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Revision History

6/2/2007 Initial Release


6/5/2007 Added disclaimer
6/13/2007 Corrected errors in Partial volume calculation for Enclosures. Added calculation of top-down and bottom up when
7/2/2007 Corrected error in volume calculation for cylindrical hoppers.
7/3/2007 Corrected spherical vessel to show L/D always 1. Changed all L/D calculation formulae to allow calculating L/D<1
11/2/2007 Updated comments to reflect TIA Task Group modification of limits on Threshold Mass Equation
2/12/2008 Updated High Strength Dust solver cell formula per comments received. No change in results.
4/21/2008 Added notes in L/D tab to explain top-mounted vent application.
7/8/2008 Added guidance in Dust Enclosures tab describing duct diameter used for calculation and maximum 1.5 times are
7/29/2008 Changed L/D tab note 3) to correctly state that total enclosure volume is used for vent sizing with a single vent, no
Added new Note 4) to address multiple vents along central axis and renumbered subsequent notes.
Added check of Bottom-Up vs Top-Down total enclosure volume
Added check of calculated vent area versus effective area (cross-section for round or square enclosures)
10/29/2008 Revised L_D tab description of top-Down and Bottom-Up calculations to clarify.
Added a check for zero length above top-mounted vent in L_D tab so it eliminated div/zero error in Aeff calculation
11/26/2008 Corrected Partial Volume formula in Dust-Bldgs tab so Av4 equals Av3 when fill fraction is greater than 1 (was alre
Modified Partial Volume formula in Annex Vent Panel Inertia tab to highlight that Av3 is not used in that method
Added YES/NO selection for evenly distributed vents in High Str Gas and Dust Building tabs. Enclosure tabs use
6/1/2009 Add conditional restraint to VDI High Strength Gas equation. If Pstat is <0.1 bar, the second term in the equation

Throughout this document,


1. Green highlighted cells are for input
2. Yellow highlighted cells are calculated from other inputs
3. Purple highlighted cells are for copying and pasting from the L/D tab into the other tabs using Paste-Sp
4. Red highlighted cells appear in some places when a calculated value is out of allowed bounds. This is
1/22/2013 Add 2012 Equations with Rota calculation of Lambda based on Radius (as in original paper)

p-down and bottom up when vent is in side (pick longest L/Dhe). Added spherical vessel L/D. Corrected calculation of vented volume to be

ae to allow calculating L/D<1, but with warning format.

and maximum 1.5 times area for vent ducts


sizing with a single vent, no matter where vent is placed.
equent notes.

square enclosures)

zero error in Aeff calculation for top-down propagation.


n is greater than 1 (was already correct in Dust-Enclosures tab)
s not used in that method
g tabs. Enclosure tabs use L/D tab for input, but building tabs otherwise assume venting at one end of longest dimension.
econd term in the equation is set equal to zero (not allowed to be negative)

other tabs using Paste-Special-Values


allowed bounds. This is not yet universal.
ginal paper)

ulation of vented volume to be entire section volume, not Veff (Veff is only used to determine the worst case L/D to the vent location)

t dimension.

D to the vent location)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a
NFPA 68-2007 Evaluate L/D for Equipment Shapes

Calculate the Vent Area for each section of the Enclosure or for the whole enclosure
Notes:
1)
The original printed version of the annex inserts the incorrect diameter of the conical hopper top into the eq
2)
Placing a single vent somewhere along the central axis does not change the volume to be vented, but changes the
3)
When a single vent is used, the volume to use in the vent area equations is the entire enclosure volume, no
4)
When multiple vents are placed along the central axis, the volume to use in the vent area equations is the s
5)
When subdividing along original central axis, at the point the section Length equals Dhe, then L/D=1.
6)
Closer placement of vents does not reduce L/D or change the orientation of the axis, since the subdivision
7)
When vents are placed such that L/D is less than or equal to 2, there is no further reduction in required vent area/se
8)
For Dust Collectors, if the Volume between bags is considered, then look at a top-down height and calculate a smal
Rectangular Vessels with 1 Vent at end of section (no hopper extension)
Length
Width 1
Width 2
Volume

2 meters
The longest distance from one end of the vessel to the opposite end of the vent.
2 meters
(Measured along central axis)
2 meters
8 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the
opposite end of the vent.
H
Aeff

2 meters
4 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape
p
Dhe

8 meters
2 meters

L/D

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Summary Block for Copying values


Length (H)
2 meters
Volume (V)
8 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
4 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
2 meters
Rectangular Vessels with Rectangular Hopper Extension
Calculate L/D for Bottom-up Flame Propogation
Volume above Top of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)
Length
1 meters
The distance from the top of the vessel to the top of the vent.

Width a2
1.8 meters
Dimension of straight side
Width b2
1.5 meters
Dimension of opposite straight side
Volume
2.7 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Section above the vent
If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B47 should be set to zero.
Length
3 meters
The distance from the top end of the vent to the top end of the Rectangular Hopper.
Width a2
1.8 meters
Dimension of straight side
Width b2
1.5 meters
Dimension of opposite straight side
Volume
8.1 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Section
If no Hopper, then B57 should be set to zero.
Height h
2 meters
The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Rectangular Hopper
Width a1
0.5 meters
Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B48)
Width b1
0.3 meters
Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B49)
Volume
2.33 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Hopper Section
The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the
opposite end of the vent.
H
Veff
Aeff

5 meters
10.43 cubic meters
2.086 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper
Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Dhe

1.2 ratio a/b


1.58215 meters
1.318459 meters
5.801218 meters
1.438319 meters

This uses the aspect ratio of the above rectangular section

L/D

3.476281 Bottom-up

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Calculate L/D for Top-down Flame Propogation


If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B81 should be set to zero.
Length
2.5 meters
The distance from the top of the vessel to the bottom of the vent (estimated 2.5 from picture).
Width a2
1.8 meters
Dimension of straight side
Width b2
1.5 meters
Dimension of opposite straight side
Volume
6.75 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Section above the vent
Volume below Bottom of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)
Length
1.5 meters
The distance from the bottom of the vent to the top of the Rectangular Hopper.
Width a2
1.8 meters
Dimension of straight side
Width b2
1.5 meters
Dimension of opposite straight side
Volume
4.05 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Section
If no Hopper, then B91 should be set to zero.
Height h
2 meters
The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Rectangular Hopper
Width a1
0.5 meters
Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B82)
Width b1
0.3 meters
Dimension of Rectangular Hopper bottom (same side as B83)
Volume
2.33 cubic meters
Volume of Rectangular Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the
opposite end of the vent.
H
Veff
Aeff

2.5 meters
6.75 cubic meters
2.7 sq meters

If vent is mounted on top, sets Aeff=a2*b2

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper
Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Dhe

1.2 ratio a/b


1.8 meters
1.5 meters
6.6 meters
1.636364 meters

This uses the aspect ratio of the above rectangular section

L/D

1.527778 Top-Down

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Determine Worst-Case (either Top-Down or Bottom-up) for L/D (H/Dhe), Total Volume is the same
L/D(max) 3.476281 Bottom-up
Summary Block for Copying values
Length (H)
5 meters
Volume (V)
13.13 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
2.086 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
1.438319 meters

