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Elevator Maintenance + Repair

Harry Vyas
Director
Elevators Unit

The NYC Department of Buildings is a registered Provider with The


American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/
CES). Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported
to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both
members and non-AIA members are available upon request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing
professional education. As such, it does not include content that
may be deemed or constructed to be an approval or endorsement
by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner
of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will
be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and
International Copyright laws. Reproduction,
distribution, display and use of the presentation
without written permission of the speaker is
prohibited.
NYC Department of Buildings

Course Description
New York City is a vertical city with more than 60,000 elevator stocks
that make 30 million trips each day. Elevators are designed to
transport people in more than 28,000 buildings across New Yorks
dense urban environment.
Maintaining and repairing vertical transportation systems are essential
in providing safe and reliable service to riders and building operations.
A lack of maintenance and repairs may cause elevator failure, reduce
the lifespan of equipment, entrapment and injury.
This course will examine the NYC Building Code and ASME A 17.1
requirements for the maintenance of elevators and escalators. It will
also discuss best practices for maintenance and repairs; including
engineering controls and accident prevention.

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Learning Objectives
At the end of this program, participants will have learned:

Participants will examine NYC Building Codes requirements administrative


section 28-304.7 and ASME A 17.1 SECTION 8.6 for elevators and
escalators in order to be able to identify specific regulations for elevator
maintenance and repairs.

Participants will examine the Maintenance Control Program and be able to


keep a Maintenance Log that is reflective of manufacturers and code
requirements.

Participants will review best practices for the maintenance and repairs of
elevator and escalators in order to educate on the potential risks while
working on equipment.

Participants will analyze various design and engineering control methods to


enhance public safety during maintenance and repair.

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The Elevators Units Mission


The Elevators Unit ensures the operational safety, reliable service and
lawful use of elevators, escalators, amusement rides and other related
devices throughout New York City by performing inspections and testing.
The Unit enhances compliant development and safety awareness
through the Departments various outreach programs.
The Unit supports development by permitting new technologies under
pilot programs.

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Elevator Safety

The public

Elevator personnel

Authorized personnel

Emergency responders

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Device Types

Elevators

Escalators

Man lifts

Conveyors

Personnel hoists

Wheelchair lifts

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Codes and Standards

NYC Building Code 2008 (Appendix K, Chapter 30)

ASME A 17.1/2003 and ANSI/ASSE A10.4 (Personnel Hoist)

ASME A 17.3/2002 (Existing Elevators and Escalators, as modified


by Chapter K3)

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Maintenance and Repair Contract


NYC Administrative code 28-304.7 Required contract

Owner of New and existing passenger elevators shall have contract


with an approved agency to perform elevator repair work and
maintenance as defined by ASME A 17.1- Section 8.6.

The name, address and telephone number of approved agency


under contract shall be maintained at each premises, on the elevator
mainline disconnect switch and in a location readily accessible to
employees of the department, building maintenance and custodian
staff at the premises.

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Elevator Maintenance and Repair

Maintenance Control Program

Maintenance Records

Repair

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Maintenance, Repairs and Replacement


Shall confirm following code requirements:

Code at the time of the installation

Code requirements at the time of any alteration/modernization


ASME A 17.3-2002 as modified by NYC Building Code Appendix K
ASME A 17.1b-2003, Section 8.6

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Maintenance Control Program


MCP shall be in compliance with ASME A 17.1b-2003 Section 8.6.1.2:

Examination, maintenance and tests at schedule interval

Equipment age, condition, and accumulated wear

Design and inherent quality of the equipment

Usage, Environmental condition

Improved technology

Cleaning, lubricating, adjusting applicable components at regular intervals

Repair or replace all worn or defective component where necessary to


maintain installation as per codes and manufacturer requirements

Available at site to elevator personnel

As required by Manufacturer manual


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MCP Examples

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MCP Examples

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MCP Examples

MCP Example

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MCP Examples: MRL Elevator (Traction)

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Maintenance Records
Maintenance records shall be in compliance with ASME
A 17.1b-2003 Section 8.6.1.4:
Description of maintenance task performed and dates
Description and dates of examinations, tests, adjustments, repairs
and replacements
Description and dates of call backs (trouble calls), including
corrective action taken
Written record of the findings on the fire fighter service
Available at the site for elevator personal

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Example

Maintenance Log Example

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Elevator Application

New installations

Alterations (change in speed, capacity, rise, structural and location)

Replacement and modification (replacement/ modification of


controller, machine, governor, safety etc.)

Elevator use for construction use (new or amendment on existing


application)

Removal

Dismantle

Electrical permit must be filed for electrical work performed on device

Note: An acceptance test is required for all types of elevator applications (except
applications filed under EBN/PPN), and Department inspectors shall perform the
necessary test and inspection, as per the scope of work.

