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RESEARCH TITLE

DESIGN OF PRIMARY SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT FOR SHIATS


ALLAHABAD

BY
Er. ANURAG SINGH
B.Tech
SHIATS ALLAHABAD
M.TECH
BIT MESRA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter

II
III
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.12.1
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.16.1
3.16.2
3.16.3
3.16.4

Title

Page No.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURE
LIST OF TABLE
LIST OF ABBRAVITIONS
LIST OF SYMOLS
INTRODUCTION
Sewage
Waste Water Volume in India
Need of Domestic Sewage Treatment
Benefits of Sewage Treatment Plant
Waste Water Reuse in India
Objective of the Study
REVIEW AND LITERATURE
MATTERIALS AND MATHODS
Climate
Sewage
Treatment of Sewage
Preliminary Treatment
Primary Treatment
Secondary Treatment
Tertiary Treatment
Sewage treatment process
Degree of Treatment
Design Period
Estimation of sewage volume
Location of Treatment Plant
Layout of Treatment Plant
Point Consideration in Design
Design of Receiving Chamber
Screening
Design of Coarse Screen
Design of Grit Chamber
Design of Skimming Tank
Design of Primary Sedimentation Tank
High Rate Trickling Filter
Estimation of BOD in raw sewage
Filter area
Design of rotary distribution
Design of arms

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
2
2
3
3
4
4
5 10
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
15
15
15
16
18
18
19
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
29
31
31

3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20.1
3.20.2
3.20.3
3.20.4
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.23.1
3.23.2
3.23.3
IV
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.1
V

Activated Sludge Process


Contact Stabilation Method
Design of Aeration Tank
Check for Aeration Period/HRT
Check for volumetric Loading
Check for Return sludge Ratio
Check for SRT
Capacity of pump
Dry bed
Sewer pipe line
Forces acting on sewer pipe line
Criteria for selecting the material of sewer pipe
Operation and maintenance of sewer
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Calculation of Sewage Generation
Receiving Chamber
Coarse Screen
Grit Chamber
Skimming Tank
rimary Sedimentation tank
High Rate Trickling Filter
Aeration Tank
Sludge Drying Beds
Sewer Pipe
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
REFERENCE
APPENDIX

31
32
32
34
34
34
35
35
36
37
37
37
39

42
45
47
49
51
52
55
57
59
61
63
64 66
67 -84

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted for the primary treatment and management of sewage generated in
SHIATS hostels and residential area and a sewage treatment plant was designed. The total
sewage generated in one day was estimated 3.6ML considering the projected population
hostels and residential for the next 30 years. The various components of primary sewage
treatment plant viz. screening chamber, grit chamber, skimming tank, sedimentation tank,
active sludge tank and sludge drying bed were designed considering the various standards
and permissible limits of treated sewage water. It was concluded from the study that in next
30 years the predicted population will be 23,000 and estimated sewage will be 3.6 MLD.
The receiving chamber of dimension 4m x 2m x 1.5m, the coarse screen of dimension 0.6m
x 5.3m, Grit chamber of dimension 5.2m x 3m x 1.3m, Primary sedimentation tank with
diameter of 7m and depth 2.5m, trickling filter of diameter 15.5m and depth 2m, aeration
tank of dimensions15m x 8m x 4m and sludge dry bed of dimensions 12.5m x 8m will
effectively treat the sewage water at primary stage keeping the sewage quality within the
permissible limits.
It was recommeneded that the treated water will be supplied for irrigating the crops on
Research Farm and the remaining sludge after treatment will be used as manure on Farm.
The use of treated water will reduce the ground water use and additionally the treated sludge
will be very useful for increasing the fertility of soil.

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. No.

Title

Page no.

3.1

Flow chart of processes of sewage treatment plant

17

3.2

Layout of sewage treatment plant

22

4.1

Receiving chamber

46

4.2

Corse screen

48

4.3

Grit chamber

50

4.4

Skimming tank

52

4.5

Sedimentation tank

54

4.6

Trickling filter

56

4.7

Aeration tank

58

4.8

Sludge drying bed

60

4.9

Layout and designing of primary sewage treatment plant

62

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

3.5

Title

Page No

Climatologically Data of Allahabad


District
Chemical Quality of Raw Sewage and
Standard
Non - scouring Limiting Velocities in
Sewer and Drains

14

Manhole Spacing as per IS 1742 1960

40

Internal Dimension for Manhole Chamber

41

20
40

as per
IS 1742 1960

4.1

Detail result of primary sewage treatment plant

43

4.2

Details of receiving chamber

45

4.3

Details of coarse screen

47

4.4

Details of grit chamber

49

4.5

Details of skimming tank

51

4.6

Details of primary sedimentation tank

53

4.7

Details of trickling filter

55

4.8

Details of aeration tank

57

4.9

Details of sludge drying bed

59

4.10

Details of sewer pipe line

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand

DO

dissolved oxygen

Fig

Figure

e.g

Example gratia. For example

etc.

Etcetera

et.al

et. Alibi and other

l/h/d

liter head per day

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

MLD

million liter per day

MLSS

Mixed liquor suspended solids

HRT

hydraulic retention time

SRT

Solids Retention Time

NPK

nitrogen phosphorus potassium

H.P

Horse power

LIST OF SYMBOLS
%
C
mm
Cm
mm
Hrs
Vs
Q

Percentage or per hundred


Degree Celsius
Meter
Centimeter
Milli meter
Hours
velocity of critical particle
Flow rate

Area

Kinematic viscosity

Ss
Dp
V
d
H
Va
L
W
D

Xt
T

Sp. Gravity of a particle


Dia. of a critical particle
Volume
Depth
Head loss
Aerated volume of chamber
Length
Width
Diameter
Efficiency
BOD at inlet
BOD at outlet
MLSS
HRT

Sludge recirculation rate


SRT

CHAPTER - I
INTRODUCTION
More than two billion people worldwide lives in regions facing water scarcity. Water scarcity
already affects every continent and more than 40 percent of the people on our planet. By
2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity,
and two-thirds of the worlds population could be living under water stressed conditions.
Global water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population growth in the
last century. About 1.1 billion people do not have access to adequate water to meet their most
basic needs. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the worlds population, live in
areas of physical water scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation (FAO,
2003)
Agriculture is the number-one user of water worldwide, accounting for about 69% of all
freshwater withdrawn from lakes, rivers and aquifers. The daily drinking water requirement
per person is 2-4 liters, but it takes 2000 to 5000 liters of water to produce one persons daily
food.
Indias demand for water is growing at an alarming rate. India is surrounded by water bodies
on the three sides, yet we face water shortage every year. The per capita water availability in
India was 3450cu.m in 1951. By 2025 the annual per capita availability of water is expected
to rise drastically from the current 1800cu.m per person to 1200 1500 cu.m. The quality of
available water is also fast deteriorating, over extraction of ground water has led to salt water
intrusion into coastal aquifer. It has also resulted into presence of excessive fluoride, iron,
arsenic and salinity in water affecting about 44 million people in India. Groundwater is
facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluent and fecal matter as
well as pesticides and fertilizers from runoff. Unless priority is given quickly to creating an
infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may be no water to meet agricultural,
domestic and industrial needs of a population that has tripled in 50 years to one billion.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household
sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological
processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to
produce a treated effluent and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back

into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic
organic and inorganic compounds.
Sewage implies the collecting of wastewaters from occupied areas and conveying them to
some point of disposal. The liquid wastes will require treatment before they are discharged
into the water body or otherwise disposed of without endangering the public health or
causing offensive conditions.

Sewage
Sewage is a dilute mixture of the various types of wastes from the residential, public and
industrial places.
The sewage pollutant causes undesirable changes and it affects the land, water and air or the
environment as a whole. In the modern living the heavy industrialization and increase of
population increased the rate of water pollution. Therefore, the need of water pollution
control has drawn the attention of the concerned department. The characteristics and
composition of sewage mainly depend on this source. The main Source of water pollution is
industrial wastes coming from the industrial area and big industries contain grease, oil
chemical, highly odorous substances, explosives, etc. The main industries which contribute
to the Indian rivers pollution are oil and soap, pulp-paper, sugar and distilleries, chemical,
textile, steel mills, pharmaceuticals, tanneries, oil refineries and various other miscellaneous
industries. The other source is domestic sewage which also contains oils, human excreta,
decomposed kitchen wastes, soapy water etc.