Check Volume Calculation Top-Down


13.13 cubic meters

Cylindrical Vessels with 1 Vent at end of section (no hopper extension)


Length
Diameter
Volume

4.5 meters
2.01 meters
14.27889 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.
H
Aeff

4.5 meters
3.173087 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape
Dhe
L/D

2.01 meters
2.238806

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Summary Block for Copying values


Length (H)
4.5 meters
Volume (V)
14.27889 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
3.173087 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
2.01 meters
Cylindrical Vessels with Conical Hopper Extension
Calculate L/D for Bottom-up Flame Propogation
Volume above Top of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)
The distance from the top of the vessel to the top of the vent.
Length
2 meters
Diam 1
1.8 meters
Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section
Volume
5.08938 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Section
If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B149 should be set to zero.
Length
2 meters
The distance from the top of the vent to the top end of the Conical Hopper.
Diam 1
1.8 meters
Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section
Volume
5.08938 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Section
If no Hopper, then B157 should be set to zero.
Height h
2 meters
The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Conical Hopper
Diam 2
0.5 meters
Diameter at bottom of Conical Hopper
Volume
2.298599 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the
opposite end of the vent.
H
Veff
Aeff

4 meters
7.387979 cubic meters
1.846995 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper
Dhe

1.533514 meters

L/D

2.608387 Bottom-Up

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Calculate L/D for Top-down Flame Propogation


If the Vent is mounted horizontally on the top of vessel, then B179 should be set to zero.
Length
3.5 meters
The distance from the top of the vessel to the bottom of the vent (estimated from picture)
Diam 1
1.8 meters
Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section
Volume
8.906415 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Section
Volume below Bottom of Vent (not included in Effective Volume for L/D)
The distance from the bottom of the vent to the top end of the Conical Hopper.
Length
0.5 meters
Diam 1
1.8 meters
Diameter of larger cylindrical cross-section
Volume
1.272345 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Section

If no Hopper, then B187 should be set to zero.


Height h
2 meters
The distance from the top to the bottom of the the Conical Hopper
Diam 2
0.5 meters
Diameter at bottom of Conical Hopper
Volume
2.298599 cubic meters
Volume of Cylindrical Hopper Section

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). With only one vent, enter the longest distance from one end of the vessel to the
opposite end of the vent.
H
Veff
Aeff

3.5 meters
8.906415 cubic meters
2.54469 sq meters

If vent mounted on top, sets Aeff=PI/4*(Diam 1)^2

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape above the hopper
Dhe
L/D

1.8 meters
1.944444 Top-Down

L/D can not be less than 1, by definition

Determine Worst-Case (either Top-Down or Bottom-up) for L/D (H/Dhe), Total Volume is the same
L/D(max) 2.608387 Bottom-Up
Summary Block for Copying values
Length (H)
4 meters
Volume (V)
12.47736 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
1.846995 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
1.533514 meters

Check Volume Calculation Top-Down


12.47736 cubic meters

Spherical Vessels with 1 Vent


Diameter
Volume

2 meters
4.18879 cubic meters

The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.
H
Aeff

2 meters
2.094395 sq meters

Set Dhe = D in order that L/D=1


Dhe

2 meters

L/D

L/D = 1 for sphere, by definition

Summary Block for Copying values


Length (H)
2 meters
Volume (V)
4.18879 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
2.094395 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
2 meters

ut any implied warranty or guarantee.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

onical hopper top into the equations.


o be vented, but changes the effective worst/case L/D correction.
entire enclosure volume, no matter where the vent is placed.
vent area equations is the section volume (Veff).
he, then L/D=1.
axis, since the subdivision is only virtual walls, not real ones.
uction in required vent area/section volume.
n height and calculate a smaller Dhe, larger L/D for the bag section.

end of the vent.

Rectangular Hopper.

t (estimated 2.5 from picture).

ngular Hopper.

ulation Top-Down (Volume must be same)

t (estimated from picture)

onical Hopper.

ulation Top-Down (Volume must be same)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a
NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Buildings - Low Strength Method
Low Strength Method limited to Su of 60 and KG of 130
Room Dimensions
Length
7.5 meters
Width
3 meters
Height
4 meters
Volume
90 cubic meters

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Ethanol

Su
54
41
56

KG
83
75
78

Internal Surface Area for Flat Walls and Ceiling


Floor
22.5 meters
Roof
22.5 meters
Walls
84 meters
As
129 square meters
Material
Su
KG

Alcohol/Methanol
(Methanol worse than acetone) Su is the Fundamental Burning Velocity, KG is the Deflagrati
56 cm/sec from NFPA-68 annex
If KG not available, estimate from Su as below and enter at l
75 bar-m/sec from NFPA-68 annex
Su 2
Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 fo

K G 2 K G1

Su1

Calculate C factor, in bar^(0.5)

KG

121.7391 bar-m/sec estimated from NFPA-68

C = 1.57 x 10 (Su) + 1.57 x 10 (Su) + 0.0109


-5

C factor

-4

0.068927

Calculate Low Inertia Vent Area

Av

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the explosion and must be less th

C As
1

Pred2

Pred
Assumed 100 psf = 0.04788 bar
Pred
0.04788 bar
Av

US
Metric =

100 psf
0.04788 bar

40.63528 square meters

Pstat (max)
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent and must be at least 0.024 bar (0.35 psi) bar less than Pred
Pstat

0.02388 bar

This is the largest allowable Pstat, it can be less than this.


The specific value of Pstat is not used in this correlation.

Check for L/D less than 3 (Quiescent)

The effective area, Aeff,

shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest


central axis flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.
H
Aeff

7.5 meters
12 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe,

for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the


general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape
p
Dhe

14 meters
3.428571 meters

L/D

2.1875

If L/D exceeds 3, vents must be placed along longest dimension

Inertia Correction for Materials with KG < 130 bar-m/sec and Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2

Correction for inertia is limited to KG < 130 bar-m/sec and panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then
If Av is larger than the exterior wall of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls an
make them stronger.
n
1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula
MT

0.2
red

n
0.3

V
0.5
KG

429.903 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
M
40 kg/m^2
US
8 lb/sq ft
If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente
Metric =
39.1 kg/m^2

Ai Av

A
Av

0.0075 M 0.6 K G0.5


0.2
n 0.3 V Pred

0 sq meters
40.6 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

ut any implied warranty or guarantee.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Velocity, KG is the Deflagration Index.


om Su as below and enter at left:
Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 for propane

c estimated from NFPA-68

explosion and must be less than the room wall strength.

nel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.


crease the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is

an 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

US units, enter here and enter metric units at left

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a
NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Buildings - High Strength Method

Room Dimensions
Length
6.91896 meters
Width
6.30936 meters
Height
4.48056 meters
Volume
195.5953 cubic meters
Internal Surface Area for Flat Walls and Ceiling
Floor
43.65421 meters
Roof
43.65421 meters
Walls
118.5406 meters
As
205.849 square meters
Material
KG

