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TYREINFLATIONANDMONITORINGSYSTEMS(TIMS)

Content
Nomenclature
1.0 Abstract

2.0Introduction
2.1 ProjectMotivation

3.0DesignObjectives
3.1AbilitytoProvideProperTirePressure
3.2MinimizeNegativeVisualAesthetics
3.3 AbilitytoProvideAutomaticSystem
3.4LowCostDevice3

4.0ProductDesign

4.1ProductOverview

5.0ProductComponentDescription
5.1Rotaryjointdesign
5.2Compressor
5.3Sensors
5.4SolenoidValve
5.5Tubing
6.0ElectronicallyAutomatedSystem
6.1OOPic
6.2ElectronicControlProgramDescription
6.3RequiredHardwareInterface

7.0ENGINEERINGANALYSIS
7.1PressurereductioninStraightGradient
7.2Shaftstresses
7.3StressConcentrationFactors
7.3EvaluatedDiameter
8.0BUDGET


Conclusion
References

NOMENCLATURE

Volume[in3]

Temperature[F]

Gravity[ft/s2]

Pressure[psi]

Cv

CoefficientofFlow

Avisible

Visibleareaoftherotaryjoint[in2]

Flowrate[ft3/hr]

Adisk

Visibleareaofthebrakedisk[in2]

Moles

Cp

Constantheatcapacity[kJ/kgk]

Vdisk

Initialvolumeofthedisk[in3]

T1

Inlettemperatureofcompressor[F]

Stiffnessoftheshaft[lbf/in]

T2

Outlettemperatureofcompressor[F]

Massofthedisk[lbfs2/ft]

h2

Outletenthalpiesofvalve[kJ/kJk]

lshaft

Lengthoftheshaft[in]

h1

Inletenthalpiesofvalve[kJ/kJk]

P1

Inletpressureofvalve[psi]

Workdoneonthecompressor[kJ]

P2

Outletpressureofvalve[psi]

V2

Outletvelocityofvalve[ft/s]

Vtire

Velocityofthetire[ft/s]

Angularvelocityoftherotaryjointshaft
system[rpm]

Cf

Totalfixedcost[$]

Pressuredropthroughthevalve[psi]

Cv

Variablecost[$]

Ashaft

Crosssectionalareaoftheshaft[in2]

Elasticmodulusoftheshaft[kpsi]

Designelasticityvector

Ve

Volumeoftheeccentricity[in3]

Priceelasticity

me

Massoftheeccentricity[lbfs2/ft]

Maximumdemand

rtire

Radiusofthetire[in]

Profit[$]

drim

Diameteroftherim[in]

Dampingcoefficient

crit

Criticalspeedoftherotaryjoint
shaftsystem[rpm]

Xdisk

Deflectionamplitudeoftherotary
jointshaftsystem[in]

Specificgravityrelativetoairat
atmosphericcondition[ft/s2kg]

Naturalfrequencyoftherotary
jointshaftsystem[rpm]

tire

Densityoftherotaryjoint[lbf/in3]

Designchangevector

1.0ABSTRACT
DrivenbystudiesthatshowthatadropintirepressurebyjustafewPSIcanresultinthereduction
ofgasmileage,tirelife,safety,andvehicleperformance,wehavedevelopedanautomatic,self
inflatingtiresystemthatensuresthattiresareproperlyinflatedatalltimes.Ourdesignproposes
andsuccessfullyimplementstheuseofacentralizedcompressorthatwillsupplyairtoallfourtires
viahosesandarotaryjointfixedbetweenthewheelspindleandwheelhubateachwheel.The
rotaryjointseffectivelyallowairtobechannelledtothetireswithoutthetanglingofhoses.Withthe
recentoilpricehikesandgrowingconcernofenvironmentalissues,thissystemaddressesapotential
improvementingasmileage;tirewearreduction;andanincreaseinhandlingandtireperformance
indiverseconditions.