Wastewater Volumes in India


Urban areas in India generated about 5 billion liters a day (bld) of wastewater in 1947 which has
Increased to about 30 bld in 1997 (Winrock International, India 2007). According to the Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 16 bld of wastewater is generated from Class-1 cities
(population >100,000), and 1.6 bld from Class-2 cities (population 50,000-100,000). Of the
45,000 km length of Indian rivers, 6,000 km have a bio-oxygen demand above 3 mg/l, making
the water unfit for drinking (CPCB 1998). An estimated 80% of wastewater generated by
developing countries, especially China and India, is used for irrigation (Winrock International
India 2007). In India, where wastewater is mainly used in agriculture, a policy framework
covering the issues associated with this practice is lacking. Strauss and Blumenthal (1990)

10

estimated that 73,000 ha were irrigated with wastewater in India. However, Buechler and
Mekala (2003: 939) estimated that even just along the Musi River that runs through Hyderabad
city in Andhra Pradesh State, and the canals and tanks off this river approximately 40,000 ha of
land were irrigated with urban and industrial wastewater diluted with fresh river water
especially during the monsoon season. Untreated wastewater from domestic, hospital and
industrial areas pollute rivers and other natural water bodies. More than 80% (only 4,000
Million Liters per Day [MLD] out of 17,600 MLD wastewater generated in India is treated) of
wastewater generated is discharged into natural water bodies without any treatment due to lack
of infrastructure and resources for treatment (Winrock International India 2007).
Farmers have customary rights to any water that flows through the river and it should be the
responsibility of the irrigation and water authorities to maintain the quality of this water to
ensure the sustainable use of this water. The interviews held with farmers along Musi River in
Hyderabad clearly highlight that the wastewater quality is very poor and has adverse impacts on
the health of farmers and reduces soil productivity over time, not to mention the high water
tables and groundwater contamination in these areas. The Water Act covers industrial effluent
standards, but ignores the domestic and municipal effluents even though they constitute 90% of
Indias wastewater volumes (Sawhney 2004).

Need and Benefit of Domestic Sewage Treatment


Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing
contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic.
It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove all the pathogens, that it
may not pollute the receiving water and make than unsafe for use, to reduce the volume of
sewage sludge, so that it can be easily disposed off.
The cost of reclaimed water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the world,
where a fresh water supply is plentiful. However, reclaimed water is usually sold to citizens
at a cheaper rate to encourage its use. As fresh water supplies become limited from
distribution costs, increased population demands, or climate change reducing sources, the
cost ratios will evolve also.
Using reclaimed water for non-potable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less
potable water will be used for non-potable uses.

11

It sometimes contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen
which may somewhat help fertilize garden and agricultural plants when used for irrigation.

Wastewater Reuse in India


In India, since wastewater is mainly untreated, it is used in the agricultural sector where the
risks are considerably lower to using it in households or industry. It is mainly used for
irrigation of Cereals, Vegetables, Flowers, Avenue trees and parks, Fodder crops,
Aquaculture and Agro forestry.
Considering the above facts the present study has been planned with the following objectives

Objective of the study


1. To estimate the volume of sewage water generated during the different periods from
SHIATS hostels and residential area.
2. To estimate the volume of sewage water to be generated during the next 30 years from
SHIATS hostels and residential area.
3. To design the primary sewage treatment units for the estimated sewage discharge.

12

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Jillies and Kushwaha (1990) reported that liquid digested sludge can be used as soil
amendment to provide low cost fertilizer and improve tilth. Dried digested sewage sludge
was mixed with soil in test plot near Saskatoon, Canada at application rate of 75 tones
sludge/hectare. The plots were irrigated with decent water from the sludge drying bed.

Tripathi and Dwivedi (1990) reported that the effect of irrigation with raw urban sewage
effluents mixes with industrial effluents, treated sewage effluents and tubewell water potato
yield anand plant and soil heavy metal content was content was studied in a field experiment
at benaras hindu university, Varanasi. Very low concentrations of heavy metals were
observed in rubbers from the raw sewage irrigation treatment, although Cu, Zn, Fe in soil
increased.

Korentajer (1990) reported the application of sewage sludge on agricultural land may
provide an economical way to dispose of the increasing amount of sludge application may be
limited by its potential health.

Hundal and Sandhu (1992) reported that soil sample at varying distance along the sewage
from three tyres of field sewage waste water irrigated and tube well irrigated were collected
and analyzed for total and DTPA extractable toxic metal content.

Maiti et al. (1992) reported that the sewage effluent and sludge of Calcutta city was made to
assess their manorial values. Sewage were natural to slightly alkaline in reaction and
contained high level basic tons, particularly in winter, bicarbonate and chloride Ions were at
toxic levels. Although sewage effluents and slugged were rich in nutrient the toxicity levels.

Welch et al. (1992) reported the zinc movement in sludge treated soils as influenced by soil
properties water quality and soil moisture level.

13

Hundal et al (1993) reported that the surface soil samples were collected from field along a
sewage drains which were irrigated with sewage effluents sewage effluents plus tube well
water or tube well water and their chemical properties were investigated. Zinc and copper
contents increased 3 and 8 times respectively in the sewage effluents treated soils reaching
toxic levels to plants.

Azad (1995) reported that the fate of Fe in sewage wastewater irrigated soil was investigated
in Punjab India. Total Fe content of normally irrigated soil ranges from 1.4-3.2% in the 0-15
cm layer with mean value of 2.03% in soils receiving sewage wastewater total Fe ranges
from 2.2-4.1% with an average value 2.78% which was 36.9% higher than in normal soils.

Mathan (1995) reported that the study conducted in a sewage farm of the Maduraei
Corporation in India to compare the effect of sewage effluent properties. The soil was sandy
loam and had been irrigated for 10-15 years. Soil irrigated by canal fed well water had the
highest bulk density.

Kuba et al. (1997) examined the role of denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) in
wastewater treatment plants using batch tests with activated sludge from two plants in the
Netherlands. DPBs appeared to be of little importance in one plant, but contributed
substantially to P removal in the other
Singh and Varloo (1997) studied the accumulation and bioavailability of metals in semi arid
soil irrigated with the sewage effluent, the sewage had slightly lower pH but higher organic
carbon as compared to those receiving irrigation with tube well water.

Antil et al. (1998) reported that the raw sewer water sample was collected from various
sewer disposal sites in Haryana India where these waste water are directly used for irrigating
the crops. The chemical composition of sewer water varied from site to site. The
physicochemical properties DTPA extractable and total macro and micronutrients and toxic
the composition metals icons(CD,Ni) varies according to composition of the sewer water.

Wiger and Hamedi (1999) reported that accumulation and mobility heavy metals in soils
irrigated with sewage effluent in Haryana India.

14

Bednared and Tkaczy (1999) reported that the influence of treated municipal on occurrence
of soluble form of phosphorous potassium and magnesium in peat muck soil. Municipal
sewage did not change in reaction and value of hydrolytic acidity. Treated municipal sewage
caused contents of soluble potassium in upper layer (0-20) of soil.

Joshi and Pathak(2000) reported that the effect of sewage assessing the effect if sewage
application on sewage application on soil properties identified the problem.

Song et al. (2002) using thermodynamics, modeled the effects of P and Ca concentration,
pH, temperature, and ionic strength on theoretical removal.

Tchobanoglous et al (2003) Chemical precipitation has long been used for P removal. The
chemicals most often employed are compounds of calcium, aluminum, and iron.

Bradford et al. (2003) In the villages near Hubli-Dharwad in Karnataka, the main
wastewater irrigated agroforestry land uses are orchards and agrosilviculture which consists
of spatially mixed treecrop combinations.

Zeng et al. (2004) High phosphate removal (> 95% in 10 min, batch system) was obtained
from a 33 mg/L P solution, but direct applicability to wastewater treatment (lower
concentrations, possible interferences) was not investigated. The gas concretes removal
efficiency can be regenerated at low pH, with the resulting concentrated phosphate solution
potentially a source of recycled phosphate. Similarly, iron oxide tailings were found to be
effective for phosphorus removal from both pure solutions and liquid hog manure

Chattopadhyay (2004) The East Calcutta sewage fisheries are the largest single wastewater
use system in aquaculture in the world. The wetland ecosystem of Kolkata supports 100,000
direct stakeholders and 5,100 ha of cultivation. Annually, it provides direct employment for
about 70,000 people, produces 128,000 quintals of paddy, 69,000 quintals of fish and 7.3
quintals of vegetables.

15

Neethling et al. (2005) examined the factors that influence the reliability of EBPR in fullscale plants. They concluded that P concentrations <0.1 mg/L can be achieved for extended
periods (more than a month), 0.03 mg/L for a week, and even below 0.02 mg/L for several
sequential days. Excursions above these levels are common. A sufficient BOD/P ratio
(>25:1) is one requirement for reliable high removal efficiencies. This might be achieved by
BOD augmentation through fermentation or addition of a fermentable substrate. Control of
recycle streams is also necessary, so that they do not bring too much P back to the EBPR
process. They also concluded that while GAOs can be problematic, their presence does not
preclude good P removal.

Mekala (2006) In Hyderabad, along the Musi River about 10,000 ha of land is irrigated with
wastewater to cultivate Para grass, a kind of fodder grass.

Randall (2006) discussed the use of carbon augmentation in EBPR. Short chain volatile fatty
acids (VFAs), particularly acetic and propionic acids, are most desirable. Some carbon
sources, such as some sugars and alcohols, may lead to production of GAOs, bulking, or
excessive exocellular polymer production. VFAs may be generated in the sewer system, arise
from industrial discharges, be added directly, or be generated on-site. For many plants, onsite generation in the anaerobic zone may be sufficient. Alternatively, fermentation of the
primary sludge, primary effluent, or some of the activated sludge might be practiced. In the
PhoStrip process, fermentation also occurs in the stripping tank.

