You are on page 1of 34

GYANODAYA COLLAGE, JAISINAGAR

A
PROJECT REPORT
ON

WOMEN EDUCATION
2014-15
SUBMITTED TO

SUBMITTED BY

HIMANI SHARMA

B.ED.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate
enough to get support from a large number o persons. I wish to express my deep
sense of gratitude to all those who generously helped in successful completion of
this report by sharing their invaluable time and knowledge.
It is my proud and privilege to express my deep regards to Respected ,
Principal ..................................................................for allowing me to undertake this
project.
I feel extremely exhilarated to have completed this project under the able and
inspiring guidance of ....................................................... rendered me all possible
help me guidance while reviewing the manuscript in finalising the report.
I also extend my deep regards to my teachers , family members , friends and
all those whose encouragement has infused courage in me to complete to work
successfully.

HIMANI SHARMA
B.ED.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN INDIA
) WOMENS EDUCATION IN INDIA.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Present Education system in India
How System of education in USA is different from India.
ISSUES ON EDUCATION SYSTEM OF INDIA.
INTERPRETATION
CONCLUSION
SUGGESTIONS / RECOMENDATIONS.
BIBLOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
As India progressed from ancient to medieval its education system deteriorated. Various
factors were responsible for the degradation of this most efficient and most ancient
education system of the world.
The present educational system of India is an implantation of British rulers. Wood's
Dispatch of 1854 laid the foundation of present system of education in India. Before the
advent of British in India, education system was private one. With the introduction of
Wood's Dispatch known as Magna Carta of Indian education, the whole scenario changed.
The main purpose of it was to prepare Indian Clerks for running local administration.
Under it the means of school educations were the vernacular languages while the higher
education was granted in English only. British government started giving funds to
indigenous schools in need of help and thus slowly some of the schools became
government-aided.
Contemplating on the new system which was introduced Mahatma Gandhi expressed his
anguish in following words, "I say without fear of my figures being challenged
successfully, that today India is more illiterate than it was fifty or a hundred years ago, and
so is Burma, because the British administrators, when they came to India, instead of taking
hold of things as they were, began to root them out. They scratched the soil and began to
look at the root, and left the root like that, and the beautiful tree perished. The village
schools were not good enough for the British administrator, so he came out with his
program. Every school must have so much paraphernalia, building, and so forth. Well,
there were no such schools at all. There are statistics left by a British administrator which
show that, in places where they have carried out a survey, ancient schools have gone by
the board, because there was no recognition for these schools, and the schools established
after the European pattern were too expensive for the people, and therefore they could not
possibly overtake the thing. I defy anybody to fulfil a program of compulsory primary
education of these masses inside of a century. This very poor country of mine is ill able to
sustain such an expensive method of education. Our state would revive the old village
schoolmaster and dot every village with a school both for boys and girls. "

History of Education in India


The history of education in India is very rich and interesting. One can trace the ancient
India education to the 3rd century BC. Research shows that in the ancient days, sages and
scholars imparted education orally, but after the development of letters, it took the form of
writing. Palm leaves and barks of trees were used for education, and this in turn helped
spread the written literature. Temples and community centers often took the role
of schools.
When Buddhism spread in India, education became available to everyone and this led to
the establishment of some world famous educational institutions Nalanda, Vikramshila and
Takshashila. These educational institutes in fact arose from the monasteries. History has
taken special care to give Nalanda University, which flourished from the fifth to 13th
century AD, full credit for its excellence. This university had around 10,000 resident
students and teachers on its roll at one time. These students included Chinese, Sri Lankan,
Korean
and
other
international
scholars.
It was in the 11th century that the Muslims established elementary and secondary schools.
This led to the forming of few universities too at cities like Delhi, Lucknow and
Allahabad. Medieval period saw excellent interaction between Indian and Islamic
traditions in all fields of knowledge like theology, religion, philosophy, fine arts, painting,
architecture,
mathematics,
medicine
and
astronomy.
Later, when the British arrived in India, English education came into being with the help
of the European missionaries. Since then, Western education has made steady advances in
the country. With hundreds of universities and thousands of collegesaffiliated to them, in
fact scores of colleges in every discipline, India has positioned itself comfortably as a
country that provides quality higher education to its people in specific and to the world in
general.

Women's Education in India


Women constitute almost half of the population in the world. But the hegemonic
masculine ideology made them suffer a lot as they were denied equal opportunities in
different parts of the world. The rise of feminist ideas have, however, led to the
tremendous improvement of women's condition through out the world in recent times.
Access to education has been one of the most pressing demands of theses women's rights
movements. Women's education in India has also been a major preoccupation of both the
government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the
development of the country.