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Ethanol
Hydrogen

KG
83
75
78
550

If KG not available, estimate from Su as below and enter at l

Su 2

Su1

K G 2 K G1

Propane
100 bar-m/sec from NFPA-68 annex

Su
54
41
56

Su
KG

Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 fo

0 cm/sec from NFPA-68 annex


0 bar-m/sec estimated from NFPA-68

Pred
Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the explosion and must be less than the room wall strength.
The high strength method is intended for use at building design pressures of greater than 0.1 bar.
Assumed 313 psf = 0.15 bar
Pred
0.1 bar

US
Metric =

313 psf
0.149865 bar

Pstat
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent and must be > 0.1 bar and at least 0.05 bar less than Pred
Assumed 209 psf = 0.10 bar
Pstat
0.05 bar

US
Metric =

209 psf
0.10007 bar

Cubical Vessel, Low Inertia Vent Area


A0=[(0.127 Log KG - 0.0567)*Pred^(-0.582) + 0.175 Pred^(-0.572)*(Pstat-0.1)]V^(2/3)
A0= 25.3921 Sq.Meters
where
Limits
KG=
100 Bar M/sec
<550
Pred=
0.1 Bar
<2
Pstat=
0.05 Bar
<0.5
If Red, Pstat is <0.1 and the formula is being used outside VDI bounds
V=
### Cu.Meters <1000
When Pstat is <0.1, that part of formula is set to "zero"
Determine L/D
The effective area, Aeff, shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest central axis
flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.
H
6.91896 meters

Aeff

28.26947 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe, for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the
general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe = 4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape
p
21.57984 meters
Dhe
5.239977 meters
L/D

If Red, L/D has been set to "1" by entering a YES above.

L/D Correction
If L/D exceeds 2, a vent area correction is added
A=A0* [KG (L/D-2)^2]/750
A= 0.0000 Sq.Meters
where
Limits
A0= 25.3921
KG=
100 Bar M/sec
L/D=
1 No Dimensions
A1=A0 + A
A1= 25.3921 Sq.Meters

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KG limit of the basic equation (i.e. KG=5

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
exterior wall of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, tha
n
1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula
MT

0.2
red

n
0.3

V

0.5
KG

1580.734 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
M
40 kg/m^2
US
8 lb/sq ft
If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente
Metric =
39.1 kg/m^2

Ai Av

A
Av

0.0075 M 0.6 K G0.5


0.2
n 0.3 V Pred

0 sq meters
25.3921 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

ut any implied warranty or guarantee.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on
the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,
such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below:
YES

om Su as below and enter at left:


Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 for propane

om NFPA-68 annex
c estimated from NFPA-68

wall strength.

ng used outside VDI bounds


formula is set to "zero"

he basic equation (i.e. KG=550 bar-m/sec)

then no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the


walls and floor Pred values, that is make them stronger.

an 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

US units, enter here and enter metric units at left

that all venting is put on


the longest dimension,

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the m
NFPA 68-2007 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method
Enclosure Section Dimensions
(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
Volume (V)
Area (Aeff)
Diameter (Dhe)

4.5 meters
14.27889 cubic meters
3.173087 square meters
2.01 meters

V<1000 (This is total volume, not Veff)

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Ethanol
Hydrogen
If KG not available, estimate

Su 2
Su1

KG is the deflagration index


Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
Material

K G 2 K G1

Su
KG

Hydrogen

KG
Pred
Pstat

550 bar-m/sec KG<550


0.19252 bar
0.1 bar<Pred<2 bar
0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5
0.1 bar

US
Metric =

313
0.149865

Cubical Vessel, Low Inertia Vent Area


A0=[(0.127 Log KG - 0.0567)*Pred^(-0.582) + 0.175 Pred^(-0.572)*(Pstat-0.1)]V^(2/3)
A0= 4.4731 Sq.Meters
Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)
L/D Correction
L/D
2.238806
L/D<5
If L/D exceeds 2, a vent area correction is added
A=A0* [KG (L/D-2)^2]/750
A= 0.1871 Sq.Meters
A1=A0 + A
A1=

4.6602 Sq.Meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KG limit of the basic equation (i.e. KG=5

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
of the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make th
n
1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula
MT

0 .2
red

n
0.3

V

0.5
KG

5.99021 kg/m^2
5.99021 kg/m^2

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
M
40 kg/m^2
US
8 lb/sq ft
If panel density is in US units, enter here
Metric =
39.1 kg/m^2
If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp

Ai Av

A
Av

0.0075 M 0.6 K G0.5


0.2
n 0.3 V Pred

0.729949 sq meters
5.3901 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.
This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.
Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter
Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

YES/NO
2.619721 meters

Rectangular Duct

Y
Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe
Chosen Duct Dhe

1.5 ratio a/b


2.84345 meters
1.895634 meters
9.478168 meters
2.27476 meters

2.27476 meters
Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct
Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters
0.923174

Enter Design Goal for Pred with Duct


PredGoal=
0.3 bar
P'red=

For Lduct<3 meters and L/Dhe<4


P'red= 0.19252 bar
For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4
P'red= 0.01672 bar

0.19252 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and
VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

out any implied warranty or guarantee.

e user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data

Su
54
41
56

Isopropanol

KG
83
75
78
550

If KG not available, estimate from Su as below and enter at left:

Su 2

Su1

K G 2 K G1

Basis is KG = 100, Su=46 for propane

0 cm/sec from NFPA-68 annex


0 bar-m/sec estimated from NFPA-68

psf
bar

the basic equation (i.e. KG=550 bar-m/sec)

, then no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the exterior wall


or Pred values, that is make them stronger.

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

nt area gets much larger as a result)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the
NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - Low Strength Method
Room Dimensions
Length
Width
Height
Volume

7.3152 meters
7.3152 meters
3.6576 meters
195.72604 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless n
the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will
such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below
No

Internal Surface Area for Flat Walls and Ceiling


Floor
53.512151 meters
Roof
53.512151 meters
Walls
107.0243 meters
As
214.0486 square meters
Area for Rectangular Building
L1
3.6576 meters
L2
7.3152 meters
Cross Section Aeff
26.756076 square meters
Wetted Perimeter
21.9456 meters
Dhe
4.8768 meters

Enter smallest dimension here


Enter next smallest dimension here

Enter Appropriate Building Values For Enclosure Dimensions below (Copy and Paste Special - Values)
Longest dimension is length
Two smallest dimensions determine Area (cross-sectional area)
Wetted Perimeter is the sum of linear dimensions around the cross-section
Diameter (Dhe) is 4 x Area/Wetted Perimeter

Enclosure Section Dimensions


(see Above to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
7.3152 meters
Volume (V)
195.72604 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
26.756076 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
4.8768 meters
Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

V<1000 (This is total volume, not Veff)

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion


Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
Basic Enclosure and Vent Information
Pred
Pstat

0.6 bar-g
0 bar-g

If Pred > 0.5 bar, use High Strength Method


NOT USED in LOW STRENGTH

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Methane
Hydrogen
Propane

P0
Cd
Pa

0 bar-g
intial pressure in the enclosure
0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse
0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material
Su
Pmax
Xst
u
au
u
b
Gu

Propane
0.46 m/sec
7.9 bar-g
US
0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air
Metric =
1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less
343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m 3 for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture
230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

Determination of Turbulent Flame Enhancement Factor,


GUESS Av
Difference

15.59409 square meters


0.0000 square meters

GUESS of Vent Area that must be iterated (Dv is used to determine

Use Solver to achieve difference of GUESS and Panel Inertia Correcte

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga
Default Parameters

1
2

0.39
1.23
0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u
Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

uv

200000 Pred Pa
if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise
u

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v
u
Rev

4.65E+07

Diameter of vent is iterated (av/pi)^0.5

1.8467
0=

5.7858

Surface Area of Obstructions Correction to

Surface area of obstructions includes:


1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter
2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists
3. The surface area of stairways and railings
4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c
Aobs
Aobs/As

0 square meters
0

If Aobs> 0.4 As,

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )
1=

5.7858

L/D Correction to

IF(UPPER(LEFT(i11))="Y",1,..) - This artificially sets L/D to 1 if venting is p

L/D
1.5000
L/D<5
If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.

