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ensayos actualizados de infiltracion en canales

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Alexandria University

www.elsevier.com/locate/aej

www.sciencedirect.com

water loss

Yousry Mahmoud Ghazaw

Received 8 June 2011; revised 17 December 2011; accepted 22 December 2011

Available online 20 January 2012

KEYWORDS

Design charts;

Canal design;

Optimal dimensions;

Seepage loss;

Evaporation loss

Abstract Seepage and evaporation are the most serious forms of water loss in an irrigation canal

network. Seepage loss depends on the channel geometry, while evaporation loss is proportional to

the area of free surface. In this paper, a methodology to determine the optimal canal dimensions for

a particular discharge is developed. The nonlinear water loss function, for the canal, which comprises seepage and evaporation loss, was derived. Two constraints (minimum permissible velocity

as a limit for sedimentation and maximum permissible velocity as a limit for erosion of canal) have

been taken into consideration in the canal design procedure. Using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers, the optimal canal dimensions were obtained for minimum water loss. A computer program was developed to carry out design calculation for the optimal canal dimensions.

The results are plotted in form of a set of design charts. The proposed charts facilitate easy design

of the optimal canal dimensions guaranteeing minimum water loss. Water loss from the canal section can be estimated from these charts without going through the conventional and cumbersome

trial and error method. Sensitivity analysis had been included to demonstrate the impact of important parameters.

2012 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

* Tel.: +966 501290314; fax: +966 63801152.

E-mail address: GHAZAW@yahoo.com

1110-0168 2012 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria

University.

doi:10.1016/j.aej.2011.12.002

Water is life and its shortage affects the economy of the country. Egypt is one of the water stressed countries. It has large

irrigation system but loss of water from the system is a challenging problem for engineers and managers in the country.

A lot of research is being done for optimal design of canal

cross section and water saving in an irrigation system [14].

The main canals convey water from the source to a distribution canals. Many times the area to be irrigated lies far from

the source, and hence requires a lengthy main canal. For example, Al-Nobariya Canal in Egypt has a length of 118 km and a

discharge of about 221 m3/s. Ismailia canal on east of delta in

Egypt as well is another example, its length is around 128 km

338

Y.M. Ghazaw

Nomenclature

A

b

b\

E

Fs

k

m

n

Q

q\

qe

ow area (m2)

bed width of canal (m)

non-dimensional variable

evaporation discharge per unit free surface area

(m/s)

seepage function (dimensionless)

hydraulic conductivity (m/s)

side slope (dimensionless)

Mannings roughness coefcient (dimensionless)

discharge (m3/s)

non-dimensional variable

evaporation loss per unit length of canal (m2/s)

and its discharge varies between 50 and 135 m3/s. These canals

are experiencing a signicant amount of seepage, especially

within sandy areas, causing a relatively high water table within

adjacent lands. The Ismailia canal width presently varies from

50 m in the upper reaches to 30 m at Ismailia city with an average depth of about 3.5 m.

Excessive seepage losses can cause water logging and soil

salinity necessitating the installation of elaborate and costly

drainage systems. Furthermore the cultivable area is reduced,

resulting in a loss of potential crop production.

State of the art design and analysis techniques are required

to design an optimal canal with minim water losses through

seepage and evaporation.

The trapezoidal section is the most common and practical

canal cross section, which is used to convey water for irrigation, industrial and domestic uses in Egypt. An open channel

functioning as an irrigation canal may be a rigid or mobile

boundary canal. The loss of water due to seepage and evaporation from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial percentage of the usable water. According to the Bureau of Indian

Standards [5] the loss of water by the seepage from unlined canals in India generally varies from 0.3 to 7.0 m3/s per 106 m2 of

wetted surface. The seepage loss from canals is governed by

hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil, canal geometry, and

location of water table relative to the canal bed.

Canals are lined to minimize the seepage. But canal lining is

very expensive and deteriorates with time. Hence, signicant

seepage losses start to occur from a lined canal after deterioration [6]. Therefore, seepage loss must be considered in the design of a canal section. Several investigators presented canal

design methods considering seepage loss [710].

