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1) Are there any major differences between convex and

concave surface?
The concave surface is the pressure side while the convex surface is the
suction side. The concave surface experience higher pressure due to the
higher number of collisions between the fluid molecules and the surface.
This causes more erosion on the concave side as compared to the convex
side, resulting in higher surface roughness at the concave side.
2) How do the effects vary from blades from the same row of
the engine?
The effects on the blades vary depending on the frequency of the blades
experiencing debris and the size of the debris, which are random.
Additionally, the air flow experienced by each individual blade may be
different due to air flow coming from different direction resulting in more
contacts in certain part of the blades, which leads to different erosion rate.
3) How do the effects vary with the position of the blade in
the engine? i.e. the effect of temperature
As the stage number increases, there will be a corresponding increase in
pressure and temperature. At different parts of the jet engine, such as the
compressor, air is compressed to a high temperature and pressure, where
it is further heated up in the combustor, before following though the turbine
and exit from the nozzle. This leads to greater physical stress and thermal
stress on the blade at certain stages resulting in higher rate of erosion.
4) What is difference between 3D surface roughness
machine and optical microscope?
The 3D surface roughness machine is able to show the user the different
roughness on the surface and quantifies it. The optical microscope allows
the user to observe the surface better. The difference lies in that the 3D
surface roughness machine is unable to show the defects on the surface,
only information on the surface, while the optical microscope is able to
detect these defects, by allowing user to inspect the blades for defects, and
also measure the size of these defects. (HELP EDIT THIS PART ABIT,

5) Which dimensions of blade tested has exceeded

acceptance limits and by how much and which have not?
Everything exceeded acceptance limits except leading edge radius.(NEED
6) Comment on the ultrasonic and micrometer differences
and describe the possible sources of errors of the ultrasonic
Difficulty in measuring with the micrometer due to the change in profile
which result in gaps. This results in an overestimation of the measurement.
Ultrasonic measurements may fluctuate due to the air gaps with varying
surface roughness. The surfaces are non-parallel which may cause
deflection of the echo resulting in inaccurate thickness measured.
Possible sources of error includes:
- Linear defects parallel to the beam might not be detected, if the
measurement is not taken in 2 directions.
- The couplant fluid applied on the surface of the material might
be too thick or too thin, which will affect the reading. It is also nearly
impossible for the surface to be applied with constant thickness of the
couplant fluid.
7) Describe the real defects detected and any spurious
indications detected.
real defects are detected due to the liquid penetrant seeping into these
cracks, and thus not wiped away. spurious defects would include
locations that have joints or high surface roughness which would trapped
some of these liquid penetrant on the surface when wiping, making it
seems there is a defect( example, a crack), where in reality, there isnt.
Hence, real defects are often sharp and distinct, while spurious defects are
8) What procedures may cause MPI and Penetrant testing to
be ineffective?
Both methods are only able to detect defects which are on the surface. MPI
is able to detect defects that are slightly below the surface, and any defects
deep in the materials, will go undetected by these methods.

MPI is ineffective on non-ferrous materials. MPI needs to be tested at

multiple orientations since it cannot detect defects parallel to the magnetic
Penetrant testing is less effective on surface that are rough or has high
porosity. Additionally, the surface of the material needs to be cleaned and
prepared well to avoid obtaining false results.
9) Is MPI or Penetrant more sensitive to defects and why?
MPI since it can detect both surface and subsurface defects. The defects
are also more confirmative, as iron filings would mean that there is a
defect. On the other hand, for penetrant test, penetrant left over on the
surface, could be due to surface roughness or joints. However, the
conditions for use of MPI limits it application to ferrous materials only and it
needs to be tested in 2 direction to detect any defects that are parallel to
the magnetic field.
Discuss briefly the qualitative changes in the blade
profiles and surfaces which have occurred due to erosion and other
effects. Determine which parts of a blade receive the worst effects.
The compressor blade operates under harsh conditions. such conditions
may result in changes to the blade such as:
- increase surface roughness
- degradation of protective surface coating on the blades
due to wear and tear
- Shortening and thinning of the blade through constant
- cracks and defects on both the concave and convex
portion of the blades
These effects tend to affect the edges of the blades the most such as the
trailing edges, leading edges, blade root and tip.

Give possible reasons for these effects.

Erosion and other similar effects could be due to ingestion of unwanted

particles such as bits of sand, ash, or even larger objects including small
birds. The compressor blades are also rotating very quickly and
experiences high pressure. This results in the greatest damage near the

blade tip as centrifugal force increases further from the blade root.
Additionally, due to constant cyclic loading and vibrations within the
compressor,the blades may experience fatigue leading to cracks forming.