gas piping

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gas piping

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- Hamyar Energy NFPA 69 - 2002
- explosion-venting-requirements.pdf
- EXPLOSION.pdf
- NFPA 68_ Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting.pdf
- Vent Sizing (61-65)
- En 14491-2006 Dust Explosion Venting Protective Systems
- NFPA 72 - National Fire Alarm Code
- NFPA 654
- Volumes of Revolution
- SSC 4-09-2011
- FM Data Sheet 8-9
- 97297142 Additional Mathematics Project Work Popcorn Kl 2012
- MODUL2 JPNT
- Units of Measurement
- teoria calculos.pdf
- BHR 2011 TOTAL
- Cuesta - Activity 3
- Lesson Plan Density
- Home Decorating
- Tutorial 8 - Handout

You are on page 1of 99

6/5/2007 Added disclaimer

6/13/2007 Corrected errors in Partial volume calculation for Enclosures. Added calculation of top-down and bottom up when

7/2/2007 Corrected error in volume calculation for cylindrical hoppers.

7/3/2007 Corrected spherical vessel to show L/D always 1. Changed all L/D calculation formulae to allow calculating L/D<1

11/2/2007 Updated comments to reflect TIA Task Group modification of limits on Threshold Mass Equation

2/12/2008 Updated High Strength Dust solver cell formula per comments received. No change in results.

4/21/2008 Added notes in L/D tab to explain top-mounted vent application.

7/8/2008 Added guidance in Dust Enclosures tab describing duct diameter used for calculation and maximum 1.5 times are

7/29/2008 Changed L/D tab note 3) to correctly state that total enclosure volume is used for vent sizing with a single vent, no

Added new Note 4) to address multiple vents along central axis and renumbered subsequent notes.

Added check of Bottom-Up vs Top-Down total enclosure volume

Added check of calculated vent area versus effective area (cross-section for round or square enclosures)

10/29/2008 Revised L_D tab description of top-Down and Bottom-Up calculations to clarify.

Added a check for zero length above top-mounted vent in L_D tab so it eliminated div/zero error in Aeff calculation

11/26/2008 Corrected Partial Volume formula in Dust-Bldgs tab so Av4 equals Av3 when fill fraction is greater than 1 (was alre

Modified Partial Volume formula in Annex Vent Panel Inertia tab to highlight that Av3 is not used in that method

Added YES/NO selection for evenly distributed vents in High Str Gas and Dust Building tabs. Enclosure tabs use

6/1/2009 Add conditional restraint to VDI High Strength Gas equation. If Pstat is <0.1 bar, the second term in the equation

1. Green highlighted cells are for input

2. Yellow highlighted cells are calculated from other inputs

3. Purple highlighted cells are for copying and pasting from the L/D tab into the other tabs using Paste-Sp

4. Red highlighted cells appear in some places when a calculated value is out of allowed bounds. This is

1/22/2013 Add 2012 Equations with Rota calculation of Lambda based on Radius (as in original paper)

p-down and bottom up when vent is in side (pick longest L/Dhe). Added spherical vessel L/D. Corrected calculation of vented volume to be

sizing with a single vent, no matter where vent is placed.

equent notes.

square enclosures)

n is greater than 1 (was already correct in Dust-Enclosures tab)

s not used in that method

g tabs. Enclosure tabs use L/D tab for input, but building tabs otherwise assume venting at one end of longest dimension.

econd term in the equation is set equal to zero (not allowed to be negative)

allowed bounds. This is not yet universal.

ginal paper)

ulation of vented volume to be entire section volume, not Veff (Veff is only used to determine the worst case L/D to the vent location)

t dimension.

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a

NFPA 68-2007 Evaluate L/D for Equipment Shapes

Calculate the Vent Area for each section of the Enclosure or for the whole enclosure

Notes:

1)

The original printed version of the annex inserts the incorrect diameter of the conical hopper top into the eq

2)

Placing a single vent somewhere along the central axis does not change the volume to be vented, but changes the

3)

When a single vent is used, the volume to use in the vent area equations is the entire enclosure volume, no

4)

When multiple vents are placed along the central axis, the volume to use in the vent area equations is the s

5)

When subdividing along original central axis, at the point the section Length equals Dhe, then L/D=1.

6)

Closer placement of vents does not reduce L/D or change the orientation of the axis, since the subdivision

7)

When vents are placed such that L/D is less than or equal to 2, there is no further reduction in required vent area/se

8)

For Dust Collectors, if the Volume between bags is considered, then look at a top-down height and calculate a smal

Rectangular Vessels with 1 Vent at end of section (no hopper extension)

Length

Width 1

Width 2

Volume

2 meters

The longest distance from one end of the vessel to the opposite end of the vent.

2 meters

(Measured along central axis)

2 meters

8 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the

opposite end of the vent.

H

Aeff

2 meters

4 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape

p

Dhe

8 meters

2 meters

L/D

Length (H)

2 meters

Volume (V)

8 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

4 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

2 meters

Rectangular Vessels with Rectangular Hopper Extension

Calculate L/D for Bottom-up Flame Propogation

Volume above Top of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)

Length

1 meters

The distance from the top of the vessel to the top of the vent.

