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Alexandria Engineering Journal (2011) 50, 337344

Alexandria University

Alexandria Engineering Journal


www.elsevier.com/locate/aej
www.sciencedirect.com

Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum


water loss
Yousry Mahmoud Ghazaw

Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt


Received 8 June 2011; revised 17 December 2011; accepted 22 December 2011
Available online 20 January 2012

KEYWORDS
Design charts;
Canal design;
Optimal dimensions;
Seepage loss;
Evaporation loss

Abstract Seepage and evaporation are the most serious forms of water loss in an irrigation canal
network. Seepage loss depends on the channel geometry, while evaporation loss is proportional to
the area of free surface. In this paper, a methodology to determine the optimal canal dimensions for
a particular discharge is developed. The nonlinear water loss function, for the canal, which comprises seepage and evaporation loss, was derived. Two constraints (minimum permissible velocity
as a limit for sedimentation and maximum permissible velocity as a limit for erosion of canal) have
been taken into consideration in the canal design procedure. Using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers, the optimal canal dimensions were obtained for minimum water loss. A computer program was developed to carry out design calculation for the optimal canal dimensions.
The results are plotted in form of a set of design charts. The proposed charts facilitate easy design
of the optimal canal dimensions guaranteeing minimum water loss. Water loss from the canal section can be estimated from these charts without going through the conventional and cumbersome
trial and error method. Sensitivity analysis had been included to demonstrate the impact of important parameters.
2012 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
* Tel.: +966 501290314; fax: +966 63801152.
E-mail address: GHAZAW@yahoo.com
1110-0168 2012 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.
Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria
University.
doi:10.1016/j.aej.2011.12.002

Production and hosting by Elsevier

Water is life and its shortage affects the economy of the country. Egypt is one of the water stressed countries. It has large
irrigation system but loss of water from the system is a challenging problem for engineers and managers in the country.
A lot of research is being done for optimal design of canal
cross section and water saving in an irrigation system [14].
The main canals convey water from the source to a distribution canals. Many times the area to be irrigated lies far from
the source, and hence requires a lengthy main canal. For example, Al-Nobariya Canal in Egypt has a length of 118 km and a
discharge of about 221 m3/s. Ismailia canal on east of delta in
Egypt as well is another example, its length is around 128 km

338

Y.M. Ghazaw

Nomenclature
A
b
b\
E
Fs
k
m
n
Q
q\
qe

ow area (m2)
bed width of canal (m)
non-dimensional variable
evaporation discharge per unit free surface area
(m/s)
seepage function (dimensionless)
hydraulic conductivity (m/s)
side slope (dimensionless)
Mannings roughness coefcient (dimensionless)
discharge (m3/s)
non-dimensional variable
evaporation loss per unit length of canal (m2/s)

and its discharge varies between 50 and 135 m3/s. These canals
are experiencing a signicant amount of seepage, especially
within sandy areas, causing a relatively high water table within
adjacent lands. The Ismailia canal width presently varies from
50 m in the upper reaches to 30 m at Ismailia city with an average depth of about 3.5 m.
Excessive seepage losses can cause water logging and soil
salinity necessitating the installation of elaborate and costly
drainage systems. Furthermore the cultivable area is reduced,
resulting in a loss of potential crop production.
State of the art design and analysis techniques are required
to design an optimal canal with minim water losses through
seepage and evaporation.
The trapezoidal section is the most common and practical
canal cross section, which is used to convey water for irrigation, industrial and domestic uses in Egypt. An open channel
functioning as an irrigation canal may be a rigid or mobile
boundary canal. The loss of water due to seepage and evaporation from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial percentage of the usable water. According to the Bureau of Indian
Standards [5] the loss of water by the seepage from unlined canals in India generally varies from 0.3 to 7.0 m3/s per 106 m2 of
wetted surface. The seepage loss from canals is governed by
hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil, canal geometry, and
location of water table relative to the canal bed.
Canals are lined to minimize the seepage. But canal lining is
very expensive and deteriorates with time. Hence, signicant
seepage losses start to occur from a lined canal after deterioration [6]. Therefore, seepage loss must be considered in the design of a canal section. Several investigators presented canal
design methods considering seepage loss [710].
In the present study, explicit equations for seepage loss [10],
the evaporation equation, and Mannings equation for open
channel ow [11], have been used to obtain minimum water
loss sections. Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers
[12] was applied to get the optimal solution for triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal canal sections. The results are presented in easy form design charts.
2. Objective function
The objective function is based on minimum water loss from a
canal cross section due to seepage and evaporation. There are
two main sources of water loss. The seepage depends upon the

