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Field Geology







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Portable X.R.F

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Geological Report





Field geology involves integrating spatial, descriptive ,structural, petrologic,

and temporal data to understand the geological makeup and history of an area.
Geologic maps, cross sections, and written reports of an area are the tangible
results of this synthesis. Many field geology projects focus primarily on
making geologic maps. However, other field tasks include sampling of rock
types for specific reasons (e.g., elemental analysis, geochronology, fossil
identification), measuring the orientation of particular structures in an area,
or describing the core at a drill site .Geologic maps are used to guide the
search for mineral and energy resources, to assess and mitigate potential
natural hazards, and to assist in land use planning.
A geologic map is the clearest and most concise way to communicate geologic
information about a portion of Earths surface; it represents an interpretation
by the author(s), based on data available at the time of publication, as to the
nature of and spatial distribution of rock units in an area. Standardized
symbols, patterns, and colors are used to depict rock units, their ages,
structures, and important localities, such as fossil and mineral occurrences.
Any cross sections and geological reports that accompany a geologic map
represent additional
.ways of presenting geologic data and interpretations


A successful field geologist is a multi-tasking jack of all trades who has a
firm grasp of geological principles, but also has a number of supplementary
skills, such as being well-organized, possessing common sense, and having the
ability to maintain a positive attitude in numerous situations. He or she
realizes that thorough preparation before a project commences, including
becoming familiar with previous work in the area and talking to others who
have worked there, is as important as doing the field work. A field geologist
must have excellent observational skills, have the ability to take accurate
measurements and estimate lengths and quantities, and have at least some
background in petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology,
stratigraphy, and paleontology. The ability to translate a three-dimensional
representation of map data into a cross section and the capacity to write
technical reports are also vital parts of a field geologists repertoire.

Geologic reports
A geologic map is usually accompanied be a written report that provides further
explanation of the surficial geology depicted on the map. A complete geologic
report normally contains the following components arranged in this order.
Introduction -- A brief statement about scope and nature of the map and
any agency or institutional basis for the map project.
Study area -- Short description of the map area--its general geography,
legal boundaries, climate, land cover, human land use, etc.
Methodology -- Explanation of data collection technique in the field--how
and what types of observations and measurements were made. This
includes reference to source materials--aerial photographs, topographic
maps, and soil surveys, as well as types of equipment--survey compass,
altimeter, GPS device, etc.
Results -- Each geologic map unit is described in terms of its physical
properties (color, composition, thickness, texture, fossils), geographic
location, stratigraphic position, and common geomorphic expression in the
field. Measurements are presented in the form of tables or diagrams.
Interpretation -- Discussion of the overall geologic conditions within the
study area as demonstrated by the map and background information. This
usually includes a brief interpretation of the geologic history (genesis) for
map units and geomorphology of the area.
Conclusions -- A brief summary of main points with an emphasis on
results and interpretation.
References -- List of references to sources cited in the report.

Equipment Required for Geologists

Brunton Style Compass (Damped, International)
10x or 14x Hand Lens (triplet is best)
Chisel or Pick Point Rock Hammer
Erasable Colored Pencils (10 to 12)
Field Notebook with replaceable paper
Global Positioning System (i.e., ETrex Legend)

Field Equipments
- Hammers and Chisels - Compasses and Clinometers - Handlenses
Tapes - Map Cases - Field Notebooks - Scales - Protractors
- Pencils and Erasers- Acid Bottles - Global Positioning System (GPS)
- Other Instruments Field Clothing

An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument for measuring angles of slope (or
tilt), elevation ordepression of an object with respect to gravity. It is also known as a tilt
meter, tilt indicator, slope alert,slope gauge, gradient meter, gradiometer, level
gauge, level meter, declinometer, and pitch & roll indicator. Clinometers measure both
inclines (positive slopes, as seen by an observer looking upwards) and declines (negative
slopes, as seen by an observer looking downward) using three different units of
measure: degrees, percent, and topo. Astrolabes are inclinometers that were used for
navigation and locating astronomical objects.
Inclinometers are used for:

Determining latitude using Polaris (in the Northern Hemisphere) or the two stars of the
constellationCrux (in the Southern Hemisphere).

