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Word of the Day

Clean Label or Natural
FDAs Definition:
From a food science perspective, it is difficult to define a food product that is 'natural' because
the food has probably been processed and is no longer the product of the earth. That said, FDA
has not developed a definition for use of the term natural or its derivatives. However, the
agency has not objected to the use of the term if the food does not contain added color,
artificial flavors, or synthetic substances.

Figure 1.1

Taste & Enjoyment

Most important factor when selecting food
10,000 + taste buds
High affinity for certain aspects which begin in infancy
Sweet and salty
These preferences are hard to change
Current industry is developing sodium alternative

Culture & Environment

Cultural aspects are influenced by several factors:
Drought vs. flooding conditions affect everything from produce to animals
Soil conditions
Native plants and animals
Proximity to rivers, lakes, and the sea
Environmental cues
Number of people, color of the area, lighting, size of plates and glasses, packaging of foods

Social Life and Trends

The more people present, the more people are likely to consume
Holiday meals and social events
Current trends:
Clean labels
Farmers market/ buying local
Gluten Free
Cage Free
Grass Fed

Body Image
Current state of health and body image influence:
current knowledge of industry buzz words
Overall perception of food
Health status
Supplement industry is a billion dollar industry
Millions have gym memberships


Media images

Advertising & Media

10-15 billion dollar industry
Majority spent on cereals, soft drinks, candy, and gum
Research has proven the effectiveness of ads especially the young
Saturday mornings= over half of all commercials involve ads on food with over 40% involving
candy, cereals, chips, and soft drinks
Got Milk campaign
Recent shift in awareness of healthy eating habits
Healthy food as super heroes
plug-ins in popular cartoons

Time, Convenience, & Cost

Shift of women in the workforce
30 minutes or less
Increase in processed foods, ready-to-eat, and partially cooked items
Eating out more
25% of food budget spent on eating out in the 70s
NOW closer to %50 of food budget
Consequently cheaper foods are not the healthiest
Specifically see higher prices on WG products and produce

Habits & Emotions

Daily routine affects the when, where, and what we eat
Do you eat breakfast?
Do you eat 1 meal a day vs. 3 meals a day/
Do you pack a lunch or eat out?
Do you eat in front of the TV?
Current emotional state
Stress eaters
eat more/less in a depressed state
Emotional crutch


What is Nutrition?
The study of food and nutrients and their affect on body functions and overall health
The study of how food nourishes the body from digestion, absorption, transportation,
metabolism, and storage
Study of how macro and micronutrients are used in the body
Relationship between nutrition and health is constantly evolving


Classification of Nutrients
6 nutrients found in body and in foods:
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
Nutrients = compounds in foods that sustain body processes.
Non-nutrients = compounds in foods that dont fit into the 6 classes of nutrients
Apart of the food or added


Essential vs. Non-essential

Essential= Must come from the diet in order to sustain the bodys needs
Non-Essential= Can be made in adequate amounts within the body


Macronutrients vs. Micronutrients

Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins: energy yielding nutrients because digesting them creates fuel
for the bodys activities
They are macro because we need them in larger quantities
Water is included but not energy yielding
Vitamins and minerals
Just as important but needed in smaller amounts


Energy Yielding Nutrients

Carbohydrates, fats, and lipids
Carbohydrates= 4 kilocalories/gm
Proteins= 4 kilocalories/gm
Fats=9 kilocalories/gm
Alcohol= 7 kilocalories/gm
Can alcohol provide energy?
Yes but it is not needed for a specific body process
Can live without alcohol


How is Energy Measured in Food?

Kilocalorie= the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of food 1 degree Celsius
Bomb Calorimeter= instrument that measures the heat energy released when food is burned,
providing an estimate of the potential energy in foods
The body is not as efficient as a calorimeter and nutrient databases and tables are estimates



Carbs= 4 kcal/gm
Protein= 4 kcal/gm
Fat= 9 kcal/gm
An individuals energy needs depends on:
Age, sex, activity level, current weight and body composition
Unused energy will be stored for later use
Consume vs. expend?


Lets Practice
Cheese pizza= 15 gm fat, 11 gm protein, 38 gm carbs
How many kcals come from each macronutrient?
Fat=135, Protein=44, Carbs=152
What is the total kcal content of the slice of pizza?
331 kilocalories
What percentage is from fat?


Nutrient Roles Figure 1.3



The US Diet
What it is low in:
Fiber, Calcium, Vitamin D and E
Low consumption of vegetables
What it is high in:
Overall calories, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium
Processed foods, eating out, and potion distortion
Fix the problem with supplementation and fortification


Table 1.1


Surgeon Generals Call to Action

U.S. Dept. HHS 10 year agenda to improve nations health
Research and evidence based objectives targeted for public health prevention initiatives
Topic areas: