Spri ng 2007

FI VE  DOLLARS
GUIDE
DiSASTEr rESOUrCE
FOr SATElliTES
Fi rST QUArTEr 2007 Fi VE DOllArS
GUIDE
DISASTER RESOURCE
SATELLITE STrATEGIES
FOr DiSASTEr rECOVEry & BUSinESS COnTinUiTy
published in conjunction with
Department Approvals Date
ACCOUNT / /
CREATIVE / /
LANGUAGE / /
PRODUCTION / /
PROOFREADER / /
CLIENT / /
GlobalWorks Group LLC
220 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 212.252.8800
HNS - GVF_Disaster_Resource_Guide
JOB NUMBER HNS-07-PRNT-0014
BLEED 8 5/8” x 11 1/8”
CLIENT
HUGHES NETWORK SYSTEM TRIM 8 3/8” x 10 7/8”
MEDIA GVF Disaster Resource Guide LIVE 7 3/8” x 9 7/8”
COLOR 4C FONT TRADE GOTHIC
INSERTION TBD NOTE
This mechanical was prepared by GlobalWorks Group. For questions, please contact us at 212.252.8800
BLEED: 8.625"
B
L
E
E
D
:
1
1
.
1
2
5
"
TRIM: 8.375"
T
R
I
M
:
1
0
.
8
7
5
"
SAFETY: 7.375"
S
A
F
E
T
Y
:
9
.
8
7
5
"
With Access Continuity from HUGHES,
your network will be fully operational, rain or shine.
Businesses need to stay up and running no matter what. That’s why we offer a satellite-based
backup solution you can rely on. If terrestrial systems fail, critical applications won’t. Only
Access Continuity from HUGHES offers a dependable, alternate transport path – whether set up
as an overlay to your existing terrestrial system, or as part of our Managed Network Services.
Count on Access Continuity for the highest network availability – so you can keep on serving the
people who count on you.
Call 1-866-240-3875
for more information on Access Continuity.
© 2007 Hughes Network Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. HUGHES is a trademark of Hughes Network Systems, LLC.
Your network’s covered.
No matter what.
www.hughes.com
Harsh lessons continue to be learned in the aftermath
of 9/11, Rita, Katrina, Pakistan’s earthquake and the
Asian tsunami. The 2007 cyclone and hurricane seasons
are getting underway in the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico.
And threats to business continuity are not limited to large
disasters – a simple cut of a fiber optic cable can stop all
communications between offices if there is no backup for
the land lines. For 12 years the Disaster Resource GUIDE
has brought together thousands of resources for BC and
DR professionals worldwide to address these threats.
This first quarter edition of the Disaster Resource GUIDE
is a collaboration between the GVF (the Global VSAT Forum)
and the GUIDE to provide an information resource that
shows how satellite communications can be applied to
prepare for and respond to disasters… whether they
are natural or man-made. Further, this publication is
designed to facilitate contingency planners’ and emergency
managers’ efforts to cost effectively integrate satellite
communications into their operational plans.
This edition of the GUIDE builds upon the dialogue
established in recent years during the annual GVF
Disaster Recovery Satellite Summit, where business
continuity professionals, government officials, executives
of humanitarian & aid agencies, non-government
organizations, and telecom service providers have
identified key priorities needed to advance the delivery
of satellite-based disaster recovery and emergency
management solutions.
What they have learned in recent years is increasingly
clear: Pre-positioning of satellite communications
systems needs to be included in operational plans for
both businesses and government agencies. Return on
investment can be achieved through multi-purpose and
shared satellite networks. Improved regulatory approaches
are at hand. Interoperability is achievable. And much more.
Meanwhile, satellite communications have never been
better suited to cost-effectively address communications
requirements for mission-critical applications using
terrestrial networks which are vulnerable to disruption.
Costs of satellite-related hardware have plummeted in the
past 10 years and satellite bandwidth costs have also been
reduced. So: How, when, where and why can business
continuity and emergency management professionals
collaborate with the satellite industry to increase effective
network deployment and stimulate market growth?
This publication includes case studies from leading
satellite communications companies, and reveals exactly
how satellites are being used to prevent or mitigate
catastrophic loss.
When networks are destroyed by natural catastrophes –
and indeed, when man-made disasters require a
rapid communications response – the management and
mitigation of emergency conditions often calls for immediate
deployment of satellite-based links. The needs of post-
Katrina southern United States, post-Tsunami Asia, and
famine-ridden Darfur clearly demonstrate this. But just as
clear has been the realisation that stronger coordination is
needed between the private sector and those organisations
charged with restoring order. This GUIDE will explore what
has been learned and the implications for future disaster
recovery and mitigation efforts.
Dave Hartshorn Tommy Rainey
Secretary General Executive Publisher
The Global VSAT Forum Disaster Resource GUIDE
LIFE, DEath & thE BUsInEss CasE
FoR DISASTER RECoVERy, BUSInESS ConTInUITy AnD EMERGEnCy MAnAGEMEnT
AbOut thE GVF
GVF is the international non-profit association of the satellite communications sector. It brings together organizations engaged in the delivery of 
advanced broadband and narrowband satellite services to consumers, and commercial and government enterprises worldwide. headquartered in 
London, GVF is an independent, non-partisan organization with 200 members from more than 90 countries. More info is available at www.gvf.org
F
R
o
M

T
H
E

P
U
B
l
I
S
H
E
R
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

3
4
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

6 AnOverviewoftheBusinessContinuity,DisasterRecovery
&EmergencyManagementEnvironment:TheCommunications
Imperative
By AnDREA MAlETER AnD DAVI D HARTSHoRn
11 SatellitePhones:Criticalcommunicationtools
  12 SatelliteCommunications:AnEssentialTool
forEmergencyResponders
By GREGG SWAnSon
15 TheReturnonInvestment:SatelliteCommunications–
VitalResourceforBusinessSuccess
By MARTI n JARRolD
  17 StateofCaliforniaEmergencyResponseNetwork–ACaseStudy
By DR. S. RAM CHAnDRAn
  20 CanBCPlannersJustifytheExpenseofSatellites?
Ahybridnetworkcanbecheaperthanyouthink!
An I nTERVI EW WI TH STEFAn JUCKEn
By ToMMy RAI nEy
  24 Satellite-BasedBusiness
ContinuityandDisasterRecoverySolutionsGoMainstream
By BRI An SKI MMonS
26 EssentialGuidelines:
“So,howmustIplanmysatelliteconnection?”&otherFAQs
By JoHn FEnEly AnD MARTI n JARRolD
30 InstallingaSatelliteNetwork:
Howtogettherighttrainingresourcesinyour“neighborhood”
By MARTI n JARRolD AnD RAlPH BRooKER
( ADAPTED FRoM A SATPRoF & GVF WHI TE PAPER)
34 HughesNetAccessContinuityBringsRountreeAutomotive’s
ITStaffPeaceofMind
36 BuildingMobileEmergencyResponseVehicles
withSatelliteConnectivity:WhatToKnow
By DAVI D MyERS AnD JEFFREy CARl
38 AdIndex&Resources
6
20
26
15
FirST QUArTEr 2007 • VOlUmE 11 • iSSUE 3
SATElliTE STrATEgiES
FOr DiSASTEr rECOVEry & BUSinESS COnTinUiTy
On the Web Visit the Online gUiDE for more resources. www.disaster-resource.com
• Crisis & Emergency Management • Disaster Recovery • business Continuity
A publi cati on of the Di saster resource gui de i n conj uncti on wi th
T
A
B
l
E

o
F

C
o
n
T
E
n
T
S
GUIDE
DISASTER RESOURCE
“iDirect’s quick response allowed us to
immediately begin serving families in
need across the Gulf region and its
communications services continue to be
a key component of our success today,”
said David Craig
Director of Emergency Operations
at the American Red Cross.
The Customer Challenge
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the American Red Cross’s ability to coordinate relief and serve
thousands of displaced people, and even entire communities, was critical to its emergency
response eforts.
In order to connect teams of workers at emergency shelters throughout Louisiana, the Red Cross
required a communications system that could be deployed quickly while bypassing the existing
terrestrial infrastructure, which had been either heavily damaged or completely destroyed by the
hurricane and subsequent levee breach.
Additionally, the network needed to be able to do all of the following:
• Easily scale to meet growing needs during the relief efort
• Quickly extend its reach to any geographical location
• Ofer user-friendly confguration, management, and maintenance
• Provide a small footprint for easy transport
Beyond its most immediate needs, the Red Cross wanted a robust and fexible communications
network that could support voice, data, and video applications in any type of environment for all
of its disaster relief services going forward.
The iDirect Solution
Within 36 hours, iDirect provided the Red Cross with a fully operational satellite-based broad-
band access solution, which was instrumental in facilitating communications and service delivery
to 30 Red Cross shelters across Louisiana.
Providing end-to-end IP services over satellite, the iDirect system operates independently of the
existing terrestrial infrastructure and can be deployed quickly to any geographical location under
any conditions. Additionally, it can be easily confgured to support any mix of voice, data, and
video services, as well as the full complement of IP-based applications.
The solution includes a single iNFINITI hub chassis installed at the Red Cross’s Falls Church, VA,
teleport hub and 40 3100 satellite routers deployed at needed locations in the region.
From its teleport hub in Virginia, the Red Cross is able to confgure, monitor, and control all re-
mote access sites, and even customize services to meet individual site requirements.
At the remote locations, satellite routers provide all the hardware and software needed to sup-
port mission critical broadband applications. Each compact terminal provides a satellite modem,
IP router, TCP optimization over satellite, 3DES/AES encryption and QoS/prioritization. This user-
friendly and reliable design allows Red Cross volunteers with little or no technical expertise to
easily set up and activate the system in the feld.
Following the initial response efort, iDirect shipped an additional 40 3100 satellite routers to
expand the Red Cross’s reach into other afected areas in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.
Solution Overview
iDirect’s ability to deploy a satellite-based system that bypasses the existing terrestrial infrastruc-
ture while providing the same user experience as traditional networks enables the Red Cross to
deliver fast, efective emergency response services anywhere, anytime, and under any conditions.
The system’s centralized management combined with portable satellite routers allows response
teams to quickly adapt to any emergency situation where systems and services must be trans-
ported and confgured on the fy. Additionally, because the iDirect system supports a full array
of broadband services, the system can be easily confgured to meet the unique voice, data, and
video requirements of any location.
About iDirect Technologies
iDirect Technologies designs, develops, and markets the industry’s leading satellite-based broad-
band access solutions targeted at the enterprise, government, carrier and educational sectors
with the need for fast, fexible, and geographically dispersed two-way broadband access. To learn
more about iDirect Technologies, visit www.idirect.net or contact a disaster recovery solutions
expert at tplummer@idirect.net or by phone at 703.648.8064.
IDIRECT PROVIDES CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT TO
THE AMERICAN RED CROSS IN THE GULF REGION
www.idirect.net
A publi cati on of the Di saster resource gui de i n conj uncti on wi th
6
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

The regular and frequent
occurrence of natural
disasters of various types
is an all-too-well known
factor around the globe.
This is an accepted, if unfortunate,
part of everyday life for many mil-
lions of people, and – particularly in
the US – many millions of tax dol-
lars are expended seeking to predict
such events, and to thus mitigate
their damaging consequences through
the application of disaster recovery,
emergency management and business
continuityproceduresandprograms.
Increasingly, it is recognized that
the most effective application of such
procedures and programs is depen-
dent upon the deployment of wireless
communications which facilitate the
coordinated movement of logistical,
rescue and first responder resources
into, and within, regions threatened
by – or recovering from – a disaster
situation.
Of course, similar considerations
applytodisasterswhichareman-made,
but contained within the focus of this
article are a number of illustrations of
naturally occurring phenomena which
bringwiththemboththreattolifeand
limb,andwhichhaveeconomicconse-
quencesforindividualtownsandcities
oranentiregeographicregion.
For example, Figures 1 and 2 exam-
ine the period between 1980 and
2004, using data from the Nation-
al Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) to identify
US weather-related disasters, each of
which caused damage in excess of a
billiondollars.
Inaddition,recentearthquakes–and
events such as the Indian Ocean tsu-
nami–havebroughtwiththemmajor
human catastrophes and debilitating
consequencesforsocietalandeconomic
infrastructures. In the United States
expertsbelievethatitisinevitablethat
a future earthquake will at some time
hitthehighlypopulouswestcoast,but
unlike hurricanes – and some other
weather related incidents – the fore-
warning of major seismic activity has
not yet been accurately accomplished.
In consequence of this, the need for
a constant state of readiness, together
with very clear preparation and plan-
ningfortheimperativecontributionof
emergency communications platforms
andchannelsissomuchmorecritical.
TheUnitedStatesGeologicalSurvey
(USGS) has reported the broad extent
of earthquake activity on a state by
statebasisfortheperiod1974to2003,
with 20 states experiencing events in
this timeframe. During one week in
February, 2006, California alone expe-
rienced 224 earthquake events, some
uptoamagnitudeof4.0.
Asnotedabove,giventhatinallsuch
disaster situations the first imperative is
communicationsconnectivity,itisessen-
tialtounderstandhowvariousalternative
communicationsplatformswill–orwill
not – be able to provide the neces-
sarycommunicationschannelstosupport
recoveryandmitigationinitiatives.
The Satellite Communications
imperative
Terrestrialwirelessequipment(e.g.cel-
lular phones, land mobile radios, etc.)
is only useful when communications
towers and other fixed equipment are
in place to connect wireless equipment
tothelocalandglobalcommunications
backbone.Inthemajorityofemergency
situations,thisinfrastructure haseither
been destroyed or damaged as a conse-
An oVERVIEW oF THE BUSInESS ConTInUITy, DISASTER
RECoVERy & EMERGEnCy MAnAGEMEnT EnVIRonMEnT:
thE CommUnICatIons ImpEratIVE
 by   AnDREA  MALEtER  AnD  DAVI D  hARtShORn  f rom  an  or i gi nal   whi t e  paper
Figure 1
7
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