History of Women's Education in India: Although in the Vedic period women had
access to education in India, they had gradually lost this right. However, in the British
period there was revival of interest in women's education in India. During this period,
various socio religious movements led by eminent persons like Raja Ram Mohan Roy,
Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar emphasized on women's education in India. Mahatma Jyotiba
Phule, Periyar and Baba Saheb Ambedkar were leaders of the lower castes in India who
took various initiatives to make education available to the women of India. However
women's education got a fillip after the country got independence in 1947 and the
government has taken various measures to provide education to all Indian women. As a
result women's literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth of female
literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. While in 1971 only 22% of
Indian women were literate, by the end of 2001 54.16% female were literate. The growth
of female literacy rate is 14.87% as compared to 11.72 % of that of male literacy rate.
Importance of Women's Education in India: Women's education in India plays a very
important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the
development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home
and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but
also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also
help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the population.
Obstacles: Gender discrimination still persists in India and lot more needs to be done in
the field of women's education in India. The gap in the male-female literacy rate is just a
simple indicator. While the male literary rate is more than 75% according to the 2001
census, the female literacy rate is just 54.16%.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To study present education system of India


To analyse Indian education system and western education system
To analyse how Indian education system differs from Western education system
To study the development requirements of Indian education system.

Present Education system in India


Today education system in India can be divided into many stages.

Pre- Primary - It consists of children of 3-5 years of age studying in nursery, lower
kindergarten and upper kindergarten. At this stage student is given knowledge
about school life and is taught to read and write some basic words.
Primary - It includes the age group of children of 6-11 years studying in classes
from first to fifth.

Middle - It consists of children studying in classes from sixth to eighth.

Secondary - it includes students studying in classes ninth and tenth.

Higher Secondary - Includes students studying in eleventh and twelfth classes.

Undergraduate - Here, a student goes through higher education, which is


completed in college. This course may vary according to the subject pursued by the
student. For medical student this stage is of four and a half years plus one year of
compulsory internship, while a simple graduate degree can be attained in three
years.

Postgraduate - After completing graduation a student may opt for post graduation
to further add to his qualifications.

Education Governing Bodies

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): This is the main governing
body of education system in India. It has control over the central education system.
It conducts exam and looks after the functioning of schools accredited to central
education system.
The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE): It is a board
for Anglo Indian Studies in India. It conducts two examinations 'Indian Certificate
of Secondary Education' and 'Indian School Certificate'. Indian Certificate of
secondary education is a k-10 examination for those Indian students who have just
completed class 10th and Indian school certificate is a k-12 public examination
conducted for those studying in class 12th.

The State Government Boards: Apart from CBSE and CISCE each state in India
has its own State Board of education, which looks after the educational issues.

The National Open School: It is also known as National Institute of Open


Schooling. It was established by the Government Of India in 1989. It is a ray of
hope for those students who cannot attend formal schools.

The International School: It controls the schools, which are accredited to


curriculum of international standard.

Elementary Education
According to the Constitution of India, elementary education is a fundamental right of
children in the age group of 6-14 years. India has about 688,000 primary schools and
110,000 secondary schools. According to statistics two third of school going age children
of India are enrolled in schools but the figures are deceptive as many don't attend schools
regularly. At least half of all students from rural area drop out before completing school.
The government has rolled out many plans to increase the percentage of elementary
education. The plans such as 'Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA), District Primary Education
Program (DPEP), Operation Blackboard, Mid Day Meal have been successful to great
extent.

Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)


The main goal of this program is that all children of 6-11 years of age should complete
primary education by the year 2007 and all children of 6-14 years of age should complete
eight years of schooling by 2010. This plan covers the whole country with special
emphasis on girl education and education of Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribe (ST)
children and children with special needs. The SSA centers are mainly opened in those
areas, which do not have any school or where schools are very far off. Special girl oriented
programs include:
Girl education at elementary level.
National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)

Mahila Samakhya Scheme

District Primary Education Program


This program was launched in 1994 with the objective of universalization of primary
education. Its main features are Universal Access, Universal Retention and Universal
Achievement. It aims that the primary education should be accessible to each and every
child of school going age, once a child is enrolled in school he/ she should be retained
there. The final step is achievement of the goal of education. The main components of this
program are:
Construction of classrooms and new schools
Opening of non-formal schooling centers

Setting up early childhood education centers.

Appointment of teachers.

Providing education to disabled children.

The program has been successful to the large extent as 1,60,000 schools and 84,000
alternative schools have been opened under this program. And work is going on for the
construction of new buildings of 52,758 schools. 4,20,203 disabled students have been
successfully enrolled into the schools.

Operation Blackboard
It was started in 1987-88. The aim of this program is to improve human and physical
resource availability in primary schools of India. According to this program every primary
school should have at least two rooms, two teachers and essential teaching aids like
blackboard, chalk, duster etc.