qs
qw
R
SF
So
T
V
VL
y\
yn

seepage loss per unit length of canal (m2/s)


total water loss per unit length of canal (m2/s)
hydraulic radius (m)
section factor
bed slope (dimensionless)
width of free surface (m)
average velocity (m/s)
limiting velocity (m/s)
non-dimensional variable
canal normal ow depth (m)

wetted perimeter and depth of ow whereas evaporation is


function of top width of the ow section. Both of these losses
are described below.
2.1. The evaporation loss
The evaporation loss can be expressed as,
qe E  T

where qe is the evaporation discharge per unit length of canal


(m2/s); E the evaporation discharge per unit free surface area
(m/s); and T is the width of free surface (m), Fig. 1.
2.2. Seepage loss
Seepage loss can be expressed as,
qs k  yn  Fs

where qs is the seepage discharge per unit length of canal (m2/


s); k the hydraulic conductivity (m/s); yn the canal normal ow
depth (m); and Fs is the seepage function (dimensionless),
which is a function of channel geometry.
The seepage function can be estimated for different sets of
specic conditions for a known canal dimensions [13,14]. It is
not convenient to estimate seepage from the canals and design
it considering seepage loss on the basis of the analytical form
of conformal mapping methods, which contain improper integrals and unknown implicit state variables. Therefore, a simplied equation for easy computation of seepage function
was adopted in this study [10]. The equation of seepage function is as follow:

T
1

yn

yn

T
yn

1
m

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1 Canal sections: (a) trapezoidal section, (b) rectangular


section, (c) triangular section.

Fs [Dimension less]

Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss

339

30.0

3. Problem constraints (ow function)

25.0

For optimization problem in the present study, the ow rate Q


is required to be equal to the value given by Mannings formula [11], that is

20.0

m=4.0

m=3.5

m=3.0

m=2.5

m=2.0

m=1.5

m=1.0

m=0.5

Rectangular

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

water depth/bed width (yn /b)

Figure 2 Variation in seepage factor, Fs with ratio of water


depth/bed width for different side slope m.

Fs

"


2 1:3

f4p  p g

f2mg

1:3

0:770:462m
1:30:6m

#1:30:6m
10:6m
 1:30:6m
10:6m
b

yn

where m is the side slope; and b is the bed width of the section.
For easy use, graphical representation of seepage function,
Fs, is plotted in Fig. 2.
Adding (1) and (2) the total water loss qw (m2/s) was expressed as:
qw k  yn  Fs E  T

With the help of Eq. (3) for the seepage function Fs, Eq. (4)
takes following form,

w 2=3 1=2
R  So  A
n

where Q is the canal discharge (m3/s); A the ow area (m2); R


the hydraulic radius (m) dened as the ratio of the ow area to
the ow perimeter P (m) (i.e., R = A/P); So the longitudinal
channel bed slope; w a constant (1.00 for SI units and 1.486
for US Customary units) and n is the Mannings roughness
coefcient.
Bottom width of the cross section b and the side-slope ratio
m need to be equal or exceeding zero (b = 0 yields a triangular
cross section shape, and m = 0 produces a rectangular cross
section shape), Fig. 1.
Average ow velocity V = Q/A may also be of concern. If
water travels slowly, sediment carried by the ow can deposit
and lead to higher water-surface elevations and reduced capacities. On the other hand, water moving at high speeds can
erode beds and banks. For water carrying no silt load, minimum velocity has little signicance except for its effect on plant
growth. In general, minimum average barrel velocities of
0.60.9 m/s are suitable when the percentages of silt-sized
material present in channel ows are small and average velocities greater than 0.8 m/s will prevent growth of vegetation that
might decrease ow-carrying capacities of channels [11]. Maximum allowable velocities that prevent erosion are usually
based on the types of channel lining. Limitations might also
be imposed because of large super-elevation in bends and high
degrees of wave action. Maximum permissible velocities for
various canals are suggested by many researchers [15,16]. Side
slopes may also be restricted by site conditions or construction-related factors.
4. Optimization procedure

qw k
"
2 1:3

 yn f4p  p g

1:3

f2mg

0:770:462m
1:30:6m

#1:30:6m
10:6m
 1:30:6m
10:6m
b

yn

E  b 2m  yn 
5
Eq. (5) may be reduced to the following form,
"
 j2 #j1
b
qw k  yn c
E  b 2m  yn 
yn

