Cooling Loads
AIRCONDITIONING
Cooling Loads Calculations
Employer
: 4M SA
Project
Location
: Atlanta, Georgia
Calculations
1
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
1. INTRODUCTION
This study is based upon the ASHRAE RTS methodology. Furthermore, the following literature was also used:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
1i. Walls and roofs heat gains calculation using Conduction Time Series (CTS)
The heat input calculation is given from the following equation:
qi,n=UA(te,ntrc)
where:
qi,n : Conductive heat input for the surface n hours ago
U : Overall heat transfer coefficient for the surface
A : Surface area
te,n : Solair temperature n hours ago
trc : Presumed constant room air temperature
Conductive heat gain through walls or roofs can be calculated using conductive heat inputs for the current hours
and past 23h and conduction time series:
q= c0qi,+ c1qi,1+ c2qi,2+ c3qi,3+ +c23qi,23
where:
q
qi,
qi,n
c0,c1, etc.
2
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
where:
qb:
: Window area
: Beam direct irradiance
t,b
SHGC()
: Beam solar heat gain coefficient as a function of
incident angle
IAC(,)
: Indoor solar attenuation coefficient for beam solar heat gain coefficient
qd:
: Window area
: Sky diffuse irradiance
t,d
t,r
: Groundreflected diffuse irradiance
: Diffuse solar heat gain coefficient
<SHGC>D
IACD
: Indoor solar attenuation coefficient for diffuse solar heat gain coefficient
qc:
U
Tout
Tin
Where nothing is known for the adjacent space except that it is of conventional construction contains no heat
sources and itself receives no significant solar heat gain, tbti may be considered the difference between the
outdoor air and conditioned space design drybulb temperatures minus 3 K.
1iv. Floors heat gain calculation
For floors directly in contact with the ground or over an underground basement that is neither ventilated nor
conditioned, sensible heat transfer may be neglected for cooling load estimates because usually there is a heat
loss rather than a gain.
1v. Internal heat gains calculation
1v.1. Lighting
The lighting heat gains are calculated using the following equation:
qel = W Ful Fsa
Calculations
3
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
where:
qel
W
Ful
Fsa
: Heat gain
: Total light wattage
: Lighting use factor
: Lighting special allowance factor
1v.2. People
The occupants heat gains are distinguished in sensible and latent heat gains. The calculation equations of sensible
and latent heat gains are given bellow:
qs = qs, per N
ql = ql, per N
where:
qs : Occupants sensible heat gain
ql : Occupants latent heat gain
qs, per: Sensible heat gain per person
ql, per : Sensible heat gain per person
N
: Number of occupants
1v.3. Appliances
The appliances loads are distinguished in sensible load and latent load. The calculation equations are given
bellow:
qs = Qs x FU FR
q l = Ql x N
where:
qs
ql
Qs
Ql,
FU
FR
N
Airconditioning design often requires the calculation of the sensible and latent heat gain. The equations are given
bellow:
qs = 1.23 Qst
ql = 3010 QsW
where:
qs : Sensible heat gain due to infiltration
ql : Latent heat gain due to infiltration
Qs : Infiltration airflow at standard air conditions
to : Outdoor air temperature
ti
: Indoor air temperature
Wo : Outdoor air humidity ratio
Wi : Indoor air humidity ratio
1.23 : Air sensible heat factor at standard air conditions
Calculations
4
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
Convective
fraction
0.40
0.9 to 0.2
varies
0.54
0.60
0.33
0.40
0.67
0.46
0.54
1.00
varies
varies
1.00
5
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
Ql= qi,l
where:
Qs
Qi,r
Qi,c
Ql
qi,l
3. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
The computed results are given both overall and analytically for all calculated hours. In the calculation sheets the
results per space are tabulated in the following groups:
1. Building Elements table:
Surface type (e.g. W= Wall etc.)
Orientation
Length (m)
Height or Width (m)
Ufactor (W/mK or Kcal/hmC)
Surface area (m2)
Number of equal surfaces
Total surface area (m2)
Subtracted surface area (m2)
Calculated surface area (m2)
Inside shading
Projection shading
Arbitrary shading coefficients
2. Loads of the above table per surface area and time (Btu/h, W, or Kcal/h)
3. Additional loads per hour (Btu/h, W, or Kcal/h)
Lighting
Population
Equipment
4. Total space loads per hour (Kbtu/h, KW, or Mcal/h)
5. Ventilation loads per hour (and maximum) (Kbtu/h, KW, or Kcal/h)
i) The first group includes the geometrical dimensions of the building elements, as well as indications of possible
shadow occurrences.
ii) In the second group the cooling loads are presented as calculated for each building element, according to the
calculation rules that were given above.
iii) The third group includes the additional loads, due to lighting, population and appliances, and given in total,
sensible and latent loads.
iv) In the last group the overall sums of the space loads per hour are given, for sensible, latent and total loads, as
well as ventilation load.