National Bal Bhavan


The National Bal Bhavan was opened with the aim of developing overall personalities of
children of all strata of society irrespective of their caste, creed, religion and gender. It
supplements school education by helping children to learn in play way and natural
environment.
Other important endeavors taken up by Indian government for the development of
education in India includes:
Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

Integrated Education for disabled children

National Council of Educational Research and Training

Secondary Education
The enrollment at secondary school throughout the country was close to 28 million in
1998-99. Efforts are being made to increase this figure through the implementation of
proposed new educational strategies.
Education system in India is making fast progress. The data of students' enrollment at
primary and secondary level of school education testifies to it.

Year
50-51
60-61
68-69
79-80
89-90
99-2000
2000-01
2-Jan
3-Feb
4-Mar

Primary (Lakh person)


192
350
544
716
973
1136
926
1098
1184
1224

Middle (Lakh person)


31
67
125
193
322
421
342
426
457
468

Private Education
According to current estimates, 80% of all schools are government schools ] making the
government the major provider of education. However, because of poor quality of public
education, 27% of Indian children are privately educated.
According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a fraction of
the unit cost of government schools. However, others have suggested that private schools
fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the
schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation .In their favour, it
has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extracurricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and
drama. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for
government schools and more teachers in private schools are female [. There is some
disgreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE
survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (paratechers) is 54.91% in private, compared
to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive inservice training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition in the
school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.
Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are
free. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private
schools.
Private schools are often operating illegally. A 2001 study found that it takes 14 different
licenses from four different authorities to open a private school in New Delhi and could
take years if done legally. However, operation of unrecognized schools has been made
illegal under the Children's Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act

Higher Education in India


Higher Education in India is one of the most developed in the entire world. There has in
fact been considerable improvement in the higher education scenario of India in both
quantitative and qualitative terms. In technical education, the IITs, and in management, the
IIMs have already marked their names among the top higher educational institutes of the
world. Moreover the Jawaharlal University and Delhi University are also regarded as good
higher educational institutes for doing postgraduates courses and research in science,
humanities and social sciences. As a result, students from various parts of the world are
coming today for higher education in India.

Higher Education system in India: Higher education in India starts after the
higher Secondary or 12th standard. While it takes 3 years for completing a B.A., B.Sc or
B.Com pass or honours degree from a college in India, pursuing an engineering course
would take four years and five years (with six months of additional compulsory
internship) for completing a bachelor of medicine or bachelor of law degree. Postgraduate
courses generally are of two years duration. But there are some courses like Master of
Computer Application (MCA) that are of three years duration. For those who cannot
afford to attend regular classes for various preoccupations can pursue correspondence
courses from various Open Universities and distance learning institutes in India.

Key players in the Higher Education System in India: The University Grant
Commission of India is not only the lone grant giving agency in the country, but also
responsible for coordinating, determining and maintaining the standards in institutions of
higher education. Apart from the UGC here are various professional councils that are
responsible for recognizing courses, promoting professional institutes and providing grants
to
undergraduate
programmes.
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Distance Education Council (DEC),
Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR), Bar Council of India (BCI), National
Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), Medical
Council of India (MCI), Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), Indian Nursing Council (INC),
Dentist Council of India (DCI), Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) and the Central
Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) are the statutory professional councils of India.

The current scene: India is today one of the fastest developing countries of the world
with the annual growth rate going above 9%. In order to sustain that rate of growth, there
is need to increase the number of institutes and also the quality of higher education in
India. Therefore the Prime Minister of India has announced the establishment of 8 IITs,
seven Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and five Indian Institutes of Science,
Education and Research (IISERs) and 30 Central Universities in his speech to the nation
on the 60th Independence Day. The outlay for education during the 11th Five Year Plan,

which runs from the current fiscal to 2012-13, represents a four-fold increase over the
previous plan and stands at Rs 2500 billion

University Education
This massive system of higher education in India constitutes of 342 universities (211
State, 18 Central, 95 deemed universities) 13 institutes of national importance, 17,000
colleges and 887 polytechnics. University Grant Commission (UGC), a national body,
coordinates and looks after the maintenance of standard of university education in India.
The university education in India starts with undergraduate courses. Depending upon the
nature of course pursued its duration may vary from three to five and a half years.
Universities and specialized institutes are the centers for higher learning in India. The
studies and disciplines cover a wide range of subjects from poetry to computer
engineering to space research. Most of the universities and higher centers of learning and
research are autonomous in function. A good number of universities have a federal
structure composed of affiliated colleges on one tier and the university departments on
the other. The affiliated colleges teach, in general, undergraduate courses, whereas the
university departments conduct postgraduate teaching and advanced research. The
university decides the criteria of admission into colleges and coordinates the first degree
examination in the undergraduate programmes and award of degree.

University Grants Commission of India


The University Grants Commission of India is a body of the central government that
provides support to the government-recognized universities and colleges with funds. The
University Grants Commission of India or UGC provides recognition to the universities in
India. The office of UGC is headquartered in New Delhi. The southern regional office is
located in Hyderabad. UGC also conducts the NET exams. This examination is for the
recruitment of teachers in colleges and universities.