2 1:3

c f4p  p g

1:3

f2mg

/yn ; b; m Aa  Pb  SF A5=3  P2=3  SF 0:0

Qn
p.
w So

where
0:770:462m
1:30:6m

To get the minimum water loss design of canal cross section,


the overall water loss per unit length, qw, expressed by Eq.
(6), and the ow equation (the main constraint) should be minimized. The ow equation /yn ; b; m; can be written as:

7a

where SF section factor =


Applying Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers
with f as the undetermined multipliers, the following relations
are obtained:
@qw
@/
f
0
@yn
@yn

10

j1

1:3 0:6m
; and
1 0:6m

7b

@qw
@/
f
0
@m
@m

11

j2

1:0 0:6m
1:3 0:6m

7c

@qw
@/
f
0
@b
@b

12

The optimal design for minimum water loss will require the
minimization of the objective function given by Eq. (6) alongwith some constraints.

Eliminating f between Eqs. (10)(12) one gets


@qw @/ @qw @/



@b @yn @yn @b

13

340

Y.M. Ghazaw

@qw @/ @qw @/



@b @m @m @b

14

@/ @/
Eq. (9) is used to determine the partial derivatives @y
; , and
n @m
Using Eqs. (13) and (14) the following two important equations, which are necessary for the minimization process, can be
obtained:




@qw
a @A b @P
@q
a @A b @P



15

w

A @yn P @yn
A @b P @b
@b
@yn
@/
.
@b





@qw
a @A b @P
@q
a @A b @P


w



A @m P @m
A @b P @b
@b
@m

16

The partial derivative of qw is as follows


"
"
 j2 #j1
 j2 #j1 1  j2
@qw
b
b
b
k c
k c

@yn
yn
yn
yn
E  2m
"
 j2 #j1 1  j2 1
@qw
b
b
k c

E
yn
yn
@b

17

18

4.1. Case of constant side slope m


Practically, for a given canal bed material and according to the
internal angle of repose, the canal side slope, m, is decided. In
@/
w
@q
0:0, and only Eq. (15) is held true.
this case @m
@m
w
w
Substituting @q
and @q
from Eqs. (17) and (18) into Eq. (15)
@yn
@b
yields the following equation for minimization process.
2 "
3
 j2 #j1 1  j2 1


b
b
5 @A 2 @P
4k c


E5
 
yn
yn
A @yn P @yn
2 "
"
 j2 #j1
 j2 #j1 1  j2
b
b
b
4k  c
k c

yn
yn
yn


5 @A 2 @P

 
19
E  2m
A @b P @b

the value of b and yn are calculated, the corresponding value


of ow velocity, V, is determined, which must satisfy the allowable velocity.
4.2. Velocity-constraint
The minimum permissible velocity, Vmin or the non-silting
velocity is the lowest velocity that will not initiate sedimentation and will not induce the growth of vegetation. Sedimentation and growth of vegetation decrease the carrying capacity
and increase the maintenance cost of the canal. In general,
an average velocity of 0.60.9 m/s will prevent sedimentation
when the silt load of the ow is low and a velocity of
0.75 m/s is usually sufcient to prevent the growth of vegetation [11]. Hence, the minimum permissible velocity can be assumed in the range from 0.75 to 0.9 m/s.
The higher velocities are desired in rigid boundary canals to
reduce costs. However, high velocities may cause scour and
erosion of the boundaries. In rigid boundary canals the maximum permissible velocity or the limiting velocity, Vmax (m/s)
that will not cause erosion depends on the channel surface
material. Table 1 lists the limiting velocities for different types
of channel surface materials [17].
The ow velocity, V, must be checked with both maximum,
and minimum velocity limits.
If the ow velocity, V, is greater than Vmax, or less than
Vmin, the optimal values of b and y will not be equal to those
given by solving Eq. (9) and (21). The proper dimensions of the
channel may be obtained by solving Mannings equation along
with one of the following two equations.
Case 1: if V < Vmin

Ayn ; b

Ayn ; b
20a

@A
yn
@b

20b

p
@P
2 1 m2 and
@yn

20c

@P
1
@b

20d

Q
Vmax

23

5. Computer program and design charts

Eq. (19) may be simplied to the following form,


2 "
3
 j2 #j1 1  j2 1

 p
b
4k c b

E5 5Pb 2myn  2A  2 1 m2
yn
yn
2 "
3
"
 j2 #j1
 j2 #j1 1  j2
b
b
b
k c

E  2m55P
4k  c
yn
yn
yn
 yn  2A

22

Case 2: if V > Vmax

in which
@A
b 2myn
@yn

Q
Vmin

Iterative method is required for solving Eqs. (9) and (21) for
optimum bed width and optimum water depth, yn. A computer
program in FORTRAN, using random search method was
developed to solve the above mentioned equations.
Reasonable upper and lower limit value of both, bed width, b,
and water depth, yn, are essential to accelerate the calculations.
The following equations give the maximum expected values of
water depth ymax, and bed width bmax.
Table 1

21

Using Eq. (21) and (9) the optimal canal cross section for minimum water loss for a specied value of m, can obtained. Once,

Limiting velocities.