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Types of Inspections
Department of Buildings Inspectors:
Acceptance Tests - Permitted Application (new and modernized
devices)
Complaint Inspections (through NYC 311 call center)
Incidents / Accidents and Emergency Response (24/7)
Periodic Inspections
Violation Re-Inspections

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Enforcement

ECB violations

PVT/DOB violations

Aggravated I and II

Criminal court summons (under major offenders program)

Work without permit violation

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Approved Agency Inspections


On behalf of the building owner:

Category One 1 Year Test (Performed between January 1st and


December 31st annually)

Category Three 3 Year Test (water hydraulic)

Category Five 5 Year Test

All above inspections and tests shall be performed, witnessed by


approved agencies not affiliated with each other

Affirmation of correction inspection (Cat. 1 defects and PVT violation)

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Maintenances Issues
Rouge on ropes
lack of maintenance

Hoist Cables
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Maintenances Issues
Undersized Ropes

Hoist cables
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Maintenances Issues
Severe rust condition
on safety cable drum

Safety Rope
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Maintenances Issues
Damaged ropes

Hoist Cables
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Maintenances Issues
Oil leak on
machine

Hoist Machine
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Maintenances Issues
Lack of oil change

Hoist Machine
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Maintenances Issues

Electrical

Jumped fuses

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Maintenances Issues

Electrical

Exposed wiring

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Maintenances Issues

Electrical

Exposed wiring

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Maintenances Issues

House
keeping

Dirty pit creating a


fire hazard

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Maintenances Issues

Safety

Governor switch
blocked

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Maintenances Issues

Safety

Loose bolts

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Maintenances Issues

Safety

Brake sleeve
defective

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Hoist Applications
New Installations

ELV-1 Elevator application

Electrical permit must be filed for electrical work

Construction application must be filed at the borough office for ties


to the building structure and for back structure installation

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Hoist Inspection Requirements

Acceptance Inspection and Test Department of Buildings

Audit Inspection Department of Buildings

Hoist Removal Department of Buildings

Cathead/Tower Raise Approved agency Inspectors (Requires 3


days notification)

90 Day Inspection Approved agency Inspectors (Requires Full


Load Test)

Inspections required as per Code and manufactures manual

Required maintenance log at the site


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Hoist Maintenance Issue

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Hoist Maintenance Issue

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Advantages of Maintenance as Per MCP

Enhance safety

Improve service reliability

Increase life span of equipment

Enhance efficiency of vertical system transportation

Avoid costly repairs

Avoid violations and penalties


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Elevator Safety

Worker safety

Fall protection

Electrical safety

Proper use of jumpers

Lockout and tag out

Use of caution tape when elevators are serviced


Code requirement

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Questions?

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Elevator Maintenance + Repair


Eric Munz, CSP
NEII

NYC Deptartment of Buildings


Best Practices and Engineering Controls for Public Safety
and Mechanics During Elevator/Escalator Repairs in
Occupied Buildings

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Course Description
This course will cover essential best practices and
engineering controls designed to prevent injury to the
general public and elevator mechanics during the repair of
vertical transportation equipment including elevators and
escalators.

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Safety Tip

1 new text msg:


Adhere to Safety
Rules; Save
Lives. Dont just
be compliant; be
committed.

A few over-the-counter drugs like antihistamines,


cough syrups, and cold medications can create
drowsiness. During allergy season, take notice of the
side affects and adjust use accordingly.

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Agenda
Public Safety Factors
Car Control
Jumper Management
Caution Tape
Deep Pit Protection
Barricades
Mechanic Safety Practices
Access/Egress MR
LOTO/Electrical Safety
Jumpers
Mechanical Safety
Hoistway Access Procedure
Fall Protection
Safety Culture, Creation & Maintenance

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Elevator Safety General Public


CAR CONTROL
Maintained while on inspection mode, removing the unit from
the bank
Electrical and mechanical energy is isolated during repair tasks
Safety Chain includes: door lock, inspection switch, stop
switch

De-Energize

Inspection
Control

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Elevator Safety General Public


JUMPER MANAGEMENT
The controller is programmed to prevent unwanted movement of
the car, jumpers defeat these circuits
Robust management practices must be applied
Personal accountability for jumpers must start with the Mechanic

Controlled
Jumper

Uncontrolled
jumper

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Elevator Safety General Public


Jumper Best Practices

Jumpers must not be used as a diagnostic tool.

Temporary bridging devices must never be used to short out hall door
contacts.

Exceptions must have a written JHA approved by supervision.

Never jump-out door and gate contacts at the same time.

Ensure that elevator is on inspection prior to placing jumpers on door,


gate, or safety circuits.

