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CHAPTER 4

PROFILE, AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND


INFRASTRUCTURE OF CHANDGAD TALUKA
4.1 Brief History of the taluka
Chandgad taluka is situated in the south of Kolhapur district. It is one of the
twelfth talukas of Kolhapur District. Distance between Kolhapur district
head quarter to Chandgad taluka head quarter is 125 km. Chandgad was part
of Belgaum administration at the Mumbai State. It was transferred to
Kolhapur in 1958 (Census,1991). After the reorganization of Maharashtra
state in May,1960, Chandgad was included in Kolhapur district as one of the
taluka. During the decade 1981 to 1991 two villages of chandgad taluka
were transferred in to newly established Sawantwadi taluka of Ratnagiri
District. The geographical area of the taluka in 1981 was recorded 9,54,091
hectors but after reorganization of the district and taluka, in the year 1984,
different changes took place and in the census 1991 Chandgad taluka covers
9,65,422 hectors of land.

4.2 Location :
Chandgad taluka has area of 952.20 sq. km i.e. 9,65,422 hectors land and
one of the second largest talukas of Kolhapur district after only Shahuwadi
taluka. It is situated on the North Degree of Latitude of 150-45-16 and
160-03-21, and North Degree of Longitude 740-01-12 and 740-2738. East- West length of the taluka is 44 km. and South North length is 34
km. The hight of the taluka from sea level is 800 mtr. and maximum climate
is 34.50dc and minimum is 13.0dc. Chandgad talukas major border touched
with Karnataka state border. Taluka is surrounded by Ajara and Gadhinglaj
taluka of Kolhapur District and Sawantwadi taluka of Sindhudurg District of
Maharashtra State and Belgaum and Hukkeri taluka of Belgaum District of
Karnataka state.

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4.3 Administration :
For administrative purpose the whole taluka is divided in to five revenue
circles namely Chandgad, Kowad, Turkewadi, Here and Date. The area of
these circles are 31394.71, 11707.04,18429.12,31394.71 and 9942.10
hectors respectively(Census 1991). Chandgad is one of the largest circle in
the taluka having 37 villages. Here has 32 villages, Date-28 ,Kowad-23 and
Turkewadi -23 villages respectively. For administration of forest there are
four Zones namely Chandgad, Patane,Tudiye and Karve with fifteen
branches for total 43 villages under this forest zone. Chandgad taluka had
158 villages and 109 gram Panchayats. According the census 2001 there are
74 Indipendent and 35 Group Gram Panchayat.

4.4 Political overview


There are five Zilla Parishad Seats and ten Panchayat Samittee Seats in the
taluka. The Politics of Chandgad taluka is combined politics which also
include Ajara taluka. The both taluka elected one Member of Legislative
Assembly (MLA) for five years to Leading both the taluka. Up to 2005 there
was Congress party candidates have elected in majorety. At the time of
Mumbai state the taluka was in the administration of Belgaum and Advocate
V.B. Patil was the leader of the area for the period of 1952-56 (Panchayat
Samiti, Chandgad). After the reorganizing the new Maharashtra State, in the
first election Narasingrao Bhujangrao Patil of Congress Party had elected as
a leader

(MLA) of the taluka. He was the first MLA of the newly

established taluka in Kolhapur district in 1961-65. After the several election


there were seventh MLA had worked and now the National Congress Party
candidate Babasaheb Kupekar is working as a eighth MLA of the taluka
from 2009 election.

Twenty four Panchayat samittee president (Sabhapati) leaded the Panchayat


Samittee and recently twenty-fifth president is working on the Panchayat
Samittee. The first Panchayat samittee president was Shri. B.A. Shirgoankar

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and from 2007 Shri

S. S. Patil, is working as twenty-fifth Panchayat

samittee president. It is observation of the local Social leader and senior


peoples that these politicians are did there work well but the work is not as
well as any other taluka of the district. The taluka had very good potential
for socio-economic development but these were mostly neglected by the
ruling parties. The infrastructure of the taluka is comparatively poor than
that of other talukas of the district. Even basic services relating to
communication, financial and educational initiatives are also very short that
are providing very small portion of the society. Yet there is large and large
scope for further expansion and growth.

4.5 Population and Density:


Chandgad taluka has population of 1,80,781 in which Male population is
88,924 and Famale population is 91,857. The density of the population is
1033. As per the census of India 2001, literacy rate of the taluka is 66.67%
and the total literate population is 10,387 in which literate male population is
61,300 i.e. 80.74% and female literate are 42,571 i.e. 53.29%. There are 298
educational institutes which includes 68 High schools, twelve Higher
secondary schools and three Senior Collages in the taluka.

4.6 General Overview of the Taluka :


Chandgad taluka has four rivers and five forts, these are incredibles of the
taluka. Chandgad taluka has one of the major industrial area namely Shinoli
nearby Belgaum and one MIDC near Halkarni. Halkarni MIDC is newly
established in the year 1995 and spread over 192.13 hectors of land. Total
land is divided in to 66 plots out of them 42 plots have been sold out by the
MIDC up to 2007. Further 50 application have been received for remaining
24 plots up to 2007. Soil quality of the taluka is mixed Laterite, Black and
recristalised stones (sandy). Talukas three fourth of land is covered under
red and laterite soil which is useful for cultivation of cashew trees and
jackfruit trees. Western part of the taluka (Kini Karyat) is covered by black

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and recristalised stone (sandy soil). Rainy seasons of the taluka is varying in
last five years however average rainy days are more as compare to that with
any talukas of Kolhapur district after Gaganbawada. Taluka had west to east
sloping land. The rainfall go on decreasing towards western part of the
taluka, but the agriculture production found more towards western than
eastern part. East part of the taluka is covered by thick forest and hilly area
and the people in this area are doing traditional farming. Major crops in this
place are Nachni and sawa, apart from this they are using to cultivate paddy.
The economic condition of these people is very poor and most of the people
are illiterate they always migrate for some period to the nearest places in
order to generate some more income to fulfill their basic needs. They have
no more alternative to generate income other than the labour. Most of the
people are surviving on the forest and raring cattles like cow, buffalo, sheep,
goats etc.