D
1 (1
1 )
2.5

5.7858

Low Pressure, Low Inertia Vent Area


Determine C

Deminimus value of C

S u u Pmax 1

C
2Gu Cd P0 1

1

b

1
1 P0 1 2

C-demin = 0.059351

C= 0.0564317
Determine Av0

Use original S-W equation, and also changing to

Av0=

15.5941 Sq.Meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction


Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas
Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter
Xr= 9.289422
= 0.0759494

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3
Av1=

Xr
1

15.5941 square meters

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them
n
1 number of panels
0 .2
Pred
n 0.3 V
MT

0.5
Su

Mformula
MT

1.67

2500.228 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.
M
Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2
N YES/NO

US
Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su
Av 2 Av1 FSH 1
0. 2
n0.3 V Pred

2 lb/sq ft
9.8 kg/m^2

0.5

If panel density is in US units, enter h


If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

(0.05) M 0.6 Su
Av 2 Av1 FSH 1
0. 2
n0.3 V Pred

FSH

0.5

Av

15.5941 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.
This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.
Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter
Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO
4.455896 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe

1.5 ratio a/b


4.836438 meters
3.224292 meters
16.12146 meters
3.869151 meters

Chosen Duct Dhe

3.8691505 meters

Lduct
Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters
0.5427548

Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Enter Design Goal for Pred with Duct


PredGoal=
0.2 bar

For Lduct<3 meters and L/Dhe<4


P'red= 0.120236 bar
For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4
P'red= 0.007626 bar

P'red= 0.1202357 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and
VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

t any implied warranty or guarantee.

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

ab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on
st dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,
, enter YES in the cell below:

Example Data
Isopropanol

Su
0.54
0.41
0.56
0.4
3.12
0.46

Pmax

7.8
6.8
7.9

to 0.8 when the vent is essentially an entire wall/side of the enclosure

313 psf
0.149865 bar
for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
pending on the gas mixture

c for an enclosure at ambient temperatures

d (Dv is used to determine and is taken as Av0.5)

S and Panel Inertia Corrected Vent Area = 0

ndard approach is to use gauge values.

of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 cm)

sets L/D to 1 if venting is provided well distributed

uation, and also changing to not use Pred^0.5 below

credible event, cubic meters

e basic equation (i.e. Su = 3 m/sec)

hen no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the exterior wall of


ed values, that is make them stronger.

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

area gets much larger as a result)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the
NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - Low Strength Method
Enclosure Section Dimensions
(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
7.3152 meters
Volume (V)
195.72604 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
26.756076 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
4.8768 meters
Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

V<1000 (This is total volume, not Veff)

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Methane
Hydrogen
Propane

NEED TO DETERMINE THIS IN L/D TAB, NOT DONE YET

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion


Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
Basic Enclosure and Vent Information
Pred
Pstat
P0
Cd
Pa

0.6 bar-g
If Pred > 0.5 bar, use High Strength Method
0 bar-g
NOT USED in LOW STRENGTH
0 bar-g
intial pressure in the enclosure
0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse
0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material
Su
Pmax
Xst
u
au
u
b
Gu

Propane
0.46 m/sec
7.9 bar-g
US
0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air
Metric =
1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less
343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m 3 for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

Determination of Turbulent Flame Enhancement Factor,


GUESS Av
Difference

15.594089 square meters


0.0000 square meters

GUESS of Vent Area that must be iterated (Dv is used to determine

Use Solver to achieve difference of GUESS and Panel Inertia Correcte

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga
Default Parameters

1
2

0.39
1.23
0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u
Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

200000 Pred Pa
if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise
u

uv

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v
u
Rev

Diameter of vent is iterated (av/pi)^0.5

4.65E+07

1.8467
0=

5.7858

Surface Area of Obstructions Correction to

Surface area of obstructions includes:


1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter
2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists
3. The surface area of stairways and railings
4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c
Aobs
Aobs/As

0 square meters
0

If Aobs> 0.4 As,

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )
1=
L/D Correction to

5.7858

L/D
1.5000
L/D<5
If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.
2

D
1 (1
1 )
2.5

5.7858

Low Pressure, Low Inertia Vent Area


Determine C

Deminimus value of C

S Pmax 1

C u u
2Gu Cd P0 1

1

b

1
1 P0 1 2

C-demin = 0.059351

C= 0.0564317
Determine Av0

Av0=

15.5941 Sq.Meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction


Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas
Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter
Xr= 9.289422
= 0.0759494

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3
Av1=

Xr
1

15.5941 square meters

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them
n
1 number of panels
0 .2
Pred
n 0.3 V
MT

0.5
Su

Mformula
MT

1.67

2500.228 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.
M
Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2
N YES/NO

US
Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su
Av 2 Av1 FSH 1
0. 2
n0.3 V Pred

FSH
Av

8 lb/sq ft
39.1 kg/m^2

If panel density is in US units, enter h


If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

1
15.5941 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.
This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.
Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter
Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO
4.455896 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe
Chosen Duct Dhe

1.5 ratio a/b


4.836438 meters
3.224292 meters
16.12146 meters
3.869151 meters

3.8691505 meters

Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred


Lduct
Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters
0.5427548

Enter Design Goal for Pred with Duct


PredGoal=
0.3 bar

For Lduct<3 meters and L/Dhe<4


P'red= 0.19252 bar
For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4
P'red= 0.01672 bar

P'red= 0.1925197 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and
VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

t any implied warranty or guarantee.

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data
Isopropanol

Su
0.54
0.41
0.56
0.4
3.12
0.46

Pmax

7.8
6.8
7.9

NOT DONE YET

to 0.8 when the vent is essentially an entire wall/side of the enclosure

313 psf
0.149865 bar
for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
pending on the gas mixture

c for an enclosure at ambient temperatures

d (Dv is used to determine and is taken as Av0.5)

S and Panel Inertia Corrected Vent Area = 0

ndard approach is to use gauge values.

of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 cm)

credible event, cubic meters

e basic equation (i.e. Su = 3 m/sec)

hen no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the exterior wall of


ed values, that is make them stronger.