quenceofthedisaster–aswasthecase
inNewOrleansafterHurricaneKatrina
– or was not available before the disas-
ter – as was the case in Pakistan when
a major earthquake struck. It is this
reality which makes it critical for local
government and emergency workers to
haveaccesstoawirelesscommunications
network that operates independently of
terrestrialinfrastructure.
Satellitecommunicationsprovidesuch
asolution.Satellitesoffertheonlywire-
lesscommunicationsinfrastructurethat
isnotsusceptibletodamagefromdisas-
ters,simplybecausethemainrepeating
equipment which sends and receives
communicationssignals(locatedonthe
spacecraft) are located outside of the
Earth’s atmosphere, either in geosta-
tionary orbit (GEO satellites) or in low
Earthorbit(LEOsatellites).
Theformer,GEOsatellites,orbitatan
altitude of 36,000 kilometers (22,000
miles) above the Earth. At this altitude
they occupy a fixed position relative to
agivenpointontheEarth’ssurfaceand
canprovidecommunicationsservicesfor
asinglecountryoranentireregioncov-
eringuptoone-thirdoftheentireglobe.
GEO satellites are capable of providing
afullrangeofcommunicationsservices,
including voice, video and broadband
data. They operate with ground equip-
ment ranging from very large fixed
gateway antennas down to fully mobile
terminals the size of a cellular phone.
Therearecurrentlyalmost300commer-
cially operated GEO satellites in orbit
operatedbyglobal,regionalandnational
satellitecommunicationscarriers.
Even before disasters occur, the net-
works supported by GEO satellites are
used all around the world to provide,
for example, seismic and flood-warn-
ing data to government agencies, thus
enabling early warning systems to pro-
videadvanceinformationonimpending
disaster,andfacilitatingthebroadcastof
disaster-warning notices to widespread
populations.Inaddition,networkssup-
ported by GEO satellites provide for
generalcommunicationandinformation
flowbetweengovernmentagencies,relief
organizationsandthegeneralpublic.
LEO satellites, on the other hand,
operate in orbits between 780 kilome-
ters and 1,500 kilometers (485 – 900
miles) altitude. Typically, LEO satel-
lite systems offer voice and low-speed
datacommunications,andoperatewith
handheld units about the size of a
large cellular phone. In common with
handheld terminals that rely on GEO
satellites, the highly portable nature of
LEO-based units makes them anoth-
er valuable satellite solution for first
respondersinthefield.
Inordertomosteffectivelyutilizethe
capabilities of these various systems,
government agencies, relief organiza-
tions and other first responders must
define in advance the kind of terminal
equipment they will need to meet the
objectivesoftheiractivitiesinthefield
bothbeforeandafteragivenemergency
situation. This can be achieved, and
integrated into their overall emergen-
cy planning procedures and programs,
withacomprehensiveunderstandingof
the different capabilities of the various
satellitesystemtypesdescribedbelow.
Choosing the right Satellite
System Alternative
Satellite technology is fully capable of
providingnarrowbandandbroadbandIP
communications–Internet,data,video,
orvoiceoverIP(VoIP)–withdataspeeds
starting at 64 Kbps from handheld ter-
minalsupto4Mbpsbi-directionalfrom
portable VSAT antennas. With fixed
terminalinstallationsthebandwidthcan
supportupto40Mbps.
Handheld mobile Solutions
Intheimmediateaftermathofadisaster
which renders destroyed or inoperable
a local, ground-based, communications
infrastructure,thereisonereliableform
of communications that is immedi-
ately deployable – handheld satellite
telephone systems provided by mobile
satellite service (MSS) providers. Such
systems provide satellite communica-
tions access through small, cellular
phone sized devices, as well as pagers
and in-vehicle units. Satellite phone
rental can be as low as $40 per week,
and purchase prices range from $400
to about $2,000. As with any mobile
telephone system, connections are on
a per-minute billing basis, starting at
underadollaraminute.
continued on page 8
Figure 2
8
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

portable and Transportable Solutions
Terminals used for “communications
onthemove”includeequipmentthat
canbetransportedandoperatedfrom
inside a road vehicle, maritime ves-
sel, or fixed wing and rotary aircraft,
including commercial airplanes. This
kindofterminalisusefulwherehigh-
speed and data intensive connections
arerequiredonanexpeditedbasisfor
damage assessment, medical evalu-
ation, or other applications where
voice, video and data are required in
combination.Dependingonthesatel-
litesystemandthetypeofequipment
in use, these systems can typically be
madereadyforoperationalusewithin
five to 30 minutes of arrival on site,
usually without the need for expert
technical staff. As with communi-
cations systems in general, higher
satellite terminal prices – whether
mobile,portable,orfixed–equateto
morerobustservices,greaterlevelsof
reliability,fasterdelivery,andawider
rangeoffeaturesandoptions.
Fixed Satellite Solutions (FSS)
Fixed satellite service (FSS) terminals
are typically installed in situations
where the equipment is required
for periods of longer than one week,
including pre-disaster applications
(e.g. environmental monitoring, com-
munications redundancy, etc.) as well
as post-disaster recovery operations.
Such systems are configurable to
provide everything from low-speed
data transmissions up to very broad
bandwidth data and full broadcast-
quality video to replace local and
national infrastructure and services.
FSS systems must be installed by
qualified technicians, and to support
theirinstallationanddeploymentsat-
ellite companies have developed an
industry-standard VSAT Installation
& Maintenance Training Certification
Program, more details of which are
providedelsewhereinthisGuide,and
also under the “Training” section of
thehomepageatwww.gvf.org.
A Quick guide to procurement:
Bandwidth and integration
Thereareanumberofglobalsatellite
carriersthatoperatefleetsofGEOsat-
ellites.Theseprovidefixedorportable
communications, although some are
also used for mobile services, includ-
ing those used on ships and aircraft.
There are also a large number of
regionalandnationalsatellitecarriers
that provide FSS and portable servic-
es covering North & Latin America,
Europe,Africa,theMiddleEast,Asia
and Oceania. In addition there are
severaloperatorsofsystemsproviding
service to handheld satellite phones
andpagers.
The emergency management com-
munity has a variety of choices for
obtaining access to these various sat-
ellite services, with handheld mobile
satellite systems being the simplest,
in keeping with the way the systems
work. All that is required is contact
with one of the many value-added
resellerstoleaseorpurchasetheequip-
mentandsignaservicecontract.These
supplierscanbereadilylocatedviathe
Internet, and the handheld units can
beshippedonanexpeditedbasis.
For portable and fixed services it is
possible to either contact the satellite
companiesdirectly,ortoworkthrough
one of the wide range of network
integrators that provide end-to-end
communications services – including
fixed very small aperture terminals
(knownasVSATs),andsatelliteband-
width access – on either a global,
regional or local basis. These com-
continued on page 10
p
h
o
t
o

C
o
u
r
t
e
s
y

o
f

F
E
m
A
9
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

There is a great demand for communica-
tion from anywhere and at any time. This is espe-
cially true in remote areas, or wherever disaster
recovery teams or news organizations need to
get connected to send or receive data to other
locations. In these circumstances, satellite is the
only reliable communication method. However,
traditional satellite solutions would require sig-
nificant time and effort to install a 1.2 m satellite
antenna. Also most solutions would require prior
training for proper installation.
Introducing Pure Mobility, the revolution-
ary self-deploying 2-way satellite communication
system for people on the go and in need of quick
setup. EgyptSat now offers this high-tech, fully-
integrated communication solution. With Pure
Mobility installed on the roof of a car, users now
have the ability to get connected from remote
locations with functionality similar to central
offices.
Once the car comes to a stop, an intelligent
microprocessor system, along with an integrated
GPS sensor, will measure the latitude and longi-
tude position of the car and an accurate elec-
tronic compass will measure the orientation of
the car. Then the pointing parameters will be pre-
cisely calculated. In seconds, the microproces-
sor will control three motors to adjust the satellite
antenna’s elevation, azimuth and polarity to
accurately point and fine tune the antenna to
the satellite.
Stuffed with many advanced features, Pure
Mobility is the only solution for critical missions.
Pure Mobility has been designed to be totally
power independent. With the surface-mounted,
high efficiency solar cell there is no need for an
external power supply. Also, an advanced built-in
inversion system can provide external equipment
with a 220V electrical supply from the solar
energy generated and stored in an integrated
high current battery.
As for communication, Pure Mobility
comes with a built-in satellite modem that offers
9 mbps on the receive side and 1 mbps on the
send side. A built-in WiFi router provides mobile
wireless data and Internet connectivity at a
distance of 50 m from the car. Two WiFi tele-
phone handsets are supplied with the system to
offer global voice communication.
An advanced object tracking, high speed
dome camera is fitted to the front of the system
with 22X optical zoom and 10X digital zoom. The
camera features powerful IR light detection
which makes it capable of capturing high quality
video on dark nights at a distance of 40 m.
Features:
• 1.2 m Tx/Rx satellite antenna.
• 3 W KU-Band BUC and LNB.
• Built-in control system with GPS, digital
compass, 2 lines LCD and remote control (no
need for a PC).
• Built-in iNFINITY iDirect Satellite modem.
• Built-in wireless router supporting 500 square
meters WiFi coverage.
• Built-in 12V battery for self power.
• High efficiency solar cell for independent
charging.
• 12V to 220V inverter to power external devices.
• Two WiFi VoIP handsets.
• PTZ 22X optical zoom high speed dome
camera with IR light and automatic object
tracking for video conferencing and disaster
recovery.
• Built-in speaker and microphone for video
conferencing.
• Aerodynamic fiberglass case.
]0
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

panies are often registered with local
telecommunications regulatory agen-
cies, and most are members of the
GVF. To access the GVF Interactive
Online Industry Directory (for more
information, see below), please go to
www.gvf.org and click on the “Mem-
bers”button.
A Quick guide to procurement:
Other Services
As noted above, and explored in detail
elsewhereinthisGuide,long-termplan-
ningfordisastermitigationcanbewell
supported by satellite-based network-
ing. Fully redundant communications
networkssupportedbyback-upsatellite
solutions are one of the most effective
meansofensuringoperationalcontinu-
itythroughoutanyemergency.
To support the ongoing efforts of
the disaster recovery and emergency
management communities in their
endeavors, GVF facilitates contact
with international satellite commu-
nications companies, and offers the
followingservices:
interactive Online industry Directory:
www.gvf.org
This free-to-use searchable database
lists approximately 200 leading satel-
litecommunicationsystemsandservice
companies offering terminals and sub-
systems, bandwidth, integration, legal
services, etc. Company contact details
are provided together with links to
companywebsites.
Competitive Bids & the gVF
Executive Briefing
Parties interested in procurement of a
satellite-based solution are constantly
sendingenquiriestoGVF.Inturn,we
include these enquiries in the month-
ly electronic periodical – the GVF
Executive Briefing – which is sent to
the global satellite communications
industry. Enquiries range from sim-
ple requests for information to highly
detailedbidnotices.Thecontactdetails
of the enquiring party are included,
facilitating direct industry responses
whicharemadeinfullknowledgethat
competing companies are also making
contactwiththeenquiringparty,thus
ensuring the provision of competitive
pricing.(Incaseswhereenquiringpar-
ties prefer not to reveal their identity,
the GVF Secretariat can field industry
responses and relay them directly to
the enquiring party. Enquires may
be sent to david.hartshorn@gvf.org or
martin.jarrold@gvf.org.
Emergency notices
Whendisastersstrikeandadvanceplan-
ningprovestohavebeenflawed,rapid
response is required. GVF remains
alert to receive urgent requests for
satellite systems and services, and to
post immediate notices to the global
satellite industry. A wide range of
humanitarian and aid organizations
regularly avail themselves of this vital
resource. Urgent requests should be
sent to either of the email addresses
givenimmediatelyabove.
AbOut thE AuthORS
David  hartshorn  is  Secretary  General  of  the 
Global  VSAt  Forum  (GVF).  he  can  be  reached 
at David.hartshorn@gvf.org or www.gvf.org
Andrea  Maleter  is  Director,  Satellite  Commu-
nications, Futron Corp., www.futron.com
]]
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

