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Case Study I: Dick Spencer

Management 585, Spring Semester, Class 03W

Professor Pane
Texas A&M University - Commerce
February 11, 2013

In response to the assigned case, this report will analyze factors that contributed to
Dick Spencers success as a salesman and tribulations as a manager. More specifically, it
will address issues in leadership, micromanagement, delegation, resistance, culture, and
family. For each issue, a thorough review, analysis, and recommendation will be

Success in Sales:
Dick Spencer has been an employee of the Tri-American Corporation for fourteen
years. When he joined the organization, he was only 22 years old. Dick had just
graduated from a top tier university and earned a master of business administration
(MBA). He eventually accepted a position in sales and experienced tremendous success.
During his brief time as a salesman, he developed a company-wide reputation and a
platform to launch his career.

Sales-type roles are becoming more challenging and complicated (Pettijohn &
Pettijohn, 2009). As a result, many firms hire MBA graduates to fill these positions
(Pettijohn & Pettijohn, 2009). In the United States, 130,000 students earn an MBA each
year (Benjamin & OReilly, 2011). Although this number is high, there is still a need to
fill sales-related positions. Nachnanis research has shown that compensation for salesrelated positions has grown to a rate of almost two times that of other corporate
positions (as cited in Pettijohn & Pettijohn, 2009, p. 36). Salespeople have grown

accustomed to the various commission structures designed to motivate them. In 2006,

American firms spent more than $200 billion on sales force incentives (Zoltners, Sinha &
Lorimer, 2012). As a hard-working, well-qualified, and motivated individual, Dick
enjoyed immediate success in sales.

Account selling (Barrett, 1986) and relationship management (Davies, Ryals, &
Holt, 2010) are two strategies commonly used by organizations. In firms that focus on
larger accounts, it is believed that eighty percent of the revenues are derived from twenty
percent of customers (Barrett, 1986). In Dicks first year as a salesman, he landed a single
major account and eventually became one of the organizations sales volume leaders.
During his second year in sales, he landed several key contracts. However, none were as
large as the account he closed in his first year. In Friedmans research, he found that sales
professionals had a tendency to call on "sure bets" rather than venture into the unknown
(as cited in Zoltners, Sinha, & Lorimer, 2012, p.172). This research may help to explain
why Dick had few accounts but impressive sales figures. The tendency to focus on larger
accounts can be an effective strategy when the sales representative provides favorable
treatment, solves complex problems, provides expertise, shares resources, and follows up
with the consumers needs (Barrett, 1986).

Impressions are an important part of sales. Willis and Todorov (2006) found it
only takes a fraction of a second to form impressions of attractiveness, likeability,
trustworthiness, aggressiveness, and competence. Additionally, observable physical
features such as race and sex are often used to form impressions of others (Chatman,

Polzer, Barsade, & Neale, 1998; McColl & Troung, 2013). Studies show that attractive
salespeople are perceived more favorably on traits that have been associated with selling
effectiveness (DeShields, Kara, & Kaynak, 1996; Reingen, 1993; McColl & Troung,
2013). Fortunately, Dick was perceived by others as good-looking and charming.
Beyond his physical attributes, he was also considered to be knowledgeable, sociable,
and skillful at golf. As a salesman, he broke a number of selling records and remained a
leader in sales volume. In the world of sales, Dick had a lot going for him.

Although Dick enjoyed tremendous success in sales, he also endured some

hardships at home. His demanding career forced him to spend considerable time away
from his family. During his second year in sales, his wife divorced him. According to
research, there is a correlation between hours worked and family conflict. To be specific,
as work hours increase, conflict between work and family rises (Adkins & Premeaux,
2012). The discrepancy between work and family is referred to as work-family conflict
and family-work conflict (Adkins & Premeaux, 2012). Other studies show that those who
are paid more tend to work more hours. As a result, they have less time for leisure (Brett
& Stroh, 2003). Killingsworth found that:

When workers are paid more, the opportunity costs associated with trading work
for leisure also increases, motivating them to seek a new equilibrium between
work and leisure by spending more time at work. In short, those who are paid
more rationally choose to work more because the cost of leisure is too high (as
cited in Brett & Stroh, 2003, p.68).