In a similar way, the system calculation sheets are presented. In these, the loads of the corresponding to each
system spaces are grouped and resolved into the different causes. Ventilation loads for each system are also
given. Finally, the shadowing coefficients are presented in separate sheets.
Calculations
6
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
BUILDING PARAMETERS
City
: Atlanta
: 23.9
: 50
:5
: 5
:2
: 2.74
Energy Units
Calculation Method
:W
: ASHRAE RTS
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
Typical Elements of Building  External walls
Outer Walls
W1
W2
Description
Brick wall
Spandrel wall
Type of
ASHRAE
CLTD

Type of
ASHRAE
TFM

Type of
ASHRAE
RTS*
11
1
UFactor
(W/mK)
0.44
0.44
Color
3 (Light)
1 (Dark)
C1
Description
Flat metal
deck
Type of
ASHRAE
CLTD

Type of
ASHRAE
TFM

Type of
ASHRAE
RTS*
11
UFactor
(W/mK)
0.18
Color
1.3 (Light)
O1
Description
Width
(m)
Calculations
Height
(m)
1.95
Openings
U Factor
(W/mK)
3.18
Frame
Type
2 (Metal or
without frame)
Glazing
system
5d. Uncoated
double glazing
system
7
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
CALCULATIONS
Level
Space
Name
: Second floor
:1
: Office room
Surfaces
Surface
Type
W1
W2
O1
W1
W2
O1
C1
Orientation UFactor
(W/mK)
SE
SE
SE
SW
SW
SW
C
0.44
0.44
3.18
0.44
0.44
3.18
0.18
Length
(m)
1
1
1.91
1
1
1.91
3.96
Height or
Width
(m)
5.57
5.57
1.95
3.72
5.57
1.95
3.05
Surface
(m2)
5.57
5.57
3.72
3.72
5.57
3.72
12.08
Surface
Occurren
ces
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Total
Surface
(m)
5.57
5.57
3.72
3.72
5.57
3.72
12.08
Calculated Projection
Surface
Shading
(m)
5.57
5.57
3.72
3.72
5.57
3.72
12.08
SHADE
SHADE
Surface
Type
Calculated
Surface
01:00 02:00
(m)
03:00 04:00
05:00
W1 (SE)
5.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
W2 (SE)
5.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
O1 (SE)
3.72
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.45
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
W1 (SW)
3.72
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
W2 (SW)
5.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
O1 (SW)
3.72
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
C1
12.08
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
15:00 16:00
17:00
Surface
Type
Calculated
Surface
13:00 14:00
(m)
W1 (SE)
5.57
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
W2 (SE)
5.57
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Calculations
8
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
O1 (SE)
3.72
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
W1 (SW)
3.72
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
W2 (SW)
5.57
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
O1 (SW)
3.72
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.67
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
C1
12.08
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Loads per Surface and hour (W) [Roof load absorbed in the return airstream: 30%]
Surface
Type
Calculated
Surface
01:00 02:00
(m)
10:00
11:00
12:00
W1 (SE)
5.57
14
12
10
16
W2 (SE)
5.57
1
1
15
33
50
63
69
O1 (SE)
3.72
10
5
9
53
116
180
233
274
296
W1 (SW)
3.72
14
11
W2 (SW)
5.57
1
12
19
26
32
O1 (SW)
3.72
13
2
5
43
94
147
194
233
270
C1
12.08
2
3
4
5
5
6
6
2
12
21
28
22:00
23:00
00:00
Surface
Type
Calculated
Surface
13:00 14:00
(m)
W1 (SE)
5.57
22
26
30
31
32
31
30
28
25
23
20
17
W2 (SE)
5.57
68
61
51
44
38
33
27
20
14
11
O1 (SE)
3.72
303
297
276
244
208
164
110
68
51
38
27
18
W1 (SW)
3.72
10
13
17
21
25
28
28
27
24
20
17
W2 (SW)
5.57
39
55
73
87
94
90
75
49
26
15
10
O1 (SW)
3.72
299
318
322
305
269
271
222
102
69
48
34
22
C1
12.08
34
38
39
38
34
28
21
13
1
Calculations
9
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
Coeff.