Types of Universities
The Indian universities are basically of two types: unitary and affiliating.
The unitary universities are confined to a single campus and offer both postgraduate and
undergraduate instructions, and also have a strong emphasis on research. Aligarh Muslim
University, Banaras Hindu University, Mysore University and Jawaharlal Nehru
University (JNU) are notable examples, though JNU does not have undergraduate
teaching. A variation of the unitary university is the city university which has constituent
colleges. Examples are the University of Allahabad and the Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda.

Affiliating university is the most common type of university seen in India. These
universities generally have a central campus which has departments or schools that
impart postgraduate instructions and conduct research. They also have a variable number
of colleges affiliated to them and these may be distributed over a number of districts, in
accordance with the jurisdiction of the university. The colleges mostly offer postgraduate
classes in selected subjects. Most Indian universities are of the affiliating types with the
larger ones like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai and Bangalore having a large number of
affiliated colleges.
There is a third category of universities and institutions where technical and professional
courses are taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Names like Indian Institute
of Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,
Indian Forest Research Institute, Indian Veterinary Research Institute can be quoted.
Some special institutes such as Indian Agricultural Research Institute and Post Graduate
Institute of Medical Research offer postgraduate and research courses.
In addition there are two other types of university-level institutions Deemed to-beUniversity and Institutions of National Importance. Deemed-to-be-Universities (also
referred to as Deemed Universities) are institutions that are conferred the status of a
university by virtue of their long tradition of teaching, or specialization and excellence in
a particular area of knowledge. Examples are the Deccan College Post Graduate and
Research Institute, Pune and Tata Institute of Social Science, Mumbai. The Deemed-tobe University status is granted by the University Grants Commission (UGC) with the
approval of the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development.
The Institutions of National Importance are established, or designated through Acts of
Parliament. There are 11 such institutions including the six Indian Institutions of
Technology. As a special case they are empowered to award their own degrees, a
privilege normally granted only to universities.
The Table gives the distribution of universities and university-level institutions in
different states of India.

State-wise Distribution of University-Level Institutions


No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

States
Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal
Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh
Delhi
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu
&
Kashmir
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Manipur
Meghalaya
Nagaland
Orissa
Pondicherry
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Total

2004
19
2
8
19
3
13
2
13
6
4
5
17
9
17
26
3
3
2
6
2
13
12
2
21
2
32
15
233

2005
19
2
9
19
3
14
2
13
6
4
5
19
11
19
28
3
3
2
7
2
14
12
2
21
2
32
15
241

2006
19
3

2007
20
3

9
19
5
15
5
16
8
5
8

10
20
5
17
5
16
8
5
8

19
11
19
28
5
4
2
7
2
14
16
2
25
2
34
17
248

21
13
21
29
8
4
4
7
3
17
16
3
25
4
34
17
251

Out of the 229 universities, only 15 are central universities, all of which are funded for
development and maintenance by the Government of India through the UGC. All others
are managed by the states which give them their constitution and funding. At the central
level of government, the channels for funding are the University Grants Commission, the
Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the All India Council of Technical
Education.

Colleges
There are four types of colleges: government colleges, privately-managed colleges,
university colleges and professional colleges.
The government colleges are few, constituting only about 15 to 20 percent of the total
number of colleges in the country. They are managed by the state governments. However,
as in the case of other colleges, the university to which these colleges are affiliated
conducts their examinations, lays down the courses of studies, and awards the degrees.
About 70% of the colleges, however, have been founded by the privately-managed trusts
or societies. More than one-third of these colleges have been established in rural areas.
Their management is constituted according to the norms laid down by the statutes of the
university concerned. Their relationship with the university is defined by the university act
and statutes. Though established through private initiatives, all of them receive funds from
the state governments. The power of granting affiliation to a college generally vests with
the universities in consultation with the state governments.
University colleges, also called constituent colleges, are those run and managed by the
university itself. Their number is very small.
The professional colleges are mostly in the disciplines of Medicine, Engineering and
Management. There are a few for other disciplines too. They are sponsored and managed,
some by the government and some by private initiative. In the states of Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, recently there has been a phenomenal
growth in the number of privately-managed professional colleges. They do not get any
funds from the state and, in almost all cases, have been charging heavy fees covering
capital costs and running costs. A recent Supreme Court judgement has laid down a
number of guidelines for admissions and fees charged by such colleges.
The National Policy on Education 1986, advocated autonomy for colleges (and also
university departments) with the objective of bringing about decentralization of academic
administration, and promoting innovation and higher standards. This autonomy relates to
the framing of courses, holding examinations, innovations in pedagogy and admissions.
The distinctiveness, flexibility and the quality of higher education in India have been
attracting more and more international students to come to Indian universities, for
studying in India in contrast to the expensive university and higher education offered in
the USA, in the Western European countries and in Australia. Higher education is still
highly subsidized in India and therefore affordable. Further, students from developing
countries feel a greater sense of belonging and confidence, as they have many social and
cultural values common with India.