As a young professional, Dicks behavior may have stemmed from his drive to establish
himself and his desire to make money. The need to travel unencumbered was cited as one
of the keys to his sales success as well as a primary factor in his divorce. Stevens and
Macintoshs (2002) research shows that open-minded sales representatives are more
receptive to travel. Initially, Dick may have enjoyed life on the road, but familial strains
and constant change likely became a burden. These are the forces that prompted Dick to
pursue a managerial position.

By his mid twenties, Dick had already been married and divorced. He had married
during a transitory period in the human life-cycle; quite possibly too soon. As a young
MBA graduate, he had hoped to begin his career and establish himself. Today, many
young professionals wait to get married. According to Lynch (2012), couples are
marrying later in life, if at all. They also delay having children until their 30s and 40s
(p.28). During Dicks career in sales, marriage had been a relatively low priority. In
retrospect, Dick should have delayed marriage or skipped it entirely. Issues pertaining to
his second marriage will be addressed in the next section.

Managerial Tribulations:
Background :
Dick quickly established his reputation during his first year at Tri-American. He
was fortunate enough to cross paths with the president. At the company's annual
conference, he took the opportunity to socialize, network and, impress others with his

golf skills. The president took an immediate liking to Dick and they developed a mutual
appreciation for each other. The annual conference became an opportunity for him to
strengthen his relationship and move up in the firm.

Dick is now a successful businessman, but his managerial rise was not without
tribulation. Prior to becoming a junior VP and plant manager at Modrow, Dicks
management skills had hardly been tested. For example, when Dick was appointed
special assistant to the SVP, he primarily focused on operations and troubleshooting.
Although he was successful in identifying inefficiencies, he was ruthless with
subordinates. The companys financial position improved and Dicks management skills
went unquestioned. When he moved to London, he was promoted to assistant plant
manager. In this position, Dick felt he lacked the authority that was necessary to
implement his strategies. For example, he constantly found himself in the position of
having to soft pedal or withhold suggestions that he would have liked to make, or
innovations that he would have liked to introduce. (Buller & Schuler, 2003, p.11).
When Dick moved to Birmingham, he was finally appointed to plant manager. In this
position, he was operations oriented, ruthless to subordinates, and heavily dependent on
his controller. If it were not for his controller, Dicks managerial flaws would have been
exposed. In his last move, Dick was appointed to junior VP and plant manager of
Modrow. The following sections will address the managerial challenges that Dick
encountered in this position.


Leadership plays a significant role in any organization. Research suggests that

investments in leadership development are linked to positive returns (Avolio, Avey, &
Quisenberry, 2010). Hannah and Avolio (2010) estimate that American firms spend close
to $10 billion on leadership development (Hannah & Avolio, 2010). When a manager
fails, the firm incurs a cost. In one study, the failure of a single manager was reported to
cost $500,000 (Lombardo, Ruderman, & McCauley, 1988).

Shamir, Zakay, Breinin, and Popper (1998) define leadership as the ability to
motivate followers toward a collective goal, mission, or vision. By definition, Dick was
not an effective leader. Ineffective leaders are people who may be efficient at what they
do, but typically dont do the right things (Pryor, Humphreys, and Taneja, 2008). Dick
focused on operations, but neglected accounting and human relations. Research has
shown that early career managers often try to retain authority, avoid performance issues,
and take on their subordinates problems (Benjamin & OReilly, 2011). A young leader
describes his learning process: As a new manager you have to recognize that your direct
reports do not always want to fix or solve their problems. Often, they just want to be
heard and understood (Benjamin & OReilly, 2011, p.461). By contrast, Dicks
managerial growth had been stunted by his unwillingness to listen, compromise, or
delegate authority.

As the plant manager in Modrow, Dick was responsible for 1,000 employees.
When he arrived, he was faced with cultural resistance and dubious eyes. To make
matters worse, the Modrow plant had undergone an expensive modernization. As a result,
there was pressure to cut costs. Workers resisted the change and morale was low.
Difficulties were compounded by Dicks reputation for being ruthless. Dick believed that
head office was interested in watching him either succeed or fall flat on his face (Buller
& Schuler, 2003). It became evident that success in this unfavorable climate would be
largely contingent upon his managerial abilities.