When passenger(s) are trapped inside a stalled car, mechanic must


never jump car gate and move the car from the machine room unless
they have communication either directly with the passenger(s) or with a
second mechanic. In these types of situations it is preferable to move
the elevator using TOCI.
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Elevator Safety General Public


CAUTION TAPE (NYC)
The code specifies 3 yellow caution safety tape installed at 18
and 54 on the inside car door threshold when working on the
elevator
The tape needs to be utilized when the elevator is removed from
normal service and a Mechanic is not working in front of the
entrance of the actual device
Prevents unintended public entrance
Lights out/Doors open communicates that the car is out of
service

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Elevator Safety General Public


DEEP PIT PROTECTION
Pits designed with bottom landing access points
represent a challenge for public protection
Falls of any height can cause injury
Deep pit depths can be as great as 20
Substantial barricades offer a higher level or
protection and OSHA compliance

Substantial
Barricade

Standard
Barricade

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


Serious Injury Risk Areas
Machine 4%

Controller 2%
Machine/Sheave 15%
Top of Car 7%

Machine Room/
Entrance 10%

Car/False Car 4%
Hoistway 17%
Truss 2%

Landing 4%

Hoistway Opening 4%

Landing Floor Plate 2%

Counterweight 2%

Pit Entrance 7%
Pit 11%

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


ACCESS/EGRESS MACHINE ROOM

Presents hazard to the mechanic

Must commonly access rooftops, staircases and mechanical


spaces not designed for public access

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

If electricity is required for the task, the mechanic must work


safely around it.

Increase distance from the hazard

Temporarily guard the hazard

Permanently guard the hazard

Temporary
Electrical
Guarding

Exposed
Electrical

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


JUMPER MANAGEMENT

Jumpers must not be used as a diagnostic tool


Temporary bridging devices must never be used to short out hall door
contacts.
Exceptions must have a written JHA approved by supervision.
Never jump-out door and gate contacts at the same time.
Ensure that elevator is on inspection prior to placing jumpers on door,
gate, or safety circuits.

Controlled
Jumper

Uncontrolled
Jumpers

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


MECHANICAL HAZARDS

Elevator companies maintain equipment that is owned by


another party

Retrofitting of permanent guards is an owner decision

Use of temporary guarding is a best practice

Guarded

Not
Guarded

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


HOISTWAY ACCESS

Serious injuries occur when control of the car is lost

Specialized tooling and processes to validate the safety circuits is


a best practice

Specialized
Tools

Improvised
Control

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Elevator Safety Elevator Mechanic


FALL PROTECTION

Elevator mechanics can be exposed to great falls

Guardrails eliminate the hazard

Guardrails

Fall
Protection

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Escalator Safety General Public


BARRICADES

Separate public from the hazards of fall and electricity

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Escalator Safety Elevator Mechanic


CONTROL OF ENERGY

Redundant control of truss (steps removed)

LOTO/Electrical

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Safety Culture Development


Minimum Operational Requirements

Comply with Federal, State and City regulations

Develop a Culture of Safety

Develop a Safety Management System


Proactively manage safety through
Employee training & communication
Proper safety equipment & tools
Create an environment where mechanics champion safety
Empower mechanics to own safety
Support the safest work, not the fastest
Vehicle Management/Driver Accountability
Invest in the safety program

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Standardize Processes
When practical, document a standard work process

Develops efficiencies
Improves safety for all
Reduces re-work and unproductive time

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Establish the Rules

ALWAYS use fall


protection when a fall
hazard exists.

ALWAYS lock and tag


out equipment when
power is not required.

ALWAYS follow the


operation authorized
procedures for false
cars/running platforms.

ALWAYS use certified


& inspected hoisting &
rigging equipment.

ALWAYS establish and


maintain control of the
unit prior to accessing.
ALWAYS follow proper
jumper procedures.

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Establish the Rules

ALWAYS control live


electricity and rotating
equipment when working
within close proximity.
NEVER ride escalator
when steps are removed.

NEVER ride the car top


with the elevator in
normal operation.

NEVER work above or


below others when
working in the hoistway.

ALWAYS secure the


step chain from
movement.

ALWAYS use barriers and


redundant controls
(LOTO) when unattended

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Educate Mechanics on the Process


Classroom and hands-on training reinforces the learning
process
Improves accountability and compliance
Frequent training/communication
Elevator Field Employees Safety Handbook

Engaged
Training

Safety
Handbook

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Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)


An important accident
prevention tool used by
mechanics is the Job Hazard
Analysis Process, or JHA.
This process allows mechanics
to analyze each job step,
identify hazards they may
encounter, and document ways
accidents can be prevented by
mitigating these hazards. A
written JHA should be used at
the start of each day, and when
starting each new major task.
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Jobsite Inspections
Although NEII companies
continue to drastically reduce
the number of injuries, serious
injuries still occur.
As a result, some members
have developed special
observation programs to
assess the level of
understanding of mechanics of
the key hazard areas while
performing typical procedures.
This assessment focuses on
preventing the leading causes
of serious and fatal injuries.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Fall Protection
Control of the hazardous Energy
Control of the Elevator
High Risk Practices
a. Scaffolding
b. False Cars / Running Platforms
c. Hoisting & Rigging
d. Jumpers

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Program Recognition & Enforcement


Mature programs

Motivate employees to do the right thing


Reinforces compliance to rules
Formally document history
Verbal warning to termination options
Automatic suspensions for violations, even first time

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This concludes
The American Institute of Architects
Continuing Education Systems Course

NYC Department of Buildings

AIA Point of Contact:


Allison Ginsburg
Aginsburg@buildings.nyc.gov
212-566-4415

Elevator Maintenance + Repair


Harry Vyas
Director, Elevators Unit

Eric Munz, CSP


NEII