4 INTRODUCTION

2.1PROJECTMOTIVATION
Vehiclesbeingoperatedwithunderinflatedtiresposeasignificantsafetyproblem.Accordingtothe
RubberManufacturersAssociation,therewere647fatalitiesin1999thatinvolvedtirerelated
factors.Theyfurtherstatethattheleadingcauseoftirefailureisunderinflation.Accordingto
DonaldShea,RubberManufacturersAssociationpresidentandCEO,Thesinglemostimportant
factorintirecareisinflationpressure.
Infact,80%ofpassengervehiclesontheroadhaveatleastoneunderinflatedtireand36%of
passengercarshaveatleastonetirethatis20%ormoreunderinflated.Oftenpressurelossintires
isaresultofnaturalpermeationofthegasthroughtheelasticrubber,roadconditions(suchas
potholes),andseasonalchangesintemperature(AccordingtoWeisslerofPopularMechanics,for
everydropof10F,tirepressuredropsby1psi).Mostvehicleownersareunawareofthefactthat
theirtiresarenotatthecorrectpressuresbecauseitisdifficulttodeterminethetirepressure
visually;atirethatisproperlyinflatedtothecorrectpressurelooksverysimilartoonethatiseither
overinflatedorunderinflated(Fig1).AccordingtotheRubberManufacturingAssociation(RMA)
survey,80%ofpeopleareunsureofhowtochecktheirtirepressures.Thus,fromtheviewpointof
passengervehicleowners,theyarelosingmoneyduetoincreasedtirewearanddecreasedfuel
efficiency,andasolutionneedstobefoundtocorrectthisissue.Fromtheviewpointofthe
designers,however,therootcauseofimproperlyinflatedtiresisduetovehicleownersnotknowing
propertirepressuresforcertainconditions,difficultyfindinganairpump,lackofpressure
measuringdevice,andagenerallackofconcern.Thus,thecombinationoftheuserandexpert
viewpointswillbeusedtomakedecisionsinourdesignprocessofthisproduct.

TireWear,FuelEconomy,Performance,andSafety
Anunderinflatedtirecanhavedramaticeffectsontirewear.Sincethecontactpatchofthetirehas
alargerwavepattern,frictionandheatincreasecausethecontactpatchtowearoutmorequickly
thanifthetirewasinflatedproperly.

Goodyearestimatedthatatiresaveragetreadlifewoulddropto68percentoftheexpectedtread
lifeiftirepressuredroppedfrom35psito17psiandremainedthere.Accordingtoanunpublished
studybyGoodyear,theaveragecostforatire#10,000,andtheaveragetreadlifeis45,000miles.
Thus,atanaveragecostof#10,000/tire,andgivenasacircumstancethattheownerkeepsavehicle
for100,000miles,theownerwillhavetochangethetiresthreetimesinsteadoftwice.Theowner
wouldthenbepaying#40,260morefortires,andinbothsituations,themostrecentlyinstalledtires
willonlyhaveapproximately10,000milesofuse.DoranManufacturingoffersmorestatistics
regardingtheeffectsofunderinflatedtires:
20%underinflationcanreducetirelifeby30%
20%underinflationcanincreasetireswearby25%
Fueleconomyisalsogreatlyaffectedbyunderinflatedtires.Accordingtofueleconomy.gov,an
underinflationof1psiinallfourtiresonapassengervehiclereducesefficiencyby0.4%.Basedon
averagegasprices,thereisapotentialof3.3%insavings,whichtranslatesto#14.85pergallon.As
vehiclespeedsincrease,thetirepressuresshouldalsoincreaseaccordinglytoreducerolling
resistance(whichimprovesfueleconomy)andtolimitdamageduetotheincreasedfrequencyof
tireprofiledeflections.Sincehighwaysaretypicallysmootherthanlocalroads,increasingthetire
pressurewillnotnegativelyimpactridequalityintermsofnoiseandvibrations.
Properlyinflatedtiresalsohaveasignificanteffectonsafety;thereductionintirewearandincrease
invehiclesafetyarestronglycorrelated.660deathsandapproximately33,000injuriesperyearare
associatedwithunderinflatedtiresaccordingtoNationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration
(NHTSA).Wornouttireshaveasignificantnegativeimpactontractioninallweatherconditions.
Underinflatedtiresalsoincreasesthestoppingdistanceofvehiclesonbothdryandwetroads.At
thesametime,driverswouldalsofindanoteworthylossofsteeringprecisionandcornering
stability.Additionally,heatbuildupandthewearofthetirestructurecancauseasudden
unexpectedblowoutonthehighways,whichisacommoncauseofmanyaccidents.