Chandgad taluka has two big mines of bauxite, which are used for extracting
Alluminium. The percentage of alluminium in the bauxide is 48 to 50%
which is highest in any mines of the district. Kasarsada and Nagaratasawadi
are big two mines having 46 villages under its coverage area. Kasarsada is
one of the biggest mine in the taluka having 319 hectors of land and
Nagarataswadi is second largest.

Agriculture is major activity of the people and many people are directly or
indirectly connected with this activity in the taluka. Major crops of the
taluka are Sugarcane, paddy, Nachni, Potato, Sweet Potato. And major fruits
of the taluka are Cashew, Jackfruit and mango. There are also so many type
of forest fruits which are used to eat and sale. The cultivation of agriculture
is based on traditional. Recently after modernization of agriculture the
machines such as tractor are also used in the taluka. Farmers are inclined to
take more cash crops such as sugarcane, sweet potato, potato and cashew.

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4.7 Water
Chandgad taluka has proper balance of all natural resources. Forest, Water,
Agriculture and human resources are available evenly in all areas. Water is
essential element in life. `Chandgad taluka has four rivers 1160 wells and 19
small tanks` (Census 2001). These are providing water for different areas of
taluka. It was estimated that 6-7 TMC water is collected annually from all
these sources. The small and midium projects established on the river are
providing water for agriculture purpose. It is irrigated by different sources
like electric pumps, oil engines etc. Following table shows the sources of
irrigation in the taluka.
Table 4.1
Sources and irrigation (In Hectors)
Year
1
1991
2001
Total Increase
% Increase

Well
2
1456
1007
-449
-31%

River
3
2316
3106
790
34.11%

Other
4
20
481
461
2305%

Total
5
3792
4594
802
21%

(Source :Census 1991 and 2001)

The data in the table number 4.1 shows that total land irrigated in the taluka
is 4,594 hectors up to the year 2001. It means it has been increased by 21%
during the last decade. After glancing the table it can be understand that the
irrigation by well is decreased by 31% from 1,456 hectors in 1991 to 1007
hectors in 2001. On the contrary, irrigation by river is increased by 34.11%
from 2,316 hectors in 1991 to 3106 hectors in 2001. Irrigation by other
sources is also increased by 2305% (i.e.23 time) from 20 hectors in 1991 to
481 hectors of land in 2001. The total irrigation land is increased by 802
i.e.21% in 2001 year compare to 1991. The increase in irrigation by other
source is highest among all other sources of the irrigation.

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4.8 Small and Medium Projects on the river


There are 22 small bridges and 3 middle projects on rivers. All rivers are
originated from the Sahyadries ranges of the taluka which are spread in east
of the taluka. Tamraparni, Ghatprabha and Markendey are flowing from
east to west. Markendey river is mostly used by the nearer state Karnataka
though it touches the boundry of the taluka. Tilari river is also one of the
fourth river in the taluka but the water of this river is used for hydroelectricity generation project. Tilari Hydro-electricity Project is working
from 1986 near Dhamane village. The capacity of the dam is 4.00 TMC.
Annual production capacity of this hydro electricity generation project is 60
MegaVatt and its cost per unit is 23 paise only (during 2003). Its whole
electricity generated is used to Goa state only.
Table 4.2
Information about Middle Project and theire Capacity
Sr. No
Middle Projects
River
Capacity (MCFT)
1

Phatakwadi Prakalp

Ghataprabha

1540

Jangamatthi

Tamraparni

1273

Jambare Prakalp

Tamraparni

820

(Source : Irrigation dept of Chandgad)

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Table 4.3
Information about Small projects and there capacity
Sr. No
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Small Projects
2
Kamewadi
Shirgaon
Lakkikatte
Sundhi
Patne
Kitwad-1
Ambewadi
Halkarni
Malatwadi
Here
Kalasgade
Jelugade
Karajgaon
Khadakhol
Kitwad 2
Nittur -1
Nittur-2
Dundage
Kajirne
Tirmal
Dindalkop
Sonarwadi

Capacity (MCFT)
3
76.0
18.0
326.0
85.0
160.0
260.0
293.0
37.0
54.0
137.0
67.0
172.0
124.0
64.0
137.0
66.0
155.0
28.0
159.0
-

(Source : Irrigation dept of Chandgad)

It is proved by the study that, the irrigation by dripper system saves water.
One TMC of water is fulfill the need for 24000 hectors of land (N.S.Patil,
Chandgad at Glance,2003).