Reardon (2006) reported on several plants achieving <0.1 mg/L TP in their effluent, and
suggested the current reliable limits of technology are 0.04 mg/L for MBRs and tertiary
membrane filtration, and 0.008 mg/L for RO.

Reardon, (2006) in plants with EBPR the P content is even higher. Thus sand filtration or
other method of TSS removal (e.g., membrane, chemical precipitation) is likely necessary for
plants with low effluent TP permits.

Strom, (2006) Assuming that 2-3% of organic solids is P, then an effluent total suspended
solids (TSS) of 20 mg/L represents 0.4-0.6 mg/L of effluent P

16

Neethling and Gu, (2006) Chemical addition points include prior to primary settling, during
secondary treatment, or as part of a tertiary treatment process.

Neethling and Gu, (2006) the process is more complex than predicted by laboratory pure
chemical experiments, and that formation of and sorption to carbonates or hydroxides are
important factors. In fact, full-scale systems may perform better than the 0.05 mg/L limit
predicted.

Strom, (2006) Use of alum after secondary treatment can be predicted to produce much less
sludge, but the increase could still be problematic.

Moller (2006) reported on an iron reactive filtration system achieving <0.01 mg/L TP at a
1.2 MGD (average flow) plant.

Woodard (2006) described a magnetically enhanced coagulation process that may achieve
<0.03 mg/L TP based on long term pilot tests.

James Barnard (2008) developer of the Bardenpho process, recently moderated a session on
the capabilities and constraints of EBPR, and discussed the requirements for achieving
effluent P concentrations <0.1 mg/L. He emphasized the need for production of volatile fatty
acids by fermentation in order to assure their availability for the PAOs. Some of the factors
contributing to the difficulty of achieving very low levels of both N and P simultaneously
were pointed out, including secondary release of P in anoxic zones. The need to select for
PAOs over the competing glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) was also discussed,
with the following factors favoring GAOs: high sludge age, high temperature, longer unaerated detention times, stronger wastes with low organic N, polysaccharides fed to the
anaerobic zone, and low pH.

Narayanan (2009). There is some concern about the effects of solids management processes
and return side streams on the ability to remove P to low levels. Processes that destroy
organic material (such as digestion) have the potential to release the particulate organic-P

17

present as soluble organic or inorganic P. In particular, anaerobic conditions are likely to


release soluble P from EBPR sludge and iron precipitates (ferrous phosphate is much more
soluble than ferric phosphate). Any released P may then be returned to the main wastewater
treatment process in high concentrations through recycle side streams, thus requiring removal
a second time. Non-continuous processes may also lead to variable loadings from side
streams.

18

CHAPTER III
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This chapter deals with design of primary sewage treatment plant for staff residential area
and hostels of SHIATS, Allahabad. The district Allahabad is located at 25 57 North and
82 41 East altitudes. The altitude of the place above mean sea level is 93.0 m. The detail
description of the study area is given below.

3.1 Climate
The mean of monthly maximum temperature varies from 23.6 C (January) to 2.3 C (may),
and the mean monthly temperature in the range between 8.7 C January and 28.5 C June.
The normal annual total rainfall is 1,017.7 mm. August is the month with maximum
precipitation (307.6mm), followed closely by July 300.1mm. The period from June to
September accounts for about 87% of the total rainfall. Winter rains occur mostly during the
months of January and February and account for about 1.6% of total rainfall. The details of
climatilogical data of Allahabad is given in Table No. 3.1.

3.2 Sewage
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household
sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological
processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to
produce a treated effluent and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back
into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic
organic and inorganic compounds. Sewage implies the collecting of wastewaters from
occupied areas and conveying them to some point of disposal. The liquid wastes will require
treatment before they are discharged into the water body or otherwise disposed of without
endangering the public health or causing offensive conditions.

19

Sewerage is the art of collecting, treating and finally disposing of the sewage. Sewage is
liquid, consists of any one or a mixture of liquid waste origins from urinals, latrines, bath
rooms, kitchens of a dwelling, commercial building or institutional buildings.
Storm sewage is a liquid flowing in sewer during or following a period of rainfall and
resulting there from.
A Separate Sewer System is the sewerage system in which the domestic sewage is not carried
with the storm water in the rain season.

3.3 Treatment of Sewage


The treatment of sewage consists of many complex functions. The degree of treatment
depends upon the characteristics of the raw inlet sewage as well as the required effluent
characteristics.
Treatment processes are often classified as:
(i) Preliminary treatment
(ii) Primary treatment
(iii) Secondary treatment
(iv) Tertiary treatment.

3.3.1 Preliminary Treatment


Preliminary treatment consists solely in separating the floating materials like tree branches,
papers, pieces of rags, wood etc. and heavy settable inorganic solids. It helps in removal of
oils and greases and reduces the BOD by 15% to 30%. The processes under this are

Screening to remove floating papers, rags, clothes.


Grit chamber to remove grit and sand.
Skimming tank to remove oils and greases.

3.3.2 Primary Treatment


Primary treatment consists in removing large suspended organic solids. It is usually
accomplished by sedimentation in settling basins. The liquid effluent from the primary

20

treatment often contains a large amount of suspended organic material and has a high BOD
(about 60% of original).

3.3.3 Secondary Treatment


Here the effluent from primary treatment is treated through biological decomposition of
organic matter carried out either aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

Aerobic Biological Units


(i) Filters ( intermittent sand filters, trickling filters)
(ii) Activated Sludge Plant (feed of active sludge, secondary settling tank and aeration
tank)
(iii) Oxidation ponds and Aerated lagoons.

Anaerobic Biological Units


(i)

Anaerobic lagoons

(ii)

Septic tanks

(iii)

Imhoff tanks.

The effluent from the secondary treatment contains a little BOD (5% to 10% of original) and
may contain several milligrams per liter of DO.

3.3.4 Tertiary Treatment


The purpose of tertiary treatment is to provide a final treatment stage to raise the effluent
quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, ground, etc.).
More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is
practiced, it is always the final process. It is also known as "effluent polishing". The flow
chart of sewage treatment plant is given in Fig.3.1 and 3.2.

21

Table 3.1 Climatological data of Allahabad District

Month

January

Avg. Min
Temp
in
Allahabad,
India (C)
9

Avg Max
Temp in
Allahabad,
India (C)
24

Allahabad
Average
Temperature
(C)
16.5

Average
Precipitation/
Rainfall
(mm)
20

Wet
Days
(>0.1
mm)
3

February

12

27

19.5

22

9.2

51

March

17

33

25

14

8.9

35.0

April

23

39

31

9.9

24

May

27

42

35

10.0

27

June

29

40

35

102

7.2

47

July

27

34

31

275

19

5.2

76

August

26

32

29

333

21

4.9

81

September

25

33

29

195

13

6.9

77

October

20

33

27

40

8.9

61

November

13

29

21

9.3

55

December

25

17

8.9

63

22

Average Relative
Sunlight Humidity
Hours/
(%)
Day
8.1
67

3.4 Sewage Treatment Process


Sewage contains various types of impurities and disease bacteria. This sewage is disposed of
by dilution or on land after its collection and conveyance. If the sewage is directly disposed
of, it will be acted upon the natural forces, which will convert it into harmful substances. The
natural forces of purification cannot purify any amount of sewage within specified time. If
the quantity of sewage is more, then receiving water will become polluted or the land will
become sewage sick. Under such circumstances it becomes essential to do some treatment of
the sewage, so that it can be accepted by the land or receiving water without any objection.
These treatment processes will directly depend on the types of impurities present in the
sewage and the standard up to which treatment is required.

3.5 Degree of Treatment


The degree of treatment will mostly be decided by regulatory agencies and the extent to
which the final product of treatment are to be utilized. The regulatory bodies might have laid
down standard for the effluent or might specify the condition under which the effluent must
be discharged into the natural stream. The method of treatment adopted should not only meet
the requirement of the regulatory bodies, but also result in the maximum use of the end
product with economy.

3.6 Design Period


A sewerage scheme involves the laying of underground sewer pipes and construction of
costly treatment units, which cannot be replaced or increased in their capacities easily or
conveniently at a later date. In order to avoid such complications, the future expansions of
the hostels and residential area, consequent increase in the sewage quantity should be
forecasted to serve the community satisfactorily for a reasonable year. The future period for
which the provision is made in designing the capacities of various components of the
sewerage is known as design period. This sewage treatment plant is designed for 30 years.
The treatment plant is normally designed to meet the requirement over a 30 year period after
it completion. The time lag between the design and completion should not normally exceed
2-3 years. Care should be taken that the plant is not considerably under loaded in the initial
stages, particularly the sedimentation tank. The ultimate design period should be 30 years

23

and to that extent sufficient accommodation should be provided for all the units necessary to
cater to the need of ultimate population. In some cases, it may be necessary to combine a
number of sewage systems with a common sewage treatment plant.

