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Subjunctive

The subjunctive is a special, relatively rare verb form in English.

Structure of the Subjunctive
The structure of the subjunctive is extremely simple. For all verbs except the
past tense of be, the subjunctive is the same as the bare infinitive (infinitive
without "to"):
be (past)

be (present)

all other verbs (past & present)

I were
you were
he, she, it were
we were
you were
they were

I be
you be
he, she, it be
we be
you be
they be

I work
you work
he, she, it work
we work
you work
they work

The subjunctive does not change according to person (I, you, he etc).

Use of the Subjunctive
We use subjunctives mainly when talking about events that are not certain to
happen. For example, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that
somebody:

wants to happen
hopes will happen

imagines happening

Look at these examples:

The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
It is vital that you be present at the meeting.

If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.

The subjunctive is typically used after two structures:

the verbs: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend,
request, suggest + that

necessary.  It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend. I would ask her. Normally.  Past: It was essential that she be present. "he were"? We sometimes hear things like "if I were you. It does not matter whether the sentence is past or present. Look at these sentences:   If I were you. the past tense of the verb "to be" is: I was. he would tell you". I would go" or "if he were here. The board of directors recommended that he join the company.  It is essential that we vote as soon as possible. Suppose she were here.  Present: It is essential that she be present. important. We usually use the subjunctive were instead of "was" after if (and other words with similar meaning). Look at these examples:   Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation. where should + infinitive is often used:  The manager insists that the car park should be locked at night. Notice that in these structures the subjunctive is always the same. What would you say? Why do we say "I were". essential.  It was essential that we should vote as soon as possible. In the following examples. vital + that Here are some examples with the subjunctive:   The manager insists that the car park be locked at night. The use of the subjunctive as above is more common in American English than in English. But the if I were you structure does not use the past simple tense of the verb "to be". you can see that we often use the subjunctive form were instead of "was" after:   if as if  wish . Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation. the expressions: it is desirable. It uses the past subjunctive of the verb "to be". he was.

If I was younger. I would go. She acts as if she were Queen. I should tell her.  Come what may.) (The was form is possible in informal.) If I were younger. Some fixed expressions use the subjunctive. It's not as if I were ugly. Here are some examples:   Long live the King! God bless America!  Heaven forbid!  Be that as it may.  We are all citizens of the world. Note: We do not normally say "if I was you". familiar conversation. I wish it was longer. suppose Formal Informal (The were form is correct at all times. Causative . I would go. he would buy one for me. She acts as if she was Queen. It's not as if I was ugly. If I were you. I will never forget you. as it were. I wish I weren't so slow! I wish I wasn't so slow! I wish it were longer. If he wasn't so mean. he still wants to see her. he would buy one for me. even in familiar conversation. If he weren't so mean.

I had my computer fixed. Bentuknya sebagai berikut: Kata kerja “to have” + objek + past participle (verb 3). kita “menyuruh” orang yang lain untuk melakukannya.Did you have your computer fixed? Terkadang kita menggunakan have sebagai causative verb ketika kita ingin melakukan tindakan oleh diri kita sendiri.I had my jacket cleaned yesterday.I had my jacket cleaned.Saya “menyebabkan” mereka memotong rambut saya. Get   Get sering digunakan ketimbang have. Ketimbang melakukan sesuatu dengan diri kita sendiri. Kedua kalimat ini maknanya sama. dan lebih memberikan perhatian kepada tindakan yang sedang dilakukan.Yesterday I had my hair cut. . Contoh: . Dengan menggunakan causative. Contoh: I got my computer fixed . I got my jacket cleaned. tetapi justru menyebabkan seseorang/sesuatu yang lain melakukannya. Ini kedengaran sopan dan profesional. Contoh: . tetapi justru membuat orang lain melakukannya . Pembicara pada kalimat diatas tidak memotong sendiri rambutnya.Causative verb menunjukkan bahwa seseorang/sesuatu secara tidak langsung bertanggung jawab terhadap sebuah tindakan. . Kedua kalimat ini maknanya sama.When will the report be ready? I’ll have it done by tomorrow morning. >> .When will the report be ready? I’ll do it by tomorrow morning. Have Have merupakan causative verb yang umum. kalimat ke-dua diatas mengalihkan perhatian dari pelaku tindakan. Contoh: . . Subjek tidak melakukan tindakan itu sendiri.

Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? She made her children do their homework. Make Make digunakan untuk memaksa seseorang melakukan sesuatu.Causative verbs sering digunakan bersama dengan pengalaman-pengalaman negatif. Let Let digunakan untuk membolehkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Contoh: My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. Bentuknya adalah make + orang +    verb. . Will your parents let you go to the party? I don’t know if my boss will let me take the day off. Contoh: I had my wallet stolen. (Saya sebenarnya tidak menyebabkan dompet saya dicuri .seseorang mencuri dompet saya dariku) She had her window smashed. Pada situasi-   situasi ini lebih umum menggunakan have. Contoh: John let me drive his new car. Bentuknya adalah let + orang +    verb.