4.9 Agriculture, Fruits and Cattle and Dairy Farming::


4.9. 1 Agriculture :
Agriculture is regarded as backbone of developing economies. It provides
large employment and also creates ancillaries. More than 70% people are
living in rural area and are connected with agriculture directly or indirectly.
Kolhapur District is well known about its white revolution, which is the
result of agriculture development. People like to engage in cattle rearing
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with doing agriculture. Chandgad taluka had 952.20 sq.km of rural land.
Almost all land in rural areas is used for agriculture purpose. Taluka had
medium and slightly more sloped land. The land on river basin is found
cultivated and this land used for more and more time cultivation. The land in
the taluka is graded in to two to five grades. Kini Karyat was known for its
paddy production, as one of the biggest area of paddy production in the
taluka (N.S.Patil, Chandgad at Glance,2003). Average paddy production in
per hector is 8 10 tons. Recently the situation is changed, people turned to
take cash crops like Sugar cane.

Main crops of the taluka are Sugar cane, Paddy, Nachni, Sweetpotato and
Potato. Other crops like chilly, Vegitables and Maize are also cultivating in
some parts like west part of the taluka. In the east part mostly in hilly area of
the taluka the `zooming cultivation` is also used by there people (Vaghotri,
Issapur, Namkhol, Mirvel etc.) (P.41 Chandgad, N.S.Patil, Chandgad
collage). Zooming Cultivation means the cultivation where the farmer not
used the same land for cultivation more time, but they like to use another
land for cultivation according to their convenient.
Table 4.4
Information of land (In hectors)
Year

Total
Land

Forest
Land

1
1984-85
1990-91
2000-01
%
Increase
1991 to
2001

2
954091
965422
965422
00

3
24898
30468
27100
-11%

Not Good
Good for
Total
Total
for
Cultivation Irrigated Cultivated
Cultivation
area
Land
4
5
6
7
17810
26290
5297
48352
3791.11
9820
58020
4594.00
59622
85.38%
20%
21%

(Source : Census Kolhapur district 1991 and 2001)

The table number 4.4 shows data on availability of land in Chandgad taluka.
It is found that the forest land is decreased by 11%. The land which was
30,468 hectors in 1990-91 is decreased to 27100 hectors in the year
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2001.The land good for cultivation is increased by 20% as compared to that


of 1990-91 in the year, 2000-01. In the case land not good for cultivation, it
is increased by 85.38%. Which was 5,297 hectors in the year1990-91 has
increased and reached to 9,820 hectors of land in 2000-2001. In the year
2007-08 total land under irrigation is 8500 hectors (Survey Statistics
Agriculture Department, Chandgad 2007-08).

This is quite desirable that the land under irrigation and land good for
cultivation is increased by 21% and 20% respectively during the decade
1990-91 to 2000-01. However, there is bad signal for the land of forest,
which is decreased by 11% accompanied by increase in land which is not
good for cultivation. It is increased by 85.38% in 2001, it is an indication of
improper use of forest and cultivable land, which needs to take in to
consideration for the development.
Table 4.5
Area under different crops in hectors
Year

Sugar
Cane

Paddy Nachni Wheet Jawar Maize

1
1984-

2
3
4
3116 14692

Sweet Potato Ground


Potato
Nut

6
498

7
82

8
9864

9
3698

10

3608 15329

7849

1546

924

87

540

3825

5730 15626

8312

40

223

639

4500

1250

4946

2%

6%

-97%

86% 733%

67%

85
199091
200001
%
increase

58.81

76%

(Source : Census Kolhapur 1991 and 2001)

After glancing the crops statistics in two decades it reveals that the land
under sugar cane, paddy and Nachni crops is increasing continuesly. The
Sugarcane, Paddy, Nachni and Maize cultivation has increased by 58.81%,
2%, 97% and 86% . It is quite lucrative that the area under, sweet potato
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cultivation is increased by 733% to 4500 hectors in the decade of 1990-90 to


2000-01.

Major crops in Chandgad taluka are sugar cane, Paddy, Groundnut and
Sweet Potato proportion of which is always higher than other crops. The
production of these crops for the year 2003 is shown in the table number 4.6

Table No. 4.6.


Major crops Production in Metric Tonn
Crops

Production

Sugar Cane
Paddy

450000
50000

Ground Nut

4500

Sweet Potato

21000

Source : Census 2001

4.9.2 Horticulture :
Chandgad taluka produces cashew, mango, jackfruits and many forest based
fruits. Production of cashew is considerably good, which is taken on large
scale as it fetches good proce and considerable income to the cultivators. .
Cashew nut had good demand in the market world wide. Chandgad taluka is
famous for its cashew nuts with its special test. That creates demand for
cashew nut. As a result area under cultivation of cashew trees are increasing
in this region. There are 20 small and medium processing industries are
working. The total 2/3 land of Chandgad taluka is covered by cashew trees
and nearly 5000 tons raw cashew is produced annually and derives income
of Rs. 20 crore. in the taluka (N.S.Patil, Chandgad at Glance,2003). The
Government of Maharashtra is impressed this number and provide grants to
develop more trees in the taluka in 1991. The Scheme introduced as
horticulture programme at 50% grant to 5350 farmers to develop trees in

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3670 hectors land by government. In the same way another scheme at 100%
grant basis was introduced under the employment guarantee scheme.
Another major fruit in the taluka is Mango, though it is not taken on
commercial purposes but it has very good market in the taluka. People used
to take mango in to the market after fulfilling their demands. Some
information about fruits land of the taluka is given in the table 4.7 as
follows.