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

area gets much larger as a result)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the
NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method
Room Dimensions
Length
Width
Height
Volume

7.3152 meters
7.3152 meters
3.6576 meters
195.72604 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless n
the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will
such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below
No

Internal Surface Area for Flat Walls and Ceiling


Floor
53.512151 meters
Roof
53.512151 meters
Walls
107.0243 meters
As
214.0486 square meters
Area for Rectangular Building
L1
L2
Cross Section Aeff
Wetted Perimeter
Dhe

3.6576 meters
7.3152 meters
26.756076 square meters
21.9456 meters
4.8768 meters

Enter smallest dimension here


Enter next smallest dimension here

Enter Appropriate Building Values For Enclosure Dimensions below (Copy and Paste Special - Values)
Longest dimension is length
Two smallest dimensions determine Area (cross-sectional area)
Wetted Perimeter is the sum of linear dimensions around the cross-section
Diameter (Dhe) is 4 x Area/Wetted Perimeter

Enclosure Section Dimensions


(see Above to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
7.3152 meters
Volume (V)
195.72604 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
26.756076 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
4.8768 meters
Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

V<1000 (This is total volume, not Veff)

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion


Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
Basic Enclosure and Vent Information
Pred
Pstat

0.6 bar-g
0.1 bar-g

If Pred < 0.5 bar, use Low Strength Method


0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Methane
Hydrogen
Propane

P0
Cd
Pa

0 bar-g
intial pressure in the enclosure
0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse
0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material
Su
Pmax
Xst
u
au
u
b
Gu

Propane
0.46 m/sec
7.9 bar-g
US
0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air
Metric =
1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less
343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m3 gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at
1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture
230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

Determination of Turbulent Flame Enhancement Factor,


GUESS Av
Difference

15.955889 square meters


0.0000 square meters

GUESS of Vent Area that must be iterated (D v is used to determine

Use Solver to achieve difference of GUESS and Panel Inertia Correcte

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga
Default Parameters

1
2

0.39
1.23
0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u
Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

uv

200000 Pred Pa
if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise
u

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v
u
Rev

4.70E+07

Diameter of vent is iterated (av/pi)^0.5

1.8489
0=

5.7928

Surface Area of Obstructions Correction to

Surface area of obstructions includes:


1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter
2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists
3. The surface area of stairways and railings
4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c
Aobs
Aobs/As

89 square meters
0.4157934

If Aobs> 0.4 As,

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )
1=

5.8843

L/D Correction to

IF(UPPER(LEFT(i11))="Y",1,...) - This artificially sets L/D to 1 if venting is p

L/D
1.5000
L/D<5
If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.
2

D
1 (1
1 )
2.5

5.8843

High Pressure, Low Inertia Vent Area


Determine

( Pstat 1)

( P0 1)

( Pmax 1)

1/ b

1 b

( P0 1)

= 0.0151809
Determine Av0

Av 0

As

1 Pred 1
P 1

max

P 1

S
u u
Gu Cd


Av 0

1 Pred 1
P 1

max

As

Pred 1
Pmax 1

S
u u
Gu Cd

Av0=

15.9559 Sq.Meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction


Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas
Xr

Venc

xst

Vgas

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter
Xr= 9.289422
= 0.0759494

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3
Av1=

Xr
1

15.9559 square meters

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them
n
1 number of panels
0 .2
Pred
n 0.3 V
MT

0.5
Su

Mformula
MT

1.67

2465.2265 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.

The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.
M
Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2
N YES/NO

US
Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su
Av 2 Av1 FSH 1
0. 2
n0.3 V Pred

FSH

8 lb/sq ft
39.1 kg/m^2

If panel density is in US units, enter h


If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

Av

15.9559 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.
This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.
Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter
Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO
4.507291 meters

Rectangular Duct

Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe
Chosen Duct Dhe

1.5 ratio a/b


4.892222 meters
3.261481 meters
16.30741 meters
3.913778 meters

3.9137775 meters
Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct
Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters
0.536566

Enter Design Goal for Pred with Duct


PredGoal=
0.3 bar

For Lduct<3 meters and L/Dhe<4


P'red= 0.19252 bar
For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4
P'red= 0.01672 bar

P'red= 0.1925197 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and
VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

t any implied warranty or guarantee.

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

ab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on
st dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,
, enter YES in the cell below:

Obstacles (all)
Diam
2.38 inch
0.060452 m
Spacing
1.5 ft
0.4572 m
Totl Num
256
Totl Surf

Example Data
Isopropanol

177.8266 m2
1914.109 ft2

Su
0.54
0.41
0.56
0.4
3.12
0.46

Pmax

7.8
6.8
7.9

to 0.8 when the vent is essentially an entire wall/side of the enclosure

313 psf
0.149865 bar
for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
ntrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
pending on the gas mixture

c for an enclosure at ambient temperatures

(Dv is used to determine and is taken as Av0.5)

S and Panel Inertia Corrected Vent Area = 0

ndard approach is to use gauge values.

of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 cm)

sets L/D to 1 if venting is provided well distributed

credible event, cubic meters

e basic equation (i.e. Su = 3 m/sec)

hen no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the exterior wall of


ed values, that is make them stronger.

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

area gets much larger as a result)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the
NFPA 68-2012 Gases in Enclosures - High Strength Method
Enclosure Section Dimensions
(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
7.3152 meters
Volume (V)
195.72604 cubic meters
Area (Aeff)
26.756076 square meters
Diameter (Dhe)
4.8768 meters
Internal Surface (As) 214.0486 square meters

V<1000 (This is total volume, not Veff)

Example Data
Acetone
Isopropanol
Methanol
Methane
Hydrogen
Propane

NEED TO DETERMINE THIS IN L/D TAB, NOT DONE YET

Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion


Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
Basic Enclosure and Vent Information
Pred
Pstat
P0
Cd
Pa

0.6 bar-g
If Pred < 0.5 bar, use Low Strength Method
0.1 bar<Pstat<(Pred-0.05) and Pred<0.5
0.1 bar-g
0 bar-g
intial pressure in the enclosure
0.7 vent flow discharge coefficient, taken as 0.7. Can be increased to 0.8 when the vent is esse
0.013 ambient pressure outside the vent = 0.013 bar-g

Material
Su
Pmax
Xst
u
au
u
b
Gu

Propane
0.46 m/sec
7.9 bar-g
US
0.055 stoichimetric volume fraction fuel in air
Metric =
1.80E-05 unburned gas-air mixture dynamic viscosity = 1.8E-05 kg/m-sec for gas concentrations less
343 unburned gas-air mixture sound speed = 343 m/sec for gas concentrations less than 5 vol%
1.2 unburned gas-air mixture mass density = 1.2 kg/m3 gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at
1.15 ratio of specific heats for burned gas-air mixture = 1.1 to 1.2 depending on the gas mixture

230.1 unburned gas-air mixture sonic flow mass flux = 230.1 kg/m 2-sec for an enclosure at ambien

Determination of Turbulent Flame Enhancement Factor,


GUESS Av
Difference

15.95589 square meters


0.0000 square meters

GUESS of Vent Area that must be iterated (D v is used to determine

Use Solver to achieve difference of GUESS and Panel Inertia Correcte

Note that pressure terms in formula for u v are in absolute units, while the standard approach is to use ga
Default Parameters

