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SDRE;
non-affine nonlinear system;
exact solution;
online control update;
nonlinear optimal control

SDRE;
non-affine nonlinear system;
exact solution;
online control update;
nonlinear optimal control

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School of Mechanical Engineering,

Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)

Tehran, Iran

1

rafee@iust.ac.ir ; 2 behdad.geranmehr@gmail.com

application of the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE)

method for controlling a class of non-affine nonlinear systems.

By mentioning a class of non-affine system, a system with

nonlinear states and control inputs is meant. The non-affine in

control systems have been secluded in contrast to affine in

control systems, especially in the SDRE field. The SDRE

method is one of the approaches for solving the Hamilton

JacobiBellman (HJB) equation as a closed loop nonlinear

optimal control method. In this work, the SDRE is solved with

exact solution (ES) method and online control update (OCU)

formulation. The proposed algorithms are verified by three

examples which are selected from previous works. The

effectiveness of the SDRE is demonstrated through numerical

simulations and comparisons with previous works which the

SDRE brilliantly outperforms the other techniques in presence

of external disturbance.

Keywords-SDRE; non-affine nonlinear system; exact

solution; online control update; nonlinear optimal control

I.

INTRODUCTION

(SDRE) for controlling of non-affine nonlinear systems is

used. The SDRE extends quadratic regulator problem for

nonlinear case by allowing the matrices involved to be

functions of the state variables, and possibly the controls as

well. Pearson [1] proposed the SDRE method, then,

developed by Wernli and Cook [2]. The SDRE method is

discussed in details by Cloutier et al. in [3]. Nonlinear

controller design methods based on estimating the solution

of the HamiltonJacobiBellman (HJB) equation can be

found in a comprehensive review article in [4].

There are good literatures available on adaptive, neural

networks and fuzzy adaptive and etc. in the field of control

for non-affine nonlinear systems which can be categorized in

two major groups. The first one has worked on the nonaffine nonlinear problems, which in them it has been usually

assumed a non-affine system in state variables due to

uncertainty and affine in control inputs [5-7].

nonlinear systems as non-affine in control input problems [815]. For example, in the first case, Wang et al. used an

adaptive T_S fuzzy-neural control methods based on on-line

identification algorithm for the virtual linearized system and

put a significant emphasis on the robust tracking controller

design using an adaptive scheme for the general unknown

systems [7]. In addition, the proposed projection update law

used to tune the adjustable parameters to prevent parameter

drift.

In the second case, Gao et al. developed time scale

separation based fuzzy adaptive control method for a class of

non-affine nonlinear systems [12]. Hovakimyan et al.

presented the design methodology for approximation of

dynamic inversion of multi-input non-affine systems using

time-scale separation [10]. The control signal is sought as a

solution of a fast dynamical equation that satisfied the

conditions of Tikhonovs theorem from singular

perturbations theory.

Since there are many applications where the control

inputs are nonlinear such as chemical reactions and PH

neutralization, aircraft dynamics and so on, here in this

article, second case form is considered for analysis and

control via SDRE method. Beeler et al. proposed SDRE for

the non-affine nonlinear problem [4]. In order to illustrate the

effectiveness of the control scheme, proposed in this paper,

numerical and exact solutions have been conducted based on

[4]. The results of the illustrative examples show that the

SDRE control scheme outperform the task and is adaptable

to the non-affine nonlinear systems.

In section II of this paper a brief description of the SDRE

in the context of non-affine nonlinear system is given. The

three examples to illustrate the potential of the SDRE

technique for the design of nonlinear feedback controllers are

provided for non-affine nonlinear system in Section III.

Finally, overall conclusion is presented in section IV.

II.

PROBLEM STATEMEN

with the assumption that all state variables are available for

2538

involves manipulating the dynamical equations

x f ( x) g ( x, u)

A. Exact Solution

Consider the tracking problem for the scalar nonlinear

system which is given by

n

f ( x)

n

coefficient (SDC) form the following equation is obtained

n

x A( x) x B( x, u)u

[8]. The numerical simulation is performed applying the

following reference input to be tracked by the controller

B( x, u) : n nm . The aim of this method is to

where

1

1.5

1

0.5.