Width a2

1.8 meters

Dimension of straight side

Width b2

1.5 meters

Dimension of opposite straight side

Volume

2.7 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Section above the vent

If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B47 should be set to zero.

Length

3 meters

The distance from the top end of the vent to the top end of the Rectangular Hopper.

Width a2

1.8 meters

Dimension of straight side

Width b2

1.5 meters

Dimension of opposite straight side

Volume

8.1 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Section

If no Hopper, then B57 should be set to zero.

Height h

2 meters

The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Rectangular Hopper

Width a1

0.5 meters

Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B48)

Width b1

0.3 meters

Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B49)

Volume

2.33 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the

opposite end of the vent.

H

Veff

Aeff

5 meters

10.43 cubic meters

2.086 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Dhe

1.58215 meters

1.318459 meters

5.801218 meters

1.438319 meters

L/D

3.476281 Bottom-up

If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B81 should be set to zero.

Length

2.5 meters

The distance from the top of the vessel to the bottom of the vent (estimated 2.5 from picture).

Width a2

1.8 meters

Dimension of straight side

Width b2

1.5 meters

Dimension of opposite straight side

Volume

6.75 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Section above the vent

Volume below Bottom of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)

Length

1.5 meters

The distance from the bottom of the vent to the top of the Rectangular Hopper.

Width a2

1.8 meters

Dimension of straight side

Width b2

1.5 meters

Dimension of opposite straight side

Volume

4.05 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Section

If no Hopper, then B91 should be set to zero.

Height h

2 meters

The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Rectangular Hopper

Width a1

0.5 meters

Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B82)

Width b1

0.3 meters

Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B83)

Volume

2.33 cubic meters

Volume of Rectangular Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the

opposite end of the vent.

H

Veff

Aeff

2.5 meters

6.75 cubic meters

2.7 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Dhe

1.8 meters

1.5 meters

6.6 meters

1.636364 meters

L/D

1.527778 Top-Down

Determine Worst-Case (either Top-Down or Bottom-up) for L/D (H/Dhe), Total Volume is the same

L/D(max) 3.476281 Bottom-up

Summary Block for Copying values

Length (H)

5 meters

Volume (V)

13.13 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

2.086 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

1.438319 meters

13.13 cubic meters

Length

Diameter

Volume

4.5 meters

2.01 meters

14.27889 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.

H

Aeff

4.5 meters

3.173087 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape

Dhe

L/D

2.01 meters

2.238806

Length (H)

4.5 meters

Volume (V)

14.27889 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

3.173087 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

2.01 meters

Cylindrical Vessels with Conical Hopper Extension

Calculate L/D for Bottom-up Flame Propogation

Volume above Top of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)

The distance from the top of the vessel to the top of the vent.

Length

2 meters

Diam 1

1.8 meters

Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section

Volume

5.08938 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Section

If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B149 should be set to zero.

Length

2 meters

The distance from the top of the vent to the top end of the Conical Hopper.

Diam 1

1.8 meters

Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section

Volume

5.08938 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Section

If no Hopper, then B157 should be set to zero.

Height h

2 meters

The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Conical Hopper

Diam 2

0.5 meters

Diameter at bottom of Conical Hopper

Volume

2.298599 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the

opposite end of the vent.

H

Veff

Aeff

4 meters

7.387979 cubic meters

1.846995 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper

Dhe

1.533514 meters

L/D

2.608387 Bottom-Up

If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B179 should be set to zero.

Length

3.5 meters

The distance from the top of the vessel to the bottom of the vent (estimated from picture)

Diam 1

1.8 meters

Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section

Volume

8.906415 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Section

Volume below Bottom of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)

The distance from the bottom of the vent to the top end of the Conical Hopper.

Length

0.5 meters

Diam 1

1.8 meters

Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section

Volume

1.272345 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Section

Height h

2 meters

The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Conical Hopper

Diam 2

0.5 meters

Diameter at bottom of Conical Hopper

Volume

2.298599 cubic meters

Volume of Cylindrical Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the

opposite end of the vent.

H

Veff

Aeff

3.5 meters

8.906415 cubic meters

2.54469 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper

Dhe

L/D

1.8 meters

1.944444 Top-Down

Determine Worst-Case (either Top-Down or Bottom-up) for L/D (H/Dhe), Total Volume is the same

L/D(max) 2.608387 Bottom-Up

Summary Block for Copying values

Length (H)

4 meters

Volume (V)

12.47736 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

1.846995 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

1.533514 meters

12.47736 cubic meters

Diameter

Volume

2 meters

4.18879 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.

H

Aeff

2 meters

2.094395 sq meters

Dhe

2 meters

L/D

Length (H)

2 meters

Volume (V)

4.18879 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

2.094395 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

2 meters

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

o be vented, but changes the effective worst/case L/D correction.

entire enclosure volume, no matter where the vent is placed.

vent area equations is the section volume (Veff).

he, then L/D=1.

axis, since the subdivision is only virtual walls, not real ones.

uction in required vent area/section volume.

n height and calculate a smaller Dhe, larger L/D for the bag section.