In the present study, explicit equations for seepage loss [10],

the evaporation equation, and Mannings equation for open

channel ow [11], have been used to obtain minimum water

loss sections. Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers

[12] was applied to get the optimal solution for triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal canal sections. The results are presented in easy form design charts.

2. Objective function

The objective function is based on minimum water loss from a

canal cross section due to seepage and evaporation. There are

two main sources of water loss. The seepage depends upon the

qs

qw

R

SF

So

T

V

VL

y\

yn

total water loss per unit length of canal (m2/s)

hydraulic radius (m)

section factor

bed slope (dimensionless)

width of free surface (m)

average velocity (m/s)

limiting velocity (m/s)

non-dimensional variable

canal normal ow depth (m)

function of top width of the ow section. Both of these losses

are described below.

2.1. The evaporation loss

The evaporation loss can be expressed as,

qe E T

(m2/s); E the evaporation discharge per unit free surface area

(m/s); and T is the width of free surface (m), Fig. 1.

2.2. Seepage loss

Seepage loss can be expressed as,

qs k yn Fs

s); k the hydraulic conductivity (m/s); yn the canal normal ow

depth (m); and Fs is the seepage function (dimensionless),

which is a function of channel geometry.

The seepage function can be estimated for different sets of

specic conditions for a known canal dimensions [13,14]. It is

not convenient to estimate seepage from the canals and design

it considering seepage loss on the basis of the analytical form

of conformal mapping methods, which contain improper integrals and unknown implicit state variables. Therefore, a simplied equation for easy computation of seepage function

was adopted in this study [10]. The equation of seepage function is as follow:

T

1

yn

yn

T

yn

1

m

(a)

(b)

(c)

section, (c) triangular section.

Fs [Dimension less]

339

30.0

25.0

is required to be equal to the value given by Mannings formula [11], that is

20.0

m=4.0

m=3.5

m=3.0

m=2.5

m=2.0

m=1.5

m=1.0

m=0.5

Rectangular

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

depth/bed width for different side slope m.

Fs

"

2 1:3

f4p p g

f2mg

1:3

0:770:462m

1:30:6m

#1:30:6m

10:6m

1:30:6m

10:6m

b

yn

where m is the side slope; and b is the bed width of the section.

For easy use, graphical representation of seepage function,

Fs, is plotted in Fig. 2.

Adding (1) and (2) the total water loss qw (m2/s) was expressed as:

qw k yn Fs E T

With the help of Eq. (3) for the seepage function Fs, Eq. (4)

takes following form,

w 2=3 1=2

R So A

n

the hydraulic radius (m) dened as the ratio of the ow area to

the ow perimeter P (m) (i.e., R = A/P); So the longitudinal

channel bed slope; w a constant (1.00 for SI units and 1.486

for US Customary units) and n is the Mannings roughness

coefcient.

Bottom width of the cross section b and the side-slope ratio

m need to be equal or exceeding zero (b = 0 yields a triangular

cross section shape, and m = 0 produces a rectangular cross

section shape), Fig. 1.

Average ow velocity V = Q/A may also be of concern. If

water travels slowly, sediment carried by the ow can deposit

and lead to higher water-surface elevations and reduced capacities. On the other hand, water moving at high speeds can

erode beds and banks. For water carrying no silt load, minimum velocity has little signicance except for its effect on plant

growth. In general, minimum average barrel velocities of

0.60.9 m/s are suitable when the percentages of silt-sized

material present in channel ows are small and average velocities greater than 0.8 m/s will prevent growth of vegetation that

might decrease ow-carrying capacities of channels [11]. Maximum allowable velocities that prevent erosion are usually

based on the types of channel lining. Limitations might also

be imposed because of large super-elevation in bends and high

degrees of wave action. Maximum permissible velocities for

various canals are suggested by many researchers [15,16]. Side

slopes may also be restricted by site conditions or construction-related factors.