Lining material

Limiting velocity (m/s)

Boulder
Brunt clay tile
Concrete tile
Concrete

1.01.5
1.52.0
2.02.5
2.53.0

Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss

341
10

10

m=0.00
m=0.75

0.1

10

100

m=0.50

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 3a Variation of bed width b with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

10

Figure 4a Variation of bed width b with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

m=0.25
m=1.0
m=1.75

water depth yn (in m or f)

Water depth, yn (in m or f)

10

m=0.0
m=0.75
m=1.5

m=0.25
m=1.00

Bed width b (in m or f)

Bed width, b (in m or f)

m=0.0
m=0.25
m=0.50
m=0.75
m=1.0
m=1.25

m=0.50
m=1.25
m=2.0

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 3b Variation of water depth yn with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 4b Variation of water depth yn with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

100

10

m=0.0
m=0.75
m=1.5

m=0.25
m=1.0
m=1.75

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

qw /E (in m or f)

qw /E (in m or f)

100

m=0.50
m=1.25
m=2.0

1
1

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ .So^.5)

10

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 3c Variation of water loss qw with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

ymax 20:25 

1 m2 1=8
SF3=8
m5=8

24

bmax 21:25 

1 m2 1=8
SF3=8
m5=8

25

Figure 4c Variation of water loss qw/E with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

These results are plotted in form of design chart (Figs. 3a6c)


to assist the designer to get out the optimal dimension of the
canal for known values of Q, n, m, So, and E/K.
The graphical correlation method [18] with the aid of computer facilities, is used to construct alternative and compact

342

Y.M. Ghazaw
10
m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

Bed width b (in m or f)

Bed width b (in m or f)

10

10

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

100

10

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 5a Variation of bed width b with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.00.

Figure 6a Variation of bed width b with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.

10

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

water depth yn (in m or f)

water depth yn (in m or f)

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

m=0.50

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

qw /E (in m or f)

m=0.25

m=0.75

m=0.50

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 6b Variation of water depth yn with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.
1000

qw /E (in m or f)

Figure 5b Variation of water depth yn with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.0.

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.75

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

100

m=0.00

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

100

10
1

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

10

Figure 6c Variation of water loss qw/E with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.
1

10

100

Section Factor (Q.n/ . So^.5)

Figure 5c Variation of water loss qw/E with section factor [Q.n/


w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.0.

design charts, Figs. 8a8c, that would be used to nd the optimal dimensionless variable of the canal [b\, y\, q\] for known
values of Q, n, m, So, and E/K,

where
b

b
SF3=8

26

Y

yn
SF3=8

27

Q

qw
SF3=8 E

28

Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss

343

15

q* (dimension less)

30

14

q w /E in m

13
12
11

25
20
15
10
5
0

10

0.2

0.4

K/E=5.0

8
7
0

Bed width b in m
m=1.75

m=1.25

m=0.75

m=0.25

m=1.50

m=1.00

m=0.50

m=0.00

Figure 7 Variation of water loss qw/E with bed width b and side
slope m for K/E = 0.50 and section factor [Q.n/w.So^.5] = 5.0.

2.0

b* (Dimension less)

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Side slope m

1.8

b* = 0.2126m - 1.2034m + 1.904

1.6

b* = 0.2189m - 1.1883m + 1.7428

b* = 0.2344m2 - 1.1727m + 1.558

1.4

Figure 8c
m.

K/E=2.0

K/E=1.0

K/E=0.50

Minimum variable q\ as a function of K/E, side slope

to read the optimal dimensionless variable b\. Multiply the


value of b\ by the section factor SF of power (3/8) to get the
optimal value of b.
The same may be done to get the value of optimal depth yn
from Fig. 8b.
To nd minimum water loss qw of the desired canal, Fig. 8c,
one should start with the desired m through the bottom axis
and move vertically up to the desired K/E, then move horizontally to read the minimum dimensionless variable q\. Multiply
the value of q\ by the section factor SF of power (3/8), multiply
by E to get the minimum water loss qw.

b* = 0.2716m2 - 1.1529m + 1.3342

1.2

7. Discussions

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Side slope m
K/E=5.0

Figure 8a
slope m.