The number of prospective managers graduating from business school is

increasing. However, critics say that business school curriculums lack relevance and
practical application (Pfeffer & Fond, 2004). For example, there is a tendency to focus on
the skills required by senior managers and ignore those that are needed for recent
graduates (Pfeffer & Fong, 2004; Benjamin & OReilly, 2011). Leadership models try to
apply a one-size-fits-all approach and have failed to address circumstantial variance
(Conger, 2004). When inexperienced managers are thrown into unfamiliar situations they
have a tendency to over-rely on their strengths (Fiedler, 1996). For Dick, he would focus
on small details and preoccupy himself with operational activities. To counteract this,
Benjamin and OReilly (2011) say that young managers would benefit from challenges
early in their career.

Young managers often underestimate the importance of personal relations.

Common practice among young managers (especially high achievers) is to assume that

their subordinates share the same values and motivations, but often they do not.
(Benjamin & OReilly, 2011). Young managers like Dick often fail to realize that selfpromoting attitudes are counterproductive to their managerial success (Benjamin &
OReilly, 2011). Instead, leaders should be role models who project success onto their
subordinates. Dick needs to realize that a good leader will put the well-being of his team
ahead of his own. As managers grow, they want to help subordinates stand out (Benjamin
& OReilly, 2011). To be specific, these managers were less competitive and more
collaborative in their roles (Benjamin & OReilly, 2011). An effective manager
recognizes that delegation is one of the most important productivity skills a manger can
use (White, 2010). Successful leaders also adhered to rules and procedures, avoided risks,
identified errors, met deadlines, and focused on behaviors that they would like others to
emulate (Kark & Van Dijk, 2007).


As an MBA student, Dick struggled with issues in human resources. When he

became the plant manager at Modrow, he had a tendency to walk the floor and closely
monitor his supervisors and employees. Dick would simply observe behaviors and quietly
pass through. This would disrupt the flow of work and make people uneasy; especially
the managers. A frustrated manager in the siding department was overheard saying: I
wish to hell hed stay up in the front office where he belongs (Buller & Schuler, 2003,
p.12). Dick often waited before calling managers into his office to discuss field
observations. Like many micromanagers, Dick seldom gave praise and believed that his

subordinates were incompetent (White, 2010). He was quick to place blame and would
rarely admit to his mistakes (White, 2010). As a result, he was not well liked or respected.

Although Dick managed by walking around (MBWA), he failed to build the trust
and rapport that was necessary to implement this strategy. His approach to MBWA
seemed odd and suspicious. Peters and Austin (1985) illustrate how Hewlett-Packard
effectively implemented MBWA:

Hewlett-Packard insists that every division get all hands together, in a common
setting, no less than once every two weeks. It's done. The costenormous. At
least by some measures. It takes a lot of time, and a lot of energy. But how good
are you? No better than your people and their commitment and participation in the
business, as full partners, and as business people. The fact that you get them all
together to share whateverresults, experiences, recent small successes and the
likeat least once every couple of weeks seems to us to be a small price indeed
to pay for that commitment and sense of teamwork and family. The "return on
investment" is probably far and away the best of any program in the organization.

Studies show that effective companies are successful at implementing MBWA and
produce leaders at every level within the organization (Peters and Austin, 1985). On the
opposite end of the spectrum, there are managers like Dick who refuse to empower
subordinates or delegate authority.

In Modrow, Dicks success was contingent upon the cooperation of his workforce.
Unfortunately, he had been ineffective at managing his employees. He should have
attempted to develop relationships and gain their trust. If he had, employees might have
been more receptive to his managerial practices. Dick was also ruthless in his demeanor
and perpetuated pre-existing stereotypes. He should have listened to his employees and
have been open to compromise. His inability to work with others resulted in employee
resistance and low morale. If Dick was more effective at managing subordinate
relationships he could have learned their strengths and delegated tasks. Likewise,
employees might have been more willing to fulfill organizational objectives.


Delegation is an essential part of effective management (Yulk & Fu, 1999). Yulk
and Fu (1999) discuss its importance in improving the speed and quality of decisions,
reducing managerial workloads, enriching work, increasing subordinate motivation, and
developing employee leadership skills (Yulk & Fu, 1999). Although delegation has its
benefits, many managers are reluctant to give up control over important decisions or
empower inexperienced workers (Yulk & Fu, 1999). Supervisors have a tendency to
delegate to subordinates who are competent, believe in the objective, and have a
favorable relationship with their manger (Yukl & Fu, 1999). While employed in Modrow,
Dick failed to engage employees and form purposeful relationships. He was unable to

manage and interact with his workforce. As a result, he lacked the trust and rapport that
has been deemed necessary to delegate authority (Yukl & Fu, 1999).