Table 4.7
Land under Horticulture (In hector) 2001
Horticultu
re

Chandg
ad

Kolhap
ur

1
Mango

2
1643

3
5546

Cashew

2129

5535

Position in
Dist

% In total fruit land of


district

5
1

29.62%

38.46%

(Sources : Census Kolhapur,2001)

The table number 4.7 shows that the chandgad taluka had highest land under
cultivation of Mango and Cashew in Kolhapur district. It constitutes 29.62%
and 38.46% of total land respectively. There is good potential for cultivating
more and more trees. Farmers recently aware their scope and started to
cultivate these trees in some part of the taluka. Though the land under
mango cultivation is higher in the district, there is no any processing unit yet
established. Which need to consideration for development.

4.9.3 Cattle and Dairy farming


Dairy farming is regarded supplementary to the agriculture. Farmers are
raring cattle mainly for milk and agriculture proposes. Some information
about the cattles and milk in Chandgad taluka in respect of Kolhapur district
is shown in the following table number 4.8.

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Table 4.8
Cattles in Chandgad Taluka and Kolhapur District
Origin

Cattles

Chand
gad

Foreign
(cross
breed)

Domesti
c

Bull
Total Cow
categories Anl
Cow-Milking
Bull
Total Cow
categories Anl
Cow-Milk
Male Buffalo

Kolha
pur

96

4
7390

% to
District
5
1.30%

Position in
District
6
10

3202
2736
18057

68634
54423
98481

4.67%
5.03%
18.34%

9
9
1

2769
2083
1238

31230
21521
18179
43640
8
32496
4
16787
0

9.1%
10.1%
7.1%

4
4
7

8.1%

8.23%

1.47%

Buffalo Total

33603

Buffalo Milk

26768

Sheep
2475
(Source : Census Kolhapur, 2001)

From above table it is observed that the Cattles in taluka are found in good
number. It is observed that the the taluka has more number of domestic
cattles as it is with foreign cattles. In the total Cattle, foreign bulls are not
much in number compare to the other talukas of the district however
domestic bulls are available in the large number. According to the Cattle
having position in district it is observed that Chandgad taluka had more
countrys cattles as it is compared with foreign cattles. Taluka ranks 9th in
the number of cross breed milking cows in the district. It is also observed
that the taluka ranks 4th in the number of domestic cows(milking) and ranks
7th in the number of Buffalos (milking) in district. Information about milk
and milk collection in Chandgad taluka with reference to District is shown in
the table number 4.9.

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Table 4.9
Dairy Cooperative Societies
Particular

Chandgad

Kolahapur

Position in
District

346

3907

5
8.85%

31133

354147

8.80%

64000

962000

6.65%

23338

350762

6.65%

43%

160000

615000

26.01%

Dairy co-operatives
Total Members
Daily Avg Milk
Production
(In Litrs)
Annual Collection of
Milk (000)
Chilling Centre (No)
Daily milk collection
Capacity of Chilling
Centre ( In Ltrs)

% in
District

[Source : Primery document, District Statistical Office Kolhapur ( 2001) ]

There are three chilling centers in the taluka which are engaged for
procuring milk from the taluka and nearest places. These all chilling centre
are not utilizing their full capacity because of less availability of milk. It is
considerable thing to develop their milk production by increasing milk.

4.10 Education and Literacy:


4.10.1 Education:
Education is only source of overall development of the society. Education in
Chandgad taluka is as much good as any educationally developed talukas.
There is long history of education development in the taluka. Fist school
namely Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Kalkundri was established by eminent
educationalist with establishing first educational institute Khedut Shikshan
Sanstha in 1953. The founder chairman of this sanstha is Shri Madkholkar
Guruji. After completion of fifty years of educational history of the taluka,
there are number of institutes (schools) and collages are opened for the
students. Last three years performance of educational institution, teachers
and students is briefly shown in the table number 4.10. as follows.

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Table 4.10
Educational Institutions teachers and Students
Year

1
2003-04

2004-05

2007-08

190

60

12

265

Position
in
District
8
5

Techers

722

614

54

1390

Students

21246

15265

1355

33866

Institutes

198

63

12

276

Techers

766

572

54

1392

Students

20934

16209

1355

38498

Institutes

215

68

12

298

Teachers

Students

Particular

2
Institutes

Total

Primary
Schools

High
Schools

Junior

Senior

Institutes
13%
13%
00
00
13%
(2008)
Teachers
7.48
(-7%)
00
00
0.14
(2005)
Stidents
(-1.47%)
6.18%
00
00
13.67%
(2005)
(Source : Primery Report,Educational Department, Panchayat Samiti Chandgad, 200708)
%
Increase

After glancing the table number 4.10, it is cleared that the institutional
growth in chandgad taluka is quite satisfactory. Chandgad taluka had 5th
position in respect of number of institutes, 8th position in respect of number
of Teachers and 7th position in respect of number of students in the district.
According to the educational department, Chandgad taluka has at least basic
school i.e. Anganwadi or Primery school at each and every village.

4.10.2 Literacy :
`Literate person means a person who can both read and write with
understanding in any language` (Census Kolhapur 1991, P.32 Para 9.1).
Table number 4.11 shows Information about literacy in chandgad taluka
along with the total rural literacy of Kolhapur district.