1 exp(t 30)

r (t )

Taylor series expansion of tanh(.) with three terms is used.

The gain of the controller via exact solution is attained:

1

xT Qx u T Ru dt.

20

function. The weighting matrix for states is

n

nn

R:

mm

Q:

n

and

.

for

input

controls

it

is

u R 1BT kx

[5.263 4.588u u ].

2

control law can be written as

system state. Control signal is demonstrated in Fig. 2. The

weighting matrices are tuned and selected as Q 100 and

a noticeable error at the beginning which makes a jump at

the commencement of the control signal to track the system.

This difference between the initial condition and the start of

kA AT k kBR1BT k Q 0.

reduce the magnitude of the signal, perfect trajectory is

preferable, the initial condition and start point of trajectory

The SDRE equation can be solved in different ways such

set the same value.

as ES and OCU [4]. The ES method is a good way to solve

Tracking performance

the SDRE equation, but it is applicable for low order and

2

simple systems. In this way, the SDRE provides nonlinear

equations in which some of them are dependent on each

1.5

other. By solving the independent equations and selecting the

positive answers, the gain of the controller is obtained;

1

however, once the dynamics of the system becomes

complicated it becomes necessary to solve the SDRE

0.5

equation with OCU or other numerical approaches. In the

OCU, the control law Eq. (4), and the SDRE in Eq. (5) can

0

be solved repeatedly as the system to update the gain k and

Exact Solution

Desired

input control u . The details of the OCU is expressed in [4].

-0.5

X1

following equation:

III.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

considered to illustrate the proposed control method.

2539

10

20

t (sec)

30

40

Control input

Let the non-affine dynamical system be given by:

30

20

x1 x2

10

2

x 2 x14 0.5u1 0.5u 2

-10

-20

10

20

t (sec)

30

control inputs [15]. Clearly, the states and inputs are coupled.

The SDC parameterization is given as in the form of:

40

x1 0 1 0 x1 0 0

x2 x3 0 0 x2 0.5u 0.5 u1 .

1

u

1

3

2 2

x

x

3 0 0 x3 3 0.1 0.1x1

system and control input with x(0) 1 , respectively. The

weighting matrices are tuned and selected as Q 100 and

R 1.

Tracking performance

Exact Solution

the state responses x1 , x2 and x3 to following conditions as

Desired

X1

1.5

T

0.5

10

20

t (sec)

30

40

tracking.

1.5

Control input

IC1

IC2

IC3

0.5

X1

0

-2

0

-0.5

-1

-4

-1.5

-6

10

20

t (sec)

30

40

10

15

t (sec)

20

25

30

Figure 5. First state of second example (IC stands for initial condition).

obtained less than Fig. 2 with better performance in tracking,

Fig. 3.

2540

Consider a non-affine system

1

IC

IC

IC

X2

0.5

x1 x2

x 2 0.2(1 e x1x2 )(2 sin( x2 ))

(u e u 1) d d

10

15

t (sec)

20

25

disturbance and it is assumed to be a square wave with the

amplitude 0.1 and the period of 2 and this example is

from [10]. The SDC parameterization is given by:

30

1

IC

IC

x1 0 1 x1

x 0 0 x

2

2

2

IC

X3

0.5

-0.5

10

15

t (sec)

20

25

30

8. The weighting matrices are tuned and selected as

Q 10 I 33 and R I 22 .

R 0.1 .

Q 10 I 22

and

state

2

2

Exact Solution

10

1.5

X1

controller via exact solution is attained. The weighting

15

u

to control the first state of the system to track the reference

signal r 1.5 e 0.5t and in case 2 of example 3 the first

state of the system is to track the reference signal

r sin(0.5t ) cos(t ) . Figures 9 and 10 (case1) and

Figs. 11 and 12 (case 2) show the states of the closed-loop

system. Control signal is given in Figs. 13 and 14. The initial

Numerical Solution

Desired

0.5

-5

y x1

-0.5

-1

0

0

10

15

t (sec)

20

25

30

10

t (sec)

2541

15

State

2

verify the usefulness of the proposed controller.