Structure
In the Indian system, higher education includes the education imparted after the 10 + 2
stage ten years of primary and secondary education followed by two years of higher
secondary education.

Academic Year
The academic year usually begins in June or July and ends in March or April. Institutions
located in high altitude areas (about one or two percent of the total) follow a different
schedule, beginning in March and going on to December. In most universities which
follow an annual examination pattern the academic year is divided into three terms. A
few universities follow the semester system. There is no organized system of teaching
during summer vacations.

Examination System
In case of universities following the annual pattern, an end-of-year examination is held
between March and May and the results are declared two months later. Supplementary
examinations are held in October or November. Universities following the semester
system have examinations in November-December and March-April.
Most examinations are conducted by the universities; however, some affiliating
universities have reduced the number of university examinations for a degree. For
example, at the Bachelors level in the humanities, the examinations at the end of the first
year may be conducted by the college, and the ones at the end of the second and third
years by the university. Centralized evaluation has also been adopted by some
universities to save time in the evaluation of scripts. Internal assessment of the work done
by the student throughout the year carries 10 to 25 percent of the total marks at the
undergraduate level, and 20 to 40 percent at the postgraduate level in some universities.
The Engineering, Medicine and Management institutions have generally adopted the
internal assessment system completely, using a letter-grade and a credit point system.

Medium of Instruction
In most of universities the medium of instruction is English. In case of professional
courses, and for science and technical subjects, English is exclusively used for teaching.
For the Humanities, Social Sciences and Commerce faculties, the medium of instruction
is both in English and in regional languages. Postgraduate education is conducted in
English in most of the centers.

Academic Degree Course


This undergraduate course in India is of three years' duration. After completing this course
student get a Bachelor's degree in the subject studied such as Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of
Commerce or Bachelor of Science.

Professional Course
There are large numbers of professional courses at the undergraduate level. Student may
opt for any of it depending upon their interest and condition of eligibility.

Medical Courses
This course at undergraduate level is known as MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of
Surgery). It is of four and a half year's duration plus one year of obligatory internship.
Various medical colleges conduct entrance examination for admission to this course. An
all India level examination is also conducted by CBSE for admission to colleges all over
India based over 15% reserved seats. The important medical colleges of India are:
All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), New Delhi
Air Force Medical College (AFMC), Pune

Christian Medical College (CMC), Ludhiana

Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore

Grants Medical College, Mumbai

Institute of Medical Science (BHU), Varanasi

Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research


(JIPMER), Pondicherry

Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC), Delhi

Lady Harding Medical College (LHMC), Delhi (for girls only)

Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Science , Wardha

Engineering Course
The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a
four-year course. It has wide range of options. Some of them are:

Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering


Agriculture engineering

Computer engineering

Electronic and electrical engineering

Industrial engineering

Marine engineering

Mining engineering

Management Course
In India education in management is one of the most sort out courses. The institutes,
which impart education in management, are known as "Business Schools". In India
management education is given at two levels, undergraduate and post-graduate.
Undergraduate degree courses include BBA, BBS, BBM. Postgraduate degree course is
known as MBA (Masters of Business Administration).
The other professional courses offered by Indian universities include, Architecture, Dental,
Fashion Designing, Travel and Tourism.

Distance Education in India


Indian Education system offers distance education to those who cannot join regular
schools or colleges. National Institute of Open Schooling offers school education through
distance learning.
University Education is also offered thorough distance learning. Many college courses like
in arts (history, economics, literature, Islamic studies), commerce (finance, banking,
accounting) are offered by Indian universities. Apart from these, professional courses in
management, mass media, para medical, engineering, law, travel and tourism are also part
of distance education in India.

Education Policy
The national policy of education (1986) and program of action (1992) lay down the
objectives and features of Indian education policy. It includes:
Development of International cooperation and peaceful coexistence through
education.
Promotion of equality. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal
condition of success to children.

A common educational structure (10+2+3) for the whole of India.

Education for women's equality. The Indian education should be used as a tool to
change the status of women in the society.

Equalization of SC population with others in the matter of education. This is


ensured by giving incentives to parents who send their children to schools,
providing scholarship to SC students for higher studies, reservation of seats in
institution of higher studies in India, recruitment of SC teachers.

Opening of primary schools in tribal area for promotion of education in ST people.

Development of curriculum and study material in the language of tribal people.

Emphasis on the education of minorities.

Adult education - Initiation of National Literacy Mission, for teaching illiterate


people of age group 15-35. And making them aware of the day-to-day realities of
their surroundings.

Special emphasis on early childhood care and education by opening up of day care
centers, promotion of child focused programs.

Increasing the scope of Operation Blackboard for upliftment of standard of primary


education in India.