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Table 4.11
Literacy
Year

Literacy

Chandgad Taluka
Total

Male Famale

Kolhapur District (Rural)


Total

Male

Famale

1991

% In Dist and State

52.24%

67.73%

37.70%

62.47%

77.47%

47.25%

2001

% In Dist and State

66.67%

80.74%

53.29%

73.07%

85.70%

60.70%

% Increase in a decade

14.43%

13.01%

15.59%

10.6%

8.23%

13.45%

(Source : Census Kolhapur, 1991 and 2001)

The level of literacy in the taluka is quite good. The literate rate of the taluka
is 66.67% in which the male literacy rate is 80.74% and that of female is
53.29%. The total literacy rate has increased by 14.43% during the decade of
nineties (1991-2001). It includes higher increase in female literacy rate
(15.59%) than that of male (13.01%). Where as overall growth rate of
literacy in the district during the decade is only 10.6%.

4.11 Soil, Minerals and Fisheries :


4.11.1 Soil :
Chandgad taluka is famous for its red soil. The soil of the taluka is farmed
by red and laterite traps. Physiographically land can be divided in to two
broad soil zones, 1. The eastern zone of heavy rainfall is covered with red
laterite soils and; 2. The central and western part is covered with fertile land
and well drained brownish soil. Eastern Soil occur mainly hilly tracks of
heavy rainfall, on the hill tops which are not covered by forests. They are red
to brownish-red in color, mostly erode and shallow. They are not retentive of
moisture and yield mainly coarse hill millets. When terraced, applications of
nitrogen and phosphorus are found quite useful and in such cases paddy can
also be taken from the soil. The eastern zone covered by forests, which
abound in valuable trees like teak, undi, jambul etc. The soil is fertile and
rich in humus. The brown, medium and deep black soil found in central and

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western zone of the taluka. Medium deep soil is grey in colour with good
granular structure and more clayey. The soil is quite fertile and good for
Kharif crops - Sugar, Paddy, Nachni, Jowar and groundnut. As drainage is
good vegetables can be successfully taken in this land.

4.11.2 Minerals:
Chandgad taluka is well endowed with Bauxite as the chief mineral of
economic value. It occurs in large quanitities as laterite cappings in the hills
of the western part of the taluka. Irregular nodules of Kankar occur in the
soils, especially in the western part of the taluka. Kolhapur district has 20
major places with potential bauxite. Out of which 6 are in Chandgad taluka.
They are Nagartaswadi, Kasarsada, Mogalgad,Mahipalgad, Kalanandigad
and Gandharv gad (Record of Mineral Department, Kolhapur,2006). It is
observed that chandgad taluka has more than 25% of bauxite places in
overall Kolhapur district. It measures 803.70 hectors. Kasarasada mine is the
largest mine of having 399 hectors followed by Nagarataswadi of 284.70
hectors. Kasarsada mine is covered by five main villages (i.e. Chandgad,
Bhogoli, Pilani, Umgao and Kokare) of Chandgad taluka. Talukas total 48
villages are under this coverage area, these villages come under Chandgad
and Karve forest zone (Forest Deptt. Chandgad,2006). The Scientific name
of the bauxite is Alluminium Hydroxide it Gibsite (Al2O3, 3H2O).
Theoratically bauxite contains 73.9% Al2O3 and 26.1% of H2O. Bauxite is a
generic name given to various Aluminium Hydroxide related to each other
Bauxite ows its name to a place of Baux in South France(Mines in
Maharashtra,1970). Bauxite in Chandgad taluka contains highest percentage
of Alluminium Laterite i.e. 40% to 58% (Forest Deptt. Chandgad,2006).

The Indian Alluminium Company, Belgaum made contract with mineral


department for consuming Bauxite from these mines for 30 years on 1969,
which came to end on 1999. However, it took seven more year to transport
extracted bauxite due to transport problem (Record of Mineral Department,

163

Kolhapur,2006). The company on an averagely extracted 7538.43 matric ton


of Bauxite per annum up to 1999 from 78 hectors of land at a rate of Rs. 330
to Rs. 434.33 per ton (the rate of minerals were fixed accourding to the
central government mining rules).

It is observed that, considering nearer taluka of Kolhapur district there is


very good scope for developing a small bauxite plant in the taluka however,
yet there is no any plant which can process the bauxite. Radhanagari taluka
which is closest to the Chandgad taluka has second largest bauxite area.
Shahuwadi also has potential land for bauxite which need to take
consideration for Industrial development in the district.

4.11.3 Fisheries :
Fisheries land in the taluka is increasing tremendously in last some years.
Chandgad taluka has highest land under fish farming and highest fish
income in total Kolhapur district, still there is further scope for expansion.
There are four rivers in the taluka having considerable land with potential of
fisheries. Though these are not using for fish farming, these can provide
further expansion for fisheries in chandgad taluka. The Table number 4.12
shows information about fisheries in Chandgad taluka in relation to
Kolhapur ditrict.
Table 4.12
Fisheries (2007)
Fisheries

1
Total Land (hectors) for Fisheries( Tank,
Lake and Water Shed)
Used Land for Fisheries (hectors)
Production of Fisheries ( in M.Ton)
Total Income Received (in Lakh)
Used Fish seeds (Rs. in Lakh)
Cooperative Institutes (Fisheries)
Members

Chand
gad

Kolha
pur

Position in
District

% In Kop
District

1652
1652
390
93
160
5
274

7959
4505
3159
755
724
39
4235

1
1
1
1
1
2
8

20.75%
36.67%
12.34%
12.31%
22.09%
12.82%
6.46%

(Source : District Statistical Centre,2007)

164

Above table shows the Chandgad taluka has highest number of fishing land,
with highest production of fish and highest income also in the district. It
shares 20.75%,13.34% and 12.31% respectively in Kolhapur district.
National Fishing project is working at Tilarinagar from 2006. The cost of
project is Rs. 1.07 crores covering 24.55 hectors of land. The land is
procured in partnership of Government and private individuals. Government
had contributed 9.22 hectors of land and remaining 15.34 hectors land is
procured from private individuals. This project has been sanctioned in 1976,
however, it took 23 extended year to complete the project. This shows an
experience of government working speed which is quite undesirable. Out of
total cost Rs. 1.07 crore, Rs. 0.95 crores have spent on the project until now
from which government of Maharashtra contributed more of it (i.e
94,88,000).