3.0DESIGNOBJECTIVES
Theoverallgoalofourdesignprojectistodevelopaproductthatwilldecreasetirewearwhile
improvingfueleconomy,performanceandsafetyofapassengervehiclethroughdynamically
adjustabletirepressures.However,thereareseveralkeyobjectivesthattheteamhastargetedour
designtomeet,andtheseobjectivesincludebothdesigncharacteristicsandbusinessobjectives.

3.1AbilitytoProvideProperTirePressure
Theidealfunctionalobjectiveofourdesignisitscapabilitytoadjustthepressuresinallfourtiresof
apassengervehicletoobtaintheproperpressureforvaryingroad/drivingconditions.Specifically,it
isdesiredthat:
Coldtirepressureismaintainedduringvehicleusetoaccountforslowleaksandfluctuating
tiretemperatures
Asvehiclespeedincreases,tirepressuresincreases
Asvehiclespeeddecreases,tirepressuresdecreases
Asvehicleloadincreases,tirepressuresincreases
Asvehicleloaddecreases,tirepressuresdecreases.

Basedonmoredetailedresearchonthecomponentsnecessaryforthesystem,itwasdiscovered
thataspecializedrotaryjointmustbedesignedtosupportthisprocess.Thisdesignconsideration
requiredadditionalproductdevelopmenttimethatwasnotoriginallyanticipated.Therefore,the
idealfunctionalobjectiveshavebeenmodifiedtoaccountforthisdesignrequirement.Specifically,
thenewobjectivesrequirethat:
Coldtirepressure(35psi)ismaintainedbyensuringthattherotaryjointshaftsystemdoes
notfailstructurally
Coldtirepressure(35psi)ismaintainedbyensuringthattherotaryjointshaftsystemdoes
notleakexcessively
Coldtirepressure(35psi)ismaintainedbyensuringthattheentiresystem(compressor,air
tubes,rotaryjoint,etc.)canprovidedsufficientflowrate
Becauseofthedetailedlevelofexplanationrequiredfortheseitems,theseobjectivesaredescribed
numericallyintheEngineeringAnalysisandOptimizationsectionofthisdocument.

3.2MinimizeNegativeVisualAesthetics
Anotherdesignobjectiveistoensurethattheproductwillnothaveanegativeeffectoncurrent
vehicleaesthetics.Allcomponentsshouldbelocatedasinconspicuouslyaspossibleandshouldonly
beseenwhenservicingtheunit.However,inthecaseoftherotaryjoints,whichmaystillbevisible
throughthewheelrims,anattemptmustbemadetominimizeitsvisibilityaroundthebrakedisks

3.3AbilitytoProvideAutomaticSystem
Athirdobjectiveistoprovideallofthesaidbenefitstotheuserthroughanautomaticsystem,thus
minimizinguserintervention.Specifically,itisdesiredthatthesystemautomaticallyincreaseor
decreasethetirepressuresforthegivenroadconditions.

3.4LowCostDevice
Forboththecustomer(OEM)andenduser(vehicleowner),itisimperativetokeepthepriceofthe
deviceaslowaspossible.Consideringthepotentialbenefitsandcostsavingsthatthisdesignhasto
offerandthepricesofoptionalequipmentforpassengervehicleswithsimilarcomplexity,thetarget
pricerangeforthisdevicehasbeenidentifiedas2500030000.ThisisthepriceforboththeOEM

