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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

RATE OF REACTION

A measurement of the change in the QUANTITY of REACTANT or PRODUCT against TIME.

𝐶𝑕𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡


𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛

REACTIONS

FAST REACTIONS SLOW REACTIONS

Combustion Rusting of Iron


Heating metal in air/O2 Reaction take place very slowly
2Mg + O2  2MgO with presence O2 and H2O.

Precipitation Photosynthesis
AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNo3 Reaction slowly with presence
CO2, Light and Chlorophyl.
Gas Liberating
2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2 Fermentation
Preparation of alcohol, take
place within 2 – 3 days.
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OBSERVABLE CHANGES CAN BE MEASURED

Changes Mass of Product

Changes Mass of Reactant Formation of precipitate

Observable
Changes
Increasing volume of gas Change in pH,
release temperature or electrical
conductivity

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

MEASURING THE RATE OF REACTION

Average Rate of Reaction

𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡/𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡


Average Rate of Reaction =
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑠
Volume /cm3

Average rate of reaction at t1


𝑉1 − 0 𝑐𝑚3
=
𝑡1 − 0 𝑠
V2

V1
Average rate of reaction between t1 and t2
𝑉2 − 𝑉1 𝑐𝑚3
=
𝑡2 − 𝑡1 𝑠
t1 t2 time /s

Instantaneous Rate of Reaction


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Volume , cm3

The rate of reaction at t1 second


y
= The gradient of tangent to the curve at
the given time.
∆𝑦 𝑐𝑚3
=
x ∆𝑥 𝑠

t1 Time / s

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION

Temperature
Size of Reactant
of Reactant

FACTORS

Concentration Pressure
of Reactant of Reactant

Catalyst

SIZE
When size of reactants decrease, the total surface area of reactant will increase.
Time taken for reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher.

CONCENTRATION
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When concentration of reactants increase, the higher number of particles per unit
volume.
Will cause time taken to finished the reaction become lesser. Rate of reaction is
higher.

TEMPERATURE
When temperature of reactants increase, kinetic energy of particles increase.
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

PRESSURE (only for gas)


When pressure increase kinetic energy of particles increase.
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

CATALYST
When using catalyst, it will provide alternative pathway to complete the reaction
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

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