3.7 Estimation of Sewage volume


Present population

Hostels =1800

Residential area = 700

Population by the year 2042 considered for design

Hostels = 20,000 head

Residential area =3,000 head

Total Population predicted by the year 2042 = 23,000


Ultimate design period = 30 years
Water supply per capita

hostels = 180 l/h/d


Residential area = 250 l/h/d

Sewage generation per day = 80% of supplied water

Total amount of sewage = sewage produced in hostels + sewage produces in


residential area

24

Inlet from sewer

Screening
Large solids, rags,
plastics

Grit removal

Grit, stones,
sand

Temporary
storm water
storage
Primary
sedimentation

Biological
treatment

Tertiary
treatment

Discharge to
receiving

Fig 3.1 Flow Chart of Processes of Sewage Treatment Plant

25

Primary
sludge

Secondary
sludge

Tertiary
sludge

3.8 Location of Treatment Plant


The treatment plant should be located as near to the point of disposal as possible. If the
sewage as to be disposed finally in to the river, the plant should be located near the river
bank. Care should be taken while locating the site that it should be on the downstream side of
the city and sufficiently away from water intake works. If finally the sewage as to be applied
on land, the treatment plant should be located near the land at such a place from where the
treated sewage can directly flow under gravitational forces toward the disposal point. The
plant should not be much far away from the town to reduce the length of the sewer line. On
the other hand the site should not be close to the town, that it may cause difficulties in the
expansion of town and may pollute the general atmosphere by smell and fly nuisance.

3.9 Layout of Treatment Plant


The following point should be kept in mind while giving layout of any sewage treatment
plant:

All the plant should be located in the order of sequence, so that sewage from one
process should directly go to other process.
If possible all the plant should be located at such elevation that sewage can flow from
one plant into next under its force of gravity only.
All the treatment units should be arranged in such a way that minimum area is
required it will also ensure economy in its cost.
Sufficient area should be occupied for future extension.
Staff quarter and office also should be provided near the treatment plant, so that
operators can watch the plant easily.
The site of treatment plant should be very neat and give very good appearance.
Bypass and overflow weir should be provided to cut out of operation any unit when
required.

All channels, conduits should be laid in such a way as to obtain flexibility, convenience and
economy in the operation.

26

Returned activated sludge

GRIT CHAMBER

SKIMMING
TANK

PRIMARY SETTING
TANK

AERATION TANK

SLUDGE
DISGESTION
TANK

TRICKLING
FILTER

Dried sludge
Disposal+

3.2 Layout of sewage treatment plan

27

FINAL SETTING
TANK

3.10 Design consederations


Following points are considered during the design of sewage treatment unit:

The design period should be taken between 25 to 30 years.

domestic flow basis.

The design should not be done on the hourly sewage flow basis, but the average

Instead of providing one big unit for each treatment more than two numbers small
units should provided, which will provide in operation as well as no stoppage during

maintenance and repair of the plant.

desired.

Overflow weirs and the bypasses should be provided to cut the particular operation if

Self cleaning velocity should develop at every place and stage.


The design of the treatment units should be economical; easy in maintenance should
offer flexibility in operation.

28

Table 3.2. Chemical Quality of raw and standard sewage

Parameters
pH

Raw Sewage

Effluent (Expected)

6.4

5.5 - 9.0

BOD

200 mg/l

20 mg/l

COD

600 mg/l

250 mg/l

oil and grease

50 mg/l

5 mg/l

total suspended solids

600 mg/l

30 mg/l

Nitrogen

61 mg/l

5 mg/l

ammonia nitrogen

50 mg/l

50 mg/l

total phosphorous

5 mg/l

5 mg/l

100000 MPN/ml

1000 no / 100 ml

total coli form

29

3.11 Design of Receiving Chamber


Receiving chamber is the structure to receive the raw sewage collected through Under
Ground Sewage System. It is a rectangular shape tank constructed at the entrance of the
sewage treatment plant. The main sewer pipe is directly connected with this tank.
Design flow = 0.126 cumec
Setting velocity of a critical particle (Vs)
.. (3.1)
Where
Q = flow rate ,m3
A = area of surface of tank,m2

As per the Stock law

Vs =

.... (3.2)

(Ss-1) dp

Where Vs Settling velocity (m/s)


kinematic viscosity of water
Ss sp. Gravity of a particle
dp dia. of a critical particle (m)
Volume of receiving chamber (V)
....(3.3)

V = flow x detention time

30

Area of receiving chamber (A)


. ..(3.4)
Where A = area,m2
V = volume ,m3
d = depth,m
Length and Breadth ratio of receiving chamber
Length: Breadth = 2 : 1

3.12 Screening
Screening is the very first operation carried out at a sewage treatment plant and consists of passing
the raw sewage through different types of screens so as to trap and remove the floating matter such
as tree leaves, paper, gravel, timber pieces, rags, fibre, tampons, cans, and kitchen refuse etc.

Purpose Of Screening:

Screening is essential in sewage treatment for removal of materials which would otherwise damage
the plant, interfere with the satisfactory operation of treatment unit or equipment.

To protect the pumps and other equipments from the possible damages due to floating
matter.
To remove the major floating matters from the raw sewage in a simple manner before it
reaches into the complex high energy required process.

Coarse Screens: The coarse screens essentially consist of steel bars or flat placed 30 to 60
inclination to the horizontal. The opening between bars are 50mm or above. These racks are
placed in the screen chamber provided in the way of sewer line. The width of the rack channel
should be sufficient so that self cleaning velocity should be available and a bypass channel should
be provided to prevent the overtopping. The bypass channel is provided with vertical bar screen.
A well drained trough is provided to store the impurities while cleaning the rack. These racks are
cleaned mechanically.

31

3.12.1 Design of Coarse Screen


Assume the velocity at average flow is not allowed to exceed 0.8 m/s
The net area screen opening required (A)
..(3.5)
Clear opening between bars = 20 mm = 0.02m
Size of the bars = 75 mm x 10 mm
Assume width of the channel = 0.5m
The screen bars are placed at 60 to the horizontal.

Clear area
(3.6)
No of clear openings
.(3.7)
Head loss
Head loss through the screen
H=0.0729(

. (3.8)

Where
H = head loss
V = velocity through the screen when opening get half clogged.
V = velocity through the screen
When the screen openings get half clogged then the velocity through the screen
V = allowed velocity x 2

32

3.13 Design of Grit Chamber with aeration


Grit removal basins are the sedimentation basins placed in front of the fine screen to remove the
inorganic particles having specific gravity of 2.65 such as sand, gravel, grit, egg shells and other
non-putrescible materials that may clog channels or damage pumps due to abrasion and to prevent
their accumulation in sludge digesters. The grit chamber is designed to scour the lighter organic
particles while the heavier grit particles remain settled.
Here the horizontal flow type grit chamber is designed to give a horizontal straight line flow
velocity, which is kept constant over varying discharge.

Peak flow of sewage = 0.126

/s

Assume average detention period = 180s


Volume of chamber
(3.9)

Volume = Peak flow x Detention period

In order to drain the channel periodically for routine cleaning and maintenance two chambers are
used.
Therefore
Volume of one chamber
..(3.10)

Where
V = Volume of one chamber,m3
Va = Volume of chamber, m3
Depth of 1m and width to depth ratio 2:1
Length of channel
.(3.11)
Where
L = length of chamber ,m

33

d = depth of chamber,m
W = width of chamber,m
Increase the length by about 30% to account for inlet and outlet

3.14 Design of Skimming Tank


Skimming tanks are the tanks removing oils and grease from the sewage constructed before the
sedimentation tanks. Municipal raw sewage contains oils, fats, waxes, soaps, fatty acids etc. The
greasy and oily matter may form unsightly and odorous scum on the surface of settling tanks or
may interfere with the activated sludge process.
In skimming tank air is blown along with chlorine gas by air diffuser placed at the bottom of the
tank. The rising air tends to coagulate and solidify the grease and cause it to rise to the top of the
tank whereas chlorine destroys the protective colloidal effect of protein, which holds the grease in
emulsified form. The greasy materials are collected from the top of the tank and the collected are
skimmed of by specially designed mechanical equipments.

Surface Area of the Tank


A = 6.22 x

(3.12)

x q / Vr

Where
q = rate of flow sewage in

/ day

Vr = minimum rising velocity of the oily material to be removed in m/min


Provide the depth of the skimming tank is 0.5m
The length breadth ratio is 1.5 : 1

3.15 Design of Primary Sedimentation Tank


Primary sedimentation tank is the settling tank constructed next to skimming tank to remove the organic
solids which are too heavy to be removed i.e. the particles having lesser size of 0.2 mm and specific

34

gravity of 2.65. The designed tank is circular type which makes settling by allowing radial flow.
Generally carbon steel is used for fabrication with epoxy lining on the inside and epoxy coating on the
outside. Built on the concept of inclined plate clarification was used which clarifiers use gravity in
conjunction with the projected settling area so as to effect a fairly high percentage of removal of
suspended solids as 60 to 65% of the suspended solids and 30 to 35% of the BOD from the sewage.
Max. discharge (Q) of sewage was estimated considering the present population of the hostels and the
residential area of the university including the prediction of future population
Surface loading
.(3.13)
Where
Q = Discharge
A = surface area of tank,m2

Settling Velocity
..(3.14)

(Ss-1) dp

Vs =

Where
Vs Settling velocity ,m
kinematic viscosity of water
Ss sp. Gravity of a particle
dp dia. of a critical particle ,m

Diameter of the tank (D) was calculated by the formula


.. 3.15

D=

Surface area of tank(A) was calculated by the formula


.(3.16)

35

Where V = volume of tank ,m3


d = depth of tank (m)

Depth of Tank (d) was calculated by the formula


..(3.17)

3.16 Design of High Rate Trickling Filter


The improved form of conventional filters known as high rate trickling filters are now almost
universally adopted for treatment to sewage. These filters consist of tanks of coarser filtering
media, over which the sewage is allowed to sprinkle or trickle down, by means of spray nozzles or
rotary distributors. The percolating sewage is collected at the bottom of the tank through a well
designed under drainage system. Trickling filter tanks are generally constructed above the
ground. They may either be rectangular or more generally circular. The circular filter tanks are
provided with rotary distributors having a number of distributing arms (generally four arms are
used).
The rate of revolutions varies from 2 RPM for small distributors to less than RPM for large
distributors. The distributing arms should remain about 15 to 20 cm above the top surface of the
filtering media in the tank.
Data regarding the discharge of sewage passing through the filter was used for the design of
high rate trickling filters with the assumption that the BOD concentration in raw sewage should be
200 mg / l .