4.12 Rain and Climate :


4.12.1 Rain :
The taluka has gained good rainfall from the South West as well as North
east Monsoons. The proportion of rainfall go on decreased rapidly from east
to west. The south west Monsoon commences by about the first week of
June and last till about the end of September. The day temperature during
the period fall very low. The average rainfall in the taluka during 95 days
(June-September) rainy season was 2783.7mm. in the year 2006. Table
number 4.13 shows data on rainfall in the taluka during last six years (2000
to 2006) and table number 4.14 shows an total rain fall in relation to
Kolhapur district.

165

Month
1
April

2000
2
-

Table 4.13
Rain fall
Years
2001
2002
2003 2004
3
4
5
6
32.50
- 13.04
-

2006
8
-

72.4

May

185.28

76.30

June

263.45

249.79

489.48 897.8 844.0

July

1155.21

773.48

388.20 384.2

August

715.40

585.58

886.20 304.2

Septeber

376.00

182.20

92.00 101.1

October

288.50

32.00

97.06 109.2

November

22.40

9.00

2.00

23.3

December

40.50

Total

28.48

2005
7

2926.24 2199.10 1983.00

2033.20 3221.4

(Source : Primery Report, Agriculture Department Chandgad, 2006)

Table 4.14
Rain in Chandgad Taluka
Particular
1
Avg Rain (MM)
Rainy days in Year

Rain
Position in Kop. District
2
3
2783.7
3
95

Rain in 2006 (MM) 3221.4

(Source : Primery Report, Agriculture Department Chandgad, 2006)

4.12.2 Climate :
The climate of Chandgad taluka is comparatively cooler in the district. In the
eastern part near the Sahyadries ranges it is always cooler than that in
western part which is liable to hot winds during April and May. The year in
respect of Chandgad may be divided in to three periods hot weather from
March to May, Rainy period from June to October and Cold weather from

166

November to February similar to that in Maharasthtra state. In winter season


day temperatures remain higher than the monsoon season and average
temperature ranging from 100 to 160. There is a rapid rise in temperature in
February to May. It ranges between 300c to 380c

4.13 Forest and Forts:


4.13.1 Forest :
Chandgad taluka has second largest forest area after Radhanagari taluka in
Kolhapur district. The area under forest is 27206.88 hectors. The forest of
the taluka is divided in Reserve forest and Unclassified forest. There are four
forest administrative zones and fifteen security offices in the taluka. Fire
wood, Timber, Hirda, Jambul, Ramettha and several other type of trees are
found at large in the forest. The forest has rich medicinal plants. (according
to the study there are more than 1000 medicinal plants but they are not
properly nurtured and used, (Dr.Bachulkar, Page.No.6, Sakal Vishesh Ank
16th Jan,2005.). These medicinal plants includes, Tamal patra, Honey Wax,
Kadipatta, Dried Mango pickle, Shikekai, Gum, Milk fruits, Mayrobalan.
The wild animals namely Pigs, Monkeys, Deers, Wild Buffallows (Gawa
in marathi) are found every where in the forest of the taluka. There also
found Elephants in the taluka which have migrated from Karnataka forest
soon from last some years. The forest information of the taluka is shown in
the following table.
Table 4.15
Forest Information of Chandgad Taluka (2006)
Zones
Reserve Forest
Unclassified Forest
Total Forest
1

Chandgad

6552.56

2156.31

8708.87

Patane

11591.71

11591.71

Tudiye

4415.11

4415.11

Karvey

2488.88

2488.88

Total

2505049

2156.31

27206.88

(Source: Annual report, Forest Department Chandgad taluka,2006)

167

Table number 4.15 shows the information about different forest zones in the
taluka. It reveals that the reserve forest is higher than unclassified forest. The
study shows the forest has good potential of medicinal plants but these are
not yet taken for the nurturing. There is need of deep study in respect of
medicinal plants and its uses for the society, it will helpful to the nation also.
Chandgad forest has many advantages. Different types of birds and animals
are found in large numbers. In the year 2007-08 the environmental activists
were requested to the government to establish reserve forest for elephants
near tilari forest. It will benefited to the farmers also. Government should
consider this request for further action.

4.13.2 Forts :
Chandgad taluka has a treasurer of natural beauty. It prevailing four
historical forts namely Pargad, Kalanandigad, Mahipalgad and Gandharvgad
and largest forest increases the beauty and interest of the pilgrims from
diverse area of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa. This underlines the scope
for tourism development. Very few efforts have been initiated up till now in
this direction. Though recent development of Pargarh (Pargad) is the
outcome of the same, other three forts have not been attracted attention of
the government until now. Residence of these places says the great history
of these forts but it is a another area of research which need to take for
further study. According to them, Mahipalgad was built by the Mahipat
King, and Pargad was built for watching the Portugies movement from Goa.
It was also said that the pargad is important gad in southern region at
kingdom days of Maratha. The sign of forts such as construction, building
structure and planning made for necessity on the forts indicates that the forts
were built by Hindu kings. However a deep study in the area of archeology
is necessary. There is very good scope for tourism development in the
taluka, government and politician should contribute for its development as
early as possible.