REFERENCES

X1

[1]

-1

[2]

-2

-3

Exact Solution

Numerical Solution

10

[3]

Desired

15

t (sec)

Figure 10. First state of third example, case 2.

Control input

[4]

15

[5]

10

5

[6]

0

-5

10

[7]

15

t (sec)

Figure 11. Control signal, case 1.

Control input

[8]

30

[9]

20

10

[10]

[11]

-10

10

15

t (sec)

[12]

[13]

IV.

CONCLUSION

for control of non-affine nonlinear system is presented as a

closed loop nonlinear optimal control method. Non-affine

nonlinear system is assumed a system with non-affine in

control nonlinear system. The SDRE solved with two

methods, first, exact solution and, second, online control

update formulation. The three examples provided to illustrate

the effectiveness and potential of the SDRE technique for the

design of nonlinear feedback controllers for non-affine

[14]

[15]

2542

of Electronics and Control, Vol. 13(5), pp. 453-465, 1962.

A. Wernli and G. Cook, Suboptimal control for the nonlinear

quadratic regulator problem, Automatica, Vol. 11, pp. 75-84, 1975.

J. R. Cloutier, C. N. D'Souza and C. P. Mracek, Nonlinear

Regulation and Nonlinear H Control Via the State-Dependent

Riccati Equation Technique: Part 1. Theory, Proceedings of the First

International Conference on Nonlinear Problems in Aviation and

Aerospace, May 1996.

S. C. Beeler, State-Dependent Riccati Equation Regulation of

Systems with State and Control Nonlinearities, Technical Report

NASA Langley Research Center, National Institute of Aerospace,

NASA/CR-2004-213245, 2004.

C.-H. Lee, J.-C. Chien, H.-H. Chang, C.-T. Kuo, and H.-H. Chang,

Direct Adaptive Backstepping Control for a Class of MIMO Nonaffine Systems Using Recurrent Neural Networks, Proceedings of

the International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer

Scientists, Vol. 1, March, 2009.

S. M. Hoseini and M. Farrokhi, Observer-Based Stabilization of

Some Nonlinear Non-Minimum Phase Systems Using Neural

Network, International Journal of Modeling, Identification, and

Control, 2010.

W.-Y. Wang, Y.-H. Chien, Y.-G. Leu, and T.-T. Lee, Adaptive T_S

fuzzy-neural modeling and control for general MIMO unknown

nonaffine nonlinear systems using projection update laws,

Automatica, Vol. 46 (10), pp. 852863, 2010.

E. Lavretsky and N. Hovakimyan, Adaptive Dynamic Inversion for

Nonaffine-in-Control Systems via Time-Scale Separation Part II,

Proceedings of the American Control Conference, June 2005.

N. Hovakimyan, E. Lavretsky and C. Cao, Dynamic Inversion of

Multi-input Nonaffine Systems via Time-scale Separation,

Proceedings of the American Control Conference, June 2006.

W.-Y. Wang, I.-H. Li, L.-C. Chien, and S.-F. Su, On-line Modeling

and Control via T-S Fuzzy Models for Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems

Using A Second Type Adaptive Fuzzy Approach, International

Journal of Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 9 (4), September 2007.

J. Teo and J. P. How, Equivalence between Approximate Dynamic

Inversion and Proportional-Integral Control, Proceedings of the 47th

IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 2179-2183, 2008.

J. Xiang, Y. Li. W. Wei, Stabilization of a class of non-affine

systems via modelling error compensation, IET Control Theory

Appl., Vol. 2 (2), pp. 108116, 2008.

G. Bartolini, E. Punta, T. Zolezzi, Reduced-Order Observer for

Sliding Mode Control of Nonlinear Non-Affine Systems,

Proceedings of the 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control,

December 2008.

D. Gao, D. Lu and Z. Sun, Fuzzy Adaptive Control for a Class of

Non-Affine Systems via Time Scale Separation, Proceedings of the

World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science Vol II,

October 2012.

S.-H. Tsai, An Improved Fuzzy Modeling Method for a Class of

Multi-Input Non-affine Nonlinear Systems, J Optim Theory Appl

(Article in press), Doi 10.1007/s10957-012-0177-4, 2012.

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