1
2

0.39
1.23
0.0487 m/sec

Evaluation of 0

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u

u Su Dhe 2

Re f
u
Ref

7.48E+04

3.1331

uv

200000 Pred Pa
if _ Pred 1.9 Pa , au _ otherwise
u

uv

312.7832 m/sec

u uv Dv 2

Re v
u
Rev

Diameter of vent is iterated (av/pi)^0.5

4.70E+07

1.8489
0=

5.7928

Surface Area of Obstructions Correction to

Surface area of obstructions includes:


1. The surface of conduits, pipes and such over 1/2 inch diameter
2. The surface area of structural columns, beams and joists
3. The surface area of stairways and railings
4. The surface area of equipment with characteristic dimension in the range of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 c
Aobs
Aobs/As

89 square meters
0.4157934

If Aobs> 0.4 As,

is increased. Otherwise 1 = 0

1 0 (0.6 Aobs As )
1=
L/D Correction to

5.8843

L/D
1.5000
L/D<5
If L/D exceeds 2.5, a correction is made to.
2

D
1 (1
1 )
2.5

5.8843

High Pressure, Low Inertia Vent Area


Determine

( Pstat 1)

( P0 1)

( Pmax 1)

1/ b

1 b

( P0 1)

= 0.0151809
Determine Av0

Av 0

1 Pred 1
P 1

max

As

P 1
red

Pmax 1

Av0=

15.9559 Sq.Meters

0.224874

Su u
Gu C d

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction


Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Vgas
Xr
Vgas

Venc

xst

100 volume of gas at ambient pressure which could escape from the credible event, cubic meter
Xr= 9.289422
= 0.0759494

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3

Xr
1

Xr
1

Av1 Av 0 X r1 / 3
Av1=

15.9559 square meters

Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2


Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to Su limit of the basic equation (i.e. Su = 3

Correction for inertia is limited to panel mass < 40 kg/m^2. If actual panel mass is less than MT, then no correction is needed.
the room, one can either include roof area for venting or increase the containing walls and floor Pred values, that is make them
n
1 number of panels
0 .2
Pred
n 0.3 V
MT

0.5

Mformula
MT

1.67

2465.2265 kg/m^2
40 kg/m^2

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
The amount of vent area increase depends on the mode of opening, either hinged or translating.
M
Hinged Vent

10 kg/m^2
N YES/NO

US
Metric =

(0.05) M 0.6 Su
Av 2 Av1 FSH 1
0. 2
n0.3 V Pred

FSH
Av

8 lb/sq ft
39.1 kg/m^2

If panel density is in US units, enter h


If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an

0.5

1
15.9559 sq meters

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


As the vent duct increases Pred, a pseudo-value P'red is used in the initial equations.
This section iterates to the value of P'red and vent area that will achieve the overall Pred goal.
Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter
Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

N YES/NO
4.507291 meters

Rectangular Duct

Y
Aspect
Side a

1.5 ratio a/b


4.892222 meters

Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe
Chosen Duct Dhe

3.261481 meters
16.30741 meters
3.913778 meters

3.9137775 meters
Chose correct relation between P'red and Pred

Lduct
Duct L/Dhe)

2.1 meters
0.536566

Enter Design Goal for Pred with Duct


PredGoal=
0.3 bar

For Lduct<3 meters and L/Dhe<4


P'red= 0.19252 bar
For Lduct of 3 to 6 meters or L/Dhe > 4
P'red= 0.01672 bar

P'red= 0.1925197 bar

User must MANUALLY Copy the value of P'red above into the initial entry for Pred at cell B22 and
VERIFY that the same chosen P'red value is valid at cell B95 (This could change if the vent area gets much larger as a

t any implied warranty or guarantee.

user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Example Data
Isopropanol

Su
0.54
0.41
0.56
0.4
3.12
0.46

Pmax

7.8
6.8
7.9

NOT DONE YET

to 0.8 when the vent is essentially an entire wall/side of the enclosure

313 psf
0.149865 bar
for gas concentrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
centrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
ntrations less than 5 vol% at ambient temperatures
pending on the gas mixture

c for an enclosure at ambient temperatures

(Dv is used to determine and is taken as Av0.5)

S and Panel Inertia Corrected Vent Area = 0

ndard approach is to use gauge values.

of 2 to 20 inches (5.1 to 51 cm)

credible event, cubic meters

e basic equation (i.e. Su = 3 m/sec)

hen no correction is needed. If Av is larger than the exterior wall of


ed values, that is make them stronger.

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

area gets much larger as a result)

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a
NFPA 68-2007 Dusts in Buildings

Room Dimensions
Length
8.6 meters
Width
5 meters
Height
7.3 meters
Volume
313.9 cubic meters

This tab does not use the L/D tab for input values. Unless noted below, it is assum
the wall at the end of the longest dimension. If venting will be evenly distributed al
such that L/D is evaluated as 1, enter YES in the cell below:
YES

KSt is the deflagration index


Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion
Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
is the ratio of Pred/Pmax
KSt
Pred
Pmax
Pstat

132 bar-m/sec
0.04788 bar
9.1 bar
0.0345 bar
0.005262 Pred/Pmax

Assumed 100 psf wall for this calculation


US
Metric =

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat
Av0

0.5 psig
0.034474 barg
4/3

St

V 3/ 4

Pmax
1
Pred

13.76933 sq meters

Check for L/D less than 2


The effective area, Aeff,

shall be determined by dividing Veff by H (based on the longest


central axis flame length). This assumes all venting at one end.
H
Aeff

8.6 meters
36.5 sq meters

The effective hydraulic diameter, Dhe,

for the enclosure shall be determined based upon the


general shape of the enclosure taken normal to the central axis.
Dhe =

4 * Aeff / p, Where p is the perimeter of the general shape

p
Dhe

24.6 meters
5.934959 meters

L/D

A v1 A v0

If Red, L/D has been set to "1" by entering a YES above.

0.75

2
2
exp(0.95 Pred )
D

1 0.6

0.75

A v1 A v0 1 0.6
2
exp(0.95 Pred 2 )
D

Av1

13.76933 sq meters

Building requires a factor of 1.7 on vent area


Av2

23.40786 sq meters

For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (not included here)
Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KSt limit of the basic equation (i.e. KSt=
Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2
n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

0 .2
red

n
0.3

V
0.5
K St

1.67

Mformula 2159.851 kg/m^2


MT
40 kg/m^2
MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above. If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an exp
Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller.
The total mass of the panel, including insulaton, fasteners and restraint system is divided by the
open
ventVent
area.Panel Density
Intended
M
40 kg/m^2
US
2.5 lb/sq ft
If panel density is in US units, enter here and ente
Metric =
12.2 kg/m^2
If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Av 3 1

Av3

23.40786 sq meters

0.0075 M 0.6 K St0.5


n 0.3 V Pre0d.2

Av 2

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia

Partial Volume Correction

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf
Afs
Cw
H
Ms
Asur
Ass
V

148 gm
0.37 sq meters
500 gm/m^3
7.3 meters
100 gm
20 sq meters
0.37 sq meters
313.9 m^3