168

4.14 Infrastructure:
4.15.1 Electricity, Communication and roads:
Chandgad taluka is regarded as less developed infrastructure as compared to
other talukas in the district. According to the Electricity department,
Chandgad taluka is 100% electrified. All villages in the taluka are well
connected with electricity. PWD record says all villages are connected with
roads. Two state roads Ramghat to Parite (130) and Belgaum to Vengurla
(131) are situated in the taluka. The situation in the taluka is different from
recorded one. It is observed that there are only 78 bus stops in the taluka
and 25.69% roads are safe and suitable for transportation (Census 2001).
There are 45 post offices and only 22 postmens are looking the work of
these post offices. The table number 4.16, 4.17 and 4.18 shows the
information about infrastructure in the taluka in respect of electricity and
communication and roads respectively.

Table 4.16
Electricity of the taluka (up to 2008)
Electricity Connection Total Connection Total Electricity Consumption (K.W)
1
2
3
Rural household
29,465
2048.4
Commercial

1448

2049.5

Industrial

626

1759.79

Street light

212

97.64

Agriculture

6220

27602.03

P.W.D. (Irrigation)

279

306.25

(Source :Primary report MSEB, Chandgad, 2008)

169

Communication

Table 4.17
Communication facilities (2007)
Chandgad Kolhapur
Position in the District

Sub Post Offices


Telecommunication
Offices
Post Boxes
Postmen
No. of Villages
having P.O
Individual
Teliphone
P.C.O
Villages having
electricity

559

11

178

1616

22

433

45

515

6991

111399

581

13444

100%

100%

(Source: Census Kolhapur, 2001 up dated up to 2007)

Table 4.18
Roads in the taluka (2007)
Particular

Chandgad

Bus Stops
Roads safe and suitable for
transportation
Main Road

78
25%
(No-130) Ramghat to Parite and (No-131)
Vengurla to Belgaum

(Source: Census Kolhapur, 2001 up dated up to 2007)

From the above tables it is clear that the taluka has comparative
infrastructure. Chandgad taluka stand second in the district in respect of the
number of post boxes, paradoxically there are very few postmen. However
the taluka stands sixth in the district in respect of overall infrastructure
development.

170

4.15 Working Population in the Taluka :


Table 4.19
working population in the taluka.
Categories

1991

2001

Main
M
2
27698
4042

F
3
26474
6619

Marginal
T
4
54172
10661

M
5

F
6

Main
T
7

M
8
25773
3341

F
9
25477
5213

Marginal
T
10
51250
8554

M
11
3114
1581

F
12
6924
4421

T
13
10038
6002

1991
2001
Total
Total
Worker Worker
14
15
-

1
Cultivator
Agric.
Labours
House
681
206
887
1371
475
1846
180
469
649
Hold
Other
9362
1270 10632
- 13634
2598 16232 1348 1116
2464
Total
41783 34569 76352 5230 12984 18214 44119 33763 77882 6223 12930 19153
94566
(Working)
% in T.P 53.48% 42.35% 47.82% 6.70% 16.1% 11.40% 50.43% 36.76% 43.1% 7.1% 14.1% 11.1% 59.19%
Total
78117 81623 159740 78117 81623 159740 88924 91857 180781 88924 91857 180781 159740
Populat

97035
54.1%
180781

(Source : Census Kolhapur, 1991 and 2001)

171

The table number 4.19 shows the working position in respect of Main and
Marginal workers in different working activities i.e. Cultivators,
Agricultural Labourers, House Holds and Others in Chandgad taluka. The
data reveals that the population is increasing at fast rate but at the same time
the employment opportunities in the taluka are decreasing. It found that the
major population of the taluka is engaged in agriculture allied activities.
Major activities (Main work) including agriculture carried out by the male
on the contrary female are engaged in marginal work. The table represent
that the number of total workers are increased in the year 2001 as compare
to that in the year 1991, but the percentage of working population to total
population is decreased to 54.1% from 59.19%. This clearly indicates that
the increasing population is not getting work in the year 2001 as 1991. This
shows the need of development that leads to increase the employment.

4.16. Agro Resources Estimation in the taluka


It is important to find potential of resource availability in the taluka for
further industrial development.

Therefore

researcher

has

collected

information about resources estimation made by the agriculture department


Shirgaon of Chandgad Taluka. It will beneficial to the establishment of rice
mill, floor mills and cashew processing units. Though the agriculture
department has not made estimation about sugar cane the last 17 years
production data can be used for next establishment.
The information of the estimated land, production and productivity per
hector is summarized in the forgoing tables.