4. Optimization procedure

qw k

"

2 1:3

yn f4p p g

1:3

f2mg

0:770:462m

1:30:6m

#1:30:6m

10:6m

1:30:6m

10:6m

b

yn

E b 2m yn

5

Eq. (5) may be reduced to the following form,

"

j2 #j1

b

qw k yn c

E b 2m yn

yn

2 1:3

c f4p p g

1:3

f2mg

Qn

p.

w So

where

0:770:462m

1:30:6m

the overall water loss per unit length, qw, expressed by Eq.

(6), and the ow equation (the main constraint) should be minimized. The ow equation /yn ; b; m; can be written as:

7a

Applying Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers

with f as the undetermined multipliers, the following relations

are obtained:

@qw

@/

f

0

@yn

@yn

10

j1

1:3 0:6m

; and

1 0:6m

7b

@qw

@/

f

0

@m

@m

11

j2

1:0 0:6m

1:3 0:6m

7c

@qw

@/

f

0

@b

@b

12

The optimal design for minimum water loss will require the

minimization of the objective function given by Eq. (6) alongwith some constraints.

@qw @/ @qw @/

@b @yn @yn @b

13

340

Y.M. Ghazaw

@qw @/ @qw @/

@b @m @m @b

14

@/ @/

Eq. (9) is used to determine the partial derivatives @y

; , and

n @m

Using Eqs. (13) and (14) the following two important equations, which are necessary for the minimization process, can be

obtained:

@qw

a @A b @P

@q

a @A b @P

15

w

A @yn P @yn

A @b P @b

@b

@yn

@/

.

@b

@qw

a @A b @P

@q

a @A b @P

w

A @m P @m

A @b P @b

@b

@m

16

"

"

j2 #j1

j2 #j1 1 j2

@qw

b

b

b

k c

k c

@yn

yn

yn

yn

E 2m

"

j2 #j1 1 j2 1

@qw

b

b

k c

E

yn

yn

@b

17

18

Practically, for a given canal bed material and according to the

internal angle of repose, the canal side slope, m, is decided. In

@/

w

@q

0:0, and only Eq. (15) is held true.

this case @m

@m

w

w

Substituting @q

and @q

from Eqs. (17) and (18) into Eq. (15)

@yn

@b

yields the following equation for minimization process.

2 "

3

j2 #j1 1 j2 1

b

b

5 @A 2 @P

4k c

E5

yn

yn

A @yn P @yn

2 "

"

j2 #j1

j2 #j1 1 j2

b

b

b

4k c

k c

yn

yn

yn

5 @A 2 @P

19

E 2m

A @b P @b

of ow velocity, V, is determined, which must satisfy the allowable velocity.

4.2. Velocity-constraint

The minimum permissible velocity, Vmin or the non-silting

velocity is the lowest velocity that will not initiate sedimentation and will not induce the growth of vegetation. Sedimentation and growth of vegetation decrease the carrying capacity

and increase the maintenance cost of the canal. In general,

an average velocity of 0.60.9 m/s will prevent sedimentation

when the silt load of the ow is low and a velocity of

0.75 m/s is usually sufcient to prevent the growth of vegetation [11]. Hence, the minimum permissible velocity can be assumed in the range from 0.75 to 0.9 m/s.

The higher velocities are desired in rigid boundary canals to

reduce costs. However, high velocities may cause scour and

erosion of the boundaries. In rigid boundary canals the maximum permissible velocity or the limiting velocity, Vmax (m/s)

that will not cause erosion depends on the channel surface

material. Table 1 lists the limiting velocities for different types

of channel surface materials [17].

The ow velocity, V, must be checked with both maximum,

and minimum velocity limits.

If the ow velocity, V, is greater than Vmax, or less than

Vmin, the optimal values of b and y will not be equal to those

given by solving Eq. (9) and (21). The proper dimensions of the

channel may be obtained by solving Mannings equation along

with one of the following two equations.

Case 1: if V < Vmin

Ayn ; b

Ayn ; b

20a

@A

yn

@b

20b

p

@P

2 1 m2 and

@yn

20c

@P

1

@b

20d

Q

Vmax

23

2 "

3

j2 #j1 1 j2 1

p

b

4k c b

E5 5Pb 2myn 2A 2 1 m2

yn

yn

2 "

3

"

j2 #j1

j2 #j1 1 j2

b

b

b

k c

E 2m55P

4k c

yn

yn

yn

yn 2A

22

in which

@A

b 2myn

@yn

Q

Vmin

Iterative method is required for solving Eqs. (9) and (21) for

optimum bed width and optimum water depth, yn. A computer

program in FORTRAN, using random search method was

developed to solve the above mentioned equations.