Rectangular Hopper.

ngular Hopper.

onical Hopper.

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a

NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Buildings - Low Strength Method

Low Strength Method limited to Su of 60 and KG of 130

Room Dimensions

Length

7.5 meters

Width

3 meters

Height

4 meters

Volume

90 cubic meters

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Ethanol

Su

54

41

56

KG

83

75

78

Floor

22.5 meters

Roof

22.5 meters

Walls

84 meters

As

129 square meters

Material

Su

KG

Alcohol/Methanol

(Methanol worse than acetone) Su is the Fundamental Burning Velocity, KG is the Deflagrati

56 cm/sec from NFPA-68 annex

If KG not available, estimate from Su as below and enter at l

75 bar-m/sec from NFPA-68 annex

Su 2

Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 fo

K G 2 K G1

Su1

KG

-5

C factor

-4

0.068927

Av

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the explosion and must be less th

C As

1

Pred2

Pred

Assumed 100 psf = 0.04788 bar

Pred

0.04788 bar

Av

US

Metric =

100 psf

0.04788 bar

Pstat (max)

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent and must be at least 0.024 bar (0.35 psi) bar less than Pred

Pstat

0.02388 bar

The specific value of Pstat is not used in this correlation.

central axis flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.

H

Aeff

7.5 meters

12 sq meters

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape

p

Dhe

14 meters

3.428571 meters

L/D

2.1875

Inertia Correction for Materials with KG < 130 bar-m/sec and Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2

Correction for inertia is limited to KG < 130 bar-m/sec and panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then

If Av is larger than the exterior wall of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls an

make them stronger.

n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula

MT

0.2

red

n

0.3

V

0.5

KG

429.903 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

M

40 kg/m^2

US

8 lb/sq ft

If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente

Metric =

39.1 kg/m^2

Ai Av

A

Av

0.2

n 0.3 V Pred

0 sq meters

40.6 sq meters

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

om Su as below and enter at left:

Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 for propane

crease the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a

NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Buildings - High Strength Method

Room Dimensions

Length

6.91896 meters

Width

6.30936 meters

Height

4.48056 meters

Volume

195.5953 cubic meters

Internal Surface Area for Flat Walls and Ceiling

Floor

43.65421 meters

Roof

43.65421 meters

Walls

118.5406 meters

As

205.849 square meters

Material

KG

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Ethanol

Hydrogen

KG

83

75

78

550

Su 2

Su1

K G 2 K G1

Propane

100 bar-m/sec from NFPA-68 annex

Su

54

41

56

Su

KG

0 bar-m/sec estimated from NFPA-68

Pred

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the explosion and must be less than the room wall strength.

The high strength method is intended for use at building design pressures of greater than 0.1 bar.

Assumed 313 psf = 0.15 bar

Pred

0.1 bar

US

Metric =

313 psf

0.149865 bar

Pstat

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent and must be > 0.1 bar and at least 0.05 bar less than Pred

Assumed 209 psf = 0.10 bar

Pstat

0.05 bar

US

Metric =

209 psf

0.10007 bar

A0=[(0.127 Log KG - 0.0567)*Pred^(-0.582) + 0.175 Pred^(-0.572)*(Pstat-0.1)]V^(2/3)

A0= 25.3921 Sq.Meters

where

Limits

KG=

100 Bar M/sec

<550

Pred=

0.1 Bar

<2

Pstat=

0.05 Bar

<0.5

If Red, Pstat is <0.1 and the formula is being used outside VDI bounds

V=

### Cu.Meters <1000

When Pstat is <0.1, that part of formula is set to "zero"

Determine L/D

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis

flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.

H

6.91896 meters

Aeff

28.26947 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape

p

21.57984 meters

Dhe

5.239977 meters

L/D

L/D Correction

If L/D exceeds 2, a vent area correction is added

A=A0* [KG (L/D-2)^2]/750

A= 0.0000 Sq.Meters

where

Limits

A0= 25.3921

KG=

100 Bar M/sec

L/D=

1 No Dimensions

A1=A0 + A

A1= 25.3921 Sq.Meters

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KG limit of the basic equation (i.e. KG=5

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.

exterior wall of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, tha

n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula

MT

0.2

red

n

0.3

V

0.5

KG

1580.734 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

M

40 kg/m^2

US

8 lb/sq ft

If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente

Metric =

39.1 kg/m^2

Ai Av

A

Av

0.2

n 0.3 V Pred

0 sq meters

25.3921 sq meters

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on

the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,

such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below:

YES

Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 for propane

om NFPA-68 annex

c estimated from NFPA-68

wall strength.

formula is set to "zero"

walls and floor Pred values, that is make them stronger.

the longest dimension,

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the m

NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method

Enclosure Section Dimensions

(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

Volume (V)

Area (Aeff)

Diameter (Dhe)

