You are on page 1of 13

THE ROLE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN THE

PRESENT STATUS OF SECRETARIAL


PROFESSION
PRESENTED BY

KAYODE OLADIPUPO OLAYEMI


A PROJECT ANALYST LOCATED IN IBADAN, OYO STATE.
08058573347
07063796484

JANUARY, 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents
1.1

Introduction

1.2

Objectives of the Study

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Substance Abuse

2.2

Causes of Substance Abuse

2.3

Signs of Substance Abuse:

2.4

Effects of Substance Abuse on (Employers) Organization

2.5

Effects of Substance Abuse on Secretarys Job Performance

2.6

Impact Of Substance Abuse On General Health Of A Secretary

2.7

Strategies for Fighting Substance Abuse In Organization

2.8

Workplace Policies And Drug Testing

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


3.1

Summary

3.2

Conclusion

3.3

Recommendations

ABSTRACT
Secretaries and other co-workers alike are concerned about substance abuse and
its effect in the workplace. Alcohol and drugs can invade all facets of the workplace
or classroom without regard to occupation or demographic group. Managers must
show diligence in confronting these issues, compassion in offering support, and
openness in providing opportunities to improve a substance abuse situation. The
purpose of this seminar is to examine the role of substance abuse in the present
status of secretarial profession and also designed to assist managers in confronting
job performance issues that result from substance abuse.

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Since the early times, herbs and plants have been used to heal and control
diseases. The use in itself does not constitute any danger, because drugs correctly
administered have been a blessing. Enakpoya (2009:2) opined that the chronic use
of substance can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to secretarys
physical and psychological development. The use of drugs could be beneficial or
harmful depending on the mode of use.
Substance abuse is a difficult and sensitive subject to discuss. As a manager, you
have to walk a fine line. On one hand, it can be easy to jump to conclusions or
attempt to diagnose an employees possible drug or alcohol problem. You must not
pry or confront. On the other hand, it is your responsibility to closely monitor
behavior and identify problems as soon as they surface.
It is essential that employers understand addiction, the prevalence of substance
abuse among working adults, and the costs related to substance abuse. Substance
abuse is treatable, particularly when it is addressed as a chronic disease. Reducing
employee substance abuse can help employers improve productivity, reduce
workplace injuries, and decrease health care costs (Abdulahi, 2009:131).
1.2

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to examine the role of substance abuse in the present
status of secretaries. Other Objectives are:
1) To find out factors responsible for drug abuse among secretarial profession
2) To find out the effect of the drug abuse among secretarial profession.

3) To find out possible ways of solving the social problem of drug abuse among
secretarial profession.
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse and Alcohol, is a patterned use of a
substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with
methods which are harmful to themselves or others (Adesina, 2005:2).
Idowu (2007:85) defined substance abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or
addictive use of drugs for non-medical purpose. Abdulahi (2009:135) viewed
substance abuse as the use of drugs to the extent that interferes with the health and
social function of an individual. In essence, substance abuse may be defined as the
arbitrary overdependence or mis-use of one particular drug with or without a prior
medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. It can also be viewed as the
unlawful overdose in the use of drug(s). Bandura, (2006:) warned that substance
abusers who exhibit symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, behaviour changes,
fatigue and loss or increase in appetite should be treated by medical experts and
counsellors to save them from deadly diseases.
Substance abuse also describes the hard-core alcoholics or problem drinkers - who
are responsible for most of lost productivity, according to a Christian Science
Monitor article, specifically tying the hangover issue to production in the workplace.
According to Enakpoya, (2009:4) substance abuse can be described as alcohol and
drug abuse by employees cause many expensive problems for business and
industry ranging from lost productivity, injuries, and an increase the health insurance
claims.
2.2

CAUSES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Fayombo, and Aremu, (2010:3) gave the following as the main causes

i.

Experimental Curiosity: Curiosity to experiment the unknown facts about


drugs thus motivates secretary into drug use. The first experience in drug
abuse produces a state of arousal such as happiness and pleasure which in
turn motivate them to continue.

ii.

Personality Problems due to socio-Economic Conditions: Secretary with


personality problems arising from social conditions have been found to abuse
drugs. The social and economic status of most Nigerians is below average.
Poverty is widespread, broken homes and unemployment is on the increase,
therefore our youths roam the streets looking for employment or resort to
begging. These situations have been aggravated by lack of skills, opportunities
for training and re-training and lack of motivation to promote job creation by
private and community entrepreneurs. Frustration arising from these issues
lead to drug use and subsequent for temporary relief which consequently
results in drug addiction (Fayombo, & Aremu, 2010:5).

iii.