As an MBA student, Dick had experienced difficulties with accounting. When he

became the plant manager in Modrow, he learned the importance of the accounting
department due to the constant pressure he was under to reduce expenditures. During his
first few months in Modrow, costs had soared without an end in sight (Buller & Schuler,
2003). On account of the modernization, short-term losses were to be expected (Buller &
Schuler, 2003). Head offices acknowledgement of this loss would partially and
temporarily absolve Dick from accountability even though he still felt pressure. The
following year, managers worked with their supervisors and accountants on the next
years budget. (Buller & Schuler, 2003). Dick recognized the importance of working on
costing procedures. However, without the support and knowledge of his former
controller, he preoccupied himself with tasks of low importance (Buller & Schuler, 2003).
In this moment Dick should have asked for assistance but he did not. Dick was afraid to
delegate. He was also fearful of trying to understand what needed to be delegated. One
day, he overheard two accountants talking about him:

For a guy whos a vice-president, he sure spends a lot of time breathing down our
necks. Why doesnt he simply tell us the kind of systems he would like to try, and
let us do the experimenting and work out the budget? (Buller & Schuler, 2003,

Dick wanted to be in control of the entire process, but he lacked the know-how and
confidence to direct his accountants. Once Dick had absorbed that conversation, he spent
less time in the accounting department and became less directive (Buller & Schuler,

Most micromanagers are insecure and controlling. Typically they do not trust the
performance of their subordinates (White, 2010). Like many micromanagers, Dick was
uncertain and doubtful of himself (White, 2010). He realized that he was clueless,
insecure, and afraid of being found out. In his previous managerial positions (with the
exception of the Birmingham plant), Dick was not directly responsible for overseeing the
accounting activities. In Birmingham, he relied heavily on his controller. The controller
has an intuitive understanding of accounting issues and is directly in charge of the
accounting function (Vafeas, 2009). Their responsibilities include: financial accounting
and reporting, costing and budgeting, accounting information systems and taxes (Vafeas,
2009). In Modrow, Dick lacked the knowledge and support that was necessary to make
sense of the accounting documents.

To be an effective manager, one must delegate. Since Dick had difficulties

understanding accounting, he was unable to delegate to his team. His managerial
judgment had been clouded by his strong sense of pride and his desire to control. In the
interest of the company, Dick should have gotten help, but he was afraid to acknowledge
that the president may have been right; he was not ready for a managerial position. For
many years, Dick was aware of his weaknesses in human relations and accounting, but he

had not made any serious efforts to improve. In previous positions, he could have learned
from others or gotten formal training. Most good managers surround themselves with a
strong team. Team members are supposed to compliment one another. As a manager,
Dick had demonstrated poor people skills and had failed to develop any working
relationships. The sole exception had been his Birmingham controller. If it had not been
for the controller, Dicks weaknesses in accounting would have been exposed. In
hindsight, Dick should have recognized the importance of his controller and brought him
to Modrow.


Culture is one of the most powerful and stable forces that operates within an
organization (Schein, 1996). It is the social glue that helps to maintain order and regulate
the lives of its members (Cartwright & Cooper, 2003). Organizational culture is made up
of symbols, values, ideologies and assumptions that guide the behaviors of individuals
and businesses (Cartwright & Cooper, 2003; Schein, 1996). When culture is threatened or
disturbed, it has a tendency to permeate the minds of its members (Cartwright & Cooper,
2003). Carver (1980) found that persuasive communication that is pushy or coercive can
be threatening to individuals. When workers feel that their personal freedoms are
threatened by people, rules, or regulations, it can arouse an outlook that contradicts the
original intent (Carver, 1980).