Secondary education curriculum should expose the students to differentiated roles


of science, the humanities, and social science.

Redesigning of courses of higher education to meet the increasing demand of


professionalism.

Providing enhanced support to the research work in Universities. Efforts to relate


ancient Indian knowledge with the contemporary reality.

Setting up of Open Universities and Distance Learning centers to promote the goal
of education as a lifelong process.

A combined perspective of technical and management education.

Minimum exposure to computers and training in their use to be the part of


professional education.

The All India Council for Technical Education will be responsible for maintenance
of norms and standards, accreditation, funding, and monitoring of technical and
management education in India.

Multiple task performance for teachers such as teaching, research, development of


learning resource material, extension and management of the institution.

Providing teachers a better deal to make education system in India work in proper
way, as teachers are the backbone of the system. Providing better facilities to
institutions and improved services to students.

Development of languages in great deal.

Measures to be taken for easy accessibility of books at minimum costs to all


sections of students.

Strengthening of science education for the development of spirit of inquiry and


objectivity in the minds of students.

The purpose of examination to be to bring about qualitative improvement in


education. It should discourage memorization.

Methods of teacher recruitment to be recognized one to ensure merit and objectivity


in the system.

Overhauling of the system of teacher education and establishment of District


Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) to organize courses for elementary
school teachers.

Reviewing of educational developments by the Central Advisory Board of


Education (CABE)

Involvement of local communities for school improvement programmes.

Review of the implementation of the parameters of the policy every five years,

Strengthening the base of pyramid of Indian population for proper development of


education system in India.

National Policy of Education (1992) laid down many objectives for the development of
education system in India but it has not been successful in achieving all of them. It has
specified that the examination system should discourage the memorizing but it is what is
going on. The education in India seems to encourage rote learning instead of
experimentation and questioning. There is some disparity in assessment as all the State

Boards have different standards of evaluation.


The reservation on the basis of caste and religion is also a negative point in Indian
education. Corruption is visible in the allocation of seats of institutions of higher studies
and student politics is another sore point. These are some of the issues, which need to be
worked upon.
Though there are disparities between the objectives and their implementation in education
but still education system in India has come a long way and will continue to improve in
the future.
Some important facts about Indian education:
Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to the world and 'charaka' is
known as the father of Ayurveda. He developed this system some 2500 years back.
Takshila was the first university of world established in 700 B.C.

Nalanda University, built in 4 AD, was considered to be the honor of ancient Indian
system of education as it was one of the best Universities of its time in the
subcontinent.

Indian language Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of many modern languages


of world.

Place value system was developed in India in 100 B.C.

India was the country, which invented number system.

Aryabhatta, the Indian scientist, invented digit zero.

Trigonometry, algebra and calculus studies were originated in India.

How System of education in USA is different from


India.
In America, higher education starts at the age of 18 after the completion of twelve
years of primary and secondary schooling.

Under Graduate Study or Bachelors:

A candidate who has successfully completed class XII is eligible for the Bachelors
Programme or Under Graduate Study in USA.
The bachelors degree or under graduate study usually lasts for 4 years. In some cases
an accelerated Programme can be completed in three years, while some professional
fields require five years.

The 4 year's undergraduate study is considered as 120 credit hours. One course
averages 3 credits. Subjects involving lab facilities will get 4 credits. You receive a
Bachelor's degree or undergraduate degree when you finish around 40 courses in
different subjects within the span of four years.
1st year students are called Freshmen, 2nd years Sophomores, third years Juniors and
the 4th or last year students are referred to as Seniors. The decision of the major's to be
taken is necessary only after the 2nd or Sophomore year. Deciding the majors is termed
'Declaring a Major' in US.
Many colleges give an Associate degree after the sophomore year or second year of a
Bachelor's degree. It is the degree awarded after either a college transfer or a 'terminal',
One to three year programme providing training for a specific occupation.

Graduate Study:
In USA, higher studies after taking a degree or Bachelor's is termed Graduate study.
A candidate who has successfully completed four years of Bachelors Programme or
Under Graduate Study is eligible to apply for the Master's Degree in USA. The
traditional three year degree (BA, B.Sc, B.com) holders from India must complete an
additional year of degree programme for eligibility. Additional courses which should
be taken by them is decided by the student advisors appointed for them. There are even
registered agencies who will evaluate the subjects studied in India with the courses
equivalent in America and issue a certificate.

Masters degree is the first Graduate degree in the liberal arts and Sciences and
certain professional fields requiring 30 credit hours of full-time study within a year or
2 years. You can get your Master's degree by taking 8 courses of subjects with 3 credits

each plus a thesis of 6 hours credit or 10 courses of subjects with 3 credits each
without the thesis. Some Universities have a final exam. Usually masters degree
include M.S and M.A degrees.
It is not particular that you continue with the same majors that you chose for
undergraduate study-in graduate study. But if you change the majors, you will have to
take additional basic courses for the new subjects. These courses are called Prerequisite courses. You have to get a pass in these course but you may not get credits for
the same.