4lamp pendant
fluorescent
Power
(W)
0.85
Total
130
110.5
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
Time
Schedule
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Load (W)
83
93
98
100
102
102
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
Title
Time
Schedule
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Load (W)
103
103
104
104
105
105
28
18
13
10
Coeff.
Sensible
Coeff.
Latent
Number of
Persons
Total
Sensible
Total
Latent
Total
73.27
58.62
73.27
58.62
131.89
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
Time
Schedule
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Sensible
Load
53
60
63
65
66
Latent
Load
59
59
59
59
59
Total
112
119
122
124
125
Calculations
10
FINE HVAC 14
Title
Cooling Loads
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
Time
Schedule
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Sensible
Load
67
68
68
69
17
11
Latent
Load
59
59
59
59
Total
126
126
127
127
17
11
Coeff.
Sensible
Coeff.
Latent
Equipment
Number
Total
Sensible
Total
Latent
Total
130
130
130
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
Time
Schedule
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Sensible
Load
124
126
127
128
128
Latent
Load
Total
124
126
127
128
128
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
Title
Time
Schedule
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Sensible
Load
128
128
128
129
Latent
Load
Total
128
128
128
129
Calculations
11
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
83
93
98
100
102
102
53
60
63
65
66
59
59
59
59
59
112
119
122
124
125
Equipment
(Sensible)
124
126
127
128
128
Equipment
(Latent)
Equipment
(Total)
124
126
127
128
128
Infiltration
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
People
(Sensible
Loads)
People
(Latent
Loads)
People
(Total
Load)
103
104
104
105
105
28
18
13
10
67
68
68
69
17
11
59
59
59
59
126
126
127
127
17
11
Equipment
(Sensible)
128
128
128
129
Equipment
(Latent)
Equipment
(Total)
128
128
128
129
Infiltration
Lighting
People
(Sensible
Loads)
People
(Latent
Loads)
People
(Total
Load)
Calculations
12
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
01:00 02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
Sensible
70
48
31
14
1
16
183
501
663
807
924
1012
Latent
59
59
59
59
59
Total
70
48
31
14
1
16
183
560
722
866
983
1070
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
1104
1104
1068
823
761
549
333
238
176
134
99
Load
Type
13:00 14:00
Sensible 1071
Latent
59
59
59
59
Total
1129
1162
1163
1127
823
761
549
333
238
176
134
99
Calculations
13
FINE HVAC 14
Cooling Loads
TEMPERATURE DATA
Date
Mean maximum temperature (C)
Daily range (C)
Outdoor Humidity (%)
Hour
To
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
: July, 23
: 33.3
: 11.4
: 44.09
Te NE
(45)
Te E
(90)
Te SE
(135)
Te S
(180)
Te SW
(225)
Te W
(270)
Te NW
(315)
Te N
(0)
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
25.9
45.9
54.8
56.3
53.1
47.2
40.9
41.5
41.5
40.8
39.0
36.6
33.8
30.2
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
25.9
48.3
61.3
66.2
64.9
59.0
49.7
41.8
41.5
40.8
39.0
36.6
33.8
30.2
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
24.0
37.1
48.6
56.3
59.8
59.2
54.7
47.6
42.0
40.8
39.0
36.6
33.8
30.2
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
22.7
25.3
29.3
33.3
41.2
47.7
51.7
53.1
51.9
48.0
41.8
37.0
33.9
30.2
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
22.7
25.3
29.0
32.7
36.0
38.9
42.4
52.1
59.5
63.5
63.1
58.6
49.7
36.4
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
22.7
25.3
29.0
32.7
36.0
38.6
40.5
45.2
56.9
66.1
70.9
70.3
62.3
43.8
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
22.7
25.3
29.0
32.7
36.0
38.6
40.3
41.7
45.8
54.1
59.9
62.1
58.1
43.1
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
24.0
31.6
33.7
33.3
36.4
38.8
40.4
41.4
41.7
41.1
39.5
39.5
39.9
35.0
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
23.3
22.8
22.5
22.1
21.9
22.1
22.9
24.9
27.0
29.0
30.7
31.8
32.7
33.3
33.3
32.6
31.7
30.6
28.9
27.6
26.6
25.5
24.8
24.0
GENERAL TABLES
Wall & Roof Conduction Time Factors
[ASHRAE Ch. 18  Tables 1617]
Type
W1  11
W2  1
C1  11
1 2 3 4 5 6
0 5 14 17 15 12
18 58 20 4 0 0
8 53 30 7 2 0
7
9
0
0
8
7
0
0
9
5
0
0
Hour
10 11
4 3
0 0
0 0
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Type
Space
1 2
49 17
Calculations
3
9
4
5
5
3
6
2
7
2
8
1
Hour
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
14