andvehicleowner,assumingthattheOEMdoesnotmarkuptheprice.Inaddition,thispricerange
shouldbeabletosupportthecostsofcomponentsofthesystem,manufacturing,andanynecessary
installation.
4.0PRODUCTDESIGN
4.1PRODUCTOVERVIEW
Wehavedevelopedasystemthatiscapableofautomaticallymaintainingtirepressureina
passengervehicle.Thishasbeenachievedthroughuseofacentralizedaircompressorthatisplaced
intheenginecompartmentofavehicle.Thiscompressorisattachedtoadistributionblockwhich
houses(4)solenoidvalvesusedtocontrolwhichtiresreceiveinflationpressure.Fromthis
distributionblock,theairtravelsviadia.hosestoarotaryjointlocatedateachwheel.Thisrotary
jointallowsoursystemtopassairfromthevehiclechassistotherotatingtire.Thesystemthatwe
havedevelopedistobeintegratedwiththetirepressuremonitoringsystemscurrentlyfoundon
vehiclestoprovideourmicroprocessorwithtirepressuredata.Toreducetirepressures,oursystem
alsoincorporatessolenoidvalvesateachtirevalvewhichplantobeoperatedeitherthrough
wirelesstechnologyorelectricalcontactsineachrotaryjoint

5.0PRODUCTCOMPONENTDESCRIPTION

5.1ROTARYJOINTDESIGN
Wearedesigningthisdeviceforcommonpassengervehicles,andthemainchallengeisthe
presenceoftheaxleshaftthatrunsstraightintothecenterofthewheelforcingustofindan
alternativemethodofroutingtheair.Ourproposedsolutiontothischallengeistoplacearotary
jointthathasonehalfspinningwiththedriveaxlehubandtheotherhalfstationarywiththe
spindle.Withinthisrotaryjointwillbeanairchamberthatwillallowairtopassfromthe
stationaryhalfofthejointintothehalfthatisrotating.

Therearenumeroustypesofairtightrotaryjointsavailableonthemarket;however,wewere
unabletofindonethathadalargeboreinthecentertorunacaraxlethroughoronethathadair
inlets/outletslocatedonthefaroutsideradius.Mostofthejointsthatwewereabletofindwerefor
airenteringandexitingdirectlyintheaxisofrotationanddidnotallowforanyobjecttobeplacedin
thecenterofthem.Sincewecouldnotfindarotaryjointthatmetourcriteria,wechosetodesign
ourown
Themaincriteriaforourrotaryjointdesignwerethefollowing:

Musthavea40mmholeinthecentertoallowfortheaxletoeitherpassthroughor
supportthejoint.
Airinletsandoutletsmustbelocatedattheouterradiustoallowthehosesontheoutside
ofthejointtoclearthevehiclespindleandhub.
Overallthicknessofthejointmustbenogreaterthan25mmtosoasnottointerferewith
thevehicledrivelineorsuspensioncomponents.
Ballbearingsystemmustbeusedtoreducecontactfrictionbetweenthetworotating
halvesbothaxialandplanar.

TIMSAdapterPlateAssembly
Arubberhosethreadedintotheholeinthetopoftheadapterplateconnectedtheplatetothetires
valvestem.Threeextralongstainlesssteellugnutsreplacedthenormalnutsandconnectedthe
platetothewheel.Theplateandthehoseconnectingittothevalvestemrotatewiththewheel.On
theothersideoftherotatingaircoupling(rotaryunion),aplastichoseconnectedtheuniontothe
pressuremanifoldinsidethevehicle.Theplastichosewastapedtothecartopreventitandthe
outsidepieceoftherotaryunionfromrotating

Rotaryjointadapter

MaterialConsideration
UsingHeattransferrelativecastironvsmassrelativetocastirongraph

BerylliumanditsalloypreferablyBeAl40%.OtherwiseAlloysCopperwin

RelativePenaltyFunctionareconsidered.

NotePSBisusedinourmethodofanalysisratherthanWSB.

5.2COMPRESSOR
Wehaveselectedareciprocatingaircompressorforourdesignpurpose.Herewehavebreakdown
drawingsanddiagramsofPistonaircompressorsaswellasforRotaryScrewaircompressors.There
areothertypes,butthevastmajorityofaircompressorsinusetodayareoneofthese.Ingeneral
theyconsistofanairpump,amotororengineandatanktoholdthecompressedair.Thereare
manydifferentpartsandpiecesthatmakeupanaircompressor.Althoughsomemaybefairly
generic,mostpartswillvarydependingonthemakeandmodelofthecompressor.