4.5 meters

14.27889 cubic meters

3.173087 square meters

2.01 meters

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Ethanol

Hydrogen

If KG not available, estimate

Su 2

Su1

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

Material

K G 2 K G1

Su

KG

Hydrogen

KG

Pred

Pstat

0.19252 bar

0.1 bar<Pred<2 bar

0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5

0.1 bar

US

Metric =

313

0.149865

A0=[(0.127 Log KG - 0.0567)*Pred^(-0.582) + 0.175 Pred^(-0.572)*(Pstat-0.1)]V^(2/3)

A0= 4.4731 Sq.Meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

L/D Correction

L/D

2.238806

L/D<5

If L/D exceeds 2, a vent area correction is added

A=A0* [KG (L/D-2)^2]/750

A= 0.1871 Sq.Meters

A1=A0 + A

A1=

4.6602 Sq.Meters

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KG limit of the basic equation (i.e. KG=5

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.

of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make th

n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula

MT

0 .2

red

n

0.3

V

0.5

KG

5.99021 kg/m^2

5.99021 kg/m^2

1.67

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

M

40 kg/m^2

US

8 lb/sq ft

If panel density is in US units, enter here

Metric =

39.1 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Ai Av

A

Av

0.2

n 0.3 V Pred

0.729949 sq meters

5.3901 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.

This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

YES/NO

2.619721 meters

Rectangular Duct

Y

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

Chosen Duct Dhe

2.84345 meters

1.895634 meters

9.478168 meters

2.27476 meters

2.27476 meters

Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct

Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters

0.923174

PredGoal=

0.3 bar

P'red=

P'red= 0.19252 bar

For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4

P'red= 0.01672 bar

0.19252 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and

VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

e user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data

Su

54

41

56

Isopropanol

KG

83

75

78

550

Su 2

Su1

K G 2 K G1

0 bar-m/sec estimated from NFPA-68

psf

bar

or Pred values, that is make them stronger.

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the

NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - Low Strength Method

Room Dimensions

Length

Width

Height

Volume

7.3152 meters

7.3152 meters

3.6576 meters

195.72604 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless n

the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will

such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below

No

Floor

53.512151 meters

Roof

53.512151 meters

Walls

107.0243 meters

As

214.0486 square meters

Area for Rectangular Building

L1

3.6576 meters

L2

7.3152 meters

Cross Section Aeff

26.756076 square meters

Wetted Perimeter

21.9456 meters

Dhe

4.8768 meters

Enter next smallest dimension here

Enter Appropriate Building Values For Enclosure Dimensions below (Copy and Paste Special - Values)

Longest dimension is length

Two smallest dimensions determine Area (cross-sectional area)

Wetted Perimeter is the sum of linear dimensions around the cross-section

Diameter (Dhe) is 4 x Area/Wetted Perimeter

(see Above to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

7.3152 meters

Volume (V)

195.72604 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

26.756076 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

4.8768 meters

Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

Basic Enclosure and Vent Information

Pred

Pstat

0.6 bar-g

0 bar-g

NOT USED in LOW STRENGTH

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Methane

Hydrogen

Propane

P0

Cd

Pa

0 bar-g

intial pressure in the enclosure

0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse

0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material

Su

Pmax

Xst

u

au

u

b

Gu

Propane

0.46 m/sec

7.9 bar-g

US

0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air

Metric =

1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less

343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m 3 for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

GUESS Av

Difference

0.0000 square meters

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga

Default Parameters

1

2

0.39

1.23

0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

uv

200000 Pred Pa

if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise

u

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v

u

Rev

4.65E+07

1.8467

0=

5.7858

1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter

2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists

3. The surface area of stairways and railings

4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c

Aobs

Aobs/As

0 square meters

0

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )

1=

5.7858

L/D Correction to

L/D

1.5000

L/D<5

If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.

D

1 (1

1 )

2.5

5.7858

Determine C

Deminimus value of C

S u u Pmax 1

C

2Gu Cd P0 1

1

b

1

1 P0 1 2

C-demin = 0.059351

C= 0.0564317

Determine Av0

Av0=

15.5941 Sq.Meters

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas

Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter

Xr= 9.289422

= 0.0759494

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Av1=

Xr

1

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.

the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them

n

1 number of panels

0 .2

Pred

n 0.3 V

MT

0.5

Su

Mformula

MT

1.67

2500.228 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.

M

Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2

N YES/NO

US

Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su

Av 2 Av1 FSH 1

0. 2

n0.3 V Pred

2 lb/sq ft

9.8 kg/m^2

0.5

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

(0.05) M 0.6 Su

Av 2 Av1 FSH 1

0. 2

n0.3 V Pred

FSH

0.5

Av

15.5941 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.

This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO

4.455896 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

4.836438 meters

3.224292 meters

16.12146 meters

3.869151 meters

3.8691505 meters

Lduct

Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters

0.5427548

PredGoal=

0.2 bar

P'red= 0.120236 bar

For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4

P'red= 0.007626 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and

VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

ab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on

st dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,

, enter YES in the cell below:

Example Data

Isopropanol

Su

0.54

0.41

0.56

0.4

3.12

0.46

Pmax

7.8

6.8

7.9

313 psf

0.149865 bar

for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

pending on the gas mixture

ed values, that is make them stronger.