Satellitephoneshavebecomeanessen-
tialwayofhelpingonestayincontact
whentraditionalformsofterrestrialor
wireless communications such as tele-
phonesorcellularphonesaredamaged.
Whetherforbusinesscontinuity,emer-
gency response, asset tracking or even
personalapplications,Globalstarhelps
businesses,governmentsandindividu-
alsstayintouchandkeeptrackoftheir
resources.
During the 2005 Hurricane season
whenHurricaneKatrinaslammedinto
the United States Gulf Coast, Glo-
balstar deployed more than 10,000
handheldsatellitephonestotheaffected
region. These phones were invaluable
to the government agencies and relief
workers that made use of them after
the hurricane landed. Globalstar also
successfully increased the capacity of
its satellite network and accelerated
shipments from equipment vendors
to ensure continued communications
servicetotheregion.
new products and Services
Globalstar also continues to provide
itscustomerswithnewandinnovative
two-way satellite products and service
solutions designed to meet the evolv-
ingrequirementsofourusers.
In early 2007 Globalstar introduced
theworld’ssmallestandlightestglob-
al satellite handset, the GSP-1700.
In March Globalstar introduced the
Qualcomm manufactured GSP-1720
satellitedataandvoicemodule.
globalstar network news
Globalstar is the only mobile satellite
operator launching spare satellites for
our existing network, and building
a new generation satellite constella-
tion, scheduled to begin deployment
in2009.Withthesuccessfullaunchof
eightsparesatellitesscheduledforthis
year, along with our existing satellite
network, Globalstar will continue to
provideandsupporttwo-wayvoiceand
data satellite services to our customers
through the launch of the second-gen-
eration constellation. However, there
may be significant gaps in satellite
availabilitydependingonwhereyouare
andwhenyouattempttoplaceacall.
To reward customers who stay with
Globalstar throughout the network
transition, the company also just
announcedthelaunchofitsnewairtime
rate package known as the Unlimited
Loyalty Plan. The plan is structured
inaninnovativeway:eachyearitcosts
less,startingat$49.99permonth,and
going down to $19.99 per month in
2009 and 2010. Globalstar offers its
customersthemostcosteffectivesatel-
litesolutionsintheindustry.
In short, Globalstar is planning to
make significant investments of over
$1.2 billion to the satellite network,
all designed to provide the kind of
industryleadingsatellitenetworkper-
formance you have come to expect
fromGlobalstar.
A Bright Future
In early December of 2006 Global-
star contracted with Alcatel Alenia
Space for 48 new satellites scheduled
to begin arriving in 2009. The new
satellites are backwards compatible
with today’s equipment and are being
designedtoprovidecurrentGlobalstar
customerswithsatellitevoiceanddata
servicethroughatleast2025.
Satellite Asset Tracking
One less obvious use of satellite com-
munications is the critical tracking
of emergency resources. Many public
and private agencies use Globalstar
Integrator simplex tracking devices to
manage their dispersed assets during
andafteranaturalorman-madedisas-
ter. This information not only keeps
track of valuable emergency response
assetssuchasheavyconstructionequip-
ment,butduringanemergencyitcan
also save invaluable time locating and
deployingcriticalresources.
Globalstar also recently announced
thatoneofitssimplexdataintegrators
isnowproducingacompletelywireless
asset tracking device that is also the
firstinalineofinnovativesimplexdata
products that utilize the new Axonn
STX2transmitterunit.Itisnotonly
smaller and lighter than the previous
simplexmodemsbutitisconsiderably
lessexpensivetoproduce.
Withover263,000customersinover
120countries,superiorproducts,afford-
ablepricing,andastrongcommitment
tothefuture,Globalstarcontinuestobe
the clear choice for those who demand
high-quality satellite voice and data
products and services. For more infor-
mation, go to www.globalstarusa.com
orcall877-SATPHONE.
satELLItE phonEs
:

CrItICaL CommUnICatIon tooLs
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
]2
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Humanitarian relief is
one of the most uncertain,
unpredictable, and diffi-
cult to manage activities
in the world, and it is not
getting easier.
Naturaldisastersandcomplexhuman-
itarian emergencies are more frequent
and–lately–moresevere.
return on investment:
an operational multiplier
While humanitarian managers do
not measure investments in terms of
financial return, they always require
performance and effectiveness in the
field. Increasingly, relief organizations
recognize that satellite communica-
tionsarenotanoptionalenhancement,
but a reliable and affordable enabling
capability that makes the difference
betweenrapidoperationaleffectiveness
and“toolittle,toolate.”
Reliable communications should be
seen as an “operational multiplier.” If
deployedteamsdonotknowwhereto
go, what assistance is needed, or what
suppliestoorder,theycannotdotheir
job–theyarenoteffective.Everyhour
ofdelayandeverymissedcommunica-
tioncanresultinlostopportunitiesto
helptheafflictedpopulation.
When the first assessment team
arrives at a disaster scene, they begin
immediatelytoplanandcommunicate
how to meet urgent requirements.
They send for specialized personnel to
handle the complex planning of food,
water, shelter, logistics, medical care,
and security. They make sure that the
right supplies are on the way. And of
pivotal importance, they must coordi-
natetheiractionswithUnitedNations
and government agencies, other relief
organizations, and their own regional
and national headquarters. If they can-
not coordinate their actions, they may
actually worsen, rather than improve
thesituation.Inmanycases,reliefteams
could put themselves at risk, in the
absenceofcurrentsecurityinformation.
In the Aceh region of Indonesia fol-
lowing the 2004 tsunami, many relief
teamsandmanagershadtodrivemany
milesfromcoastalvillagesforfrequent
meetings with UN and government
authorities, to hold organizational
meetings, and to check email. With
mobile satellite communications and
Internetaccess,theseteamscouldsave
countlesstravelhoursandusethetime
forproductiveon-sceneassistance.
A recent Java Lava exercise con-
ductedbytheAdventistDevelopment
and Relief Agency (ADRA) in West
Java, Indonesia, demonstrated the tre-
mendous benefit of having mobile
satellite communications that enabled
around-the-clock online communica-
tions. “Having the luxury of Internet
access” from the moment of arrival is
a ‘huge advantage’ in delivering relief
and helping the communities in dis-
tress,” noted Chris Jensen, an ADRA
coordinatorfromAustralia.
It is not difficult to place a value
on the time and resources spent inef-
ficiently. A shipment worth $10,000
that is sitting in a warehouse near an
satELLItE CommUnICatIons
:

An ESSEnTIAl Tool FoR EMERGEnCy RESPonDERS
 by   GREGG  SwAnSOn
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
]3
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

airportiswastedifalogisticscoordina-
tor is unable to locate it, dispatch the
shipment to the right field team, and
informthatteamthatitisontheway.
Anotherexampleisateammeetingof
reliefworkersoperatinginadispersed
rural zone. If each of 10 personnel
travels by vehicle two hours to the
meeting location, each way, the total
timeexpendedintravel(oftenproneto
delaysorrisk)is40hours.Usingacon-
servativecompensationrateof$25per
hour,thecostofthemeetingis$1000,
not counting fuel, the cost of drivers,
and – significantly – the opportunity
costofthe40hoursoftravel.
Byusingresource-efficientandeasy-
to-use mobile satellite systems, such
as Broadband Global Area Network
(BGAN), e-mail exchanges, document
transfers, instant messaging, or video
conferencingcanalmostalwaysaccom-
plish the same objectives, at far less
cost. In exercise Java Lava, ADRA
teams utilized a Hughes 9201 BGAN
providedbyTelenorSatelliteServices.
Theseexamplesdemonstratethatthe
cost of being connected is very low,
compared to the cost, inefficiencies,
and missed opportunities that poor
communications cause. The cost of
BGAN satellite terminals range from
$1,500 to $3,900 and can be used by
largeteams(asinJavaLava)orindivid-
uals.Serviceproviders,suchasTelenor
Satellite Services, offer monthly usage
plans to accommodate a variety of
organizational needs, starting for as
little as $39.00 for BGAN service.
The cost of usage can be managed in
a variety of ways. Using the Standard
IP connection, e-mails can be sent
and received for a few cents each, and
text-based Web sites can be accessed
at very low cost, enabling relief teams
to get status reports, security noti-
fications, and other mission-critical
information.
Connectivity from Day One
Today’s notebook-sized mobile satel-
lite communications terminals permit
everyonetoexperiencetheadvantageof
“Day One” connectivity including the
Internet,remoteaccesstoofficeWANs
and LANs and telephony. Satellite
communications provide the critical
link necessary to manage operations
in a hectic and unpredictable relief
environment.Everythingthatmustbe
managed–fromlogisticscoordination,
transportation, security and worker
safetytoperiodicreporting,download-
ing digital maps and even submitting
grant proposals to potential donors
–dependsonreliablesatellitecommu-
nicationinthefield.
Staying in touch –
essential in crises
While mission effectiveness is impor-
tant, the welfare of deployed teams
is essential in difficult and high-risk
crisis zones. Every relief manager and
worker knows how vital it is to know
about security warnings, bridges out,
reports of disease and injury, the loca-
tion of arriving and departing teams,
and other critical information. As we
know from television reports from
Darfur, Afghanistan, and other chal-
lenging regions, the lives of both
victims and responders are too often
ontheline.
These teams benefit tremendously
from the ability to stay in touch with
family, friends, and colleagues. Even
brief e-mails at the end of the day,
assuringfamilymembersthattheyare
well,orhearingfromlovedones,isan
enormous boost to morale. Sometimes
weeks can go by without word from
deployed responders and that is not
good for the workers’ morale or for
the loved ones back home. Satellite
communications enable phone calls
and messages on a more regular basis.
One humanitarian worker recently
commented to his parents about the
satellite communications available for
useathisremotelocationintheMid-
dle East; “I really appreciate having
the ability to call home and talk with
myfamilytocatchuponallthenews
from home and to let them know I’m
all right.” This worker was using an
Iridium satellite phone that retails for
around $1300 with airtime service at
aboutonedollaraminute.
Steve Glassey, the CEO of EMANZ,
who participated in the Java Lava
exercise, commented; “Having used
everything from morse code to satel-
lite,thelatestsatellitetechnology,such
as BGAN revolutionizes disaster and
emergencyresponsewiththepowerto
immediately coordinate information
fromanywhereintheworld.”
AbOut thE AuthOR
Gregg  Swanson  is  the  Executive  Director  of 
humaninet,  a  u.S.  based  nonprofit  organiza-
tion  that  assists  humanitarian  and  mission 
teams  with  information  and  communica-
tions  technology.  For  more  information  go  to 
www.humaninet.org.
telenor  Satellite  Services  provided  the  bGAn 
and  Iridium  equipment  and  service  for 
exercise  Java  Lava  and  support  numerous 
humanitarian  teams  worldwide.  Satellite  ser-
vice providers, such as telenor, offer a virtual 
“one-stop-shop”  for  mobile  satellite  commu-
nications including equipment, global service, 
training, and around-the-clock support.
For  more  information  on  satellite  equip-
ment  and  services  contact  telenor 
Satellite  Services  at  (301)  838-7700  or  at 
customer.care@telenor.com.
Scenario: local Business Office
COOp communications
Situation: Power is out, infrastructure is 
damaged,  normal  communications  are 
unavailable.
Solution:  Satellite  terminal:  hughes 
9201  bGAn  --  $2,200  (will  simultane-
ously  accommodate  10-11  users  and  1 
telephony caller.)
Basic User Plans:  there  are  a  wide 
variety of user plans that start as low as 
$69  a  month  for  a  12-month  plan  that 
includes  10Mb  of  service  per  month 
that  roll-over  to  the  next  month.  Addi-
tional  Mbs  of  service  range  in  costs 
from  $3.10  to  $6.90  depending  on  the 
plan  your  organization  selects.  basic 
telephony (voice) calling costs less than 
a  dollar  a  minute.  note:  One  Mb  is 
approximately  equal  to  11-12  pages  of 
word document text.
Applications: All  required  communica-
tions  to  maintain  daily  office  functions 
including:  e-mail,  voice,  fax,  Internet, 
file transfers, video, video conferencing, 
and more. 
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
]4
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

]5
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

In private enterprise,
civilian government, and
non-governmental orga-
nizations (nGos) there
is an ever-increasing
awareness of the need
for ready availability of
back-up communications
systems which will have a
key role in guaranteeing
the continuity of day-to-
day business functions
at times of terrestrial
network outage.
Business Continuity (BC) planning
makes good financial sense in terms
of: protection against loss of revenue;
inspiring confidence in stakeholders;
and,providingforstaffsecurity.Incer-
taincontextsBCplanningmayalsobe
a legal requirement, or a prerequisite
tosecuringinsurancecoverage.
Emergency planners with respon-
sibility for BC preparedness know
the significance of the independence
from terrestrial infrastructures of
satellite-based communications solu-
tions. So widely has this realization
spread throughout the BC planning
community, and so much has the
level of demand for satellite solutions
grown, that satellite service providers
have increasingly geared themselves
towardstacklingthedetailedtechnical
specificsandoperationalrequirements
ofthisexpandinggroupofcurrentand
potentialcustomers.
BC planning customers are better
informed than in the past as to the
capabilities of satellite-based continu-
itysolutions.Therehasevolvedaclear
appreciation in the BC community
thatsuchsolutionsarethemselvesakin
toaninsurancepolicy,whereinfunding
for a back-up communications infra-
structureisadiscreetbudgetlineitem
even though these redundant systems
may never be used. It is important to
recognize that it is technical advances
by the provider community that have
been a significant driver of improved
sales of satellite-based solutions into
theBCarena.
Yet,eventhoughsuchback-upcom-
munications infrastructures may never
be called upon (unlikely), when they
are required, when terrestrial commu-
nication network failure does occur or
someformofdisasterstrikes,actionto
implementthealternative,reliablesat-
ellitesolutionmaybeimmediate,thus
minimizing business disruption and
financialloss.Whilstthisfactorfurther
offsets any BC planning community
sensitivities about financial outlay for
something which may never be used,
the satellite service community has
aided the process of overcoming such
budget-related concerns by develop-
ingattractiveservicepaymentoptions,
together with minimizing costs dur-
ing times of non-use which are then
off-set with higher service charges
when the satellite-based system is in
actualusage.
AstheBCcommunityhasincreasing-
ly planned for leveraging the satellite
solution,resultingfromacombination
of better information and understand-
ing, from technical fine-tuning, and
thegreaterawarenessoftheneedtobe
prepared following 9/11 and Katrina,
etc.,thesizeoftheBCmarketforthe
“always-on”networkredundancycapa-
bilityofbothfixedsatelliteandmobile
satellite solutions has grown. To some
extent this growth has occurred as a
result of the purchasers of BC solu-
tions having become more aware of
the existence of off-the-shelf BC solu-
tions–oftenatconsiderablylowercost
thancustomizedsolutions.Inaddition,
thE rEtUrn on InVEstmEnt
:

SATEllITE CoMMUnICATIonS – VITAl RESoURCE
FoR BUSInESS SUCCESS
 by   MARtI n  JARROLD
continued on page 16
]6
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

the satellite industry has successfully
mitigatedBCplanners’concernsabout
satellite system interoperability with
terrestrial networks, opportunities for
expansionofbandwidthprovision,and
improved performance for virtual pri-
vatenetwork(VPN)access.
Despite the rise of the Internet, the
number one method of conducting
business transactions is the telephone,
and some business analysts estimate
thatasmuchas80percentofallbusi-
ness-type transactions still involve use
ofthephone.Therefore,mostorganiza-
tions continue to rely on the standard
telephone system for the bulk of their
communications needs, and are thus
reliant on either copper wire or fiber
opticcablefortheconnectionbetween
their premises and the telephone car-
riers’ central office. This “last mile”
can either be above ground or under-
ground. We have all seen pictures of
poles and trees uprooted after a hur-
ricane or tornado. When this happens
that last mile of connectivity between
thebusinessanditstelephoneprovider,
Internetprovider,orapplicationservice
providerareabruptlydisconnectedand
electrical power is lost. Underground
cables are not entirely safe from dis-
ruption of service either. Many times
duetofloodingand/orpowerlossthese
underground services are disrupted as
well. In the case of cell phone provid-
ers, when the cell towers receive your
cell phone’s call, they route it to a
localcentraloffice.Thesetowersorthe
equipment inside of them can also be
damagedordestroyedaswellasthelast
mile circuits which connect those cell
towerstothelocaltelephonenetwork.
So cell phone service is as tenuous as
the regular telephone service when a
disasterstrikes.
Power supplies are also susceptible
to interruption. Central offices and
cellphonesitesusuallyhavetheirown
power sources in the form of batteries
and emergency generators, and if the
disaster/eventislimitedtoafewhours
orafewdaystheywillnormallyremain
fullyoperational.However,whenpower
isinterruptedforseveraldaysorseveral
weeks and refueling trucks are unable
to get through to central offices and
celltowers,serviceswillgooff-line.
The satellite, or very small aperture
terminal (VSAT), mitigation solution
issuitableforsmall,mediumandlarge
organizations.Suchsolutionscanrange
fromofferinglesscostlybasicInternet
access services for smaller organiza-
tions, to more costly enterprise grade
servicesforlargerorganizations.
Very much like residential DSL, the
more economical VSAT-based services
can cost around $300 for equipment
and around $100 per month, offering
Internet, voice over Internet Protocol
(VoIP) and virtual private network
(VPN)accessatdataratesof200Kbps
on the uplink and 1.5 Mbps on the
downlink. More sophisticated satellite
services will cost more, but will pro-
vide quality of service and committed
informationratesaspartoftheservice,
and offering up to 150 phone lines,
broadband Internet, as well as high
speeddatacommunicationsandsecure
(encrypted)communications.
AbOut thE AuthOR
Martin  Jarrold  is  Chief,  International  Pro-
gram  Development,  the  Global  VSAt  Forum. 
martin.jarrold@gvf.org
radio provides reliable
]7
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

The State of California
office of Emergency Ser-
vices (oES) was looking
for a modern commu-
nications network for
emergency response.
The goal of the OES network was to
assist various civil agencies (Highway
Patrol, Fire Departments, Department
of Transportation, Relief Agencies,
Policeandvariousotherlawenforcement
agencies)incaseofcrises.Californiais
pronetovariouscrisesofnaturalorigin
e.g.earthquake,landslides,flashflood-
ing, contamination due to hazardous
materials and forest fires. In addition,
emergenciesduetoterrorismarealways
athreatthesedays.
The task is more challenging since
the state terrain ranges from High
Sierra Mountains, rugged coasts, des-
ertsinsouthernCalifornia,andvarious
regionswithdenseforestation.
Traditional terrestrial systems often
failincaseoftheemergenciesdescribed
above.Itwasclearthatasatellitebased
solution was the only alternative for
providingthefirstresponderswiththe
following:
a)Quickdeploymentofsystematthe
sitesofincident
b)Restorationofcommunication
(voice,dataandvideo)anywherein
thestate
c)Interoperabilitywiththeexisting
Infra-structure
d)Easyinstallation,operationand
maintainance
e)Becostcompetitive
Kromos-Anacom Solution
The Kromos-Anacom network was
chosen for this network. This solution
waspickedbasedonitsflexibility,scal-
ability,bandwidthefficiency,advanced
VoIPandsophisticatedNetworkMan-
agement System (NMS) in addition
to meeting the basic requirements
mentioned above. The OES network
consistsofthefollowing:
1. The Hub: The Hub is deployed at
the OES Headquarters. The network
is designed with future expansion in
mind. There is a Redundant Hub
installed at a separate location. This
Redundant Hub will assume the role
oftheprimaryHubincasetheprimary
statE oF CaLIFornIa EmErGEnCy
rEsponsE nEtwork – A CASE STUDy
 by   DR.   S.   RAM  ChAnDRAn
continued on page 18
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
]8
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Hub either fails or is rendered inef-
fective due to an act of terrorism, etc.
This is done to ensure uninterrupted
operation of the network in case of an
emergency. The Kromos Hub is the only
solution in the industry that does not require
the redundant Hub to be connected to the
primary Hub using a terrestrial link.
TheHubalsohasanNMSplatform,
a VoIP Gateway, IP PBX and connec-
tion to the phone company (PSTN)
through a T1 line. This PSTN con-
nectivity allows the OES personnel to
calloutsidenumbersthroughtheHub.
TheIPPBXattheHubhandlesallcall
forwarding/routing etc. In addition,
there are 24 VoIP lines provided at
theheadquarterstoback-upthePOTS
(Plain Old Telephone System) lines
in case of emergency. The Hub uses a
highpowerAnacomTransceiveranda
largedish.Thefacilityalsohasgenera-
torsforback-uppower.
2. Fixed Earth Stations: The majority
of remotes are fixed earth stations.
ThesesiteshaveaKromosSatelliteIP
Gateway,aVoIPGatewayandPCscon-
nectedusinganEthernetswitch.Some
of these sites also have a video confer-
encingfacility.Theoutdoorequipment
consists of an Anacom transceiver and
a small dish. Most of the remotes talk
toeachotherthroughtheHub(STAR
Topology). However, some of the
“high-priority” remotes are enabled to
connect each other directly in a single
hop(MeshTopology).
3. Transportable Stations:Thesestations
are typically mounted on trailers that
canbetowedusingatruckorSUVto
anysitethatrequiresimmediatevoice/
video/data connectivity. Some of these
stationsarealsovehiclemounted.Each
transportable consists of a Kromos
Satellite IP Gateway, a VoIP Gateway,
anIPvideocamera,anAnacomTrans-
ceiver and a satellite dish. Some of
these stations are equipped with auto-
acquireantennasthatcanbepointedto
thesatelliteaccuratelywithoutmanual
adjustmentforquickdeployment.
The basic network is configured to
usesatellitebandwidth(apreciouscom-
modity) only when needed. A handful
ofthehighprioritylocationshavebeen
assigneddedicatedlinksforcontinuous
disseminationofinformation.
Thenetworkconsistsofabout100+
nodes and most nodes have 8+ VoIP
lines.Someofthelocationshavemore
VoIPlines.Theentirenetworkhasclose
to 1000 VoIP lines being managed
androutedbytheKromosSoftswitch
at the Hub. The entire network is
being managed using Kromos NMS,
Web,etc.fromtheHublocation.The
network administrator also has the
ability to manage the network from
any other location with connectivity
tothenetwork.
Thissystemconfigurationisdepicted
inadiagramabove.
In a number of recent emergencies
involvingcatastrophicfires,landslides,
flooding, etc., the OES network has
been able to respond faster and more
reliably with fewer personnel using
this network. Moreover, some of the
OES trailers were even loaned out to
other national emergencies for provid-
inginstantcommunications.
AbOut thE AuthOR
Dr.  S.  Ram  Chandran  is  Vice  President  of 
Anacom,  Inc.,  located  in  Santa  Clara,  CA. 
For  more  information  he  can  be  contacted  at 
ram@anacominc.com or at www.anacominc.com.
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
20
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Tommy Rainey (TR): Business Continuity
planners must be cost conscious in their
BC plans. Are satellite strategies realistic
for any but the largest companies?
Stefan Jucken (SJ): Absolutely! The
cost of the hardware for use in satel-
litenetworkshasbeendrivendownto
approximately 10% of its price about
10 years ago. Therefore the amortized
cost on a monthly basis has dropped
significantly. In addition, while it has
not dropped as much, there has been
a reduction in satellite bandwidth
charges.
Another issue is whether the satel-
lite network will be used only as a
backup in the event of a terrestrial
interruption.This‘backuponly’strat-
egymeanstheentireexpensewouldbe
allocatedtotheDRplanandthesatel-
lite equipment would sit idle, apart
fromannualtesting.
However, the best way a BC or DR
planner can justify the use of satel-
lites in their plans would be to use a
satellite network for other company
operations, therefore sharing the cost
betweendepartments.
TR: What is a hybrid network and how
does it work?
SJ: A hybrid network is most com-
monly understood as an overlay of a
satellite network layer and a terres-
trial network layer. See Figure 1 for
a graphical description of a hybrid
network and its design for both nor-
malanddisasteroperations.Terrestrial
networks (e.g. fiber networks) provide
normally large capacity and help to
movelargeamountsofdata.Theymost
often are the primary network solu-
tion. Satellite networks complement
theprimarysolutionbyprovidingback
upcapabilitiesandmakingthehybrid
solution “fail safe”. They extend the
network into remote areas (where ter-
restrial networks are unavailable), are
rapid to deploy and provide instan-
taneous communications. The bulk
traffic is carried by the primary net-
work(terrestrial).Thesatelliteportion
isdesignedtokeepthemostimportant
customerapplicationsaliveinafailure
situation.Thatbandwidthisusedina
non-failure situation to allow the cus-
tomer to either run peak traffic or use
applicationswhichhecouldnotbefore
(corporate training /distance learning,
video conferencing). There would be
cost savings in using the satellite for
these applications by not requiring
greaterterrestrialcapacity.
TR: What kind of costs are we looking at
here?
SJ: Its always difficult to give cost
estimates. Cost is a function of many
parametersandofthecompany’sother
decisions,forinstancethelengthofthe
commitment term with the satellite
provider and therefore the monthly
amortization costs of the equipment
andbandwidth.
However,costsinasmallertomedi-
um network could be as low as a few
hundred dollars per month for the
Can BC pLannErs JUstIFy thE
ExpEnsE oF satELLItEs?
A HyBRID nETWoRK CAn BE CHEAPER THAn yoU THInK!
 An  I ntERVI Ew  wI th  StEFAn  J uCkEn
 by   tOMMy   RAI nEy
Figure 1
2]
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

hardware at each location, and less
than $2,000 per month for a typical
node’saveragebandwidthrequirement.
Advanced satellite technologies fur-
thermoreallowwhatwecall“Adaptive
Networking”: Bandwidth can be
efficiently shared and assigned fully
dynamically and automatically to the
node or application in need of band-
width.
TR: I’ve heard the delay associated with
using satellites (latency) can be a prob-
lem with certain applications.
SJ: This can be an issue and would
be part of the process of designing a
hybrid network. Certain applications,
where there are significant quantities
ofdatarequiringalotof‘handshaking’,
maybeachallenge.However,thereare
a number of Protocol Enhancement
solutionswhichaddressthisissue,and
with compression technology always
improving, the satellite option is very
viable.
TR: In order to monitor the network and
allocate bandwidth in a disaster scenario,
will this require operator intervention?
SJ: For most hybrid networks, this
operationwouldbeautomaticwithout
an operator’s involvement. In an IP
environment,oneexampleistousethe
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) pro-
tocol to implement such a rerouting.
Normallythe“shortestpath”isonthe
terrestrialside.Ifnotavailable,thesec-
ondshortestortheonlyotheravailable
path is the satellite path. Again the
requirementforan“advanced”satellite
systemistoprovidethebandwidthon
demandautomaticallyandassignitto
theaffectednode.
Whenthesatellitebandwidthisused
during this rerouting, the “on top
applications” (tele-education, video
conferencing,etc.)cannotbeusedsince
the bandwidth is used for the com-
pany’s primary applications. This is
immediateafterasitegetsaffected.In
generalthesolutionmustbesoflexible
andscalablethatthebandwidthcanbe
adjustedandthatthesatellitesolution
canthenactastheprimarysolutionfor
mostvitalapplications.
TR: What about the training required for
someone to run a hybrid network?
SJ: There are different scenarios possi-
ble. As mentioned above, the solution
should be smart enough to recognize
the failure and to reroute the traffic
through the satellite portion, assign
the bandwidth to the affected node
automatically, etc. In a second step,
if the pre-designed satellite capacity/
bandwidthisnotsufficientinthelong
run, the satellite network can be re-
adjustedtocompensateforthat.Ifthe
customer operates their own network,
then they will be trained and can do
itthemselves.Inaserviceoffering,the
serviceprovidertakescareofallthat.
If a fixed site has to be backed-up
by a mobile satellite terminal, it is
essentialtotakethetechnologyburden
awayfromtheoperatorsandautomate
and simplify the operation of a high-
techsatelliteterminal,sothatanybody
can deploy it with minimal training.
Userscanfocusontheirjobsandmis-
sionandnoton“complicated”satellite
technology.Thisiswhatyoumayhear
allthetime—thatuseofsatellitetech-
nologyisexpensive,sincenormallyyou
needspecificallytrainedsatelliteengi-
neerstoinstallandoperateaterminal.
Withnewertechnologies,itispossible
for dish alignment and other setup
operations to be handled by software,
eliminatingtheneedforhighlytrained
satellitetechnician.
TR: Satellites themselves are subject to
breakdown. What happens if the actual
satellite develops a problem?
SJ: Thisisadisasterinitself.Satellite
operators normally have backup satel-
liteswhichcanbeused.Theyalsohave
2 types of capacity which they sell:
premium (non preemptable) and non-
premium(preemptable).Asacustomer
with preemptable space segment, you
can lose your assigned bandwidth
because it is needed by the satellite
operator for other customers, who pay
forthepremiumspacesegment.
If the operator loses a part of a spe-
cific satellite, then customers can be
reassigned to different transponders
on the same satellite. This does not
require re-pointing of the customer
antennas. But if the operator loses a
complete satellite, all customers need
to be reassigned to the backup satel-
liteandallantennaswouldneedtobe
realigned.
Fortunatelythathappensveryrarely.
AbOut thE AuthOR
tommy  Rainey,  Publisher  of  the  Disaster 
Resource  GuIDE,  interviewed  Stefan  Juck-
en  for  this  article.  Mr.  Jucken  obtained  a 
master´s  degree  in  electrical  engineering 
from the university in Saarbruecken, Germany 
in  1991.  he  has  15  years  of  experience  in  the 
satellite  communication  field  and  worked  in 
various positions in this industry ranging from 
development  &  systems  design  to  executive 
management.  Currently  he  is  responsible  for 
the Americas region for nD SatCom as the VP 
of business Development & Marketing. he can 
be reached at Stefan.Jucken@nDSatcom.com. 
p
h
o
t
o