Apistoncompressor(alsoknownasareciprocatingcompressor)usespistonsdrivenbyacrankshaft
todeliverairathighpressure.Theimageswiththebreakdownsbelowdisplaythemostprominent
componentsofthecompressor.Theimagebelowisastandardstationarycompressor(Ingersoll
RandSS5L5).

1.PressureSwitch2.CheckValve3.CompressorPump4.Belt5.Pulley6.Motor7.Tank

AnexampleofthisisaPORTABLE300psICOMPRESSORThisportableaircompressorhasasmall
electricmotorthatcompressestheairinasmallattachedcylindertank;Itcanbepluggedintoa12V
carsystemforonthegorepairsorinflation.It'sidealforcarandbicycletires,sportsballs,and
inflatablematerials;Itcanbepoweredthroughacigarettelighterinyourvehicle,itisincredibly
versatile.

The300psIcompressorhasarelativelylowcostat3050.

Itrequireslessinputpowerof12vtopower.

Itissmallinsizeandcanbefittedatanydesiredplace.

ItcanbeintegratedwiththeECUorcontrolpanelforoptimization.

Itsuppliesahighpressureof300psIwherealossinpressurewillnotadverselyaffectit.

Tomaintainasteadyflowthroughthetubes,thecrosssectionalareaofthetubemustbesmall,
havingauniformdiameter.Whencompressedairpassesthroughthepressuretubesfromthe
compressortothesolenoidvalve,thesizingofthevalvewillincludeadditionalfactorsthatenhance
theperformanceandreducepressuredrop.

Pressuredropwhichresultsfromthefrictionproducedbytheflow
ofcompressedairinpipelinesandfromthesystemcomponentsthemselves,verticalpipedifference
orelevation,changesofkineticenergyiscalculatedandcheckedateachcomponenttoimprove
efficiency

5.3SENSORS
Apressuresensorusuallyactsatransducer,itgeneratesasignalasafunctionofthepressure
imposed.Thesensorsphysicallymeasurethepressureofthetiresandbroadcastthepressuredata
viaawirelessradiofrequencytransmittertocentralreceiver.Thedataisanalyzedandtheresultis
senttotheLCDdisplayinthevehicle.Thesesensorsfacetheproblemofexposuretotough
environmentswhichlimitstheirusefullifebecausemajorityofthemarepoweredbybatteries.We
wouldbemakinguseofthesensorsthatutilizeawirelesspowersystem,thissolvestheproblemof
limitedbatterylifebyelectromagneticinduction.
Apressuresensorusuallyactsatransducer,itgeneratesasignalasafunctionofthepressure
imposed.Thesensorsphysicallymeasurethepressureofthetiresandbroadcastthepressuredata
viaawirelessradiofrequencytransmittertocentralreceiver.Thedataisanalyzedandtheresultis
senttotheLCDdisplayinthevehicle.Thesesensorsfacetheproblemofexposuretotough
environmentswhichlimitstheirusefullifebecausemajorityofthemarepoweredbybatteries.We
wouldbemakinguseofthesensorsthatutilizeawirelesspowersystem,thissolvestheproblemof
limitedbatterylifebyelectromagneticinduction.
5.4SOLENOIDVALVE
Asolenoidvalveisanelectromechanicallyoperatedvalve.Thevalveiscontrolledbyanelectric
currentthroughasolenoid:inthecaseofatwoportvalvetheflowisswitchedonoroff.Solenoid

valvesarethemostfrequentlyusedcontrolelementsinfluidics.Theirtasksaretoshutoff,release,
dose,distributeormixfluids.Theyarefoundinmanyapplicationareas.Solenoidsofferfastandsafe
switching,highreliability,longservicelife,goodmediumcompatibilityofthematerialsused,low
controlpowerandcompactdesign.
Thesolenoidvalveinthisinstrumentalityisengineeredfortheregulationofairflowintothetubing
ofthetire.Itisessentialsoastocutofsupplyofairtothetireswhentheyhaveattainedtheir
maximuminflationpressure.Theelectricchargesuppliedfortheopeningandclosingofthevalve
willbesuppliedbythesensorswhorelaytheimpulsestotheECUtothetriggertheopeningorthe
closingofthevalves