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the

NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - Low Strength Method

Enclosure Section Dimensions

(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

7.3152 meters

Volume (V)

195.72604 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

26.756076 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

4.8768 meters

Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Methane

Hydrogen

Propane

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

Basic Enclosure and Vent Information

Pred

Pstat

P0

Cd

Pa

0.6 bar-g

If Pred > 0.5 bar, use High Strength Method

0 bar-g

NOT USED in LOW STRENGTH

0 bar-g

intial pressure in the enclosure

0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse

0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material

Su

Pmax

Xst

u

au

u

b

Gu

Propane

0.46 m/sec

7.9 bar-g

US

0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air

Metric =

1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less

343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m 3 for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

GUESS Av

Difference

0.0000 square meters

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga

Default Parameters

1

2

0.39

1.23

0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

200000 Pred Pa

if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise

u

uv

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v

u

Rev

4.65E+07

1.8467

0=

5.7858

1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter

2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists

3. The surface area of stairways and railings

4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c

Aobs

Aobs/As

0 square meters

0

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )

1=

L/D Correction to

5.7858

L/D

1.5000

L/D<5

If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.

2

D

1 (1

1 )

2.5

5.7858

Determine C

Deminimus value of C

S Pmax 1

C u u

2Gu Cd P0 1

1

b

1

1 P0 1 2

C-demin = 0.059351

C= 0.0564317

Determine Av0

Av0=

15.5941 Sq.Meters

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas

Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter

Xr= 9.289422

= 0.0759494

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Av1=

Xr

1

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.

the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them

n

1 number of panels

0 .2

Pred

n 0.3 V

MT

0.5

Su

Mformula

MT

1.67

2500.228 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.

M

Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2

N YES/NO

US

Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su

Av 2 Av1 FSH 1

0. 2

n0.3 V Pred

FSH

Av

8 lb/sq ft

39.1 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

1

15.5941 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.

This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO

4.455896 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

Chosen Duct Dhe

4.836438 meters

3.224292 meters

16.12146 meters

3.869151 meters

3.8691505 meters

Lduct

Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters

0.5427548

PredGoal=

0.3 bar

P'red= 0.19252 bar

For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4

P'red= 0.01672 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and

VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data

Isopropanol

Su

0.54

0.41

0.56

0.4

3.12

0.46

Pmax

7.8

6.8

7.9

313 psf

0.149865 bar

for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

pending on the gas mixture

ed values, that is make them stronger.

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the

NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method

Room Dimensions

Length

Width

Height

Volume

7.3152 meters

7.3152 meters

3.6576 meters

195.72604 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless n

the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will

such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below

No

Floor

53.512151 meters

Roof

53.512151 meters

Walls

107.0243 meters

As

214.0486 square meters

Area for Rectangular Building

L1

L2

Cross Section Aeff

Wetted Perimeter

Dhe

3.6576 meters

7.3152 meters

26.756076 square meters

21.9456 meters

4.8768 meters

Enter next smallest dimension here

Enter Appropriate Building Values For Enclosure Dimensions below (Copy and Paste Special - Values)

Longest dimension is length

Two smallest dimensions determine Area (cross-sectional area)

Wetted Perimeter is the sum of linear dimensions around the cross-section

Diameter (Dhe) is 4 x Area/Wetted Perimeter

(see Above to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

7.3152 meters

Volume (V)

195.72604 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

26.756076 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

4.8768 meters

Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

Basic Enclosure and Vent Information

Pred

Pstat

0.6 bar-g

0.1 bar-g

0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Methane

Hydrogen

Propane

P0

Cd

Pa

0 bar-g

intial pressure in the enclosure

0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse

0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material

Su

Pmax

Xst

u

au

u

b

Gu

Propane

0.46 m/sec

7.9 bar-g

US

0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air

Metric =

1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less

343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m3 gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at

1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

GUESS Av

Difference

0.0000 square meters

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga

Default Parameters

1

2

0.39

1.23

0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

uv

200000 Pred Pa

if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise

u

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v

u

Rev

4.70E+07

1.8489

0=

5.7928

1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter

2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists

3. The surface area of stairways and railings

4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c

Aobs

Aobs/As

89 square meters

0.4157934

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )

1=

5.8843

L/D Correction to

L/D

1.5000

L/D<5

If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.

2

D

1 (1

1 )

2.5

5.8843

Determine

( Pstat 1)

( P0 1)

( Pmax 1)

1/ b

1 b

( P0 1)

= 0.0151809

Determine Av0

Av 0

As

1 Pred 1

P 1

max

P 1

S

u u

Gu Cd

Av 0

1 Pred 1

P 1

max

As

Pred 1

Pmax 1

S

u u

Gu Cd

Av0=

15.9559 Sq.Meters

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas

Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter

Xr= 9.289422

= 0.0759494

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Av1=

Xr

1

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.

the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them

n

1 number of panels

0 .2

Pred

n 0.3 V

MT

0.5

Su

Mformula

MT

1.67

2465.2265 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.

M

Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2

N YES/NO

US

Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su

Av 2 Av1 FSH 1

0. 2

n0.3 V Pred

FSH

8 lb/sq ft

39.1 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

Av

15.9559 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.