C
o
u
r
t
e
s
y

o
f

n
D

S
a
t
c
o
m
Crisis Communication
*
E
f
f
e
c
t
iv
e
R
e
li
a
b
l
e
*
*
I
m
m
e
d
i ate
S
e
c
u
r
e
*
// Regional Sales Offices // Abu Dhabi/Beijing/Dubai/Denver/ Istanbul/Johannesburg/ Mexico City / Miami / Moscow / New Delhi /Singapore /Washington D.C. //
// ND SatCom, Inc. // 3801 E. Plano Parkway / Suite 200 / Plano / Texas 75074 / USA // Phone +12142313400 // www.ndsatcom.com //
// ND SatCom GmbH // P.O. Box / 88039 Friedrichshafen / Germany // Phone +4975459390 // info@ndsatcom.com / www.ndsatcom.com //
Advanced satellite-based Disaster Management &
Business Continuity Solutions
When disaster strikes, communications are at risk. Customers
in over 130 countries worldwide rely on ND SatCom to provide
an effective, robust and reliable communication infrastructure
via satellite.
ND SatCom’ systems are engineered to function under extreme
network conditions. Our solutions keep you in business and help
to maintain and restore your services – anytime, anywhere!
// Stay Connected –
Anytime, Anywhere //
Key Topics:
/ Quick deployable Fly-Away terminals
/ Truck/ SUV based Mobile Command Units
/ Broadband connectivity for “always-on”
communications
/ Support of business, mobile VSAT and
SNG applications
/ Seamless integration into existing networks
/ Interoperability between ESFs
/ Simultaneous Reachback capabilities to
multiple EOCs
/ Enable media rich Situational Awareness
Applications
/ Automatic Back-up path
/ Easy to operate by non-technical users
// Let us help you to be prepared!
www.ndsatcom.com //
23
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

When disaster strikes, access to reliable commu-
nications is crucial to the efforts of disaster relief
operations where quick response translates into
lives saved.
For those times when the terrestrial communi-
cations infrastructure is damaged, destroyed or
overloaded, satellite communications can provide a
communications lifeline for people on the front lines
of public safety and emergency preparedness.
now there is a new tool to help this crucial first
responder community integrate satellite into their
communications plans. The First Responder’s Guide
to Satellite Communications is a comprehensive
overview and tutorial of satellite technology and
its role in response to natural or man-made
disasters.
produced by the Satellite Industry Association
(SIA), the leading voice of the U.S. satellite com-
munications industry, and Access intelligence,
publisher of Via Satellite magazine and organizer of
Satellite 2007, the publication is available for free
as a public service of the industry,
Contents include:
• An overview of satellite communications
capabilities
• Video, voice and data applications
• Equipment requirements and easy to follow
steps for connecting with satellite through various
types of terminals.
• glossary of terms, definitions and frequencies
This guide is a must-read for first responders,
state or federal emergency communications offi-
cials, and policy makers. For a pDF version of the
SIA First Responder’s Guide to Satellite Communi-
cations, go to http://www.sia.org/frg_files. Or to
request a free hard copy, please send an email to
info@sia.org titled “SiA First responder guide” and
include your full name, mailing address, telephone
number and number of copies.
gVF, the global VSAT Forum, has world-
wide representation at the following
contact emails. if you are interested
in resources in any of the following
regions, email for information.
GVF WORlDWIDE HEADqUARTERS
david.hartshorn@gvf.org
REGIOnAl REpRESEnTATIOn
Africa (West)
gadanusa@ghana.com
South Africa
daniellgr@telkomsa.net
Arab Region
my@mesat.com
Brazil
cristovam@unisat.com.br
Canada
jfeneley@allstream.net
China pR
rita@chinasatellite.org
India
Bbhalla@luthra.com
Indonesia
Arf_nugroho@yahoo.com
Iran
chairman@isp.ir
Mexico
ewallsten@prodigy.net.mx
Russia
nasc@rscc.ru
Southeast Asia
charlieransford@yahoo.com
Southern Cone
henochaguiar@yahoo.com
Spain
jesena@rose.es
Turkey
sozkol@epsilonacademy.com
nEW FREE RESoURCE FoR FIRST RESPonDERS
R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E
S
24
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

satELLItE-BasED BUsInEss
ContInUIty & DIsastEr rECoVEry
soLUtIons Go maInstrEam
 by   bRI An  SkI MMOnS
Satellite communications
have historically played a
central role in helping first
responders bring relief
and needed services to
areas affected by natural
and man-made disasters.
Rapidly deployable and easily scalable
systems demonstrated the value of
both fixed and mobile satellite com-
municationsduringsuchrecentnatural
disastersastheIndianOceantsunamis
and the US Gulf Coast Hurricanes.
Satellites connected emergency per-
sonnel and infrastructure to reconnect
businesses and entire communities.
Live satellite broadcasts enabled the
world to see first-hand the regional
devastationwroughtbythesedisasters
aswellastheimpactandvulnerability
to distributed organizations and busi-
ness which have outsourced portions
oftheirsupplylineintosomeofthese
disasterproneregions.
Whiletheroleofsatellitessupporting
large scale disasters is unquestioned,
somenetworkmanagersstillviewsat-
ellite as having too many limitations
to move beyond this role. Thankfully,
these perceptions are now changing.
Readers may be surprised to learn
that corporate enterprise and govern-
ment organizations around the world
are increasingly relying on satellite
communications to maintain more of
their day-to-day operations. Greater
protection is needed not only to safe-
guard against disasters but also the
more frequent network disruptions
and short-term outages that are the
mainsourceofnetworkdowntime,loss
of revenue and productivity. Today’s
advancedsatellitesolutionsaregaining
greater acceptance as a cost effective
alternate transmission path that can
sometimespayforitselfbyminimizing
theimpactofasingleoutage.
There are three main reasons why
satelliteisnowbeginningtomoveinto
the mainstream for integrated, global
networking solutions. The first is
the greatly improved performance
of satellite IP solutions. Satellite
operatorsandhardwareprovidershave
integrated advanced IP networking
functionality and capability into their
products enabling satellite network
userstoenjoya“nearterrestrial”expe-
rience for LAN/ WAN applications
or Internet access. Advances in TCP
acceleration have virtually eliminated
theeffectsofsatellitelatency,whichis
the¼seconddelayresultingfromthe
signal traveling from the earth’s sur-
faceuptothesatelliteandback.These
advanceshaveenabledsatellitelinksto
be more inter-changeable, capable of
carryingreal-timeapplicationssuchas
voiceoverIP(VoIP).
The second driver has been the
commitment to improving qual-
ity of service (QoS) and network
management. Improved network
managementtoolsprovidegreatervis-
ibilityandcontrolbyacustomerwhile
leveraging third-party satellite links.
Onceadisasterstrikes,itistoolatefor
customers to learn that their satellite
bandwidth is oversubscribed and the
connectivity they need is unavailable.
Maintaining network integrity and
control is paramount for all network
operators and Loral Skynet has been
a leader in developing QoS standards
that provide back-to-back traceability
via service level agreements (SLAs)
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
25
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

thatguaranteeperformancewithpen-
alties and ensure seamless network
management and a “terrestrial-like”
user experience. These SLAs, which
assure high levels of security and
availability,haveproventobethepre-
requisite for business to realistically
considersatelliteasaviableoptionto
meet either full-time or back up net-
working needs. The five QoS metrics
are: availability, throughput, latency,
packetloss,andjitter.
The third driver in the growth of
satellite IP services is reduced cost
– both for equipment and bandwidth.
Commercialsatelliteequipmentcharg-
es can be as low as $3,000 per site
installed.LoralSkynetoffersbothfixed
as well as usage pricing models that
allow customers to pay only for what
bandwidth they use. Satellite trans-
mission costs will vary depending on
unique network design requirements
andSLAperformancemetricsspecified
by the end customer. Monthly main-
tenance fees range between $200 and
$400permonthpersitefordedicated
bandwidth with committed informa-
tionrates(CIR).
loral Skynet and Business
Continuity
Loral Skynet owns and operates a
global fleet of satellites that serve
video broadcasters, telco and govern-
mentcustomersaroundtheworld.We
recentlyprovidedsatellitecapacityand
support in response to major telecom
outages in Asia and North Ameri-
ca that included the Indian Ocean
Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and the
Taiwaneseearthquakeinlate2006.
Skynet works closely with our
global customers and partners who
includeGlobal Crossing, PCCW, and
Telekom Austriatoleveragethevalue
of satellite and deliver highly secure
and reliable global networks with
unprecedentedlevelsofavailability.
A typical customer application for
Skynetandourterrestrialpartnershas
been WAN extension. By leveraging
satellite’s ability to complement and
extend existing terrestrial infrastruc-
ture, Skynet and our carrier partners
have enjoyed some major wins. Two
distinct service offerings focus on
“business continuity and disaster
recovery” or BC/DR, which serve as
an insurance policy for any network
drivenorganizationorbusiness.
Skynet provides a suite of satellite-
based, IP optimized inter-networking
solutionsunderthenameSkyReach
sm

which leverages core competencies in
satellite communications with more
nimble and dynamic service applica-
tionssuchasBC/DRapplications.
Skyreach Ensure – Is a seamless
“alwayson”businesscontinuityservice
with automatic failover of customer
networkstoSkynet’sintegratedglobal
satellitenetwork.Downtimemeasured
inseconds.
Skyreach SAVEr – Emergency res-
toration of critical customer networks
following an outage. Downtime mea-
suredinhours.
loral Skynet Skyreach Successes
In early 2007, Skynet was awarded a
major contract for an implementation
ofSkyReachEnsureinEurope–oneof
the largest such awards in the satellite
industry. Our customer informed us
that Skynet offered a number of key
advantagesthatallowedustocapture
thisbusiness,including:
• Satellite bandwidth is guaranteed
–thisisnotasharedservice
• Reservation fees are modest, and the
customer pays only for the bandwidth
theyuse(Mbps)
•Truepathdiversity–iftheterrestrial
network fails, satellite service remains
operational
• Continuance of “terrestrial-like” feel
in network security, management and
performance allowing for true seamless
operations
• High levels of assurance against loss
of revenue with SLAs and performance
assurances
•QualityofService(QoS)standardsthat
guarantee delivery of traffic and enable
prioritizationwithinmulti-medialinks.
Working with loral Skynet Can
give you Competitive Advantages
Whether you are a corporate or gov-
ernmentcustomerseekingthehighest
levelsofoperationalreliabilityforyour
network, or a telecom company seek-
ing to align yourself with a leading
satelliteoperator,weinviteyoutocon-
tact Loral Skynet to explore ways we
canhelpyouachieveyourobjectives.
Thefactsare:
• There is growing demand for satel-
lite IP solutions around the world
–demandwhichisdrivenbysatellite’s
improved performance, cost effective-
ness and seamless integration with
terrestrialnetworks
• IT decision-makers are increasingly
looking to satellite communications
asameansofmaintainingtheiropera-
tionsinthefaceofroutine,day-to-day
network outages – outages that can
cause downtown, loss of revenue and
productivity.
•LoralSkynet’sBC/DRservices–Sky-
Reach Ensure and SAVER – offer the
combinationofperformance,valueand
flexibilitythatcustomersrequire.
• Skynet’s BC/DR services are highly
flexible and can be adapted to your
operatingenvironmentandtheoverall
reliabilityofyourexistingnetwork.
Skynet is pleased to be a recognized
leader in the world of global IP-over-
satellitenetworking.OurnewBC/DR
services – Ensure & SAVER – are
already attracting widespread interest
among customers and potential busi-
nesspartners.
We invite you to contact Skynet
and learn more about these exciting
new services and how they can help
improvethereliabilityofyournetwork
andmaximizeyourorganizationalper-
formance.www.loralskynet.com
AbOut thE AuthOR
brian  Skimmons  serves  as  Loral  Skynet’s 
vice  president  for  network  Services  and  the 
SkyReach
SM
  product  line  of  satellite-deliv-
ered  Internet  services  .  he  and  his  team  are 
responsible for leading and managing all busi-
ness  aspects  of  Skynet’s  global  IP  services 
solutions. brian earned bachelor’s and gradu-
ate degrees in engineering from the u.S. naval 
Academy in Annapolis, MD and the u.S. naval 
Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. 
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
26
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Previous articles in this issue have
clearly established that satellite com-
munications provide the critical path
for continuity in emergency and
disaster situations. This is because
satellite communications connect and
help move logistical, rescue and first
responder resources during natural or
man-made disasters where, very often,
terrestrialwirelessinfrastructureshave
beendestroyed.
Accesstoawirelesscommunications
network that is not dependant on ter-
restrialinfrastructureissocritical,and
the deployment of satellite commu-
nications is among the first priorities
in any emergency response, rescue, or
relief situation. It is essential for local
government emergency response and
disaster recovery planners – as well as
“on the ground” emergency workers
–tohaveareadyunderstandingofhow
theycangettheirsatelliteconnection.
Information about the nature of the
satellitesolution,howtoaccessit,and
howtooptimizeittotherequirements
of a specific organization, are critical
elements in all operational planning
practice.Toachievethisoptimization,
informationwillbeneededonhowto:
•Ascertainwhethersatellitedoes
indeedfityourapplication
•Designasatellitenetworkopti-
mizedtoyourrequirement(s)
•Developabusinessplantosustain
thenetwork
•Procureacompetitively-pricedsat-
ellitenetwork
•Deploy,maintain,operateand
–potentially–growthenetwork.
Satellites and Disaster planning
Inordertosupporttheincorporationof
these elements into operational plan-
ning, the GVF, in conjunction with
theInternationalAssociationofEmer-
gency Managers, created a “Guideline
for Inclusion of Satellite Communications
in Disaster Operational Plans.” These
factorsarelistedbelow.
EssEntIaL GUIDELInEs:
“So, HoW MUST I PlAn My SATEllITE ConnECTIon?”
& oTHER FAQS
 by   J Ohn  FEnELEy   AnD  MARtI n  JARROLD
continued on page 28
28
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