Determining the angle of the Earth's magnetic field with respect to the horizontal
Showing a deviation from the true vertical or horizontal.
Surveying, to measure an angle of inclination or elevation.
Alerting an equipment operator that it may tip over.
Measuring angles of elevation, slope, or incline, e.g. of an embankment.
Measuring slight differences in slopes, particularly for geophysics. Such
inclinometers are, for instance, used for monitoring volcanoes, or for measuring the
depth and rate of landslide movement.
Measuring movements in walls or the ground in civil engineering projects.
Determining the dip of beds or strata, or the slope of an embankment or cutting; a
kind of plumb level.
Some automotive safety systems.
Indicating pitch and roll of vehicles, nautical craft, and aircraft. See turn
coordinator and slip indicator.
Monitoring the boom angle of cranes and material handlers.
Measuring the "look angle" of a satellite antenna towards a satellite.
Adjusting a solar panel to the optimal angle to maximize its output.
Measuring the slope angle of a tape or chain during distance measurement.
Measuring the height of a building, tree, or other feature using a vertical angle and
a distance (determined by taping or pacing), usingtrigonometry.
Measuring the angle of drilling in well logging.
Measuring the list of a ship in still water and the roll in rough water.
Measuring steepness of a ski slope.
Measuring the orientation of planes and lineations in rocks, in combination with
a compass, in structural geology.
Measuring Range of Motion in the joints of the body
Measuring the inclination angle of the pelvis. Numerous neck and back
measurements require the simultaneous use of 2 inclinometers.[1]
Measuring the angles of elevation to, and ultimately computing the altitudes of,
many things otherwise inaccessible for direct measurement.

Measuring and fine tuning the angle of line array speaker hangs. Confirmation of the angle
achieved via use of a laser built into the remote inclinometer.

Brunton compass

A Brunton compass, properly known as the Brunton Pocket Transit, is a type of

precisioncompass made by Brunton, Inc. of Riverton, Wyoming. The instrument was
patented in 1894 by a Canadian-born Colorado geologist named David W. Brunton. Unlike
most modern compasses, the Brunton Pocket Transit utilizes magnetic induction
damping rather than fluid to damp needle oscillation. Although Brunton Inc. makes many
other types of magnetic compasses, the Brunton Pocket Transit is a specialized instrument
used widely by those needing to make accurate degree and angle measurements in the
field. These people are primarily geologists, but archaeologists, environmental engineers,
and surveyors also make use of the Brunton's capabilities. The United States Army has
adopted the Pocket Transit as the M2 Compass for use by crew-served artillery.
The Pocket Transit may be adjusted for declination angle according to one's location on
the Earth. It is used to get directional degree measurements (azimuth) through use of
the Earth's magnetic field. Holding the compass at waist-height, the user looks down into
the mirror and lines up the target, needle, and guide line that is on the mirror. Once all
three are lined up and the compass is level, the reading for that azimuth can be made.
Arguably the most frequent use for the Brunton in the field is the calculation of the strike
and dip of geological features (faults, contacts, foliation, sedimentary strata, etc.). If next to
the feature, the strike is measured by leveling (with the bull's eye level) the compass along
the plane being measured. Dip is taken by laying the side of the compass perpendicular to

the strike measurement and rotating horizontal level until the bubble is stable and the
reading has been made. If properly used and if field conditions allow, additional features of
the compass allow users to measure such geological attributes from a distance.
As with most traditional compasses, directional measurements are made in reference to
the Earth's magnetic field and will thus run into difficulties if in a region of locally
abnormal magnetism. For example, if the user is near an outcrop that
contains magnetite or some other iron-bearing material, compass readings can be affected
anywhere from several inches from the outcrop to tens of yards away (depending on the
strength of the magnetic field). Since they are measured only using a rotating level, dip
measurements are unaffected by magnetic fields.

There are numerous other compasses used by geologists, for example a Breithaupt compass
( This is commonly used by structural geologists because it
readily allows accurate measurement of the orientation of planes (foliations) and of lines on
those planes (lineations). With the advent of portable electronic devices such as the iPhone,
a new generation of compasses has emerged, some again of specific interest to geologists
(e.g. The listerCompass (designed by structural geologist
Professor Gordon Lister) allows a single measurement that simultaneously records strike,
dip, as well as the rake of a lineation on a foliation plane. Alternatively with the focus on
lineations, an option that allows measurement of yaw, pitch, and roll (the same as involved
in the motion of an aircraft) may achieve the same objective. Unlike analogue compasses, a
digital compass relies on an accelerometer and a teslameter, and may provide much
information as to the reliability of a measurement (e.g. by repeating the same measurement
and performing statistical analysis).