3.16.1 Estimation of BOD in Raw sewage


The BOD present in the raw sewage was estimated using the formula with the assumption that the
percentage of BOD removed in primary tank is within the 30%
BOD = Total quantity of sewage x BOD concentration in sewage

36

(3.18)

The BOD left in the sewage, Total BOD and BOD removed by the filter was estimated using the
following formulas with assumption that the concentration of final effluent BOD is within the 20
mg per lit per day
.(3.19)

BOD Left = Total BOD x 0.7

Total BOD Left = total quantity of sewage x desire BOD concentration (3.20)
BOD removed by the filter = BOD left in the sewage entering per day - Total BOD left in the
.(3.21)

effluent per day

3.16.2 Filter area (A)


Filter area (A) was calculated by the formula

.(3.22)
Where
A = filter area,m2

Efficiency of the filter ()


.....(3.23)

Volume of the Filter (V)


..(3.24)

Where Y = total BOD in kg.


F = recirculation factor

37

Recirculation factor (F)


.(3.25)

F=

where-

Surface area of the tickling filter


(3.26)

Diameter (d) of circular tickling filter was calculated by the formula


(3.27)

3.16.1 Design of Rotary Distribution


The rotary distributer of tickling filter was designed by the assumption of the velocity at central
column of the distributor is within 2 m/s.

The diameter of central column (D) was calculated by the formula


(3.28)

Velocity (V) at central column was calculated by the formula

(3.29)

3.16.2 Design of Arms


In design of spray type rotary reaction distributor n 4 arms were considered.

Discharge per arms (Q) was calculated by the formula

38

.. (3.30)

Length of arms was calculated by the formula


.(3.31)

3.17 Activated Sludge Process


The activated sludge process is an aerobic, biological sewage treatment system to treat the settled
sewage consist a variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolved oxygen to promote the
growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material. The essential units of the
process are an aeration tank, a secondary settling tank, a sludge return line from the secondary
settling tank to the aeration tank and an excess sludge waste line.
Atmospheric air is bubbled through primary treated sewage combined with organisms to develop a
biological floc which reduces the organic content of the sewage. The Mixed Liquor, the
combination of raw sewage and biological mass is formed. In activated sludge plant, once the
effluent from the primary clarifier get sufficient treatment, the excess mixed liquor is discharged
into settling tanks and the treated supernatant is run off to undergo further treatment. Part of the
settled sludge called Return Activated Sludge (R.A.S.) is returned to the head of the aeration
system to re-seed the new sewage entering the tank. Excess sludge which eventually accumulates
beyond R.A.S known Waste Activated Sludge (W.A.S.) is removed from the treatment process to
keep the ratio of biomass to food supplied (F:M) ratio. W.A.S is further treated by digestion under
anaerobic conditions.

3.18 Contact Stabilization

Microorganisms consume organics in the contact tank.


Effluent from primary clarifier flows into the contact tank where it is aerated and mixed
with bacteria.
Soluble materials pass through bacterial cell walls, while insoluble materials stick to the
outside.

39

3.19 Design of Aeration Tank


Aeration tank is the mixing and diffusing structure in the activated sludge plant. These are
rectangular in shape having the dimensions ranging 3 to 4.5m deep, 4 to 6m wide and 20 to 200m
length. Air is introduced continuously to the tank. Combined Aeration type aerators having the
diffused air aeration as well as mechanical aeration together in a single unit are used in the project.
The Dorroco model is designed as it gives higher efficiency and occupies less space. This results in
higher efficiency and lesser detention period and lesser amount of compressed air.

Estimation of BOD at inlet

The BOD at inlet was estimated using the formula with the assumption that the percentage of BOD
removed in grit chamber is within the 20%.

BOD at inlet ( ) was calculated by the formula


= flow velocity x BOD

..(3.32)

BOD removed in activated plant was calculated by the formula

BOD removed in activated plant =

Where
= BOD at outlet

Efficiency (E) of plant was calculated by the formula


x 100

..(3.33)

F/M ratio was calculated by the formula


. (3.34)

F/M ratio =

40

Volume (V) of aeration tank was calculated by the formula


.. (3.35)

V=

Where
Xt = Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)

3.20 Cross checking of the design parameters against the permissible limits
3.20.1 Aeration Period / Hydraulic retention time (HRT)
Since the permissible limit of aeration period is between 3 6 hr, so if the designed period is
within this limit the design is acceptable.
Hydraulic retention time (t) was calculated by the formula
t = V x 24 Q

.(3.36)

3.20.2 Volumetric Loading


Since the permissible limit of volumetric loading is between 1.0 2.0, so if the designed period is
within this limit the design is acceptable.
Volumetric loading was calculated by the formula
.(3.37)

Volumetric loading =

3.20.3 Return Sedge Ratio


Since the permissible limit of return sedge ratio is between 0.5 1.0, so if the designed period is
within this limit the design is acceptable.
Return active sludge (

) was calculated by the formula

41

..... (3.38)

Where
SVI = Sludge Volume Index (it is ranging between 50 150 ml / gm)

3.20.4 Sludge Retention Time (SRT)


Since the permissible limit of sludge retention time is between 5 8 day, so if the designed period
is within this limit the design is acceptable.
SRT (

) was calculated by the formula


..(3.39)

Where
= constant for municipal sewage with respect to MLSS, 0.5
= constant for municipal sewage, 0.06

3.21 Capacity of Pump


Pump capacity for aeration process was estimated by the formula with the assumption that the
oxygen transfer rate by aerator in standard condition is 1.41 kg. / HP /hr, and the efficiency of
aerators at field condition in percentage are 90%.

Oxygen transfer capacity aerators at field conditions calculated by the formula


Oxygen transfer capacity aerators at field conditions = 0.9 x oxygen transfer capacity
. (3.34)

Oxygen to be applied in each tank was calculated by the formula


Oxygen to be applied in each tank = oxygen requirement x BOD removed in each tank x peak
oxygen demand

.(3.35)

42

Pump capacity was calculated by the formula


.(3.36)

HP of aerators required =

3.22 Design of Sludge Drying Beds


Drying of the digested sludge on open beds of land is sludge drying and such open beds of land are
known as sludge drying beds. The digested sludge from digestion tank contains a lot of water. So it
is necessary to dry up or dewater the digested sludge before it disposed of dumping.
The sewage sludge is brought and spread over the top of drying beds to a depth of 20 to 30 cm,
through distribution troughs. A portion of the moisture drains through the bed while most of it gets
evaporated to the atmosphere. In hot countries like India it takes 6 to 12 days to dry. After the
period the sludge cakes are removed with spades and they are used as manure as it contains 2 to
3% of NPK.
Sludge drying beds are open beds of land 45 to 60 cm deep, 30 to 45 cm thick graded layers of
gravel or crushed stone varying in size from 15cm at bottom and 1.25 cm at top. Open jointed
under drain pipes of 15 cm diameter are laid below the gravel layers. Large beds are portioned by
concrete walls, and a pipe header from the digesters with gated openings allows application of
sludge independently to each cell. Seepage collected in the under-drains is returned to the plant
wet well for treatment with the raw wastewater. Volume of sludge, number of cycle, Volume of
sludge per cycle and required bed area were calculated using the following formulas

Volume of sludge
(3.37)

Volume of sludge =

Number of cycle each year

Number of cycle each year was calculated by the formula with the assumption that the drying
period is 8 days for sewage drying bed in Allahabad district.
..(3.38)

Number of cycle in one year =

43

Volume of sludge per cycle

Volume of sludge per cycle = volume of sludge x period of each cycle

Required bed area


.(3.39)

Required bed Area =

3.23 Design of Sewer pipe line


A Sewer consists of collection of sewage water from the source, carrying it or transporting it to the
treatment plant and finally distributing the treated water among the use. Separate sewer system is
used for transporting the sewage material.
A Separate Sewer System is the sewerage system in which the domestic sewage is not carried with
the storm water in the rain season. Shape of sewer design was considered.
3.23.1 Forces Acting on Sewer pipe line
The following forces are acting on the sewer pipe line
1. Internal pressure of sewage
2. Pressure due to external loads
3. Temperature stresses
4. Flexural stresses
3.23.2 Criteria for selecting the Material of Sewer pipe line
For selecting the material for sewer pipe the following points were considered.
1. Resistance to corrosion
2. Resistance to abrasion
3.Strength and durability
4. Light weigh
5. Imperviousness
6. The economy and cost

