up diesel oil tk

Stop all steam heating and tracing lines

Change over from automatic to manual firing of boiler.

Stop firing the boiler and purge the boiler manually.

Switch off the power for the boiler panel and hand notice

Shut the main steam stop valve.

Let the boiler to cool down dont blow down and take feed water for cooling as this cause
thermal cracking in boiler due to temperature variation

When the boiler is around 4 bar carry out the blow down

When the boiler pressure is slightly higher than atmospheric pressure say 1.5-2.0 bar then open
vent to prevent vacuum formation

Let the boiler to cool down

Open the top manhole door first with all safety precautions

Mark the nut on the top manhole, slacken the dog nut and secure it with rope

Knock the door donot open the door as it may still contains steams

Make a general inspection from outside.

Boiler must be sufficiently cleaned and dried to make a examination

Boiler must be manually wire brushed to clean the internal surface

In case of difficulties in manual cleaning chemical cleaning can be done with hydrochloric acid
plus an inhibitor to prevent acid attacking the metal

For oil contamination, alkali boil-out using tri-sodium phosphate solution is essential prior acid

All internal which may interfere with the inspection has to be removed

Now drain the boiler and completely and then open the bottom side access door/manhole door

Care should be taken as when opening the bottom door

Ventilate for period of 24 hours

Then check for oxygen, flammable vapours, toxic gases


Prepare a long rope, wooden plank, oxygen analyzer.

A pouch to carry tools required empty the pockets and make a list of tools taken

Emergency breathing apparatus.

Proper communication and lighting

certif. for LPG carrier? whai is IGC code explain? cargo tank safeties

International code for the construction and equipment of ship carrying Liquefied gases in bulk
Certificate given for Gas tankers are Certificate of fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gas in bulk
Cargo tk safeties are

Prevention from over pressurization by means of MARV valve.

To prevent pressure rises by means of use reefer systems or using the boil off gas in the boiler/

To prevent vacuum developing in the tk ( by means of automatic stopping of all pump and
compressor when the tk pressure reaches a pressure around 0 KPa.

Pressure gauge and sensors

Temperature sensor looking th temp of the cargo at the top and also bottom Port and Star-board.

Fusible plug near the cargo tk dome

Emergency stops

Deck spray systems for cargo dome and manifold.

Submerged pump or deep well p/p at least 2 port and star-board

whan happens if ship heels to angle of LOLL


An initially unstable ship heels to a certain angle and ends up in neutral stability. That angle is
called angle of loll. At angle of loll ., GM = 0 OR KG = KM Occurs in timber carriers., - timber s on
the deck absorb moisture and increases the cog
Angle of loll is a term used to describe the state of a ship which is unstable when upright (ie: has
a negative metacentric height, GMt) and therefore TAKES on an angle of heel to either port or
When a vessel has negative GM i.e., is in unstable equilibrium, any external force, if applied the
vessel, will cause it to start heeling. The vessel whether capsizing depends on the angle of
heeling because at the Negative GM the righting lever is also Negative tending to capsize the
ship. As the vessel heels, its underwater volume increases, which increases the vessel's BM
(distance from the center of buoyancy to the metacenter). Since there is no change in KB
(distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy) of the vessel, the KM (distance from keel to
the metacenter) of the vessel increases.
At some angle of heel (say 10), KM will increase sufficiently equal to KG (distance from the keel
to the center of gravity), thus making GM of vessel equal to zero. When this occurs, the vessel
goes to neutral equibrium, and thus the righting lever GZ is also zero. In other words, when an
unstable vessel heels over towards a progressively increasing angle of heel, at a certain angle of
heel, the center of buoyancy (B) may fall vertically below the center of gravity (G). this angle is
called angle of loll. And at this point the righting lever GZ starts becoming positive. Now the ship
is now a stable condition about the angle loll.

fun 4b
what is destrutive and non-destrictive test
Destructive testing :- special test pieces are used which are damaged during the process

Tensile testing

Creep testing

Hardness testing

Impact testing

Macroscopic and microscopic examination

Non-destructive testing

Visual inspection

Liquid penetrant method

Magnetic crack method

Radio-graphic method

Ultrasonic testing

why boiler water treated?

To prevent scale formation

To give alkalinity and to minimize corrosion

To condition the sludge

To remove oxygen from water

To reduce risk of caustic cracking

To reduce the risk of carry over of foam

To minimize condensate system corrosion

external :Mrmohan, Internal :MrSenthil
Func 4b:
what is VIT ? Why provided? How it works and its control system? How its done before vit?

As the load increases in the engine, Pmax also increases. But at low loads Pmax is low.

With the help of VIT, Pmax is attained at low loads, leading to low sfoc

Increased thermal efficiency

no smoky exhaust
improved temp control to prevent corrosion
strength of crank shaft is utilised better



It enables to make small changes in fuel pump timing during

1. Wear on fuel pump cam
2. Allow Pmax balancing of individual cylinders
3. Fuels of poor ignition qualities - compensation