Reasonable upper and lower limit value of both, bed width, b,

and water depth, yn, are essential to accelerate the calculations.

The following equations give the maximum expected values of

water depth ymax, and bed width bmax.

Table 1

21

Using Eq. (21) and (9) the optimal canal cross section for minimum water loss for a specied value of m, can obtained. Once,

Limiting velocities.

Lining material

Boulder

Brunt clay tile

Concrete tile

Concrete

1.01.5

1.52.0

2.02.5

2.53.0

341

10

10

m=0.00

m=0.75

0.1

10

100

m=0.50

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

10

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

m=0.25

m=1.0

m=1.75

10

m=0.0

m=0.75

m=1.5

m=0.25

m=1.00

m=0.0

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.0

m=1.25

m=0.50

m=1.25

m=2.0

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

100

10

m=0.0

m=0.75

m=1.5

m=0.25

m=1.0

m=1.75

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

qw /E (in m or f)

qw /E (in m or f)

100

m=0.50

m=1.25

m=2.0

1

1

10

100

10

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 0.50.

ymax 20:25

1 m2 1=8

SF3=8

m5=8

24

bmax 21:25

1 m2 1=8

SF3=8

m5=8

25

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 1.00.

to assist the designer to get out the optimal dimension of the

canal for known values of Q, n, m, So, and E/K.

The graphical correlation method [18] with the aid of computer facilities, is used to construct alternative and compact

342

Y.M. Ghazaw

10

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

10

10

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

100

10

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.00.

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.

10

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

10

100

m=0.50

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

qw /E (in m or f)

m=0.25

m=0.75

m=0.50

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.

1000

qw /E (in m or f)

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.0.

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.75

100

100

m=0.00

m=0.00

m=0.25

m=0.50

m=0.75

m=1.00

m=1.25

m=1.50

m=1.75

m=2.00

100

10

1

10

100

10

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 5.0.

1

10

100

w.So^.5] and side slope m for K/E = 2.0.

design charts, Figs. 8a8c, that would be used to nd the optimal dimensionless variable of the canal [b\, y\, q\] for known

values of Q, n, m, So, and E/K,

where

b

b

SF3=8

26

Y

yn

SF3=8

27

Q

qw

SF3=8 E

28

343

15

q* (dimension less)

30

14

q w /E in m

13

12

11

25

20

15

10

5

0

10

0.2

0.4

K/E=5.0

8

7

0

Bed width b in m

m=1.75

m=1.25

m=0.75

m=0.25

m=1.50

m=1.00

m=0.50

m=0.00

Figure 7 Variation of water loss qw/E with bed width b and side

slope m for K/E = 0.50 and section factor [Q.n/w.So^.5] = 5.0.

2.0

b* (Dimension less)

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Side slope m

1.8

1.6

1.4

Figure 8c

m.

K/E=2.0

K/E=1.0

K/E=0.50

value of b\ by the section factor SF of power (3/8) to get the

optimal value of b.

The same may be done to get the value of optimal depth yn

from Fig. 8b.

To nd minimum water loss qw of the desired canal, Fig. 8c,

one should start with the desired m through the bottom axis

and move vertically up to the desired K/E, then move horizontally to read the minimum dimensionless variable q\. Multiply

the value of q\ by the section factor SF of power (3/8), multiply

by E to get the minimum water loss qw.

1.2

7. Discussions

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Side slope m

K/E=5.0

Figure 8a

slope m.