Estimate Fill Fraction YES


YES or NO
If YES
Mf/Afs =
640 gm/m2
Assumed Dust on Floor of Operation
Ms/Ass =
640 gm/m2
Worst Case allowed assumptions per s
Cw =
200 gm/m2

Calculated from Inputs at Left


If NO
Mf/Afs =
400 gm/m2
Ms/Ass = 270.2703 gm/m2
Cw =
500 gm/m2
Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:
Me
4.8 kg
4800 gm
Xr

0.7187 fill fraction

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av 4 Av 3 X r1 3
Av4

Xr
1

22.1311 sq meters

Buildings do not generally have vent ducts, so this is not included here.

ut any implied warranty or guarantee.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

nless noted below, it is assumed that all venting is put on


ng will be evenly distributed along the longest dimension,

he basic equation (i.e. KSt=800 bar-m/sec)

an 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


/m^2, consult an expert

d Dust on Floor of Operational Room


se allowed assumptions per section 8.3.4

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the me
NFPA 68-2007 Dust in Equipment

Enclosure Section Dimensions


(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
Volume (V)
Area (Aeff)
Diameter (Dhe)

1 meters
2 cubic meters
4 square meters
1 meters

(This is total volume, not Veff)

KSt is the deflagration index


Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion
Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
is the ratio of Pred/Pmax
KSt
Pred
Pmax
Pstat

318 bar-m/sec
0.88 bar
8.4 bar
0.1 bar
0.104762 Pred/Pmax

US
Metric =

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat
Av0= 0.167514 sq meters

0.5 psig
0.034474 barg
4/3

St

V 3/ 4

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Check for L/D less than 2


(Use inputs above)
L/D (H/Dhe)

L/D<6 (8 for silos)

0.75

2
A v1 A v 0 1 0.6
2
exp(0.95 Pred )
D

If L/D >2, increase vent area, else Av1=Av0


Av1= 0.167514 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Turbulence Correction
Select as many options as applicable for the enclosure and this picks the highest correction.

Pmax
1
Pred

Building?

N YES/NO

Flow-Created?
Inlet Air
Inlet Pipe Diam
Outlet Pipe Diam
Vaxial
Vtangential

Correction factor of 1.7 if a building (occupiable)


Av2/Av1=
0

N YES/NO
20 m^3/sec
1m
1m
10 meter/sec
12.7324 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

Correction for Flow-Cre


This would be typical fo
Av2/Av1=

Rotating Equip?
N YES/NO
Rotational Radius
0.5 meter
Rotational Speed
1000 RPM
Vtangential
26.17994 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)

Correction factor if Rota


This would be typical fo
Av2/Av1=

Pick highest value of selected "YES" options above


Highest Av2/Av1=
0 No adjustment made if calculated Av2/Av1 is <1
If Velocities are less than 20 meters/sec, then Av2=Av1.
Av2= 0.167514 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (not included here)
Based on the Task Group Activities, the inertia equations are applicable up to KSt limit of the basic equation (i.e. KSt=
Inertia Correction for Panel Mass < 40 kg/m^2
n

1 number of panels

M T 6.67 P

Mformula
MT

0 .2
red

0.590121 kg/m^2
0.590121 kg/m^2

0 .3

V
0.5
K St

1.67

MT is minimum of 40 kg/m^2 or the formula above.

Vent area is increased if panel density exceeds the threshold or 40 kg/m^2, whichever is smaller. The total mass
of the panel, including insulaton, fasteners and restraint system is divided by the open vent area.
Intended Vent Panel Density
M
7.45 kg/m^2
US
0.75 lb/sq ft
If panel density is in US units, ente
Metric =
3.7 kg/m^2
If greater than 40 kg/m^2, consult

Av 3 1

Av3

0.205858 sq meters

0.0075 M 0.6 K St0.5


n 0.3 V Pre0d.2

Av 2

If M < MT, then there is no area correction for inertia


Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf
Afs
Cw
H
Ms
Asur
Ass
V

148 gm
0.37 sq meters
500 gm/m^3
1 meters
100 gm
20 sq meters
0.37 sq meters
2 m^3

Xr

47.2 fill fraction

Estimate Fill Fraction


YES
YES or NO
If YES
Mf/Afs =
640 gm/m2
Assumed Dust on Flo
Ms/Ass =
640 gm/m2
Worst Case allowed as
Cw =
200 gm/m2

Calculated from Inputs at Left


If NO
Mf/Afs =
400 gm/m2
Ms/Ass = 270.2703 gm/m2
Cw =
500 gm/m2
Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:
Me
4.8 kg
4800 gm

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av3

Av 4 Av 3 X r1 3

Xr
1

Av4= 0.205858 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Vent Duct Effect


Enter a Guess for the final Avf. A suggestion is to start with about 20% greater than Av4.
Avf (guess)= 0.205858 m^2

Calculate Duct hydraulic diameter


Only enter YES/NO for Round Duct, as Rectangular is the automatic other choice
Round Duct
Round Duct Dhe

YES/NO
0.511963 meters

Rectangular Duct Y
Aspect
Side a
Side b
p
Rectangular Duct Dhe

1.5 ratio a/b


0.555686 meters
0.370457 meters
1.852286 meters
0.444549 meters

Guidance
1. The duct area used in the Vent Duct Effect is that e
2. When duct area is larger than the vent area, actua
3. The actual duct area should be no more than 1.5 ti

Chosen Duct Dhe 0.444549 meters


Enter Duct Configuration
Lduct
epsilon
K elbows
K hat

0 meters
0.26 mm
0
0

This is the roughness, used in friction factor.

Calculate Friction Factor


f= 0.017286

Iterate Vent Duct Effect


Use Solver to set "Guess-Calc Avf" to zero by changing Avf (guess) with constraints of Avf*Lduct/V < 1, and Avf < Aeff to get a
Multiple solutions are possible at or above the given constraints.
If Lduct is too large, there may not be a solution and you will have to look at increasing Pred.
(f*Lduct/Dhe)=
0 (straight duct sections)
K=
1.5
E1=
0
E2= 3.59239
Avf/Av4=
1
Avf = 0.205858 m^2
Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)
Guess-Calc Avf

Constraint
Avf*Lduct/V
Av/Aeff
Constraint

Avf(guess) is cell B149

Solution Problems
1. If the Pred is too low, the constr
2. If the Duct length is too great, th
Suggestions to Solve
1. Increase Pred
2. Shorten duct
3. Change to round duct
4. Straighten duct

<1
0
0.051464

This is the ratio of the duct volume to the enclosure volume


This is the ratio of the duct area to the enclosure cross-section

Leff < RHS Constraint


Ldusty= 73.06014 meters
(Pmax-Pred)*V/Av
Leff=
0 meters
min(Lduct, Ldusty)
RHS Constraint= 13.97952 meters
min(10000*D/Kst, 11000/Kst)

ny implied warranty or guarantee.

should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

Correction for Flow-Created Turbulence (uses the maximum Axial or Tangential Turbulence)
This would be typical for a cyclone
0
Correction factor if Rotating Equipment
This would be typical for a grinder or hammermill
0

basic equation (i.e. KSt=800 bar-m/sec)

ensity is in US units, enter here and enter metric units at left


than 40 kg/m^2, consult an expert

Assumed Dust on Floor of Operational Room


Worst Case allowed assumptions per section 8.3.4

Vent Duct Effect is that equal to the vent area.


han the vent area, actual Pred can be higher or lower.
d be no more than 1.5 times the vent area.