4. Changes in cam shaft timing due to chain elongation


Enables a change in timing of 2 deg

To increase the power of the engine it is only possible by Power = MEP*stroke length*area*rpm.
To increase the MEP it depends on three factor mainly the compression pressure, injection timing,
quantity of fuel injected. When the fuel is injected into the cylinder then there is a ignition delay(time
span between commencement of injection and start of ignition). To reduce the ignition delay the must
be injected piston is around TDC becomes that is the max compression from the engine and also the
max temp the compressed air can attain at this point the ignition delay is reduced. The Fn of VIT is this.
Hence during the low load at about 30% VIT is not used as the compressed air doesnt reach the temp
and can lead to knock or incomplete combustion. At around 30% timing is advanced and latter
retarded. Hence the engine attains the full load Pmax at around 75-85% before reaching full load.
Increase in Pmax increases the MEP and thus reduces the fuel oil consumption.
What is accumulation pr test of boiler? Why done? Procedure, why steam stop v/v to be closed during test?
Accumulation pr test of the boiler is used to check the capacity of the boiler safety v/v. to conduct the
test, all feed valve and steam outlet to and from the boiler to be shut and max. firing rate arranged.
Accumulation of pr. Must not then exceed 10% of the working pr. Duration of the test is not exceed 15
min for fire tube boiler, and 7 min for water tube boiler. In case of water tube boiler the test may be
waived if damage to superheater or economizers could result from the test.
Func 5:
power factor? What is meant by true power and apparent power?
the power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to
the load, to the apparent power in the circuit. Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing
work in a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.
Func 6:
crankcase explosion ..actions
Engine will automatically cause a slow down in this case.
Inform bridge
Note the position of the c/c chamber having hot spot pointed by the sampling knob
Operate the selector button turn the sampling valve knob to zero position for zero check alarm
should stop
Release the selector button if alarm comes from the same c/c chamber then it is confirmed that
the alarm is not false
Reduce the engine speed further to reduce the heat generation
Keep clear off the crankcase relief door
Keep fire extinguisher stby and oper the skylight of the engine room
Inform the bridge for stopping the engine.
Open indicator cocks, engage turning gear and turn the engine to prevent seizure of the
After 30 mins or more the engine has been sufficiently cooled down stop the lub oil p/p and open
the c/c door.
Try to locate the hot spot by feeling over and by observation
If hot spot has occurred then prevent reoccurrence by permanent repairs
Make a through c/c inspection
Start the lub oil p/p and check the flow of oil.
Preventive measures
Ensure proper purification and analysis of lub oil
Lub oil filter to be changed and cleaned as per schedule
Ensure proper cylinder lubrication by checking the condition of the piston, rings and liner
through the scavenge spaces

Clean scavenge spaces regularly and drain the scavenge space.

Maintain the stuffing box in good condition.
Check the bearing clearance regularly as per PMS
All safety trip and alarms to be tried regularly
Carry out the c/c inspection regularly
OMD alarm tested. C/C relief door to be overhauled at regular intervals.

scavenge fire ...actions

Rpm drops
Unstable operations causes surging in T/c
Exhaust temp of the affected unit increases
Black smoke
Rise in temp and press of the scavenge box
Discharge of sparks and flame from the drain of the affected unit
Cooling outlet temp of the affected unit increase
Reduce the engine speed
Cut off the fuel supply to the affected unit
Cylinder lubrication to be increased
Coolant flow through the jacket and the piston to be maintained
Keep clear of the scavenge space relief valve/door
Fire should be extinguished after sometime. If the fire spreads then
Inform bridge and stop engine
Stop fuel oil booster p/p
Open indicator cock, engage turning gear and turn the engine
Continue engine cooling to piston, bearing and also to liner
Release smothering gases steam to extinguish the fire
Inspection of the scavenge space to be carried out after a scavenge fire
Intense fire can cause distortion and may upset piston aligment
Check spring on scavenge space relief device
Piston rod packing spring.
Check the diaphragm
Check guide and guide shoes
Check tie rod
Boiler level gauge shows no water ..actions

Stop boiler if the boiler is firing

Do not take feed water in to the boiler as it may cause thermal cracking in the tubes.
Check the remote level indicator.
Carry out a gauge glass blow down to confirm the water level
Confirm the water level is low then check the reason for it may
o Three way v/v stuck or not functioning
o Air pr to the 3-way v/v low
o Drain v/v of the diff pressure switch for RWL leaking.
o Diff pr switch diaphragm leaking or defective
o Valve chocked near the diff pr switch or near the boiler.
o P/p suction lost.
o Cascade tk empty
o P/p in manual mode or tripped.
After finding out the reason take water may be after a interval gap of 15 mins this gives
sufficient time for boiler to cool and thus prevent thermal cracking.

External : dont know
Internal: senthil sir
Fn applied : 4b
Boiler safeties

Safety valve


Pressure gauge

Water level indicator

Low water level alarm

Low Low water level trip

Low pr alarm.

High Pr alarm

High Pr trip

Flame failure.

Low fuel oil pr & temp.

Burner door interlock.

Auto cut off/cut in

Pre purging and post purging

Critical speed:
In a engine the crankshaft is subject to different stress. One of the main stress is the torsion stress in
the crankshaft. Torsion stress causes the twisting and untwisting of the crankshaft and difficult to
Thus classification has given 2 limit T1 and T2.
Where T1 limit the engine is allowed to cross thus only for a limited time period. This is called as barred
speed. T2 limit should never be crossed by the engine during running.
Thus for this reason critical speed is set for engines where the governor doesnot allows the engine to
run the engine in critical speed for a long time.

Sfoc definition , unit and calculation

Consumption of fuel oil per unit energyat output shaftis known as specific fuel oil consumption. Unit of
the SFOC is gms/bhph or gms/KWh.

SFOC = consumption of fuel*density

hour* BHP/KW

(ref reeds pg 111)

Its a potential buoyance of the ship which depends upon the intact water tight volume above
the water line of the ship

If a weight is added or buoyance is lost due to bilging, the reserve buoyance gets converted to
buoyance by increasing the draft

If the loss of buoyance exceeds the reserve buoyance ship will sink


Rudder post is carried into the main hull via the transom floor

The floor to which the rudder post is fitted is heavier with more substantial stiffening
arrangements , this floor is referred to as transom floor

(refer AJ Wharton pg: 21)

These are nothing but pressure and volume graphs

Which gives a detailed info on what happens inside the engine

There are 4 types of indicator cards


Power card
Compression diagram
Draw card
Light spring diagram