The Need for Energy to Work for Long Hours: The increasing economic
deterioration that leads to poverty and disempowerment of the people has
driven many parents to send their children out in search of a means of earning
something for contribution to family income. These children engage in
hawking, bus conducting, head loading, prostitution, gambling, scavenging,
serving in food canteens etc and are prone to drug taking so as to gain more
energy to work for long hours.

iv.

Availability of the Drugs: In many countries, drugs have dropped in prices as


supplies have increased.

2.3

SIGNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE:

2.4

Smell of alcohol
Lack of coordination, staggering, difficulty sitting down/standing up
Slurred speech
Appears confused
Forgetful
Erratic or impulsive behavior
Poor judgment
Slow or exaggerated movements
Inattentive/drowsy (Fayombo & Aremu, 2010:378)

EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON (EMPLOYERS)


ORGANIZATION

Fayombo, & Aremu, (2010) opined that substance abuse is common, and the costs
of substance abuse are high for employers. Other effects are:
1. higher absenteeism and
2. lower job productivity and performance,
3. It also leads to greater health care expenses for injuries and illnesses.
4. Are more likely to injure themselves or someone else.
5. More workers compensation and disability claims; and
6. Users may be more likely to steal money, products or ideas.
7. The public may lose confidence and trust when quality slips and drug use
becomes public.

2.5

EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON SECRETARYS JOB


PERFORMANCE

Idowu (2007:90) mentioned the following below as the effects of substance abuse
on secretarys job performance:
Fail to fulfill major role obligations at work
Frequent or patterned absences or tardiness (e.g. Monday and Fridays or

2.6

immediately after payday)


Reduced job efficiency
Lowered productivity
Erratic or impulsive behavior
Poor judgment
Frequent accidents on the job
Mood swings, anger, argumentative
Defensiveness
Complaints from coworkers or customers
Have recurrent substance-related legal or financial problems (.

IMPACT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON GENERAL HEALTH OF A


SECRETARY

Fawa, (2003:10) supports that substance abuse has an adverse impact on the
general health of the user. Some examples of the effects of substance abuse on
health include but are not limited to:
Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, heart attack,
Convulsions, seizures, tremors, strokes
Anxiety, paranoia, depression, confusion, blackouts, violent behavior,
hallucinations
Problems with perception, motor skills
Difficulty with concentrating and information processing, lapses in judgment
Coma, Death
2.7

STRATEGIES FOR FIGHTING SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ORGANIZATION

i)

Implementing drug-free workplace and other written substance abuse

ii)

policies;
Offering health benefits that provide comprehensive coverage for substance

iii)
iv)

use disorders, including


aftercare and counseling;
Educating employees about the health and productivity hazards of substance

v)

abuse through
company wellness programs, Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and

vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)

Work/Life programs;
Utilizing EAP services to help employees with substance abuse;
Respecting employees privacy; and
Reducing stigma in the workplace.
Transferring the employee to another department.
Reducing the employees workload or performance standards.
Offer health benefits that provide comprehensive coverage for substance use

xii)

disorders, including aftercare and counseling.


Ensure that company wellness programs, Employee Assistance Programs
and Work/Life programs provide education, screening and follow-up services
for employees drug and alcohol problems.
Respect employees privacy. Employers may not know who among their

i)

employees is in recovery from alcohol or drug abuse. If company officials


have this information, however, they must recognize and

appreciate the

delicate balance between wanting to help, and respecting an employees


need and desire for privacy.

2.8

WORKPLACE POLICIES AND DRUG TESTING

Eze and Omeje, (2009) pined that employers can implement a drug-free workplace
initiative with written substance abuse policies. A comprehensive substance abuse
policy may include:
Purpose and objectives of the program.

Definition of substance abuse.