This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO

4.507291 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

Chosen Duct Dhe

4.892222 meters

3.261481 meters

16.30741 meters

3.913778 meters

3.9137775 meters

Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct

Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters

0.536566

PredGoal=

0.3 bar

P'red= 0.19252 bar

For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4

P'red= 0.01672 bar

VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

ab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on

st dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,

, enter YES in the cell below:

Obstacles (all)

Diam

2.38 inch

0.060452 m

Spacing

1.5 ft

0.4572 m

Totl Num

256

Totl Surf

Example Data

Isopropanol

177.8266 m2

1914.109 ft2

Su

0.54

0.41

0.56

0.4

3.12

0.46

Pmax

7.8

6.8

7.9

313 psf

0.149865 bar

for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

ntrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

pending on the gas mixture

ed values, that is make them stronger.

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the

NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method

Enclosure Section Dimensions

(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

7.3152 meters

Volume (V)

195.72604 cubic meters

Area (Aeff)

26.756076 square meters

Diameter (Dhe)

4.8768 meters

Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

Example Data

Acetone

Isopropanol

Methanol

Methane

Hydrogen

Propane

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

Basic Enclosure and Vent Information

Pred

Pstat

P0

Cd

Pa

0.6 bar-g

If Pred < 0.5 bar, use Low Strength Method

0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5

0.1 bar-g

0 bar-g

intial pressure in the enclosure

0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse

0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material

Su

Pmax

Xst

u

au

u

b

Gu

Propane

0.46 m/sec

7.9 bar-g

US

0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air

Metric =

1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less

343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%

1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m3 gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at

1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

GUESS Av

Difference

0.0000 square meters

Default Parameters

1

2

0.39

1.23

0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

u Su Dhe 2

Re f

u

Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

200000 Pred Pa

if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise

u

uv

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v

u

Rev

4.70E+07

1.8489

0=

5.7928

1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter

2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists

3. The surface area of stairways and railings

4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c

Aobs

Aobs/As

89 square meters

0.4157934

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )

1=

L/D Correction to

5.8843

L/D

1.5000

L/D<5

If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.

2

D

1 (1

1 )

2.5

5.8843

Determine

( Pstat 1)

( P0 1)

( Pmax 1)

1/ b

1 b

( P0 1)

= 0.0151809

Determine Av0

Av 0

1 Pred 1

P 1

max

As

P 1

red

Pmax 1

Av0=

15.9559 Sq.Meters

0.224874

Su u

Gu C d

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas

Xr

Vgas

Venc

xst

Xr= 9.289422

= 0.0759494

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Xr

1

Xr

1

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Av1=

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them

n

1 number of panels

0 .2

Pred

n 0.3 V

MT

0.5

Mformula

MT

1.67

2465.2265 kg/m^2

40 kg/m^2

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.

M

Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2

N YES/NO

US

Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su

Av 2 Av1 FSH 1

0. 2

n0.3 V Pred

FSH

Av

8 lb/sq ft

39.1 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

1

15.9559 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.

This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO

4.507291 meters

Rectangular Duct

Y

Aspect

Side a

4.892222 meters

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

Chosen Duct Dhe

3.261481 meters

16.30741 meters

3.913778 meters

3.9137775 meters

Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct

Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters

0.536566

PredGoal=

0.3 bar

P'red= 0.19252 bar

For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4

P'red= 0.01672 bar

VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data

Isopropanol

Su

0.54

0.41

0.56

0.4

3.12

0.46

Pmax

7.8

6.8

7.9

313 psf

0.149865 bar

for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

ntrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures

pending on the gas mixture

ed values, that is make them stronger.

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a

NFPA 68-2007 Dusts in Buildings

Room Dimensions

Length

8.6 meters

Width

5 meters

Height

7.3 meters

Volume

313.9 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assum

the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed al

such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below:

YES

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

is the ratio of Pred/Pmax

KSt

Pred

Pmax

Pstat

132 bar-m/sec

0.04788 bar

9.1 bar

0.0345 bar

0.005262 Pred/Pmax

US

Metric =

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat

Av0

0.5 psig

0.034474 barg

4/3

St

V 3/ 4

Pmax

1

Pred

13.76933 sq meters

The effective area, Aeff,

central axis flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.

H

Aeff

8.6 meters

36.5 sq meters

general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.

Dhe =

p

Dhe

24.6 meters

5.934959 meters

L/D

A v1 A v0

0.75

2

2

exp(0.95 Pred )

D

1 0.6

0.75

A v1 A v0 1 0.6

2

exp(0.95 Pred 2 )

D

Av1

13.76933 sq meters

Av2

23.40786 sq meters

For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (not included here)

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KSt limit of the basic equation (i.e. KSt=