44

7. Hydraulically efficient

Discharge through sewer pipe line was calculated by the formula


Q=AxV

(3.40)

Cross - Section Area of sewer pipe line was calculated by the formula
(3.41)

or
Where r is the radius of sewer, m

Cross-section area of pipe was calculated considering the pipes are running half full and by using
the following formula
.(3.42)

A=

Wetted perimeter (P) of pipe


.(3.43)

P=

Flow velocity in sewers pipe line and drain pipe line

V = 0.85 C

(Hazen-William's formula) . (3.44)

Where
V= velocity, m/s;
R = hydraulic radius, m;
S= slope,
C= Hazen-William's coefficient,

(Manning's formula) (3.45)


Where:
V= velocity, m/s;
R = hydraulic radius, m;
S= slope
n = Manning's coefficient

45

(Darcy-Weisbach formula )(3.46)

where
= head loss
L = length of sewer ,m
U = flow velocity ,m/s
D = diameter of sewer ,m
F = darcy weisbach coefficient

Self cleaning velocity ( ) of sewage fluid was calculated by the formula


=

kd(G - 1)

.(3.47)

Where
n= Manning's coefficient
r= radius of sewer
k= dimensional constant
d= effective diameter of sewer
G = specific gravity of sewage particle

3.23.3 Operation and Maintenance of Sewers


1. A sewer system is subject to a variety of operational problems, Depending on the wastewater
flow characteristics, surrounding soils condition, and quality of construction, the pipeline can
suffer from clogging, scouring, corrosion, collapse, and, ultimately, the system's deterioration.
The collection system is designed to serve for a specific useful life. To incumbent of the City
provided following adequate operation and maintenance structure and machineries are
Manholes, Drop manholes, Lamp holes, Clean outs, Street inlets(gullies), Catch basins,
Flushing tanks, Grease and oil traps, Inverted siphons, Storm regulators to maximize the
benefit throughout its designed useful life.

46

Table 3.3 Recommendations of National Buildings Organization (N.B.O.) on Non scouring


Limiting Velocities in Sewers and Drains

S. NO

Sewer Material

Limiting Velocity in m/sec

Vitrufied Tiles and


Glazed Bricks

4.5 - 5.5

Cast Iron Sewers

3.5 - 4.5

Stone Ware
Sewers

3.0 - 4.0

Cement Concrete
Sewers

2.5 - 3.0

Ordinary Brick Lined Sewers

1.5 - 2.5

Earthen Channels

0.6 - 1.2

Table 3.4 Manhole spacing as per IS 1742 1960

Size of the Sewer

Recommended
Spacing
of
Manholes on Straight Reaches of
Sewer Line as per IS 1740 - 1962

Dia. up to 0.3 m

45 m

Dia. up to 0.6 m

75 m

Dia. up to 0.9 m

90 m

Dia. up to 1.2 m

120 m

Dia. up to 1.5 m

250 m

Dia greater than 1.5m

300 m

47

Table 3.5 Minimum internal dimensions for Manhole Chamber as per IS 1742 1960
S. No.

Depth

Min. Size Specified

0.8 m or less

0.75 m x 0.75m

0.8 and 2.1 m

1.2 m x 0.9m

> 2.1 m

Circular chambers with


min. dia. of 1.4 m; or
rectangular chambers
with min dimensions of
1.2 m x 0.9 m

Min. wall thickness


up to
(a) 1.5 m depth

20 cm

(b) > 1.5 m depth

30 cm

48

CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter deals with the various results on design of primary sewage treatment plant for staff
residential area and hostels of SHIATS, Allahabad. The detail descriptions of the results are given
as under.

Estimation of Sewage volume


For the estimation of sewage water volume used for design of primary sewage treatment plant the
present population of SHIATS hostel and residential area was estimated. The present population
was found 2500 for estimation of the population after 30 years the future planning of SHAITS
hostel expansion plan was considered and it was assumed that by the year 2042, the population of
the students in the hostel will be 20,000 and the residents in residential area will be 3000, all
together the 23,000 was estimated. The design discharge was estimated as described in Article 3.7
and the results are given in Table 4.1. The table value shows that the design period was considered
30 years and by the year 2042 the population will be 23000 adults including the Hostels and
Residential area of SHIATS. While calculation of sewage water generation it was assumed that the
average sewage produced by an adult is 180 lit. /day and hence the total sewage water volume
generated through design population was estimated 3.6 MLD.

49

Table 4.1 details of the design parameters of the primary sewage treatment plant

S.No.
1

Design parameter
Design period

Value
30 years

Estimated population by the year 2042

23000 adults

Water supply per capita

3.6

Total Volume of sewage water


estimated from the population of
SHIATS hotels and residential area
( MLD)
Average discharge

Maximum discharge

0.126Cumces

Dimensions of Receiving chamber

Length 4m
Width 2m
Depth 1m
Free board 0.3 m
Width 0.2 m
Depth 0.6m
Free board 0.3m
Length 5.2m
Width 3m
Depth 1.5m
Length 0.532m
Width 0.355m
Depth 1m
Free board 0.3m
Diameter 7m
Depth 2m
Free board 0.5m
Diameter 15.5m
Depth 2.5m
Length - 15m
Width 8m
Depth 4m
Length 12.5m
Width 8m
Depth 1.7m

Dimension of Corse screen

Dimension of Grit chamber

10

Dimension of Skimming tank

11

Dimension of Primary sedimentation


tank

12

Dimension of Trickling filter

13

Dimension of Aeration tank

14

Dimension of Sludge drying bed

50

In hostels = 180 l/h/d


In Residential area = 250 l/h/d

0.042 Cumec

4.2 Receiving Chamber


For the design of receiving chamber of the primary sewage treatment plant the influent volume has
been estimated as 0.126 cumec with an assumed detention period of 60 sec and 1m depth .The
planned cross-section of the designed chamber is given in Fig 4.1. The detention period for
receiving chamber was calculated 60 seconds. The volume of sewage water required at receiving
chamber was estimated 0.864 m3. The ratio of depth and width is taken as 2:1. The design
dimensions of receiving chamber to carry the required volume was calculated width of the
chamber is 2m, length of the chamber 4 m and the depth was 1m with total cross-section area of
7.86 m2 . A free board of 0.3 m was provided for the safety purpose to avoid the overflow.

Table No. 4.2 Details of receiving chamber for primary sewage treatment plant
S.No.

Design parameter

Value

Average flow in receiving chamber

0.126cumec

Detention time

Required volume of receiving chamber

0.864

Surface area of the receiving chamber

7.86

Depth of receiving chamber

1m

Length of receiving chamber

4m

Width of receiving chamber

2m

60 sec

51

Fig. No.4.1 Design dimensions of receiving Chamber

52

4.3 Coarse Screen


For the designing of Coarse Screen, no. of opening of coarse screen was estimated as the formula given in
article 3.12 and accordingly the width and depth of channel to carry the sewage discharge paring through
the design coarse screen was estimated 0.5 m and 0.6 m respectively,0.3 m free board was proceed for
safety factor. The coarse screen is made of steel bares at 60 inclination to horizontal with 15 mm opening
between the bars. The steel bares size 75mm x 10 mm was recommended for the coarse screen. The
maximum allowable velocity was considered 0.18 m/sec for the average sewage flow through the coarse
screen .The detailed result are and

the head losses occurring due to the coarse screen and sewage

movement through the channel was also estimated and given in Table 4.3.

Table No. 4.3 Details of coarse screen for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Pick flow through core screen

0.126

Velocity through the screen

0.8 m / sec

Clear opening area

0.115

Clear opening between bars

No. of clear opening in Coarse Screen

Width of channel for coarse screen

0.6 m

Depth of channel for coarse screen

0.5 m

Head loss through the screen

Head loss when screen openings get half


clogged

53

/s

0.02 m
4

0.013 m
0.15m

Fig. No. 4.2 Design of core screen

54

4.4 Grit Chamber


For the design of Grit Chamber to carry the sewage passing through the coarse screen the
dimension of the grit chamber was designed as discussed on article 3.13 and result are shown in
Table 4.3.The specific gravity of sewage water screened through coarse screen was assumed 2.65
and the detention period was considered 180 sec respectively for design of grit chamber. It was
also suggested that in order to the maintain the grit chamber efficient, periodically two chamber
should be used. The detailed result of the dimension of grit chamber and the Aerated volume of grit
chamber was also estimated and given in Table 4.3

Table No. 4.4 Detail of grit chamber for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Peck flow of sewage in grit chamber

Detention period

180 sec.