Abney Level
A Topographic Abney Level is an instrument used in surveying which consists of
a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level that is connected to a pointing arm, and
a protractor scale. The Topographic Abney Level is an easy to use, relatively
inexpensive, and, when used correctly, an accurate surveying tool. The
Topographic Abney Level is used to measure degrees, percent of grade,
topographic elevation, and chainage correction. By using trigonometry the user of a
Topographic Abney Level can determine height, volume, and grade. The
Topographic Abney Level is used at the eye height of the surveyor and is best
employed when teamed with a second surveyor of the same eye height. This
allows for easy sighting of the level and greater accuracy. A ranging pole can be
marked at the eye height of the level user or the approximate location of the eye
height (i.e. chin, nose, top of head) of the level surveyor must be know of the
.ranging surveyor

Use of an Abney level is discussed in volume 12 of the Forest Quarterly1 published
by the New York State College of Forestry in 1914. Discussion on the use of the
Abney level starts on page 370.

A stereoscope is a device for viewing a stereoscopic pair of separate images,
depicting left-eye and right-eye views of the same scene, as a single threedimensional image.
A typical stereoscope provides each eye with a lens that makes the image seen
through it appear larger and more distant and usually also shifts its apparent
horizontal position, so that for a person with normal binocular depth perception the
edges of the two images seemingly fuse into one "stereo window". In current
practice, the images are prepared so that the scene appears to be beyond this
virtual window, through which objects are sometimes allowed to protrude, but this
was not always the custom. A divider or other view-limiting feature is usually
provided to prevent each eye from being distracted by also seeing the image
intended for the other eye.
Most people can, with practice and some effort, view stereoscopic image pairs in
3D without the aid of a stereoscope, but the physiological depth cues resulting
from the unnatural combination of eye convergence and focus required will be
unlike those experienced when actually viewing the scene in reality, making an
accurate simulation of the natural viewing experience impossible and tending to
cause eye strain and fatigue.
Although more recent devices such as realist-format 3D slide viewers and the ViewMaster are also stereoscopes, the word is now most commonly associated with
viewers designed for the standard-format stereo cards that enjoyed several waves
of popularity from the 1850s to the 1930s as a home entertainment medium.
Devices such as polarized, anaglyph and shutter glasses which are used to view
two actually superimposed or intermingled images, rather than two physically
separate images, are not categorized as stereoscopes.

Two separate images are printed side-by-side. When viewed without a stereoscopic viewer
the user is required to force his eyes either to cross, or to diverge, so that the two images
appear to be three. Then as each eye sees a different image, the effect of depth is achieved
.in the central image of the three
A simple stereoscope is limited in the size of the image that may be used. A more complex
stereoscope uses a pair of horizontal periscope-like devices, allowing the use of larger
images that can present more detailed information in a wider field of view. The stereoscope
is essentially an instrument in which two photographs of the same object, taken from
slightly different angles, are simultaneously presented, one to each eye. Each picture is
focused by a separate lens, and the two lenses are inclined so as to shift the images toward
each other and thus ensure the visual blending of the two images into one three-dimensional
A moving image extension of the stereoscope has a large vertically mounted drum
containing a wheel upon which are mounted a series of stereographic cards which form a
moving picture. The cards are restrained by a gate and when sufficient force is available to
bend the card it slips past the gate and into view, obscuring the preceding picture. These
coin-enabled devices were found in arcades in the late 19th and early 20th century and were
operated by the viewer using a hand crank. These devices can still be seen and operated in
.some museums specializing in arcade equipment
:The stereoscope offers several advantages

Using positive curvature (magnifying) lenses, the focus point of the image is changed from
its short distance (about 30 to 40 cm) to a virtual distance at infinity. This allows the focus
.of the eyes to be consistent with the parallel lines of sight, greatly reducing eye strain
The card image is magnified, offering a wider field of view and the ability to examine the
.detail of the photograph
The viewer provides a partition between the images, avoiding a potential distraction to the
A stereo transparency viewer is a type of stereoscope that offers similar advantages, e.g. the
Disadvantages of stereo cards, slides or any other hard copy or print are that the two images
are likely to receive differing wear, scratches and other decay. This results in stereo artifacts
when the images are viewed. These artifacts compete in the mind resulting in a distraction
from the 3d effect, eye strain and headaches