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2

n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

0 .2

red

n

0.3

V

0.5

K St

1.67

MT

40 kg/m^2

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The total mass of the panel, including insulaton, fasteners and restraint system is divided by the

open

ventVent

area.Panel Density

Intended

M

40 kg/m^2

US

2.5 lb/sq ft

If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente

Metric =

12.2 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Av 3 1

Av3

23.40786 sq meters

n 0.3 V Pre0d.2

Av 2

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf

Afs

Cw

H

Ms

Asur

Ass

V

148 gm

0.37 sq meters

500 gm/m^3

7.3 meters

100 gm

20 sq meters

0.37 sq meters

313.9 m^3

YES or NO

If YES

Mf/Afs =

640 gm/m2

Assumed Dust on Floor of Operation

Ms/Ass =

640 gm/m2

Worst Case allowed assumptions per s

Cw =

200 gm/m2

If NO

Mf/Afs =

400 gm/m2

Ms/Ass = 270.2703 gm/m2

Cw =

500 gm/m2

Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:

Me

4.8 kg

4800 gm

Xr

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av 4 Av 3 X r1 3

Av4

Xr

1

22.1311 sq meters

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

ng will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,

/m^2, consult an expert

se allowed assumptions per section 8.3.4

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the me

NFPA 68-2007 Dust in Equipment

(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

Volume (V)

Area (Aeff)

Diameter (Dhe)

1 meters

2 cubic meters

4 square meters

1 meters

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

is the ratio of Pred/Pmax

KSt

Pred

Pmax

Pstat

318 bar-m/sec

0.88 bar

8.4 bar

0.1 bar

0.104762 Pred/Pmax

US

Metric =

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat

Av0= 0.167514 sq meters

0.5 psig

0.034474 barg

4/3

St

V 3/ 4

(Use inputs above)

L/D (H/Dhe)

0.75

2

A v1 A v 0 1 0.6

2

exp(0.95 Pred )

D

Av1= 0.167514 sq meters

Turbulence Correction

Select as many options as applicable for the enclosure and this picks the highest correction.

Pmax

1

Pred

Building?

N YES/NO

Flow-Created?

Inlet Air

Inlet Pipe Diam

Outlet Pipe Diam

Vaxial

Vtangential

Av2/Av1=

0

N YES/NO

20 m^3/sec

1m

1m

10 meter/sec

12.7324 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

This would be typical fo

Av2/Av1=

Rotating Equip?

N YES/NO

Rotational Radius

0.5 meter

Rotational Speed

1000 RPM

Vtangential

26.17994 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

This would be typical fo

Av2/Av1=

Highest Av2/Av1=

0 No adjustment made if calculated Av2/Av1 is <1

If Velocities are less than 20 meters/sec, then Av2=Av1.

Av2= 0.167514 sq meters

For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (not included here)

Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KSt limit of the basic equation (i.e. KSt=

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2

n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula

MT

0 .2

red

0.590121 kg/m^2

0.590121 kg/m^2

0 .3

V

0.5

K St

1.67

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller. The total mass

of the panel, including insulaton, fasteners and restraint system is divided by the open vent area.

Intended Vent Panel Density

M

7.45 kg/m^2

US

0.75 lb/sq ft

If panel density is in US units, ente

Metric =

3.7 kg/m^2

If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult

Av 3 1

Av3

0.205858 sq meters

n 0.3 V Pre0d.2

Av 2

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf

Afs

Cw

H

Ms

Asur

Ass

V

148 gm

0.37 sq meters

500 gm/m^3

1 meters

100 gm

20 sq meters

0.37 sq meters

2 m^3

Xr

YES

YES or NO

If YES

Mf/Afs =

640 gm/m2

Assumed Dust on Flo

Ms/Ass =

640 gm/m2

Worst Case allowed as

Cw =

200 gm/m2

If NO

Mf/Afs =

400 gm/m2

Ms/Ass = 270.2703 gm/m2

Cw =

500 gm/m2

Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:

Me

4.8 kg

4800 gm

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av 4 Av 3 X r1 3

Xr

1

Enter a Guess for the final Avf. A suggestion is to start with about 20% greater than Av4.

Avf (guess)= 0.205858 m^2

Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice

Round Duct

Round Duct Dhe

YES/NO

0.511963 meters

Rectangular Duct Y

Aspect

Side a

Side b

p

Rectangular Duct Dhe

0.555686 meters

0.370457 meters

1.852286 meters

0.444549 meters

Guidance

1. The duct area used in the Vent Duct Effect is that e

2. When duct area is larger than the vent area, actua

3. The actual duct area should be no more than 1.5 ti

Enter Duct Configuration

Lduct

epsilon

K elbows

K hat

0 meters

0.26 mm

0

0

f= 0.017286

Use Solver to set "Guess-Calc Avf" to zero by changing Avf (guess) with constraints of Avf*Lduct/V < 1, and Avf < Aeff to get a

Multiple solutions are possible at or above the given constraints.

If Lduct is too large, there may not be a solution and you will have to look at increasing Pred.