What needs to be done by the
Emergency management Sector?
Theunderlyingissueforthesatisfactory
deployment of satellite communica-
tionsfordisasterresponseandrecovery
istheavailabilityofadvance funding
capabilities in order that Emergency
Managers can make their Planning,
Preparation and Procurement pro-
cessesbothcost-effectiveandprecise.
Experiencewiththeestablishmentof
communicationsastheresultofprevi-
ous disasters has clearly demonstrated
that advance funding capabilities are
requiredfor:
•Provisioningoffirstrespondersatel-
litecommunicationsequipmentthatis
consistent with the time-frames out-
linedintheGuideline;
InITIATE PlAnnInG
1. What’s the probability that it will happen?
2. What’s the cost when it happens?
3. What does it cost to make the problem go away?
4. Who, What, When, How?
PRIoRITIzE CoMMUnICATIonS FUnCTIonS
1. Factor communications into process from the beginning
at all levels
2. Identify a representative for each function area (e.g.
access to inlets, 911, shift scheduling, IT or telecoms rep,
etc)
ASSESS CURREnT CoMMUnICATIonS CAPABIlITIES
1. Capacity of System
a. Voice, Data, Radio
b. Video/other enhanced data
2. How Robust and Redundant?
3. Identify Partner: Vendor or volunteers, EMAC, mutual aid,
or others?
a. What you get from the partnership
b. Speed of deployment
c. Interoperability
d. (Urban Area Security Initiative for 75 major cities)
e. nIMS (new private sector component)
DESIGn SolUTIon(S) To ADDRESS THoSE oBJECTIVES
A. PREPARAToRy PERIoD
1. Proactive preparation using previously developed needs
assessment and plans
2. Service Guarantees, Quality of Service –
Satellite
a. Dedicated Service
b. Shared noC/Private Service
c. Ad Hoc Service
3. Elements of service agreements
a. Budget
i. includes clarification of capabilities and options
ii. support to justify options to management 
iii. IDIQ/Open P.O. if possible
a) Emergency response agencies can’t support advance commitments 
b. Flexibility
i. how Immediate?
ii. Fixed vs. Mobile Communications
iii. Permanent vs “Insurance based” 
iv. Public/Private Partnerships
c. Traffic loading
d. Installation, Support and Maintenance
e. Training
4. Proactive deployment
a. Pre-positioning of immediate response user equipment
5. Deferred deployment
a. Transportation/implementation of equipment for
longer-term response/recovery
6. Response Period – Satellite options
a. 0-24 hours
i. handheld mobile phones
ii. briefcase/backpack terminals
iii. fly-away/transportable terminals
iv. vehicle mounted/rapid response terminals 
b. 24-48 hours
i. handheld mobile phones
ii. briefcase/backpack terminals
iii. fly-away/transportable terminals – potentially with 
terrestrial wireless canopy connectivity
iv. vehicle mounted/rapid response terminals 
c. 2-10 days
i. handheld mobile phones
ii. briefcase/backpack terminals
iii. vehicle mounted/rapid response terminals 
iv. fly-away/transportable terminals
v. fixed terminals – potentially with terrestrial wireless canopy 
connection
7. Recovery Period
a. fly-away/transportable terminals
b. fixed terminals
8. Migration back to normal
a. repair
b. replace
c. reposition
THE GUIDElInE
29
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

• Availability of satellite capacity for
disaster response and recovery com-
munications;
• Availability of first responder satel-
lite communications equipment on an
as-needed basis from locations outside
ofthedisasterarea,thatareconsistent
with the time-frames outlined in the
Guideline;
• Availability of satellite communi-
cations equipment to augment that
already existing at Emergency Opera-
tionsCentersonanas-neededbasis;
• Availability of satellite communica-
tionsequipmentforMobileEmergency
OperationsCenters;
• Familiarization and training for
emergency management personnel on
aroutinebasis.
As disasters can occur over large
geographical areas, it is essential that
thePlanning,PreparationandProcure-
mentbeundertakenbytheEmergency
Managers on a collaborative and coor-
dinated basis involving all jurisdiction
levels and by all those with disaster
response/recoveryinterests.
Only by these means can a realistic
response be made to establish satellite
communicationsthatmeetthecriteria
outlined in the Guideline, and which
includessuchfactorsas:
•Interoperability
•Scalability
•Multi-agencycoordination
Emergency Managers are therefore
urgedto(1)establishmeanswhereby
advancefundingcapabilitiesareavail-
ableand(2)coordinatetheirPlanning,
Preparation and Procurement at all
jurisdiction levels and involving all
those with disaster response/recovery
interests.
AbOut thE AuthORS
John  Feneley,  is  the  Canada  Correspondent 
for  the  GVF,  jfeneley@allstream.net  or 
(514) 684-7026.
Martin  Jarrold,  is  Chief,  International 
Programme Development, GVF. 
REFEREnCES:
Why Satellite Communications are an Essential
Tool for Emergency Management and Disaster
Recovery.  A.  Maleter,  Futron  Corporation  and 
D. hartshorn, GVF.
Interoperable Satellite Communications. An
Integral Component of Disaster Management.
Austin Comerton, Mobile Satellite Ventures.
FAQ1: SATEllITES & THE InTERnET
Can satellite really offer Internet access?
Yes. Satellite brings high capacity, global coverage & speed. Internet/intranet
backbone connectivity is available at 45 Mbps or even higher. Multicasting is
achievableat3Mbps.InternettotheconsumeratDSLcomparablespeeds.
Does satellite support all applications?
Yes.Asatellitenetworkcanbedesignedtosupportallvoice,data,video,email
andfaxservices.
Isn’t satellite delay problematic?
Yes.“Latency”or“propagationdelay”canbeaproblem.Thisisaddressedwith
readily available techniques to minimize the problem in most applications.
Contentcachingandspoofingaretwosuchtechniques.
FAQ2: ToTAl nETWoRK SolUTIonS
Can satellites provide a total solution?
Yes.SatellitesaretheperfectplatformforWideAreaNetworks.Theyareinde-
pendentofdistance,geographyandlocation,andtheyofferveryhighlevelsof
network“up-time”.
Can I easily expand my network?
Yes. New sites can be added to existing networks very quickly and cost-effec-
tively.
FAQ3: CoSTS & BEnEFITS
How can satellite help my business?
In several ways, including unrivalled cost-effectiveness in point-to-multipoint
applications,extendingcorporatenetworksseamlesslytohard-to-reachlocations,
uniformityofservicecapabilityandquality,occasionaluseservicesfordisaster
recovery or business continuity with complete independence from wired/fiber
facilities,fastservicedeployments,andQualityofServiceguarantees.
How can I evaluate the costs & benefits?
Satellite networking can provide significant return-on-investment (ROI) for
extendingyourcorporatenetworktoremotelocationsorfordeliveringallforms
of digital content. Additionally, ROI savings is achieved from uniformity of
service,lowernetworkmanagementcosts,servicescalability,highservicereli-
abilityandsingle-vendorserviceoutsourcing.
How do I get satellite networking service?
Satellite service providers specialize in delivering seamless, end-to-end turnkey
solutionscustomisedtomeetyourspecificapplicationsandservicerequirements.
Servicesareavailableonanational,internationalandglobalbasisfromahostof
providers.TheGVFcanhelpyoulocateseveraltochoosefrominyourarea.
FREQUEnTly ASKED QUESTIonS
lower Cost
Communications  over  satellite  can  be 
extremely  cost-effective.    the  total  cost  of 
ownership  of  broadband  via  satellite  solu-
tions has been reduced by economies of scale 
in the use of satellite networks and of seam-
less  satellite/terrestrial  hybrid  networks  in 
most  countries  over  a  20-year  period.    Over 
one  million  receive-only  terminals  using  IP 
multicasting  have  been  deployed,  together 
with nearly one million interactive terminals.
Flexible & Scalable
Satellite  access  solutions  can  be  deployed 
rapidly  and  economically  with  uniform 
quality of service at all user locations.  high-
speed  and  secure  delivery  of  all  types  of 
broadband applications is achieved through 
a  single,  end-to-end  solution  that  is  more 
reliable than terrestrial alternatives, flexible 
to fit with present demand, and scalable to 
fit all future requirements.
30
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

InstaLLInG a satELLItE nEtwork
:

HoW To GET THE RIGHT TRAInInG
RESoURCES In yoUR “nEIGHBoRHooD”
 by   MARtI n  JARROLD  AnD  RALPh  bROOkER   
 Adapt ed  f rom  a  Sat Prof   &  GVF  whi t e  Paper
In developed and developing regions
acrosstheglobe–whetherornotthey
are prone to man-made or natural
disasters, and for which emergency
planning is an essential corollary –
the demand for access to low-cost,
bi-directional,interactive,satellitesys-
temsandservicescontinuestogrowat
anever-acceleratingrate.
Against a backdrop of increas-
ing demand for the satellite system
deployments which are bringing these
features and benefits to all regions, is
an ongoing need for a greater supply
ofhighly-qualifiedpersonneltoinstall
and maintain the terminal equipment
whichconstitutesthegroundsegment
ofanysatellitenetwork.
The new Training paradigm
Installation of satellite equipment in
many places, particularly very remote
areas or regions affected by disaster
or emergency, can be difficult enough
because of an inadequate or damaged
transportinfrastructure,orsuchnatural
obstacles as a tortuous geography and
topology. However, even the unique
characteristics of satellite can get a
little lost due to inadequate personnel
training,apotentialproblemforwhich
areadysolutionhasbeenavailableand
accessible for some time: the GVF
VSAT Installation & Maintenance
Training Course.
In 2002, responding to requests
from the satellite communications
industry to identify solutions to the
increasing problem of interference
resulting from improperly aligned
VSAT antennas, incorrectly calibrat-
ed transmission equipment, etc., the
GVF initiated its Certified VSAT
Installer Program which comprised
a three-course sequence of classroom-
based training sessions. Since 2002,
training sessions have been deliv-
ered by GVF Certified Trainers in
many regions of the world, thereby
increasing the supply of qualified
technicians. Installers who have
undertaken the GVF VSAT Instal-
lation & Maintenance Course have
masteredahighleveloftrainingand
arecountedamongthemostqualified
techniciansintheworld.
TheCoursewasdevelopedthrougha
consensus of volunteers serving on the
GVF Education & Training Working
Group(E&TWG)toserveastheglobal
standardinVSATinstallationtraining
–aspartofitsbroadermissiontoiden-
tify, formulate and share knowledge
thatisbeneficialtotheVSATindustry,
itsshareholdersandstakeholders.
Specifically,theCoursewasdesigned
toachievethreekeyobjectives:
• Reduction of signal interference
causedbyimproperinstallations;
• Strengthen the industry’s quality of
service;and
•Assuretheindustry’scompetitiveness.
In addition, an online database of
GVF-Certified VSAT installers has
now been launched on www.gvf.org
–whereanyonecanfindcontactdetails
forhundredsofprofessionalswhohave
successfully completed the rigorous
training program. The database is
designedtoservenotonlyasavaluable
information tool, but also to promote
the business and operational effective-
ness of those who have become GVF
Certified–includingtheorganizations
<K;6YkVcXZY
KH6I>chiVaaZg
8Zgi^[^XVi^dc
Figure 1: The GVF VSAT Installation & Maintenance Course – in three levels
3]
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