Research (Doctoral Degree) - The highest degree awarded in research-oriented


academic disciplines, usually requiring 3 to 6 years of full time study besides the
Bachelor's degree as preparation for University level teaching and research. Indian
students with a Master Degree can apply for P.H.D.
The main criteria for admission is the applicants interest in the particular subject of
research.

First Professional Degree - The degree required to be academically qualified to


practice in certain professions, such as law, medicine etc usually requires a total of at
least six years of study including prior college level work. It must have as a
prerequisite at least two years of college credit.

Different Educational Institutions College:


It is an independent institution that offers a four-year programme of undergraduate
study in the liberal arts (BA, BFA) and sciences (B.S).Bachelors degree is the basic
requirement for graduate work.

Universities:
Universities are larger institutions that include several undergraduate colleges,
graduate schools, and professional schools.
Graduate school involves 1 or 2 years of study and offers advanced programs in arts
and sciences which gives master's degrees like M.A or M.S, Doctor of Philosophy
(Ph.D) etc.
Professional schools are institutions which specialize in a single field of study such as
medicine, pharmacy, business administration , law etc.

Junior College or Community Colleges:


These colleges award only Associate Degree of Arts (A.A) and Sciences (A.S) which
involves 2 year of study. After receiving Associate Degree, students must join a 4 years
college or University to complete the Bachelor's Degree.

Vocational and Technical Institution:

These institutes specialize in training for the skilled trades and technical fields of
employment. Duration of the courses depends on the particular subject. After
completion, they will be awarded a certificate of completion and they can straight
away join for a job.

Classes in USA
Usually, for most Universities and colleges the year begins in late August or early
September and ends in May or June. The academic year is divided into semesters,
trimesters or quarter depending on the institution. The semester system divides the year
into 2 equal terms of 16 weeks. Each semester is 4 months. Trimester system has three
equal terms of 16 weeks each, including a summer term. Quarter system divides the
year into 3 equal terms of 11 weeks each.
Classes are lecture-based with practical (lab or practicum in U.S). Overhead projector,
computer projections, multimedia are used along with the lectures. Printed notes and
additional information on topics (Handouts in U.S) are given. Professors or advisors
are always available to clear doubts. Interaction in class in encouraged.
Each student will be assigned an 'advisor' who is a member of the faculty. This advisor
will help the students to select the courses to be taken in each semester, plan the whole
program and monitor the students progress. The students register for the particular
courses with the permission of the advisors.

Class Size
The average class size at the undergraduate level, in most universities is 100-150 for
introductory courses. Advanced level classes will be smaller in size. Master's degree
classes have an average of 20 students and Doctoral classes have an average of only 10
students.

Tests
Each semester has an average of 4 tests. Test range in style from multiple choice
(objective type) format designed to gauge your knowledge of the subject and reasoning
ability to essay or problem-solving type tests. There are 3 kinds of tests - open book
tests, closed books tests and take home tests. In the 1st type, you can refer notes, text
book, reference material etc during the test. 2nd one is usual tests that we have in
India. In the 3rd one you take the question paper home and answer at your convenience
before the dead line set by the professor. Take home tests often have essay-based
questions.

Grading
In American Universities, they give grades instead of ranks or classes for courses. The
grades are A, B, C, D, E, F, I. A is the highest grade. Grades from A to D is considered
as pass. Grade I-incomplete. Grade I is granted when students stop the course in

between with the teachers permission. If it is without permission this can become F
grade.
Marks between 100-90- A Grade (Excellent)
Marks between 89-79- B Grade (good)
Marks between 78-68- C Grade (Average)
Marks between 67-57- D Grade (Below)
Below 57- F or fail.
Each grade has points. 4 points for A grade, 3 for B and 2 for C. The average points
taken for all the courses taken together is the GPA (Grade Point Average). It is the
general score on a scale of 1.0(lowest) to 4.0 (highest). It is difficult to get admission
for graduate study if you don't have at least a G.P.A of 3.0. G.P.A is computed using a
unique formula by the university's administration. The grades are fixed by the
professor's who teach the subjects based on the performance of the students. The
success rate is high.

ISSUES ON EDUCATION SYSTEM OF INDIA

One study found out that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical
workers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence
rates ranged from 15% in Maharashtra to 71% in Bihar. Only 1 in nearly 3000 public
school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. A study on
teachers by Kremer etc. found that 'only about half were teaching, during unannounced
visits to a nationally representative sample of government primary schools in India.
Modern education in India is often criticized for being based on rote learning rather than
problem solving. Business Week denigrates the Indian curriculum saying it revolves
around rote learning. and Express India suggests that students are focused on cramming.
A study of 188 government-run primary schools found that 59% of the schools had no
drinking water and 89% had no toilets. 2003-04 data by National Institute of Educational
Planning and Administration revealed that only 3.5% of primary schools in Bihar
and Chhattisgarh had toilets for girls. In Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, rates were 12-16%.
Fake degrees are a problem. One raid in Bihar found 0.1 million fake certificates. In
February 2009, the University Grant Commission found 19 fake institutions operating in
India.
Only 16% of manufacturers in India offer in-service training to their employees, compared
with over 90% in China.