Aerated volume of one grit chamber

11.35

Depth of grit chamber

1.5 m

Width of grit chamber

3m

Length of grit chamber

5.2 m

55

0.126

/s

Fig. No. 4.3 Design of grit chamber

56

4.5 Skimming Tank


For the designing of the Skimming tank, the estimation of the area of tank, discharge and
dimension of the tank is given in the Article 3.14 and the result are shown in the table 4.5. The
depth of the skimming tank was assumed as 1m and the length to the breadth ratio was taken as
1.5: 1.

Table No. 4.5 details of skimming tank for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Peak flow of sewage in skimming tank

Area of skimming tank

0.189

Width of skimming tank

0.355 m

Length of skimming tank

0.532 m

Depth of skimming tank

1.3 m

57

10886.4

/ day

Fig. No. 4.4 Design of skimming chamber

58

4.6 Primary Sedimentation Tank


For the designing of the Primary sedimentation tank estimation of the dimension of tank, volume
of sewage, and surface area of tank as given in the Article 3.15 and the result are shown in Table
4.6. The tank provided a fairly high percentage of removal of suspended solids as 65% of the
suspended solids and 35% of the BOD from the sewage. The detention period was assumed as 2
hrs and the depth was assumed as 2 m. 0.5 m free board was provided for the safety purpose to
avoid the over flow.
Table No. 4.6 Details of primary sedimentation tank for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No

Design parameter

Value

Quantity of sewage

3.6 MLD

Volume of sewage

Detention period

Surface area of primary sedimentation tank

Depth of primary sedimentation tank

Diameter of primary sedimentation tank

75
2 hr

59

37.5
2.5 m
7m

Fig. No. 4.5 Design of primary sedimentation tank

60

4.7 High Rate Trickling Filter


For Design of High Rate Trickling Filter the estimation of total BOD present in the raw sewage,
diameter of the trickling filter and the central column, Efficiency of the filter have been done as
given in the Article no 3.16 and the result is shown in the Table no 4.7 . The concentration of BOD
in raw sewage was assumed as 200 mg/l and the percentage removal in primary tank was assumed
as 30% and the final BOD concentration in effluent was estimated as 20 mg/l.
Table No. 4.7 details of trickling filter for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Quantity of sewage flowing into the filter

3.6 MLD

BOD left in the sewage entering per day in

504 kg.

filter unit
3

Total BOD left in the effluent per day

83 kg

BOD removed by the filter

432 kg

Efficiency of the filter

85.7%

Surface area

Filter depth

2.5 m

Dia. of trickling filter

15.5 m

Diameter of central column

0.22m

10

Arms length

1850

7m

61

Fig. No, 3.6 Design of trickling filter

62

4.8 Aeration Tank


For the designing of Aeration tank the estimation of efficiency in the activated plant, dimension of
the tank, volume of aeration tank, BOD of inlet, BOD of outlet was done as given in the Article no
3.19 and the result are shown in Table 4.8. The F/M ratio was assumed as 0.4. The liquid depth of
the tank as 4 m and the width to depth ratio was assumed as 2:1.
Table No. 4.8 Details of aeration tank for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Average volume flow in aeration tank

3600

BOD in inlet(

160 mg/l

BOD at outlet( )

20 mg / l

BOD removed in activated plant

140 mg / l

F/M ratio

Required Volume of the tank

Depth of aeration tank

4m

Length of aeration tank

15 m

Width of aeration tank

8m

0.4
480

63

Fig. No. 4.7 Design of Aeration tank

64

4.9 Sludge Drying Beds


For the designing of the Sludge Drying Bed, estimation of volume of sludge, no of cycle per year
and dimension of beds was done as given in Article no 3.22 and the result are shown in Table no
4.9. The number of dry have been taken as 5. The solid content present in the sludge was assumed
as 2% and the drying period of the sludge was assumed to be done in 8 days.
Table No. 4.9 details of sludge drying bed for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Sludge applied to the dry bed

300 kg /day

Specific gravity

1.015

Volume of sludge

14.778

Number of cycle in one year

46

Drying Period of each cycle

8 day

Area of bed required

492.6

No of dry bed

Area of each bed

100

Depth of Spreading layer per cycle

0.3 m

10

Length of dry bed

12.5 m

11

Width of dry bed

8m

65

/ day

Fig. No. 4.8 Design of drying bed

66

4.10 Sewer Pipe Line


For the designing of a Sewer pipe, estimation of the dia. of pipe, self cleaning velocity and slope of
the sewage pipe was done as given in the Article no 3.23 and the result are shown in Table no 4.10.
The shape of the pipe was taken as circular and R.C.C was used as the material for sewer pipe
building. The limiting velocity of sewage in the sewer pipeline was taken between 2.5 to 3.0
m / sec according to the N.B.O.

Table No. 4.10 Details of sewer pipe line for primary sewage treatment plant
S. No.

Design parameter

Value

Self cleaning velocity in sewer pipe line

0.9 m/sec

Diameter of sewer pipe line

0.5 m

Slope of pipe line

1 in 556

67

68

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
In the present study a scheme for the primary treatment and management of sewage generated in
SHIATS hostels and residential area has been developed. The total sewage generated in one day is
3.6ML. The scheme is proposed to be constructed at SHIATS Crop Research Farm near NH-27.
The treated water will be supplied for irrigating the crops on Research Farm and the remaining
sludge after treatment will be used as manure on Farm. The use of treated water will reduce the
ground water use and additionally the treated sludge will be very useful for increasing the fertility
of soil. Important units of the scheme have been designed for a specific case are:1. The design of primary sewage treatment is for the predicted population of 23,000 and
estimated sewage of 3.6 MLD.
2. The dimension of receiving chamber is 4m x 2m x 1.5m.
3. The dimension of screen is 0.6m x 5.3m
4. The dimension of grit chamber with aeration is 5.2m x 3m x 1.3m
5. The dimension of the primary sedimentation tank is diameter of 7m and depth 2.5m
6. The dimension of the trickling filter is diameter of 15.5m and depth 2m
7. The dimension of the aeration tank is 15m x 8m x 4m
8. The dimension of sludge dry bed is 12.5m x 8m
9. The construction of the primary sewage treatment plant will prevent the direct disposal of
sewage in Yamuna river and the use of treated water will reduce the surface water and
ground water contamination.

69

REFERENCE
Azad, A.S. (1995) . Design of primary sewage treatment plant. Madras Agricultural Journal
1994, 81:5, pp 272 273;
Besnarek, W. and Tkaczyk , P. (1999) folia Waste water treatment and disposal
agricultural journal 2001, pp 50 72;
Bose, P. and Reckhow, D. A. (2007). Effect of Ozonation on Natural Matter Removal by Alum
Coagulation. Water Research, 41: 1516-1524.
Caroline Snyder (2005). "The Dirty Work of Promoting "Recycling" of Americas Sewage
Sludge". International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 11: 415427.
Cha, J., and A. M. Cupples. (2009) "Detection of the antimicrobials triclocarban and triclosan in
agricultural soils following land application of municipal biosolids." Water Research 43: 2522-30.
Cha, J., and A. M. Cupples. (2010) "Triclocarban and triclosan biodegradation at field
concentrations and the resulting leaching potentials in three agricultural soils." Chemosphere 81:
494-9.
Diouf, Jacques , Journal of FAO,2003 Q&A with FAO Director-General.
Environmental Health Perspectives. February (2004) Journal A High-Level Disinfection
Standard for Land Applying Sewage Sludges (Biosolids)"..
Birdie, G.S and J.S. Birdie (1997) .Water supply and sanitary engineering. Published by Rai &
dhanpat Ed. PP 50 -120;
Harrison EZ, Oakes SR (2002). A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 12
(4): 387408 "Investigation of Alleged Health Incidents Associated with Land Application of
Sewage Sludges
Horenstein, B., Hernandez, G., Rasberry, G., Crosse, J. (1990) Successful dewatering
experience at Hyperion wastewater treatment plant, Water Science and Technology, v. 22, p. 183191
International Journal of Environment and Pollution 11 (1): 136. (1999)."Land application of
sewage sludges: an appraisal of the US regulations".
Jones, Lepp, T. and Stevens, R. (2007) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in
biosolids/sewage sludge: the interface between analytical chemistry and regulation, Analytical &
Bioanalytical Chemistry, v. 387, p. 11731183
Kumar, A., Saroj, D. P., Tare, V. and Bose, P. (2006). Treatment of Distillery Spent-Wash by
Ozonation and Biodegradation: Significance of pH Reduction and Inorganic Carbon Removal
Prior to Ozonation. Water Environment Research. 78(9): 994-1004.

70

McBride M. (2003). Toxic metals in sewage sludge-amended soils: has promotion of beneficial
use discounted the risks
Garg, S.K. (2006 ) . Sewage disposal and air pollution engineering. TMH publishing Ed by laxmi
publication, PP 219 300;
Srivastava, S., Bose, P., and Tare, V. (2006). Enhancement of COD and Color Removal of
Distillery Spent-Wash by Ozonation. Water Environment Research. 78(4): 409-420.
Tare, V., Bose, P. and Gupta, S. K. (2003). Suggestions for a Modified Approach towards
Implementation and Assessment of Ganga Action Plan and Other Similar River Action Plans in
India. Water Quality Research Journal, Canada, 38: 607-626.
Tare, V., Gupta, S. and Bose, P. (2003). Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery
Effluents in India. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 53: 976-982.
Tare, V., Yadav, A.V.S and Bose, P. (2003). Analysis of Photosynthetic Activity in the Most
Polluted Stretch of River Ganga. Water Research, 37: 67-77.
Turek et al. (2005). Removal of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge Used as Soil Fertilizer
Wu, C., A. L. Spongberg, J. D. Witter, M. Fang, and K. P. Czajkowski. (2010) "Uptake of
pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and
irrigated with contaminated water." Environmental Science & Technology 44: 6157-6161.".