for which they work. Satellite opera-
torsandmanufacturersworldwidenow
stronglyrecommendorrequirethatall
VSAT installation personnel become
GVFCertified.
The GVF VSAT Installation &
Maintenance Training Course con-
sistsofthreelevels(seeFigure1).The
firsttwolevelscannowbetakenonline
at www.gvf.org, where live anima-
tions clarify complex concepts. The
interactiveonlinecoursewasdeveloped
by GVF’s training-development part-
ner, SatProf Inc., which has created
Level1andLevel2Coursesthatenable
traineestopracticehand-onskillswith
realistic interactive simulations in
morethan250learningpages.
“Itisnowpossibletoprovidestudents
equippedonlywithInternetterminals
realisticsimulationsofthebehaviorof
real-world VSAT equipment,” accord-
ing to Ralph Brooker, President of
SatProf.“Interactive, animated tuto-
rials not only provide a better grasp
of technical concepts, but permit the
student to practice hands-on skills
such as dish pointing, polarization
alignment, and uplink signal line-
up.Ourweb-basedmaterialswillhelp
GVFmeetitsgoalofreducinginterfer-
enceincidentsandenhancingcustomer
experienceswithVSATbysettinghigh
standards for installer qualification.”
There are additional benefits to the
online courses, including 24/7 access,
self-paced learning, and self-adminis-
teredquizzes.
level 1 – introduction to VSAT
Technology
ALevel1traineereceivesanoverview
of satellite communications, with an
emphasis on VSAT applications, for
technicians, engineers, managers, and
IT professionals. Level 1 presents an
overview of the technology and his-
toryofsatcoms,focusingonhowVery
Small Aperture Terminal networks
compete with terrestrial alterna-
tives. The fundamentals of spacecraft
operation, orbits, and coverage are
explained, followed by an overview
of ground equipment hardware and
alternative methods for sharing space
segments costs. Level 1 concludes
with a discussion of the main techni-
cal,economic,andregulatoryfactorsof
VSATnetworks.
The on-line course consists of ani-
mated & interactive HTML/Flash
moviespresentedinaself-pacedscreen
prompt style. During the course,
the student is encouraged to explore
diagrams using mouse rollovers, turn
knobs, adjust antennas, and tune test
equipment, courtesy of the on-line
simulator functions. For example, in
the screen shown in Figure 2, the
student is prompted to turn the “Fre-
quency” and “Amplitude” knobs on
a virtual RF signal generator. As the
knobs areturned, thestudent is given
agraphicalrepresentationofamplitude
variationandhowfrequencyvariations
affectthesignal’swavelength.
Figure 2 - Signal Generator Graphical User Interface (GUI)
continued on page 32
32
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Review quizzes are given after each of
the ten lessons and a final test is given
at the end of the course. The prerequi-
sitesforthecoursearesimplyaninterest
in satellite communications. Level 1
consists of approximately 100 learning
pages,requiring5-10hoursstudy.
level 2 – VSAT installation
Fundamentals
Level 2 presents the fundamental
knowledge and skills needed by all
VSATinstallersforhigh-quality,inter-
ference-free installations. The trainee
learns the fundamentals of signals,
noise, modulation, antennas, propa-
gation, and link budgets. The key
techniques necessary for a high qual-
ity installation are treated in detail,
beginning with the site survey, con-
tinuing with equipment installation
and accurate antenna pointing, carrier
line-up, and cross-pol checks, indoor
electronics installation, and IP net-
work configuration concepts. Level 2
concludeswithareviewoftheinstalla-
tionprocess,trouble-shootingtips,and
maintenanceguidelines.
As an example, Figure 3 shows a
screen shot of the ‘virtual antenna’
pointing lesson. The student is able
to twist virtual wrenches and observe
a typical signal strength meter in an
exercise to “peak” the antenna on the
satellite. (In this example, a previous
studentexercisehadshownwithsimu-
lationtheproperprocedureforfinding
the correct satellite to peak on.) The
mathematical“engine”runningbehind
thesceneforthissimulationintroduces
the real world phenomena that com-
plicatestheactualpointingprocessfor
an installer including antenna mount
wind-up, backlash, atmospheric scin-
tillation,thermalnoise,actualantenna
far field radiation patterns, envelope
detector response, instrument gain
adjustment, etc. The student can
practicepointingtheantennaoverand
over again, and can request the final
pointing accuracy score – a critical
teaching step that cannot be done at all with
physical equipment.
Thestudentshouldexpecttoallocate
15to30hourstonavigatetheapproxi-
mately180pages,dependinguponthe
pacethestudentfindscomfortable.
Traineescanregisteronlineandbegin
the Certification process with Visa/
MasterCard at www.gvf.org. Upon
completion of the Level 1 and Level 2
Courses,traineescanproceedtoanon-
site Level 3 class, which are delivered
worldwide.Formoreinformation,visit
theGVFwebsite.
Staying Ahead of
the Demand Curve
The online training program comes at
a time when satellite communications
services are being delivered at unprec-
edented levels. With larger volumes,
system and service costs have become
even more competitive, thus attract-
ing new customers and generating yet
further increases in the demand for
qualifiedinstallers.
“Satellites’ ability to address an
entire nation or region with telecom-
munications services makes them
unique and particularly well suited to
addressing increased demand for digi-
tal solutions,” said George Jusaites,
Chairman of the E&TWG, and Direc-
tor of Business Development, Andrew
Corp. “The GVF Certified Installer
Database ensures that the higher vol-
umeofinstallationsisconductedwith
the highest possible level of technical
competency.”
in conclusion
The Level 1 and Level 2 courses pro-
videtheinstallerandtheindustrywith
alearningvehiclethatprovidesasolid
foundationforunderstandingtheengi-
neeringbasicsgoverningVSATsystem
operations.WhenVSATinstallersare
armed with a better understanding of
the systems they are installing, the
VSAT industry can expect to enjoy
the economic benefits associated with
lower levels of ‘good hardware’ circu-
lating around for repair depots, fewer
inefficient(orinterferencecausing)ter-
minals installed, and a happier VSAT
customer base. Students may self-reg-
isterandstartthecoursesimmediately
by following the links for Training at
www.gvf.org.
AbOut thE AuthORS
Martin  Jarrold  is  the  Chief,  International  Pro-
gram  Development,  the  Global  VSAt  Forum. 
martin.jarrold@gvf.org. 
Ralph brooker is President of SatProf, Inc., the 
training  partner  for  the  Global  VSAt  Forum. 
he can be reached at ralph@satprof.com.
Figure 3 – Antenna Pointing Exercise
Fundamentals training is critical
to VSAT services
From  the  beginning,  the  VSAt  industry 
recognized  that  VSAt  installers  would 
require  training  to  transform  a  pile  of 
cables,  electronics,  and  antenna  parts 
into  a  revenue-making  VSAt  terminal. 
up  to  now,  most  VSAt  installer  training 
programs  have  focused  on  how  to  bolt 
up  the  components  and  mount  parts 
to  a  roof  or  wall,  providing  instructions 
about  how  to  make  certain  indicators 
illuminate  and/or  achieve  minimum 
levels on meters or displays.  but unin-
tended  consequences  of  basic  “bolt 
it  up”  training  have  become  liabilities 
and cost-burdens for the VSAt industry. 
without  a  good  understanding  of  the 
fundamentals  of  the  satellite  link,  it  is 
easy  for  installers  to  accidentally  cause 
interference  and  difficult  for  them  to 
troubleshoot problems.
34
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Automatic failover network
eliminates downtime and
results in considerable
savings for the regional
car dealership.
Closing the deal—if you own a car
dealership,that’swhatyourlivelihood
depends on. On a daily basis, your
job is to put in the legwork, woo the
customer,andclosethesale.Butwhat
ifyouclosethedeal,onlytofindthat
your network is down and you can’t
process the transaction? This was the
shocking reality for a salesman at
Rountree Automotive, a regional car
dealership with centers in six south-
easternstates.
On a bright and sunny day, Chuck
Roden, CEO of Complete Computer
Systems, went to the Birmingham,
Alabama branch of Rountree Auto-
motive, intent on purchasing two
newtrucks.Chucktalkeditoverwith
the salesman, negotiated a fair price,
and was ready to take one of his new
trucks home. Only, it didn’t quite
work out that way. Unfortunately,
Rountree’s network was down and
because there wasn’t a backup plan,
the salespeople could not close deals.
Chuck and several other prospective
buyers were unable to drive away in
theirnewvehicles.
Thestorycouldhaveendedthatway.
But Chuck, a dealer for Hughes Net-
work Systems, set up a meeting the
nextdaytointroduceRountreeAuto-
motive to the HughesNet

Access
Continuityservicethatprovidesauto-
maticfailovertoabroadbandsatellite
connection in the event of primary
landlinefailure.
After one meeting, Rountree Auto-
motive was sold and quickly began
installingtheHughesNetservice,over-
layingthebroadbandsatellitesolution
over their entire multi-location land-
linenetwork.
The HughesNet Access Continuity
service can be deployed in one of two
ways depending upon the customer’s
needs: network-based or appliance-
based using a new Hughes appliance.
Using the Hughes appliance, the
HughesNet Access Continuity service
monitorsacustomer’sprimarylandline
Internetconnection(DSL,cable,orT1)
and automatically switches over to a
backup broadband satellite Internet
connectionintheeventoffailure.Busi-
ness owners can now be assured that
their networks will keep running with
no costly downtime, even if there is
a central office outage, a construction
accident,orahurricanetakestheirpri-
marylandlineconnectiondown.
In addition to satellite backup,
the Hughes appliance enables the
small business to take advantage of
a comprehensive list of much need-
ed security services such site-to-site
VPNs to securely connect distributed
officesovertheInternet,andindustrial
strength firewall and gateway anti-
virussecuritytokeepunwantedtraffic
and malware from corrupting their
networks. The HughesNet offering
whendeployedwiththeappliancecan
also provide secure remote access and
content filtering to ensure employees
arenotwastingvaluablebusinesstime
onpersonalusage.
Throughtheeasy-to-useHughesNet
Customer Gateway portal, business
owners, once certified by Hughes,
can monitor and manage their sites
inreal-timefromanywheretheyhave
an Internet connection, anywhere in
theworld.
hUGhEsnEt aCCEss ContInUIty
BRInGS RoUnTREE AUToMoTIVE’S
IT STAFF PEACE oF MInD
Lester Edwards, Information Systems Manager
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
35
S
A
T
E
l
l
I
T
E

S
T
R
A
T
E
G
I
E
S

no looking Back
“We knew we needed a backup solu-
tion,”saidLesterEdwards,information
systemsmanagerofRountreeAutomo-
tive. “During Hurricane Katrina, our
Mobile, Alabama store went down for
45 days. When a network goes down,
we can lose an average of $5,000 to
$50,000 per hour, so we could not
afford to experience such a significant
downtime again. When we learned
about the HughesNet Access Con-
tinuity service and the new Hughes
appliance with its automatic failover
support, we installed it and have not
lookedback.”
And,accordingtoEdwards,purchas-
ingtheHughesNetAccessContinuity
service has been one of the best infor-
mation technology decisions Rountree
Automotive has made. He credits the
service with not only saving the com-
panyanaverageof$1200to$1300per
month, but also lauds the service for
easeofmanagementandoperation.
not your Ordinary Business
Continuity Service
The ability to directly manage the
Hughes appliance and its automatic
failover support are features that set
theHughesNetAccessContinuityser-
viceapartfromitscompetition.
With most solutions, a small busi-
ness would have to buy not only the
equipment, but also hire someone to
engineer the network, and configure
and manage the system from end-
to-end. Additionally, most systems
configure the portal, only allowing
the system manager access to critical
information.
In the world of off-the-shelf IT net-
working, the concept of automatic
failover support is nothing short of
futuristic.“EveryITguyIknowcom-
plains about not having automatic
failover. Automatic failover is almost
unheardof—it’slikewakingupinthe
22ndcentury,”saidEdwards.
NotonlyhastheHughesNetAccess
Continuity service given Rountree
Automotiveautomaticfailoverandthe
freedomtomanageitsownnetwork,it
hasalsogiventhemthefreedomtoadd
more stores to the network—some-
thing the business once considered a
costlyundertaking.
“TheHughesNetservicehasgivenme
thebreathingroomtoaddmorestores,”
said Edwards. “Before HughesNet, in
ordertoaddmorestores,wehadtoadd
morecostlyphonelinestosupportthe
terrestrial network. With HughesNet,
wearen’tdependentonphonelines,so
we can cost effectively add additional
stores. All we have to do is purchase
the service and our new store is up
andrunning.Ifwerunintoanymajor
problemsthatIcannothandlethrough
theportal,ourHughessupportteamis
justaphonecallaway,”saidEdwards.
More importantly, the HughesNet
service can be installed in a new store
even if terrestrial broadband is not
available in that geographic area.
RountreeAutomotivefoundthistobe
thecaseattheirBaytown,Texasstore.
When the Baytown storefirst opened,
T1 was unavailable. So, for 45 days
the store operated on a satellite-only
network. During that time, the store
did not have any issues with drop off
orlossofcommunicationsbetweenthe
sites.Eventually,aT1solutionbecame
availableandthestoreswitchedtothat
asitslink,withsatelliteasabackup.
“A satellite-only network was defi-
nitely usable for our entire store. I
wasn’t surprised at how well it per-
formed,butIwasskepticalatfirst.The
satellitenetworkperformedreallywell
and I was definitely pleased with it,”
saidEdwards.
Bottom line impact
In the car dealership business, 40%of
allworkisdoneovertheInternet.Much
of the time, most car suppliers send
dealers to the Internet for information
ontheavailabilityofcars,pricing,and
purchasing.RountreeAutomotiveuses
the Internet exclusively for inventory
management,newcaracquisition,and
running credit reports on prospective
buyers. The HughesNet service has
helped them carry out these functions
morequicklyandefficiently.
“If our connection to the Internet is
down,wecan’tcarryoutbasicbusiness
functions,” said Edwards. “We can’t
transfer money, we can’t sign deals,
and we can’t put money in the bank.
Ifwecan’tcloseadealwithacustomer
becausewearedown,ninetimesoutof
ten,hewillbuyhiscarsomewhereelse
and we will not be able to recoup the
moneylostonthatsale.”
“HughesNet eliminates this risk as
the automatic failover feature ensures
that if our terrestrial network goes
down, we are covered by satellite and
will never miss another sales opportu-
nityagain.”
For more information, go to www.hughesnet.com 
or  call  1-866-240-3875.
“Ifourconnectiontothe
Internetisdown,wecan’t
carryoutbasicbusiness
functions.Wecan’ttransfer
money,wecan’tsigndeals,
andwecan’tputmoneyin
thebank.”
A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
n
G