Prior to Dicks arrival in Modrow, the plant had undergone a modernization. This
transformation had an adverse effect on morale and threatened existing work practices.
When Dick passed through the plants trim shop, he discovered a more efficient way of
disposing waste. Dick suggested this method to an employee and was told, Weve never
done it that way, sir. (Buller & Schuler, 2003, p.13). He questioned his foreman about
the existing disposal process and the foreman said, Weve always done it that way
(Buller & Schuler, 2003, p.14). Unsatisfied by these responses, Dick offered a visual
demonstration to show that his way was better. The foreman raised concerns, asked
questions, and remained skeptical about the cost controls. After a frustrating meeting, the
foreman grudgingly agreed to a two-week trial. When Dick walked the floor he noticed
the changes had not been implemented. Again, he questioned the foreman. The foreman
offered a series of excuses and explanations detailing why the new process would not
work. Dick was not interested in listening and shouted, I dont care what the problems
are (Buller & Schuler, p.14). In Dicks mind, there would be a one-way discussion that
would not be open to compromise. He demonstrated that he was not willing to listen or
show empathy for their concerns. Dick forced his way and the incident escalated. By
removing equipment from the trim shop, he had hoped to change the work process. The
foreman had been astonished and infuriated by the fact that Dick would come into his
territory and impose his ways. In Dicks last visit to the trim shop, he was surprised to see
that the work process had remained the same minus the equipment.

In Modrow, Dick faced a great deal of resistance. He had not attempted to learn
about the culture of his workforce or their way of doing things. Culturally he was not like

them; he was an outsider. A cross-cultural study found that employees were

less likely to comply with the request of an authority figure who lacked
a culturally valued trait (Wosinska et al., 2009). Dicks inability to build trust and
win over subordinates created additional problems. Supervisors and managers were
suspicious of his efforts to manage employees simply by walking around. Carnevale and
Wechsler (1992) argue that a lack of trust can lead to dysfunctional outcomes such as
cynicism, low motivation, low commitment and a lack of confidence in the organization
(p.471). Problems were compounded by Dicks ineffective communication and
unwillingness to compromise. As a result, subordinates went to great lengths to resist
him. They detested his overbearing attitude and constant pressure to do things his way.

Dick should have made more of an effort to build relationships with subordinates.
Gould-Williams (2003) found that the effective use of human resource (HR) practices can
lead to superior organizational performance. In firms that utilized high-commitment HR
systems, employees shared behaviors and attitudes that developed links between the
organizations goals and their own personal ones (Gould-Williams, 2003). To minimize
resistance, Dick should have helped his employees to understand necessary changes,
perceive urgency, and minimize discomforts. In the process, he should have listened,
provided support, and demonstrated an appreciation for what the employees valued.

Cultural Barriers and Working Abroad:

As more firms participate in the global economy, the number of international

placements increases. According to Shepards estimates, more than 1.3 million Americans
hold positions abroad (as cited in Van Vianen, De Pater, Kristof-Brown, & Johnson, 2004,
p.697). Kraimer, Shaffer, Harrison, and Ren (2012) found that international assignments
are becoming more frequent and fraught with difficulties. Specifically, in situations with
high levels of uncertainty, personal discomfort increases and the individual may have
difficulty adjusting to the culture (Black, Mendenhall, & Oddou, 1991). Van Vianen et al.
(2004) provide insight to the expatriate experience:

Expatriate employees often accept international assignments knowing that they

will be confronted with work and life conditions that do not match the ones in
their home countries. Moreover, they know in advance that they will have to
collaborate with local residents who may have values and habits that differ from
their own. In contrast to most employees, expatriates may expect a certain degree
of misfit with their assignment (p.697).

Brookfield Global Relocation found that 38 percent of repatriates voluntarily quit within
the first year of returning to their home country (as cited in Kraimer et al., 2012, p.399).
Research has shown that the process was somewhat easier for expatriates who retained
their home culture identity throughout the international placement (Kraimer et al., 2012).

For a significant portion of his managerial career, Dick worked in foreign

countries, but he eventually grew tired of being away from home. When he requested a
transfer to the United States, Tri-American sent him to Canada. Although it would appear
that the request was partially granted, he would soon find that Modrows culture was
significantly different. While working in Modrow, He (Dick) always sensed that the
Canadians he worked with resented his presence (Buller & Schuler, 2003, p.12.
Consequently, he experienced a subtle resistance from his Canadian workforce (Buller
& Schuler, 2003, p.12). As research has shown, people often use demographic identifiers
to categorize others and predict their behaviors (Chatman et al.,1998). It is unfortunate
that people of the same nationality, racial background, or sex are more likely to interact
with one another in an organizational setting (Chatman et al., 1998). Despite this reality,
Dick had done nothing to ameliorate his position, alter perceptions, or become part of the