Theforcerequiredfortheopeningorclosingofthesolenoidvalve

WHEREF=REQUIREDFORCETOOPENORCLOSETHESOLENOIDVALVE
P=PRESSUREOFCOMPRESSEDAIRFLOWINGINTOTHEVALVE
A=AREAOFTHEORIFICE
D=DIAMETEROFORIFICE=DIAMETEROFTUBINGS=0.5INCHES

1.ValveBody2.InletPort3.OutletPort4.Coil/Solenoid5.
CoilWindings6.LeadWires7.Plunger8.Spring9.Orifice
Themediacontrolledbythesolenoidvalve(inthiscasecompressedair)entersthevalvethroughthe
inletport(Part2intheillustrationabove).Themediamustflowthroughtheorifice(9)before
continuingintotheoutletport(3).Theorificeisclosedandopenedbytheplunger(7).Thevalve
picturedaboveisanormallyclosedsolenoidvalve.Normallyclosedvalvesuseaspring(8)which
pressestheplungertipagainsttheopeningoftheorifice.Thesealingmaterialatthetipofthe
plungerkeepsthemediafromenteringtheorifice,untiltheplungerisliftedupbyan
electromagneticfieldcreatedBYTHECOIL

5.5TUBING

Therearevarioustypesofairhosesincluding;rubberairhose,PVCairhose,polyurethane(PU)air
hose,andnylonairhose.Forourdesignpurposetherubberhoseispreferredovertheabove
mentioned.
Rubberhoseispreferredbecause;Itisflexibleinallweatherconditions,Itcanwithstandmore
physicalabusethantheothertypes,Itisalsoeasilyfoundinthemarket,Itischeapaddurable,It
uncoilseasilyunliketheothertypesthathappentobestiffer,Theyalsocanbeeasilyrepairedor
easilyreplaced
SpecificallywechoseVitonrubberbecause;itresistscorrosiveenvironments.Italsohasexceptional
resistancetoheat,aging,weather,ozone,oxygen,sunlight,solventschemicals,airdiffusionetc.
Goodflameresistance,hasatensilestrengthof8N/mm,withamaximumtemperaturerangeof
25/+200C
Insummary,thematerialisparticularlyheatresistantandresistanttooil,solventsandstrongacids
andcanalsowithstandmostweatherconditions.

6.0ELECTRONICALLYAUTOMATEDSYSTEM
Ourfinalproductpossessestheabilitytoautomaticallymaintainthecoldtirepressureinallfour
individualtiresofthevehiclethatitisinstalledon.Themainfunctionsoftheseelectronicsisto
takethepressuresensorreadingfromeachofthetires,andthendecidewhetherornottoinflate
themordeflatethemtoensurepropercoldtirepressure.
6.1OOPic
TheOOPicisthemaincomponentofourelectronicssystem.Essentially,anOOPicisanObject
OrientedPeripheralInterfaceMicroController.Thisallowsustomakevirtualcircuitsinasmall
chipsowecanlinklogicbetweenourdifferentobjects(compressor,pressuresensors,and
solenoidvalves).Figure19showsthedifferentcomponentsofanOOPicboard


ComponentsofanOOPicBoard
6.2ElectronicControlProgramDescription
ThelogicthatourOOPicneedstocontrolisquitebasic.Wehave13componentswhichweare
interfacingwith:aircompressor,(4)intirepressuresensors,(4)distributionblocksolenoidvalves,
(4)pressurereleasesolenoidvalves.

Figure20isaflowchartofthelogicstepsthatwewillbetakinginourprogram.Whentheprogram
startsup,thefirstthingthatitdoesischeckallofthetirepressures.Ifatleastoneofthetire
pressuresislow,itwillturnonthecompressor.Forthegivenlowpressuretire,thecorresponding
distributionblocksolenoidvalvewillopenallowingthetiretoinflate.Thisinflationprocesswill
continueuntilthepressuresensordetectsthatthetirehasreachedtheoptimalpressure;the
solenoidvalvewillthenclose.However,ifatirepressureistoohigh,thepressure