INTERPRETATION
The education system in India is not of a par excellence as compared to the western
system of education. The system of education in India is lagging in certain areas so
necessary steps should be taken to transform it. The Government is making its efforts to
improve the existing system of education by imparting certain policies and is making
elementary education necessary for every one. Efforts such as SSA,NVPG etc are being
made to improve the existing system but it in not enough , the government should make
some more improved steps in order to compare with the western system of education.
According to the Constitution of India, elementary education is a fundamental right of
children in the age group of 6-14 years. India has about 688,000 primary schools and
110,000 secondary schools. According to statistics two third of school going age children
of India are enrolled in schools but the figures are deceptive as many don't attend schools
regularly. At least half of all students from rural area drop out before completing school.
The government has rolled out many plans to increase the percentage of elementary
education. The plans such as 'Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA), District Primary Education
Program (DPEP), Operation Blackboard, Mid Day Meal have been successful to great
extent.
Higher Education in India is one of the most developed in the entire world. There has in
fact been considerable improvement in the higher education scenario of India in both
quantitative and qualitative terms. This massive system of higher education in India
constitutes of 342 universities (211 State, 18 Central, 95 deemed universities) 13 institutes
of national importance, 17,000 colleges and 887 polytechnics. University Grant
Commission (UGC), a national body, coordinates and looks after the maintenance of
standard of university education in India. The university education in India starts with
undergraduate courses. Depending upon the nature of course pursued its duration may
vary from three to five and a half years. According to current estimates, 80% of all schools
are government schools making the government the major provider of education.
However, because of poor quality of public education, 27% of Indian children are
privately educated.

According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a fraction of
the unit cost of government schools. However, others have suggested that private schools
fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the
schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation .In their favour, it
has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extracurricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and
drama. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for
government schools and more teachers in private schools are female [. There is some
disgreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE
survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (paratechers) is 54.91% in private, compared
to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive
inservice training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition in the
school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.

Conclusion
The education system in India is not up to the mark as compared to the western countries.
Although the education system in India is improving but we have to take necessary steps
to make it feasible and up to the mark.
Indian Education System is not keeping pace with the progresses in other fields in the
country and the consequence is felt in the fields of other developments. It is like rotten
apple spoiling other sweet apples in a basket.
Education System in India is a neglected area. The number of new Universities and
Centres of Higher Education in India is not on par with the increase in the population of
the country.
The Government is making its efforts to improve the existing system of education by
imparting certain policies and is making elementary education necessary for everyone.
Efforts such as SSA, NVPG etc are being made to improve the existing system but it in
not enough, the government should make some more improved steps in order to compare
with the western system of education
In order to cope up with the western system of education especially USA we have to
make/frame new policies and we have to make more changes in the prevailing structure of
education.
Furthermore the Govt. should invest more money in the education sector and it should
establish more schools, colleges and universities so that to improve the education system.

SUGESTIONS/RECOMENDATIONS
In order to attain a progressive growth in the education system the following suggestions
are made
1. The Government should re-plan their education policies and should bring innovative
plans in order to set up proper education system.
2. The standard of teaching needed to be raised in order to cope up with the present pace
of modernisation.
3. More and more schools, collages, universities should be established so that every
student can gain benefits.
4. New and modern courses should be adopted in all the institutions.
5. Education should be imparted in rural and backward areas.
6. Vocational courses should also be introduced in every institution.
7. More budgets should be allocated to the education sector.
8. Uniform international syllabus should be adopted in all the institutions.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blackwell, Fritz (2004), India: A Global Studies Handbook, United States of


America: ABC-CLIO, Inc., ISBN 1-57607-348-3.
Elder, Joseph W. (2006), "Caste System", Encyclopedia of India (vol. 1) edited by
Stanley Wolpert, 223-229, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31350-2.

"Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India edited by R.K.


Suri and Kalapana Rajaram (2008), New Delhi: Spectrum, ISBN 81-7930-294-6.

India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), New Delhi: Additional Director
General (ADG), Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,
Government of India, ISBN 978-81-230-1557-6.

Prabhu, Joseph (2006), "Educational Institutions and Philosophies, Traditional and


Modern", Encyclopaedia of India (vol. 2) edited by Stanley Wolpert, 2328, Thomson
Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0.

Raman, S.A. (2006). "Women's Education", Encyclopaedia of India (vol. 4), edited
by Stanley Wolpert, 235-239, Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31353-7.

http://theviewspaper.net/educating-india/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_India