(f*Lduct/Dhe)=

0 (straight duct sections)

K=

1.5

E1=

0

E2= 3.59239

Avf/Av4=

1

Avf = 0.205858 m^2

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Guess-Calc Avf

Constraint

Avf*Lduct/V

Av/Aeff

Constraint

Solution Problems

1. If the Pred is too low, the constr

2. If the Duct length is too great, th

Suggestions to Solve

1. Increase Pred

2. Shorten duct

3. Change to round duct

4. Straighten duct

<1

0

0.051464

This is the ratio of the duct area to the enclosure cross-section

Ldusty= 73.06014 meters

(Pmax-Pred)*V/Av

Leff=

0 meters

min(Lduct, Ldusty)

RHS Constraint= 13.97952 meters

min(10000*D/Kst, 11000/Kst)

should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Correction for Flow-Created Turbulence (uses the maximum Axial or Tangential Turbulence)

This would be typical for a cyclone

0

Correction factor if Rotating Equipment

This would be typical for a grinder or hammermill

0

than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Worst Case allowed assumptions per section 8.3.4

han the vent area, actual Pred can be higher or lower.

d be no more than 1.5 times the vent area.

Pred is too low, the constraint of Av/Aeff is not met and Cells B183-187 will not be numbers

Duct length is too great, the constraint of Avf*Lduct/V is not met and the same thing will happen.

ions to Solve

e to round duct

M6.7P n

K

0.2 3

T red 0.5

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the meth

Determine Pred for "Inertialess" vents, including L/D, Turbulence, and Partial Volume

For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (here)

Use:

1) Enter Input data and value slightly below desired Pred at B26

2) Use solver to set Target Cell M7 equal to desired Pred with Inertia, by changing cell B26

(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)

Length (H)

Volume (V)

Area (Aeff)

Diameter (Dhe)

2 meters

2.4 cubic meters

4 square meters

2 meters

Second Peak

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion

Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test

is the ratio of Pred/Pmax

Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel

KSt

Pred

Pmax

Pstat

260 bar-m/sec

0.856099 bar

Solver solution constrained > 0.01

9.1 bar

0.1 bar

US

0.5 psig

0.094077 Pred/Pmax

Metric = 0.034474 barg

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat

4/3

St

V 3 / 4

Pmax

1

Pred

(Use inputs above)

L/D (H/Dhe)

0.75

A v1 A v 0 1 0.6

2

exp(0.95 Pred 2 )

D

Av1= 0.166694 sq meters

K St

Turbulence Correction

Select as many options as applicable for the enclosure and this picks the highest correction.

Building?

N YES/NO

Av2/Av1=

0

Flow-Created?

N YES/NO

For Flow-Created Turbulence, use the maximum Axial or Tangential Turbulence

Inlet Air

20 m^3/sec

This would be typical for a cyclone

Inlet Pipe Diam

1m

Av2/Av1=

0

Outlet Pipe Diam

1m

Vaxial

16.66667 meter/sec

Vtangential

12.7324 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

Rotating Equip?

N YES/NO

Correction factor if Rotating Equipment

Rotational Radiu

0.5 meter

This would be typical for a grinder or hammermill

Rotational Speed

1000 RPM

Av2/Av1=

0

Vtangential

26.17994 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

ighest Av2/Av1=

Minimum value of Av2/Av1 is 1.

Av2= 0.166694 sq meters

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf

Afs

148 gm

0.37 sq meters

YES or NO

If YES Mf/Afs =

640 gm/m2

Assumed Dust on Floor of Operationa

Cw

H

Ms

Asur

Ass

V

500 gm/m^3

2 meters

100 gm

20 sq meters

0.37 sq meters

2.4 m^3

Ms/Ass =

Cw =

640 gm/m2

200 gm/m2

If NO

Mf/Afs =

400 gm/m2

Ms/Ass = 270.27 gm/m2

Cw =

500 gm/m2

Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:

Me

4.8 kg

4800 gm

Xr

If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av2 (Inertia correction is later)

Av 4 Av 2 X r1 3

Xr

1

Vent Panel Characteristics

v =

64 kg/m^2

n=

cs =

1 equal panels

Square

1

Aspect ratio=

Round

m=

Horizontal panel, on top of vessel

Other Orientations

Po =

Pmax =

1 bara

Rectang 1.06066

1

0

10.1 bara

2.4000 bara

Pred due to panel inertia = 1.4000 barg =

Kst,v =

0.886

0.5

305.5

20.30

param

0.13679

5.0 - Determine k after

vent deployment

psig

8.0 - Determine Pv

Pv = 0.010989

Pri =

14.0 - Determine Pri for

k < 3

1<

K = 261.1166

pr = 0.856099 barg

k = 0.13827

f(Pv) = 3.314968

Pri =

6.0 - Determine vent param 10.0 - Determine exponent 15.0 - Determine Pri for

< k

= 0.75672

0.6114

Pri =

7.0 - Determine vent param 11.0 - Determine Pvi (Pstat with over vent pressure after

k

)

deployment Pri

inertia

k = 0.75349

Pri =

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

1.4000 bar

1.4000 bar

2.4000

14.0 - Determine Pri for

k< 3

1<

2.3671

15.0 - Determine Pri for

< k

1.8561

16.0 - Determine increase

over vent pressure after

deployment Pri

2.4000 bara

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g

This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.

Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a

Insert Prugh Le-Chatalier for Hybrid Mix from Loss Prevention

Question whether the shape of the curve can be estimated using the same Brandes method

Insert Hybrid Mixture estimation from Su.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

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