6.3RequiredHardwareInterface
WecannotcontroltheaircompressordirectlythroughtheOOPic.Thecompressormotorrequires
atleast12VDCand3AtooperateandtheOOPicsuppliesamaximumof5VDCand0.25A.Wecan
dealwiththisissuebyusingatwochannelamplifierthatamplifiesthepowerfromtheOOPicin
ordertooperatethemotor.WecanthenuseapulsewidthmodulationoutputfromtheOOPicas
thepositivereferenceinputontheamplifier.Pulsewidthmodulationisamethodpredefined
withintheOOPicthatallowsustospecifythevoltage(between0Vand5VDC)weoutputfromthe
OOPic.Whenweoutputa5VsignalfromtheOOPictheamplifierwillamplifya+12Vsignaland
turnthecompressoron.

Similarly,allofoursolenoidvalveswillrequire12VDCtoopen,andduetothecurrentdraw,we
cannotcontrolthecompressordirectlythroughtheOOPic.Howeverhavinganamplifierforall(8)
solenoidvalvesinoursystemwouldbetoocomplexandcostly.Thebetterroutetotakewouldbe
touserelaysforeachvalve.Arelayworkslikeanelectronicallytriggeredswitch.Whenitis
powered,itcompletesthecircuitand12VDCfromthepowersupply(carbattery)issentstraightto
thesolenoidvalvetoopenit.Whenthe12voltsisremovedfromthesolenoidvalve,it
automaticallycloses

ThetirepressuresensorwillbeinterfaceddirectlywiththeOOPic.Thecomponentcanbe
poweredbythe5VDCprovidedbytheOOPic.ThereisaspecialInput/OutputareaoftheOOPic
wherethepinsarearrangedsuchthatonerowofpinswillpoweradeviceandtakeaninputfrom
thedevice.However,wedonothavethespecificsontheparticularoutputreadingsofthetire
pressuremonitoringdevice.Optimally,wewouldhavealinearrelationshipbetweenthetire
pressurereadingandthedevicesoutputvoltage.

7.0ENGINEERINGANALYSIS

7.1PRESSUREREDUCTIONINSTRAIGHTLAYOUT
Forthepressuredropalongstraightlinesfromthecompressortoreliefvalveandsolenoidendto
axleterminal.Straightlayoutappearsabout18times,theequivalentpressuredropintheorificeis
givenas:

(HazenWillams/Blausius1845)

.
.

Where,
=pressuredrop(kg/m2)
Q=airvolumeflowatatmosphereconditions(m3/s)
L=lengthoftube(m)
d=insidediameteroftubing(.0635m)

CriticalPressureDropSections
Thefollowingpartshassignificantpressuregradient;
Pressureelevationdifference(variable)
Frictionalflowresultingfromairflowinthetubing:itwascalculatedtobe1.354psiforan
effectiverunof6.4m)
Frictionaldropintherelayvalve
Totalorificepressuregradientincontrolvalue:0.56psi
Totalrotaryassemblyairleakage(variableowningtoreplacementandvibrations)
Thecompressorportlinkingtube(~.37psi)

Fromthestatedfactorsandotherpressureconcentratedareathewillalwaysbelessthan
3psipressurereductionunderastableenvironmentalcondition.

7.2SHAFTSTRESSES
Thetheoryoftorsionalvibrationofcylindricalshaftisgivenas[KhurmiGupta,2006]:

Systemtorsionalfrequenciesfactorslikecouplingstiffness(331<BeAl<356kN/m2),change
inmassinertia;formaterialandforsize(inview).
SystemDampingtheelastomericelementaroundtheadapterplateaccountsforthis.Itis
about2030%ofthecriticaldampingratio.
TorqueExcitation:thisvarieswiththespeedvariationthefollowingtableshowsquick
illustrationforahypotheticalrotaryunion.

7.3STRESSCONCENTRATIONFACTORS
Theobjectiveofthisphaseisdoneviaforcevibrationanalysisateachmassandonthestresseson
eachshaft.ThevaluesderivedbyMichelin{MichelinMaterialindexHandbook,2007}.