K/E=2.0

K/E=1.0

K/E=0.50

width (b), the water depth (y), and the relative water loss qw/

E with respect to the section factor SF for different values of

side slope m considering variation of K/E as 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and

5. It seen that the both optimal bed width (b) and normal water

depth increases as the section factor SF increases while it

decreases when the side slope m increases. With respect to

the relative water loss qw/E, it increases as both section factor

SF and side slope m increases for all values of K/E.

y* (dimension less)

8. Design examples

1.30

1.25

1.20

1.15

1.10

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.0

8.1. Example 1

K/E=0.50

K/E=1.0

K/E=2.0

K/E=5.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

section for carrying a discharge of 6.25 m3/s on a longitudinal

slope of 0.0004, Mannings coefcient n = 0.016, evaporation

rate, E = 3.0 m/year, conductivity of underlain soil, K =

1.5 m/year. It is required also to calculate total water loss from

the canal if total length of the canal is 12 km.

1.4

side slope m

Figure 8b

slope m.

To nd optimal bed width b of the desired canal, Fig. 8a, one

should start with the desired m through the bottom axis and

move vertically up to the desired K/E, then move horizontally

K 1:5

0:5; m 0:0

E 3:0

Hence, from chart (Fig. 8a) b\ = 1.33, from chart (Fig. 8b)

y\ = 1.29, and from chart (Fig. 8c) q\ = 4.3.

Qn

6:250:016

Section factor SF p p 5

w So

0:0004

344

Y.M. Ghazaw

Then

3=8

b b SF

1:331:82 2:44 m

qw q E SF3=8 4:33 1:82 23:478 m3 =year=m

The minimum water loss is 23.478 \ 12,000 = 281,736 m3/

year.

8.3. Example 2

Design a trapezoidal canal section for the same data above,

and side slope m = 0.5.

8.4. Design steps

K 1:5

0:5; m 0:5

E 3:0

Hence, from chart (Fig. 8a) b\ = 0.82, from chart (Fig. 8b)

y\ = 1.17, and from chart (Fig. 8c) q\ = 4.8.

6:250:016

Section factor SF p 5

0:0004

Then

b b :SF3=8 0:821:82 1:5 m

yn y :SF3=8 1:171:82 2:13 m

qw q :E:SF3=8 4:653:1:82 25:39 m3 =year=m

The minimum water loss will be 25.39 \ 12,000 =

304,680 m3/year.

9. Sensitivity of optimal dimension

For b ranging from 0.5 m to 7 m and m ranging from 0 to 2.0,

the normal water depths were obtained using Mannings equation. Furthermore, water losses were calculated by (4). Fig. 7

shows the variation of qw with b and m for section factor

[SF] = 5.0 and K/E = 0.50. It can be seen that the water loss

from a rectangular section with bed width of 2.44 m is the global minimum. Furthermore, the optimum is less sensitive to

the increase in bed width and more sensitive to increase in side

slope. This trend of sensitivity continues for 0 < m < 1.0. For

m P 1.0 the optimum shifts to b = 0 (triangular section).

However, as seen in Fig. 7 the optimum for a rectangular section (m = 0) is highly sensitive to a decrease in bed width.

Error in optimal bed width b calculation in the range

10% will result only in an increase in water loss by a value

less than 0.80%, this means that the design charts can be used

easily and safely to get the optimal value of b. The value of b

can then rounded off.

10. Conclusions

Using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers, the

optimal dimensions of canal cross section for minimum water

results, in terms of canal geometry have been given to facilitate

design of the minimum water loss canals. Charts based on the

optimal dimension, are developed to calculate the minimum

water loss from the designed canal. The results show that,

water loss from a triangular canal is minimum for m P 1.5

for all cases of K/E and section factor [SF]. Also the results

show that as K/E increase, the bed width is increase. The design examples have demonstrated the simplicity of the method.

The sensitivity analysis for the rectangular and trapezoidal canal section design has revealed that the optimum is less sensitive to the increase in bed width and more sensitive otherwise.

The proposed method can be applied to other complicated

canal cross sections that cannot be solved by traditional method of variation.

References

[1] B. Aksoy, A.B. Altan-Sakarya, Optimal lined channel design,

Canadian J. Civ. Eng. 33 (5) (2006) 535545.

[2] B.R. Chahar, Design of a special Class of Curvilinear Bottomed

Channel section, J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 133 (3) (2007) 571576.

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