K/E=2.0

K/E=1.0

K/E=0.50

Optimal variable b\ as a function of K/E and side

Figs. 3a6c show the effect of variation of the optimal bed


width (b), the water depth (y), and the relative water loss qw/
E with respect to the section factor SF for different values of
side slope m considering variation of K/E as 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and
5. It seen that the both optimal bed width (b) and normal water
depth increases as the section factor SF increases while it
decreases when the side slope m increases. With respect to
the relative water loss qw/E, it increases as both section factor
SF and side slope m increases for all values of K/E.

y* (dimension less)

8. Design examples
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.0

8.1. Example 1

K/E=0.50
K/E=1.0
K/E=2.0
K/E=5.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Design a minimum water loss concrete lined rectangular canal


section for carrying a discharge of 6.25 m3/s on a longitudinal
slope of 0.0004, Mannings coefcient n = 0.016, evaporation
rate, E = 3.0 m/year, conductivity of underlain soil, K =
1.5 m/year. It is required also to calculate total water loss from
the canal if total length of the canal is 12 km.
1.4

side slope m

Figure 8b
slope m.

Optimal variable y\ as a function of K/E and side

6. Procedure to use the design charts


To nd optimal bed width b of the desired canal, Fig. 8a, one
should start with the desired m through the bottom axis and
move vertically up to the desired K/E, then move horizontally

8.2. Design steps


K 1:5

0:5; m 0:0
E 3:0
Hence, from chart (Fig. 8a) b\ = 1.33, from chart (Fig. 8b)
y\ = 1.29, and from chart (Fig. 8c) q\ = 4.3.
Qn
6:250:016
Section factor SF p p 5
w So
0:0004

344

Y.M. Ghazaw

Then


3=8

b b  SF

 1:331:82 2:44 m

yn y  SF3=8  1:291:82 2:35 m


qw q  E  SF3=8  4:33  1:82 23:478 m3 =year=m
The minimum water loss is 23.478 \ 12,000 = 281,736 m3/
year.
8.3. Example 2
Design a trapezoidal canal section for the same data above,
and side slope m = 0.5.
8.4. Design steps
K 1:5

0:5; m 0:5
E 3:0
Hence, from chart (Fig. 8a) b\ = 0.82, from chart (Fig. 8b)
y\ = 1.17, and from chart (Fig. 8c) q\ = 4.8.
6:250:016
Section factor SF p 5
0:0004
Then
b b :SF3=8  0:821:82 1:5 m
yn y :SF3=8  1:171:82 2:13 m
qw q :E:SF3=8  4:653:1:82 25:39 m3 =year=m
The minimum water loss will be 25.39 \ 12,000 =
304,680 m3/year.
9. Sensitivity of optimal dimension
For b ranging from 0.5 m to 7 m and m ranging from 0 to 2.0,
the normal water depths were obtained using Mannings equation. Furthermore, water losses were calculated by (4). Fig. 7
shows the variation of qw with b and m for section factor
[SF] = 5.0 and K/E = 0.50. It can be seen that the water loss
from a rectangular section with bed width of 2.44 m is the global minimum. Furthermore, the optimum is less sensitive to
the increase in bed width and more sensitive to increase in side
slope. This trend of sensitivity continues for 0 < m < 1.0. For
m P 1.0 the optimum shifts to b = 0 (triangular section).
However, as seen in Fig. 7 the optimum for a rectangular section (m = 0) is highly sensitive to a decrease in bed width.
Error in optimal bed width b calculation in the range
10% will result only in an increase in water loss by a value
less than 0.80%, this means that the design charts can be used
easily and safely to get the optimal value of b. The value of b
can then rounded off.
10. Conclusions
Using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers, the
optimal dimensions of canal cross section for minimum water

loss have been obtained. Design charts, based on the obtained


results, in terms of canal geometry have been given to facilitate
design of the minimum water loss canals. Charts based on the
optimal dimension, are developed to calculate the minimum
water loss from the designed canal. The results show that,
water loss from a triangular canal is minimum for m P 1.5
for all cases of K/E and section factor [SF]. Also the results
show that as K/E increase, the bed width is increase. The design examples have demonstrated the simplicity of the method.
The sensitivity analysis for the rectangular and trapezoidal canal section design has revealed that the optimum is less sensitive to the increase in bed width and more sensitive otherwise.
The proposed method can be applied to other complicated
canal cross sections that cannot be solved by traditional method of variation.
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