71

APPENDIX
Calculation for design of primary sewage treatment plant

Calculation of Sewage Generation


Total present populationHostels = 20,000 person
Residential area =3,000 person
Water supply per capita hostels = 180 l/h/d
Residential area = 250 l/h/d
Sewage generation per day = 80% of supplied water
Per capita sewage water
Hostels = 150 l/h/d
Residential area = 200 l/h/d
Total sewage generation per day
Hostels 150 x 20,000 = 3000000 l/d
Residential area 200 x 3000 = 600000 l/d
Total amount of sewage 3000000 + 6000000 = 3600000 = 3.6 MLD
In cumec,
Average discharge = 0.042 cumec
Maximam discharge = 3 x avg. discharge
= 3 x 0.042
= 0.126cumces

Design of Receiving Chamber


Design flow = 0.126 cumec
Detention time = 60 sec
Volume required = 0.126 x 60
Vrqd = 7.56
Provide depth = 1 m
Area
= 7.56
Take ratio of length : breadth = 2 : 1
= 7.56
L x B = 2B x B = 2
= 3.78
B = 1.94 m
Say 2m
L = 3.88 m
Say 4m

Cross Checking of the designed parameter

72

Volume designed = 4m x 2m x 1m
Vdes = 8
Vrqd = 7.56
Vdes > Vrqd

Design of Coarse Screen


Peak discharge of sewage flow = 0.126
/s
Assume the velocity at average flow is not allowed to exceed 0.8 m/s
The net area screen opening required = 0.126 / 0.8
= 0.16
Clear opening between bars = 20 mm = 0.02m
Size of the bars = 75 mm x 10 mm
Assume width of the channel = 0.5m
The screen bars are placed at 60 to the horizontal.
Velocity through screen at peak flow = 1.6m/s
Clear area = 0.16 / 1.6 x sin 60
= 0.115
No of clear openings = 0.115 / 0.03
= 3.83 = 4 Nos.
Width of channel = (4 x 30) + (5 x 10)
= 170mm = 0.17m
Provided width of the channel = 0.2m
Depth of channel = 0.115 / 0.2
= 0.57m

Design of Grit Chamber


/s
Peak flow of sewage = 0.126
Assume average detention period = 180s
Aerated volume = 0.126 x 180
=22.68 = 22.7
In order to drain the channel periodically for routine cleaning and maintenance two chambers are
used.
Therefore volume of one aerated chamber = 22.7/ 2
= 11.35
Assume depth of 1.5m and width to depth ratio 2:1
Width of channel = 1.5x 2
=3m
Length of channel = 11.35 / 3
= 3.78 m
Say 4m
Increase the length by about 30% to account for inlet and outlet Provided length = 4+1.2 = 5.2 m

73

Design of Skimming Tank


The surface area required for the tank A = 6.22 x
q = 0.126 x 60 x 60 x 24
/ day
= 10886.4
Vr = 0.25 m / min
= 0.25 x 60 x 24
= 360 m / day
A = 6.22 x
x 10886.4 / 360
= 0.189
Provide the depth of the skimming tank is 1m
The length breadth ratio is 1.5: 1
L = 1.5B
A = 1.5
0.189 = 1.5
B = 0.355 m
L = 0.532 m

x q / Vr

Design of Primary Sedimentation Tank


Max. Quantity sewage = 3.6 MLD
Surface loading = Q /
/
/ day
= 20,000
Detention period = 2hr
Volume of sewage =
= 75
Provide effective depth = 2m
Surface area = volume / depth
= 75 / 2
=37.5
Diameter of the tank
= 37.5
6.91m
say 7m
Primary sedimentation tank is designed for the dimension of 7m dia and 2m depth with free board
of 0.5m extra depth.

Design of High Rate Trickling Filter


Quantity of sewage flowing into the filter per day = 3.6 MLD
BOD concentration in raw sewage = 200 mg / l

74

Total BOD present in raw sewage = 3.6x 200


= 720 kg.
BOD remove in primary tank = 30%
BOD left in the sewage entering per day in filter unit = 720 x 0.7
= 504 kg.
BOD concentration desires in final effluent = 20 mg / l
Total BOD left in the effluent per day = 3.6 x 20
= 72 kg
BOD removed by the filter = 504 72
= 432 kg
Efficiency of the filter = (BOD removed / total BOD) x 100
=
x100 = 85.7%
For Computing the volume of filter used equation =
Where = 85.7%
Y = total BOD in kg.
Recirculation factor
F = recirculation factor
F=
Here
F =1.89
So
85.7 =
V = 0.185 hectare - m
V = 1850
Surface area
Filter depth = 2.5 m
Surface area = volume / depth
= 1850 / 2.5
= 740

Diameter of circular filter


A=
740 =
d = 30.7 m
Say 31 m
Trickling filter is designed of diameter of 31 m and depth 2.5 m.

75

Design of Rotary Distribution


/s
Peak flow per day = 0. 126
Assume that the velocity at central column of the distributor = 2 m/s
The dia. of central column (D)

D = 0.22 m

Check for Velocity at Average Flow


The velocity through the column at average flow, as it should not be less than 1 m/sec
Discharge through average flow =0. 126
/s
Velocity at average flow

V = 1.82 m/sec
1.82 m/sec > 1 m/sec hence , the dia. central column is 0.22m
Design of Arms
We use the rotary reaction spray type distributer with 4 arms .
Discharge per arms(Q)-

Q = 0.0315
/s
Dia. of filter used = 31 m
So
Arm length =14.5m

Design of Aeration Tank


Design flow = 3.6 MLD
Average flow of tank = 3600
BOD in inlet = 0.8 x 200
(20% BOD removed at grit chamber)
BOD at outlet = 20 mg / l
BOD removed in activated plant = 160 20
= 140 mg / l
Minimum efficiency required in the activated plant = 140 /160
= 87.5 %

76

Since the adopted extended aeration process can remove 85 90%


Hence it is OK
MLSS (Xt) = 3000 mg/l
F/M ratio = 0.4
Volume the tank required (v)
V=
=
= 480
Assume the liquid depth of the tank as 4 m
The width to depth ratio as 2:1
Width = 8 m
Length of tank
L x B x D = 480
L=
=
= 15 m

Check for Aeration Period / HRT


Hydraulic retention time (HRT) t=
=
= 3.2 hrs
Since it lies between 3 6 hrs it is OK

77

Check for Volumetric Loading


Volumetric loading =
=
= 1200 g/
= 1.2 kg/
Since it is lies between 1.0 1.3, it is OK.

Check for Return Sludge Ratio


=
=
= 0.56
= 56%
It is lies between 0.5 1.0. Design is OK

Check for SRT (

+ 0.06 =
= 0.115
= 8.69
Say 9 day
It is lies between 7 10 day. The design is OK

Capacity Aerator
BOD applied of tank = 160 mg/l
Average flow of tank = 3600
day
BOD removed in tank = 3600 x 0.160
= 576 kg / day
kg / hr
=
= 24 kg / hr
Oxygen requirement = 1 kg / kg of BOD applied
Peck oxygen demand = 125%
Oxygen transfer capacity of the aeration of the standard condition

78

= 1.9 kg /kWh
= 1.41 kg / HP / hr
Oxygen transfer capacity aerators at field condition = 0.9 x 1.41
= 1.269 kh / HP / hr
Oxygen to be in a tank = 1.0 x 24 x 1.25
= 30 kg /hr
HP of aerators required
=
= 23.64 HP
= 24 HP

Design of Sludge Drying Beds


Sludge applied to drying bed at the rate of 100kg / MLD
Sludge applied = 300 kg/day
Specific gravity = 1.015
Solid content = 2%
Volume of sludge =
=
= 14.778
/ day
For Allahabad weather condition the beds get dried out about 8 day
Number of cycle in one year =
= 45.62
Say 46 cycles
Period of each cycle = 8 days
Volume of sludge per cycle = 14.778 x 10
= 147.78
Spreading a layer of 0.3m per cycle,
Area of bed required = 147.78/0.3
= 492.6
Say 500
Provide 5 nos of bed,
Area of each bed = 100
Dimension of each bed 12.5m x 8m are designed.

Design of Sewer
X-Cross section area
A=
Wetted perimeter
P = D
Hydraulic mean depth (HMD)

79

R=

Now pipe is running half full, then


A=
Diameter of sewer pipe Q= A x V
0 126 =

x 1.8

D = 0.422m
Slope of sewer pipe
By Manning's formula 1 2/ 3 1/ 2
R S
n
V = 1.8 m/s
n= 0.013
R = 0.42
1.8 =
V=

=
S = 0.00176
Slope = 1 in 556

80