Theshaftdimensionarebasedonthese,twist( )betweeneachmass,materialproperties,
andshaftdimensionsdefinestorsionalstress():
S=SCF

Where

S=stress,psi

D=minimumdiameter,inches

=twistbetweenadjacentmasses,radians

L=effectivelengthbetweenadjacentmasses,inches

G=shearmodulusofshaftmaterial,Ib/in2

SCF=stressconcentrationfactor(dimensionless)

WeusetheTorsiographtocarryoutthisexperimentwithseveraliterations.

7.3EVALUATEDDIAMETER
Formaximumtwistof30,stressof35psi,aneffectivelengthof15mand92.3GPamodulus
ofrigidity.Theminimumdiametermustbe
35
0.048

2
49

49.21
103

0.314

1.524

andusingforshaftsafetydesign(Beer&Johnston,2001)

3
32

Thevaluefactorofsafety,nisbetween3.54.0

0.75 2


8.0BUDGET
ELECTRICALCOMPONENTS
PartName

Part#

MSP430
DesignBoard
AirCompressor
CheckValve
PressureSwitch
SafetyValve
PressureGauge
SolenoidValve
PressureSensor

MSP
FET430U100
15101.02
6D917
5B419
5A708
5WZ11
6JJ52
MLH050PGP06A

Vendor
Texas
Instruments*
Tellico4x4.com
Grainger
Grainger
Grainger
Grainger
Grainger
DigiKey
total

Quantity

UnitPrice
()

1
1
1
1
1
2
4
2

6100.00
2750.00
1200.00
700.00
900.00
525.75
412.50
3600.00

Total()

6100.00
2750.00
1200.00
700.00
900.00
1051.50
412.50
3600.00
18076.50

MECHANICALCOMPONENTS
PartName
RotarySealAssembly
RodSqueezeSeals3"
RodSqueezeSeals13/4"
ShoulderBolt
Tubing

Part#
Vendor
NA
IMSMachining
9422K35 McMasterCarr
9422K29 McMasterCarr
2713B53 McMasterCarr
NA
McMasterCarr
total

Totalcostforthisprojectis26265.50

Quantity
4
4
4
16
8m

Unit
Price()
1108.25
375.00
251.50
132.50
235.00

Total()
4434.00
1500.00
1006.00
2120.00
1880.00
9059.00

CONCLUSION
SUMMARY
Thedynamicallyselfinflatingtiresystemwouldbecapableofsucceedingasanewproductinthe
automotivesupplierindustry.Itspecificallyaddressestheneedsoftheconsumersbymaintaining
appropriatetirepressureconditionsfor:

Increasedfueleconomy
Increasedoverallvehiclesafety
Reducedtirewear
Becausesuchaproductdoesnotcurrentlyexistforthemajorityofpassengervehicles,themarket
conditionswouldbefavourablefortheintroductionofaselfinflatingtiresystem.Throughextensive
engineeringanalysis,ithasalsobeendeterminedthattheselfinflatingtiresystemwouldactually
functionasdesired.Inparticular,theproductwouldbecapableof:
Providingsufficientairflowtothetirewithminimalleakage
Withstandingthestaticanddynamicloadingexertedontherotaryjoints
Notethatlikewise,thissystemwouldnotproduceanynegativedynamiceffects(suchasCVjoint
failureduetoresonance)onsurroundingsystems.
Mostsignificantly,theselfinflatingtiresystemwouldbeasuccessfulproductbecauseofits
economicbenefitstoinvestors.Specifically,thefinalproductwould:
Sellatabout$900/unit,withtotalfirstyearprofitandsalesofnearly$2.1millionand58,000
units,respectively
Experience12%annualmarketgrowtheachyearforthefirstfiveyearsoftheproduct,
bringingtotalsalesupto370,000units
Breakevenonthecapitalinvestmentinjustunderthreeyears
Forfurtherdevelopmentofthisproduct,werecommendincreasingthecapabilityofthesystemby
addingthefollowingfeatures:
Pressureadjustmentbasedonincreasingvehiclespeed
Pressureadjustmentbasedonincreasingvehicleload
Adaptabilityforrecreationaluse(inflatingrafts,sportsballs,etc.)
Implementationofinteractivedisplay
Creationofuniversaldesignforaftermarketuse

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