1, and Avf < Aeff to get a single solution.

Pred is too low, the constraint of Av/Aeff is not met and Cells B183-187 will not be numbers
Duct length is too great, the constraint of Avf*Lduct/V is not met and the same thing will happen.
ions to Solve

e to round duct

M6.7P n
K
0.2 3
T red 0.5

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the meth
Determine Pred for "Inertialess" vents, including L/D, Turbulence, and Partial Volume
For Panel Mass > 40 kg/m^2, NFPA-68 recommends use of the Annex F (here)
Use:

1) Enter Input data and value slightly below desired Pred at B26
2) Use solver to set Target Cell M7 equal to desired Pred with Inertia, by changing cell B26

Enclosure Section Dimensions


(see L_D Tab to calculate these terms)
Length (H)
Volume (V)
Area (Aeff)
Diameter (Dhe)

2 meters
2.4 cubic meters
4 square meters
2 meters

Final Value of Pred with Inertia Correction


Second Peak

(This is total volume, not Veff)

KSt is the deflagration index


Pred is the maximum pressure developed during the vented explosion
Pmax is the maximum pressure developed in a closed explosion test
is the ratio of Pred/Pmax
Pstat is the static release pressure of the vent panel
KSt
Pred
Pmax
Pstat

260 bar-m/sec
0.856099 bar
Solver solution constrained > 0.01
9.1 bar
0.1 bar
US
0.5 psig
0.094077 Pred/Pmax
Metric = 0.034474 barg

Av 0 1 10 4 1 1.54 Pstat

Av0= 0.166694 sq meters

4/3

St

V 3 / 4

Pmax
1
Pred

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Check for L/D less than 2


(Use inputs above)
L/D (H/Dhe)

0.75

A v1 A v 0 1 0.6
2
exp(0.95 Pred 2 )
D

If L/D >2, increase vent area, else Av1=Av0


Av1= 0.166694 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

K St

Turbulence Correction
Select as many options as applicable for the enclosure and this picks the highest correction.
Building?

N YES/NO

Correction factor of 1.7 if a building (occupiable)


Av2/Av1=
0

Flow-Created?
N YES/NO
For Flow-Created Turbulence, use the maximum Axial or Tangential Turbulence
Inlet Air
20 m^3/sec
This would be typical for a cyclone
Inlet Pipe Diam
1m
Av2/Av1=
0
Outlet Pipe Diam
1m
Vaxial
16.66667 meter/sec
Vtangential
12.7324 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)
Rotating Equip?
N YES/NO
Correction factor if Rotating Equipment
Rotational Radiu
0.5 meter
This would be typical for a grinder or hammermill
Rotational Speed
1000 RPM
Av2/Av1=
0
Vtangential
26.17994 meter/sec (0.5 Vtan_max)
ighest Av2/Av1=

0 (picks highest value of selected "YES" options above)

If Velocities are less than 20 meters/sec, then Av2=Av1.


Minimum value of Av2/Av1 is 1.
Av2= 0.166694 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Partial Volume Correction

Calculate the worst-case building partial volume fraction, Xr, from the following equation:

Mf
Afs

148 gm
0.37 sq meters

Estimate Fill Fractio YES


YES or NO
If YES Mf/Afs =
640 gm/m2
Assumed Dust on Floor of Operationa

Cw
H
Ms
Asur
Ass
V

500 gm/m^3
2 meters
100 gm
20 sq meters
0.37 sq meters
2.4 m^3

Ms/Ass =
Cw =

640 gm/m2
200 gm/m2

Calculated from Inputs at Left


If NO
Mf/Afs =
400 gm/m2
Ms/Ass = 270.27 gm/m2
Cw =
500 gm/m2
Always Enter the mass of combustibles that could be released from equipment or storage below:
Me
4.8 kg
4800 gm
Xr

85.86667 fill fraction

If Xr is less then , then no venting is required


If Xr is greater than 1, partial volume does not apply and Av4=Av2 (Inertia correction is later)

Av 4 Av 2 X r1 3

Xr
1

Av4= 0.166694 sq meters

Vent Area can not exceed cross-section (Aeff)

Annex F Alternate Inertia Correction


Vent Panel Characteristics
v =
64 kg/m^2
n=
cs =

1 equal panels

Panel Shape changes Shape Factor, cs


Square
1
Aspect ratio=

1 Enter from Right

Round

m=

0 Enter from Right

Vent Gravitational Coefficient, m


Horizontal panel, on top of vessel
Other Orientations

Po =
Pmax =

1 bara

Rectang 1.06066

1
0

10.1 bara

2.4000 bara
Pred due to panel inertia = 1.4000 barg =

1.0 -Correct Kst for pressure.


Kst,v =

0.886

0.5

305.5

2.0 -Correct Kst for volume.

20.30

4.0 - Determine inertia


param
0.13679
5.0 - Determine k after
vent deployment

psig

8.0 - Determine Pv
Pv = 0.010989

9.0 - Determine f(Pv)

13.0 - Determine Pri for k< 1


Pri =
14.0 - Determine Pri for
k < 3

1<

K = 261.1166

3.0 -pr, for inertialess vents


pr = 0.856099 barg

k = 0.13827

f(Pv) = 3.314968

Pri =

6.0 - Determine vent param 10.0 - Determine exponent 15.0 - Determine Pri for
< k

= 0.75672

0.6114

Pri =

16.0 - Determine increase


7.0 - Determine vent param 11.0 - Determine Pvi (Pstat with over vent pressure after
k
)
deployment Pri
inertia
k = 0.75349

Pvi = 1.716657 bara

Pri =

thout any implied warranty or guarantee.


user should verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.

anging cell B26

ed with Inertia Correction

1.4000 bar
1.4000 bar

um Axial or Tangential Turbulence

med Dust on Floor of Operational Room

vent panel aspect ratio (short side/long side<1)

13.0 - Determine Pri for k< 1


2.4000
14.0 - Determine Pri for
k< 3

1<

2.3671
15.0 - Determine Pri for
< k
1.8561
16.0 - Determine increase
over vent pressure after
deployment Pri
2.4000 bara

Disclaimer - This spreadsheet is the personal work of Samuel Rodgers, given freely without any implied warranty or g
This is not authorized by any employer, by NFPA, or by any other organization.
Use of this spreadsheet is solely the responsibility of the user and the user should verify that the methods a
Insert Prugh Le-Chatalier for Hybrid Mix from Loss Prevention
Question whether the shape of the curve can be estimated using the same Brandes method
Insert Hybrid Mixture estimation from Su.

ut any implied warranty or guarantee.

uld verify that the methods and equations are consistent with the controlling NFPA standard.