172

4.16.1 Rice :
The information about rice crop is summerised in the table 4.16.1

Table No.4.16.1
Rice Estimation in taluka
Estimated

Estimated

Estimated Production

Land under

Production Ton/

per Hector in Matric

Sr.No

Year

Crop

Hector

Ton

1 2006-07

14100

2.20

31062

2 2007-08

14074

2.24

31596

3 2008-09

14044

2.28

32133

4 2009-2010

14010

2.33

32685

5 2010-2011

13980

2.37

33244

6 2011-2012

13948

2.42

33810

7 2012-2013

13913

2.47

34379

8 2013-2014

13875

2.52

34951

9 2014-2015

13840

2.56

35430

10 2015-2016

13800

2.60

35880

14109

2.21

31114

Estimated Annual
Growth

(Source : Primery Document on Agriculture Planning, Agriculture Department, Shirgoan,


Chandgad, 2007-08)

The table no. 5.13 shows the estimated land under Rice crop and its
production per hector for next ten years (2006-07 to 2015-2016). It is
observed that the estimated annual growth in hector of land is 14109 doring
ten years. Production of rice will be at 22 quintal per hector. and 31114
matric ton per hector will be the production.

173

4.16. 2. Nachani (Ragi)


Agriculture department of Chandgad has estimated the nagali production for
ten years(2006-07 to 2015-2016). The Production estimated is summerised
in the table no.4.16.2
Table 4.16.2
Nachani Estimation in the taluka
Estimated
Estimated
Sr.

Production per

Land under

Estimated Productivity

Hector in

No

Year

Crop

qwintal/ Hector

metric ton

1 2006-07

5100

45900

2 2007-08

5000

9.25

46250

3 2008-09

4900

9.5

46550

4 2009-2010

4800

9.7

46800

5 2010-2011

4700

10

47000

6 2011-2012

4600

10.25

47150

7 2012-2013

4500

10.5

47250

8 2013-2014

4400

10.75

47300

9 2014-2015

4300

11

47300

10 2015-2016

4200

11.25

47250

5114

46200

Estimated Annual
Growth

(Source : Primery Document on Agriculture Planning, Agriculture Department, Shirgoan,


Chandgad, 2007-08)

The table 4.16.2 shows the Nagali production estimation for next ten years
(2006-07 to 20515-2016). The land under Nagali is estimated at 5,114
hectors, Production is estimated at 9 quintals per hector and production per
hector is estimated 46,200 metric ton.

174

4.16.3. Cashew
Agriculture department estimated, the Cashew industries and estimated
capacity in matric ton is summerised in the table no. 4.16.3
Table 4.16.3
Cashew Estimation in the taluka
Estimated
processing
Estimated

Capacity in Metric

Sr. No

Year

Units

Ton

1 2006-07

1000

2 2007-08

1000

3 2008-09

1000

4 2009-2010

1000

5 2010-2011

1000

6 2011-2012

1000

7 2012-2013

1000

8 2013-2014

1000

9 2014-2015

1000

10 2015-2016

1000

(Source : Primery Document on Agriculture Planning, Agriculture Department,


Shirgoan, Chandgad, 2007-08)

The above table, table 4.16.3 shows the estimated cashew units and its
capacity in matric ton for next ten years (2006-07 to 2015-2016).The annual
growth was estimated 1 unit for each year and processing capacity is
estimated 1000 matric ton.

4.16.4. Sugar Cane :


The taluka has well engaged in sugar cane production. The rivers and the
climate are favorable to produce the sugar cane. The last ten years sugar

175

cane production and total land in hectors and production per hector with the
productivety in kg. is summerised in the table 4.16.4.
Table no. 4.16.4
Sugar cane Production in the taluka
Productivity

Growth
Rate

Total land

Production in

per hector in

Sr. No

Year

In Hector

Ton

tons

1990-91

3500

157500

45

6.7%

1991-92

3718

178466

48

5.6%

1992-93

3550

168625

47.5

6.7%

1993-94

3500

168000

88

8.2%

1994-95

4700

228890

48.7

8.9%

1995-96

5282

258818

49

11.6%

1996-97

4930

247486

50.2

12.2%

1997-98

4850

244925

50.5

12.9%

1998-99

5200

264160

50.8

13.3%

10

1999-2000

5100

260100

51

14.4%

11

2000-01

5000

257500

51.5

29.6%

12

2001-02

3200

186560

58.3

38.0%

13

2002-03

5900

366190

62.1

42.2%

14

2003-04

6800

435200

64

47.8%

15

2004-05

7700

512050

66.5

51.3%

16

2005-06

8500

578850

68.1

52.0%

17

2006-07

8620

658008

68.4

6.8%

3386

146422

48.07

Annual Growth

(Source : Primery Document on Agriculture Planning, Agriculture Department, Shirgoan,


Chandgad, 2007-08)

Note : Growth rate is calculated on earlier years yield/productivity


The sugar cane is one of the major cash crop. It produces in all over the
taluka. The total land in hectors and production ton is continuously
increasing from the year 1990-91 to 2006-07. The annual growth rate of the
total land of sugar cane is 3,386 hectors, annual production growth in ton is
1,46,422 and annual productivity growth is 48,073.

176

REFERENCES
1. Primary Report of Panchayat Simitee Chandgad, 2007
2. Primary Report of Foreset Department, Chandgad,2006
3. Primary Report of Agriculture Department, Shirgaon Chandgad, 2007
4. Primary Report of Irrigation Department, Chandgad 2007
5. Primary Report of Mining Department, Kolhapur, 2006
6. Primary Report of BDO office, Chandgad,
7. Primary Report of Education officer, Chandgad
8. Gazzett Kolhapur, 2003
9. Census Kolhapur, 1991-2001
10. Shri. N.S.Patil, Chandgad at Glance, 2003
11. Primary Document, District Statistical Officer, Kolhapur
12. Dr. Bachulkar, Chandgad, Sakal visheshank, 2007

177