F
E
A
T
U
R
E
36
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

The power of mobile satel-
lite communications offers
a tremendous opportunity
for incident management,
disaster recovery and first
responder organizations.
These groups can now build out a
simple transportable vehicle-mounted
“command post” infrastructure that
will provide broadband “converged
communications” (Internet, intranet,
voice, fax and video) almost anywhere
in the United States – and can be
deployedinfiveminutesorless.
Satellite is the near-universal choice
for the broadband communications
“backhaul”linktothesevehiclessince
it is rapidly deployable, available any-
wherewithaclearviewofthesouthern
sky, and completely independent of
thelocaltelecominfrastructure.These
systems are typically based on VSAT
(VerySmallApertureTerminal,atwo-
way broadband wireless link) satellite
dataservices.
These Mobile Satellite Communica-
tionsCenters(MSCCs)aredesignedto
move to a crisis site, deploy quickly,
and provide a communications infra-
structure for on-site personnel for the
duration of an incident. Additionally,
numerousfederalgrantsandprograms
are being offered that can assist with
the purchase of a MSCC interoperable
emergency response mobile communi-
cationsinfrastructure.
But like any new technology, users
must educate themselves on their
options and capabilities in order to
avoid painful, mission-disruptive (and

expensive) incompatibilities, limita-
tionsorfailures.Thisarticleisintended
to provide a helpful resource for best
practicesinformation.
The Basics
Your first step should be to iden-
tify your communications needs based
on your mission. MSCC vehicles are
best suited to rapid-response deploy-
ments where voice, video and data
communicationsareneededtosupport
1-20 users (bandwidth of 1-5 Mbps
for all data). These units are best for
situations where rapid deployment is
essential and expected use period is
up to 48 hours (semi-permanent com-
mand posts should be deployed for
longer-usesituations.)
AbasicMSCCneedstobefittedwith
asatelliteWAN(WideAreaNetwork)
communications system; LAN (Local
Area Network) communications gear
that may include phones, LMR (Land
Mobile Radio) units, laptop PCs, and
video or digital still cameras; and
powergeneratorstoruntheequipment
at the deployment site. The satellite
WANlinkistypicallybuiltaroundan
“auto-acquisition”antennamountedto
the roof of the vehicle and equipped
withservomotorsthatallowittoauto-
matically point itself at its assigned
satelliteandactivatethenetworklink.
For budgetary purposes, depending
on configuration, a MSCC (including
vehicle and communications gear) can
costbetween$50,000and$150,000to
build.Forongoinguse,monthlycom-
munications service charges between
$150 and $1500 can be expected in
addition to vehicle fuel, maintenance
andoperationsexpenses.
Vehicle Tips
MSCCsareavailabletorentfrommany
companies, which provide these vehi-
cles on demand in case of emergency.
However, many emergency response
organizations prefer to own their
vehicles, allowing total control and
instantaneousresponse.
Any vehicle of SUV (Sport Utility
Vehicle) size or larger is a potential
candidate for a MSCC. The “coolest-
looking” vehicles like Hummers and
Jeepsoftenseenasdemounitsarenot
always the best choice for extended
durationdeployments,however;alarge
van-like vehicle such as the Dodge
Sprinter (www.dodge.com/sprinter/)
maybeabetterfit.
BUILDInG moBILE EmErGEnCy
rEsponsE VEhICLEs wIth satELLItE
ConnECtIVIty
:
WHAT To KnoW
 by   DAVI D  My ERS  AnD  J EFFREy   CARL
37 DI SAST ER RESOURCE GUI DE 2 0 0 6 / 2 0 0 7 HUMAn COnCERnS 37
For complete product listings, contents lists
of our kits, and much more, visit our website!!
Or call us today!!
(800) 826-2201
www.emergencylifeline.com
Take Action Today! We can help you stretch
limited budget dollars to provide for:
SEARCH & RESCUE
MEDICAl RESpOnSE
EVACUATIOn
FOOD & WATER
SAnITATIOn
lIGHT & WARMTH
COMMUnICATIOnS
WHEn 911 CAn’T RESpOnD...
WHAT WIll YOU DO?
WIll YOU REGRET nOT HAVInG SUpplIES?
EMERGEnCY lIFElInE CORpORATIOn
Sinceanauto-acquireantennaweighs
between 150-250 lbs. (depending on
themanufacturerandsizeofthedish),
sunroofsareinadvisableandthevehicle
roofmayneedtobereinforcedtocarry
theweight.Holesmayalsoneedtobe
drilledasconduitforcables(asatellite
antennawillrequiretwocoaxialcables
to run to the satellite modem inside
thevehicle).
MSCC vehicles should be outfit-
ted with external power umbilicals to
accept outside power, with Alternat-
ingCurrent(AC)powerinverters.The
vehicle may also require augmented
ACcapacityinitsinternalwiring.
Communications Solution Tips
MSCC vehicle communications gear
can be as simple as a satellite antenna
andmodemconnectedtoaPCorVoIP
phone, or can be as sophisticated as
a complete integrated kit designed
specifically for emergency response
deployment such as the Cisco iComm
(www.spacenet.com/cisco/) or the Pac-
Star5500series(www.pacstar.com).
Whilethefirstthingthatmostpeople
thinkofwhenbuildingaMSCCsystem
isthevehicleortheantenna,thechoice
ofserviceproviderisevenmorecritical.
The satellite communications provider
for a MSCC is an essential link in the
emergencyresponsechain:ifyournet-
work isn’t operating when you need
it,thenthemissionisafailure.When
selectingaprovider,lookforanetwork
operator that has multiple geographi-
cally distributed teleport facilities and
anationalinfrastructuresothatregion-
al disaster conditions will not impair
yourabilitytocommunicate.
Choose a satellite system designed
for “industrial-grade” use; common
“consumer” satellite systems are inex-
pensive but are not built to support
heavy data usage (such as VoIP or
video)andmission-criticalavailability.
Manysatelliteprovidersofferemergen-
cy response-tailored satellite services.,
such as Agiosat (www.agiosat.com),
SkyPort (www.skyportglobal.com) and
Spacenet(www.spacenet.com).
putting it All Together
Integrating your communications sys-
tem requires planning. Equipment in
the MSCC should be firmly secured
andshock-mountedwithrubbergrom-
mets so that it is not damaged in
transit. Grounding for the equipment
should also be provided (through an
externalmetalgroundcable)toprevent
damagetosensitiveelectronics.
The vehicle power generator should
be equipped for extended usage. An
electronics-friendly fire extinguish-
er system (such as Halon) should be
equipped in the vehicle, as well as a
carbon monoxide detector if the gen-
erator is in extended use. Field spares
onvitalequipmentareamustforboth
thevehicleandthesatellitesystem.
Youcanbuildavehicleyourselfifyou
havethenecessaryexpertise,oryoucan
contract construction and integration
to one of the many firms dedicated to
building emergency response vehicles.
These include SciTerra (www.sciterra.
com), Wolf Coach (www.wolfcoach.
com), Frontline Communications
(www.frontlinecomm.com) and LDV
(www.ldvusa.com).
AbOut thE AuthORS
David Myers is Senior Vice President of Market-
ing  and  Corporate  Development  for  Spacenet 
Inc., one of the nation’s largest and most experi-
enced providers of satellite communications for 
enterprises and government. he can be reached 
at 703-848-1200 or david.myers@spacenet.com. 
Jeffrey  Carl  is  Director  of  Marketing  for 
Spacenet.  he  can  be  reached  at  703-848-1068 
or jeff.carl@spacenet.com. 
38
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
E
R

I
n
D
E
x

&

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E
S
DISASTER RESoURCE GUIDE
published by Emergency lifeline Corp.
pO Box 15243
Santa Ana, CA 92735
Tel: (714) 558-8940
Fax: (714) 558-8901
info@disaster-resource.com
www.disaster-resource.com
Executive publisher: W.T. rainey
publisher: Kathy gannon rainey
Editor: Alison Dunn
Directory Coordinator: Carlos rincon
production Coordinator: Daniel Herrera
Advertising Sales: Del Edwards,
marcy rios
Circulation: Carlos rincon
PRoDUCTIon CREDITS
Creel Printing
Luis Alvarado Design
  Luis Alvarado
  trina werkema
  Ricardo hurtado
Photo CREDItS
  8  FEMA
  21  nD Satcom
on THE WEB
Visit the Online GuIDE. Lots of good information! 
Exclusive  Online  Articles,  what’s  new,  Industry 
briefs,  Meet  the  Pros,  Purchasing  Priorities  and 
much more! 
www.disaster-resource.com 
Disaster resource gUiDE  –  Volume  11  Issue  3, 
March 2007 – is published quarterly (March, May, 
August  and  november)  by  Emergency  Lifeline 
Corporation,  1510  East  Edinger  Ste  D,  Santa 
Ana  CA  92705  and  mailed/distributed  to  quali-
fied  individuals  who  have  requested  a  copy  and 
who have oversight or responsibility for business 
continuity,  enterprise  risk,  crisis  management, 
emergency response, and/or homeland security. 
Individual  copies  are  available  for  $20.00.  Appli-
cation  to  Mail  at  Periodicals  Postage  Rates  is 
Pending at Santa Ana, CA. 
Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily 
those held by the publishers. the publishers do not 
accept responsibility for the veracity of statements 
made  by  the  editorial  or  advertising  contributors. 
the information is printed in good faith. 
postmaster: Send address changes to 
PO box 15243, Santa Ana, CA 92735. 
ADVERTISER InDEx & RESoURCES
AAE SySTEMS
www.aaesys.com
Page23
AnACoM, InC.
www.anacominc.com
Pages17,19
AnDREW
www.andrew.com
Page33
EGyPTSAT
www.egyptsat.com
Page9
EMERGEnCy lIFElInE
www.emergencylifeline.com
Page37
GloBAlSTAR
www.globalstarusa.com
Page11
GVF
www.gvf.org
Page38
HUGHES
www.hughesnet.com
Pages2,34
IDIRECT TECHnoloGIES
www.idirect.net
Page5
JPI WoRlDWIDE
jpiworldwide.com
Page10
loRAl SKynET
www.loralskynet.com
Page24
MoBIlE SATEllITE
VEnTURES
www.msvlp.com
Page16
MoToSAT
www.motosat.com
Page31
nD SATCoM
www.ndsatcom.com
Page22
SES AMERICoM
www.ses-americom.com
Page40
SPACEnET
www.spacenet.com/dr
Page27
TElEnoR
www.telenor.com/satellite
Pages12,14
xTAR
www.xtarllc.com
Page39
5!6
53 #OAST'UARD
.ATIONAL'UARD
%
D
G
E

O
F

#
O
V
E
R
A
G
E
-OBILE%MERGENCY
#OMMUNICATIONS6AN
$(3&%-!(1
$AMAGE
!SSESSMENT
&IRST
2ESPONDER
!JOINTVENTUREBETWEEN,ORAL3PACE#OMMUNICATIONSAND()3$%3!43!
FOR X»BAMD COÆÆUMfCATfOM5 fM
TfÆE OF EÆEROEMCY: LOOK TO XTAR¯
why X-8and?
0peraLing in Lhe X-band írequency reserved íor CovernnenL and HiliLary, XJ/R's saLelliLes
have unique íeaLures LhaL nake Lhen ideal íor energency connunicaLions:
» Signals less subjecL Lo rain íade, assuring connunicaLions
in Lhe nidsL oí desLrucLive weaLher paLLerns
» ConnunicaLions-on-Lhe-nove (C0JH) aL high daLa raLes
noL liniLed by closely-spaced connercial saLelliLes
» Can operaLe wiLh snall, lighLweighL, inexpensive Lerninals
» InLeroperable wiLh sLaLe haLional Cuard SaLcon Lerninals
why XIAk?
XJ/R operaLes Lwo saLelliLes in Lhe X-band írequency dedicaLed Lo civil and niliLary
governnenL agencies and /llied parLners. XJ/R provides:
» CovernnenL-only leasing
» 8andwidLh-on-denand pricing
» LeíL and righL hand polarizaLion enabling nore accessible bandwidLh
» IasL deploynenL and up-Lo-Lhe ninuLe inLeroperabiliLy
» ConpleLe coverage oí weaLher-challenged sLaLes
» Lase oí access by 000 users Lhrough 0SJS-C conLracL
To leorn more obout XTAR¹
v¡s¡t www.×torllc.com or phone T.ß0T.258.ß2ß5
f A S I , f L f X I 8 L f , X - 8 A h 0 f A P A f I I Y f A S I , f L f X I 8 L f , X - 8 A h 0 f A P A f I I Y
SaLelliLes are an essenLial conponenL oí disasLer and FrsL responder connunicaLions. JerresLrial
connunicaLions links are highly vulnerable Lo disrupLion during naLural or nan nade disasLers.
SaLelliLes Fll Lhe void during Lhe FrsL criLical hours and days unLil LerresLrial links are resLored.
Jhey can inLerconnecL seanlessly wiLh wire line, land nobile and cellular radios Lo ensure Lhe delivery
oí help, hope and necessary resources Lo ensure Lhe saíeLy and well being oí aííecLed populaLions.
40
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R

R
E
S
o
U
R
C
E

G
U
I
D
E

Ready for Anything.
Even the most reliable land-based data and voice
infrastructures can be disrupted by disasters.
The REDiSat Network

is engineered from the ground
up as a pro-active emergency communications solution.
At its foundation is the world’s leading satellite eet,
providing you with connectivity immediately when crisis
hits within the contiguous United States, interupting
critical infrastructure.
By putting back-up communications capabilities
on site at your business locations, REDiSat Network

delivers aordable around-the-clock connectivity and
peace of mind. Home and branch ofces alike are able
to reestablish critical data and voice services virtually
within minutes.
For a free cost-benet analysis of your situation,
please call Sophie Gerber at (1) 703-610-1015 or send an
e-mail directly to: redisat.network@ses-americom.com.
www.ses-americom.com © 2007 SES AMERICOM
Land-based equipment
is destroyed. Your
connectivity is lost.
The REDiSat Network

employs satellite to
reconnect your systems.
Voice & data services are
restored.