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Elements, Compounds, Bonds

I) All Organisms are composed of matter =anything that takes up
space and has mass
Mass= Amount of matter in an object
Weight = How strongly it is pulled by gravity
A) Element= Substance that can’t be broken down into other
substances
1. Around 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life
2. Only 4 make up 96% of living matter: Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen and Nitrogen
B) Compound= Substance made of two or more elements combined in
a fixed ratio
Example: NaCl=1:1
H2O- 2:1
C) Energy= Ability to do work
1. Potential energy = Energy stored by matter
a. Is there more energy in a candy bar or a piece of wood?
A loaf of bread?
2. Electrons store energy due to their position in relation to the
nucleus
3. When electrons move from an orbital to another that’s further
from the nucleus energy is released
II) 4 chemical bonds important in biology
A) 2 relatively strong ones:
1. Covalent= 2 atoms sharing valence electrons
2. Ionic= 2 atoms with a strongly unequal attraction end up with
one stripping the electron from another
a. Sodium Chloride (NaCl): Sodium has 1 electron in its
outer shell and Chlorine has 7. The Chlorine takes the
e- from Sodium
B) Two comparatively weak bonds
1. Hydrogen: A Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an
electronegative atom is also attracted to another
2. Van der Waals: ‘Hot spots’ of positive and negative charge
due to non-symmetrical distribution of electrons. Allows
atoms and molecules to stick together.

hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together 1. Shape is important. Inside ridges are hairs with tiny projections at tip (increases surface area) so many contacts that van der waal attractions between surface and hairs will support gecko. Polar Molecule 1.Determines how molecules recognize and respond with specificity 1. Determined by position of atom’s orbitals and a combination of molecular attractions and repulsions Example: O2 is linear H2O is not B.a. Water is cohesive. Water also has strong surface tension a. Allows gecko to climb ‘smooth’ surfaces. it sticks to other things 3. Each water molecule can form bonds to four neighbors B. Because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. It’s why morphine and heroin work – they mimic endorphins Properties of Water I) Water . 2. Water is also adhesive. At interface between liquid water and air is an ordered arrangement of hydrogen bonded molecules b. Cohesion/ adhesion allows plants to move water against gravity (more later) . Only complementary shapes will bind to each other with weak bonds Example: Endorphins (natural signal molecules) bind to specific receptors on the surface of the brain cells. the espends more time close to the oxygen. III) Molecular shape A.produces Euphoria and pain relief. The partial charges mean that the hydrogen of one molecule will be attracted to the oxygen on another (hydrogen bond).Life began in water and evolved there for 3 billion years before moving onto land A.(have complementary shape). Result: Oxygen has a partial negative charge and hydrogen has a partial positive charge. Holds together fairly strongly 2. Other molecules with a similar shape will do the same thing.

and gas b. Ice Floats 1. Water has a high specific heat 2. a ph of 5 is 10 times more acidic than a ph of 6 D) Acid rain (rain. Water is the solvent of life 1. Versatile solvent due to its polarity a. Water also has a high heat of vaporization a. oil. For example. oceans and lakes don’t freeze solid a. Mostly from burning of fossil fuels. As temp approaches 0oC the water becomes locked in a crystalline lattice.6) 1) Caused by Sulfur and Nitrogen oxides in atmosphere a. the surface of the liquid cools down. Solar heat is absorbed near equator. or fog with a pH lower than 5. ’Hottest’ molecules (with most kinetic energy) most likely to leave as a gas b. coal. Water reaches it maximum density at 4oC. Common in East to burn coal to produce electricity/ heat (lots of sulfur in coal) . Therefore. Tropical air circulated toward poles. High specific heat means that water resists temperature change when it absorbs or loses heat 4. water evaporates. releases heat as it condenses (rain) D. E. As a liquid evaporates. Hydrogen bonds keep molecules apart > less dense > ice floats Acids and Bases A) Water dissociates (comes apart) B) Acids and Bases 1) Acid is a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution 2) A base is a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration C) pH scale 1) The pH scale goes from 1 (acidic) to 14 (basic) and each level is 10 times the previous level. snow.C. The partial charges will be attracted to the opposite charges on any polar molecule and pull that molecule apart.

3 3) Most of damage is to life in streams and lakes a. Also affects plants due to leaching of soil buffers essential to growth and increasing the concentrations of acid soluble minerals poisonous to plant life .2) Wind carries pollutants so acid rain may fall hundreds of miles from source a. In some parts of East rain fall averaged pH 4.