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Chemistry

Investigatory
Project on
Food Adulteration

By: Shivansh Tomar


Class: XII A7
To: Mrs. ,Madhu Saxena
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Certificate page
This is to certify that Shivansh Tomar of class
XII A7 Roll no. 1024 has satisfactorily
completed his chemistry investigatory
project as prescribed by the CBSE during
the academic year 2014-2015
.

Teacher incharge

Internal examiner
External examiner

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Acknowledgement:
I would like to sincerely and profusely thank
my chemistry teacher Mrs. Madhu Saxena,
PGT (Chemistry) and our lab attendant for
their able guidance and support in completing
my project.
I would also like to extend my gratitude to the
principal Mrs. Jyoti Gupta for providing me
with all the facility that was required.

Signature of
the candidate

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CONTENTS
1. Certificate
2. Acknowledgement
3. Objective
4. Introduction
5. Theory
6. Experimental Work

Aim

Apparatus required

Procedure

Observations

Result & Precautions

Conclusion

7. Bibliography
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Objective
The Objective of this project is to study
some of the common food adulterants
present in different food stuffs.

Introduction
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Food is one of the basic necessities for sustenance


of life. Pure, fresh and healthy diet is most
essential for the health of the people. It is no
wonder to say that community health is national
wealth.
Adulteration of food-stuffs was so rampant,
widespread and persistent that nothing short of a
somewhat drastic remedy in the form of a
comprehensive legislation became the need of the
hour.
To check this kind of anti-social evil a concerted
and determined onslaught was launched by the
Government by introduction of the Prevention of
Food Adulteration Bill in the Parliament to herald an
era of much needed hope and relief for the
consumers at large.
About the middle of the 19th cent. chemical and
microscopal knowledge had reached the stage that
food substances could be analyzed, and the subject
of food adulteration began to be studied from the
standpoint of the rights and welfare of the
consumer.

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Theory
The increasing number of food producers and the
outstanding amount of import foodstuffs enables the
producers to mislead and cheat consumers.
To differentiate those who take advantage of legal
rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is
very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would
be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may
endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to
poisoning.
So we need simple screening tests for their detection.
In the past few decades, adulteration of food has
become one of the serious problems. Consumption of
adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer,
diarrhoea, asthma, ulcers, etc. Majority of fats, oils
and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and
hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick
powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds.

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These adulterants can be easily identified by simple


chemical tests.
Several agencies have been set up by the Government
of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs.
AGMARK - acronym for agricultural marketing....this
organization certifies food products for their quality.
Its objective is to promote the Grading and
Standardization of agricultural and allied commode.

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Aim :
To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and
butter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic
acid, conc. HNO3.

PROCEDURE :
Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are
paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone
oil. These are detected as follows :

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(i)

Adulteration of paraffin wax and


hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee Heat small
amount of vegetable ghee with acetic
anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the
surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates
the presence of wax or hydrocarbons.

(ii)

Adulteration of dyes in fat Heat 1mL of fat


with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid
and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink
or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat.

(iii)

Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils To


small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few
drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance
of red colour in the acid layer indicates
presence of argemone oil.

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AIM:
To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Test-tubes, dil. HCl.

PROCEDURE:
Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda
and other insoluble substances which are detected
as follows :
(i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances
in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a
test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure
sugar dissolves in water but insoluble
impurities do not dissolve.
(ii) Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda
in sugar.To
small amount of sugar in
a test-tube, add few drops of
HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the
presence of
chalk powder or
washing soda in the given sample of sugar.
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AIM :
To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of
chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Test-tubes, conc. HCl, dil. HNO3, KI solution.

PROCEDURE:
Common adulterants present in chilli powder,
turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead
salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds
respectively. They are detected as follows :
(i)

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Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli


powder To a sample of chilli powder, add
dil. HNO3. Filter the dil solution and add 2
drops of potassium iodide solution to the
filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence
of lead salts in chilli powder.
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(ii)

Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric


powder To a sample of turmeric powder
add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta
colour shows the presence of yellow oxides
of lead in turmeric powder.

(iii)

Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli


powder Add small amount of given red
chilli powder in beaker containing water.
Brick powder settles at the bottom while
pure chilli powder floats over water.

(iv)

Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in


pepper Add small amount of sample of
pepper to a beaker containing water and
stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds
being lighter float over water while pure
pepper settles at the bottom.

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EXPT. NO.

EXPERIMEN PROCEDUR OBSERVATIO


T
E
N

OBSERVATION :
1.

2.

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Adulteratio
n of
paraffin
wax and
hydrocarbo
n in
vegetable
ghee.

Heat small
amount of
vegetable
ghee with
acetic
anhydride.
Droplets of
oil floating
on the
surface of
unused
acetic
anhydride
indicate the
presence of
wax or
hydrocarbo
n.
Adulteratio Heat 1mL
n of dyes in of fat with a
fat
mixture of
1mL of
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Appearance
of oil
floating on
the surface.

Appearance
of pink
colour.

3.

4.

5.

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conc.
H2SO4 and
4mL of
acetic acid.
Adulteratio To small
n of
amount of
argemone
oil in a test
oil in edible tube, add
oils
few

drops of
conc. HNO3
& shake.
Adulteratio Take small
n of various amount of
insoluble
sugar in a
substances test tube
in sugar
and shake
it with little
water.
Adulteratio To small
n of chalk
amount of
powder,
sugar in a
washing
test tube,
soda in
add a few
sugar
drops of dil.
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No red
colour
observed

Pure sugar
dissolves in
water but
insoluble
impurities
do not
dissolve.
No brisk
effervescen
ce
observed.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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HCl
Adulteratio To sample
n of yellow of turmeric
lead salts to powder,
turmeric
add conc.
powder
HCl.
Adulteratio To a sample
n of red
of chilli
lead salts in powder,
chilli
add dil.
powder.
HNO3. Filter
the solution
and add 2
drops of KI
solution to
the filtrate.
Adulteratio Add small
n of brick
amount of
powder in
given red
chilli
chilli
powder
powder in a
beaker
containing
water
Adulteratio
n of dried
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Add small
amount of

Appearance
of magenta
colour

No yellow
precipitate.

Brick
powder
settles at
the bottom
while pure
chilli
powder
floats over
water.
Dried
papaya

papaya
seeds in
pepper

sample of
pepper to
beaker
containing
water and
stir with a
glass rod.

seeds being
lighter float
over water
while pure
pepper
settles at
the bottom.

Result:
The required analyses for adulterants in
food stuffs has been made.

Precautions :
By taking a few precautions, we can escape from
consuming adulterated products.

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1. Take only packed items of well-known


companies.
2.Buy items from reliable retail shops and
recognized
outlets.
3. Check the ISI mark or Agmark.
4. Buy products of only air tight popular brands.
5. Avoid craziness for artificially coloured sweets
and buy only from reputed shops.
6. Do not buys sweets or snacks kept in open.
7. Avoid buying things from street side vendors.

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Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food


is essential for daily life to make sure that such
foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not
possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual
examination when the toxic contaminants are
present in ppm level. However, visual examination
of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure
absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters,
etc. Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at
the time of purchase of food after thoroughly
examining can be of great help. Secondly, label
declaration on packed food is very important for
knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It
also helps in checking the freshness of the food
and the period of best before use. The consumer
should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place
and food being prepared under unhygienic
conditions. Such types of food may cause various
diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in
unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is
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always better to buy certified food from reputed


shops.

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Biblography
1. Website
www.wikipedia.org
www.google.com
www.yahoo.com

2. BOOKS:
Comprehensive Practical Manual

NCERT Class XII

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