Dicks interaction with the local workforce had been limited to inquiries and
commands. He did not take a genuine interest in their well-being or attempt to learn their
values and beliefs. Van Vianen, De Pater, Kristof-Brown, and Johnson (2004) argue that
cultural values and beliefs are not visible and must be indirectly inferred. Values and
beliefs play a significant role in the expatriates work and can impact their interaction
with the local workforce (Van Vianen, De Pater, Kristof-Brown, & Johnson, 2004). Dick
had remained an outsider because he had failed to build trust and gain the respect of his
employees. If he had been friendlier, culturally-sensitive and a bit more sincere, then he
might have had a chance to influence his subordinates.

Work-Family Conflict:

Throughout Dicks career, his work has put a constant strain on his family. He had
already been divorced and his second marriage was unstable. Often times his career took
precedence over his family. When Dick was preoccupied with work, he forgot about
birthdays, appointments, dinner engagements, and family related activities (Buller &
Schuler, 2003). There is a growing body of knowledge that suggests an interconnectivity
and reciprocal influence between work and family (Adams, King & King, 1996).
Higginss suggested that when work interferes with family, it results in lower quality
family life (as cited in Adams et al., 1996, p.412). It is quite likely that familial pressures
had started to affect Dicks work. The risks of working long hours include psychological
damage, physical deterioration, poor productivity, and strained social relationships (Brett
& Stroh, 2003). One study found that half of the managers interviewed had worked
harder and longer to escape from other pressures in their lives (Brett & Stroh, 2003).

Role theory states that time is a finite resource. Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Spoek, and
Rosenthal found that when the number of hours spent in a particular role increases, fewer
hours are spent in other roles -- thus the potential for conflict also increases (as cited in
Adkins & Premeaux, 2012, p.381). Like most people, Dick was active in multiple roles.
In general, proficiency in family-related roles are not well rewarded by society (Brett &
Stroh, 2003). Unlike work, familial roles offer few opportunities to stand out, receive
positive feedback, and get praise (Brett & Stroh, 2003).

Dicks placement in foreign countries had been another source of familial strain.
On several occasions, he selfishly uprooted his family and forced them to start anew.
Dicks personal life was suffering as a result of his comittment to his career. During the
1980s, American firms lost an estimated two billion dollars a year to failed overseas
placements (Black & Stephens, 1989), current figures are likely to be significantly higher.
The primary factor that was cited for premature returns was the spouses inability to
adjust to life in a foreign culture (Black & Stephens, 1989). When they moved, Dick
made little to no effort to help his family integrate into their new community.

During his second marriage, there were no visible improvements in his behavior.
He provided little social support and often missed family gatherings. Dick would spend
long hours at work and focus entirely on his career. As it would appear, he suffered from
many of the symptoms associated with Karoshi, which can literally be translated from
Japanese as death from overwork (De Vries, 2007). Those who suffer are directionless,
unfulfilled, confused, and in pursuit of endless challenges (De Vries, 2007). The
following karoshi-related passage bares striking resemblance to his life:
they neglect their personal lives. As their personal lives suffer, they respond to
that new discomfort by working even harder at getting more things done at
work Their addictive behavior and their tendency to see themselves as what
they do rather than what they are, drives them to the next challenge and the next,
as life passes them by. At its most intense, such behavior drives up stress levels,
divorce rates and early deaths on retirement (De Vries, 2007, p.381).

It is likely that these behaviors are attributed to Dicks personality. If they are, he should
have never remarried. His selfishness causes stress to himself and his family. Dick feels
that he has something to prove. He has a desire to make money, get promoted, and
increase his social standing. Life is about choices and people must realize that they
cannot always get what they want. Unless he is ready to settle down and spend more time
at home, he should not be in a relationship.


This report reviewed and analyzed issues that pertained to Dick Spencer's success
in sales and tribulations as a manger. The report found that Dick needs to work on his
interpersonal skills. In the workplace, it would be beneficial for Dick to build trust with
subordinates and delegate authority. Through this process, he should also make an effort
to learn about the organizations culture and any national differences. Lastly, he needs to
make time for his family and resolve some personal issues. If he follows these
recommendations, he will likely improve his chances for managerial success.

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