Who is covered by the policy and/or program.
Under what circumstances will drug or alcohol testing be conducted.
Employee rights to confidentiality.
Educational opportunities for employees about substance abuse (e.g., a

substance-free awareness
program).
Employee and supervisor training in identifying impaired behavior and other

3.1

signs of substance
abuse.
Outline of how to deal with impaired workers.
Provisions for assisting chronic substance abusers.
Possible disciplinary actions.
SUMMARY

Substance abuse is a problem that is causing serious concern to individuals,


organization and government all over the world. The problem is prevalent among
employees who in most cases are ignorant about the dangers inherit in substance
abuse. Many of them engaged in drug abuse out of frustration, poverty, influence
from friends and pleasure. However, with effective counselling programme,
workplace policies, the problems can be tackled. Therefore, substance abuse
treatment will bring about significant improvements in job-related performance:

Decreases percentage in absenteeism

Decrease percentage in problems with supervisors

Decrease percentage in mistakes in work

Decreases percentage in on-the-job injuries.


3.2

CONCLUSION

The menace of substance abuse has eaten deep into the fabric of our society.
Substance abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. The use and
abuse of drug by secretary have become one of the most disturbing health related
phenomena in Nigeria and other part of the world. Substance abuse has resulted
into failure to achieve self realisation and self fulfillment, as a panacea for emotional
troubles and so on, without knowing the consequences or problems associated with
such drugs. Although the substance abuse has long been in existence in our
societies, secretary still dont want to accept it as a major problem facing secretarial
profession. The drug users will not appreciate the extent of the damage due to drug
use on their health, since they still believe they can control their dependence on it.
3.3

RECOMMENDATIONS
The following counseling strategies are suggested to help reduce substance

abuse among adolescents.


Establishment of Family Education on Drug: The family is the nucleus of the social
organization. Parents should give their children appropriate education on drugs use.
They should be encouraged by health authorities to offer family education on drugs
abuse to their children. They should inform them of the dangers of drug abuse and
dependence on their health, society and the nation.
Establishment of counseling centers for drug control: Counseling centers should be
established in every community by the government or private individuals ,qualified
health counselors should be employed in helping drug addicts or those dependant
on drugs by giving them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system.
Designing Curricula on Drug education: ministry of education (state &federal) should
as matters of urgency add to curricula-drug education at all levels of education.
Campaigning against drug abuse: National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)
should intensify their campaigns on anti drug in order to have a drug free society.
The campaign against use of certain drugs and misuse of drugs should be more

intensified at the secondary school level because it is the peak of adolescent. Also,
government and other relevant authorities should lunch out campaigns against drug
abuse as well as dependence.
Effective study habit for students: An effective study is that which centers on a well
planed scheme of study involving sufficient recreational activities, enough resting
time and sleep. Thus, such well planned time table of study habits that make
adequate provision for rest will enhance good study habit without necessary
resorting to the use of drugs to keep students artificially awake.
Establishment of Drug Awareness Units: Drug awareness units to be set up in all
states and moderated by the federal states and local governments. It should not be
a panel established to try people who use drugs as criminals, but to help them solve
their socio-psychological problems.

REFERENCES
Abdulahi, Z. (2009). Drug abuse among youths: Strategies for school counseling,
The Nigerian Society of Educational Psychologists, Jos: Nigeria. pp.
131- 136.
Adesina, S. (2005). The use of Indian hemp and drugs among youths in Lagos,
Lagos: University Press. P. 1-10
Balogun, S.K. (2006). Chronic intake of separate and combined alcohol and
nicotine on body maintenance among albinorats, Journal of Human
Ecology, 19(1) 21-24.

Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action, A social cognitive


theory Engle wood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pp 1-5
Enakpoya, E. (2009). Prevalence of drug abuse among Nigerian secretary:
Implication for counseling, The Counsellor, Vol. 26, No 2. P 1-10
Eze, J. and Omeje, D. (2009). Fundamentals of substance abuse, Enugu: Snaap
Press Ltd. Pp1-18
Fawa, M. (2003). Drug abuse eradication programme in schools: The relevance
of team, approach alternative, in A. Garba (Ed) Youth and drug abuse in
Nigeria: Strategies for counselling, management and control, Kano:
Matasa Press.P1-19
Fayombo, G.A. & Aremu, S. (2010). Drug education and its effects on the
educational performance of some secretary drug abusers in Ibadan, The
Counsellor, 18(5), pp. 378-387.
Idowu, A. (2007). Prevalence of smoking and drug abuse among students in Ilorin
metropolis: Implications for Counselling, Journal of Education, Vol.
7,
p.85-97.
Johnson, M.P. (2009). Power Relaxations and affective style as determinants on
confidence in impression formation in a game situation, Journal of
Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 98-100.