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PILOTS OPERATING HANDB


OOK
an
d
FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FL
IGHT MANUAL

hi:

C
CESSNA AIRCRAFT
COMPANY

I
THIS DOCUMENT MUST BE
CARRIED IN THE AIRPLANE
AT ALL TIMES.

1982 MODEL T210N


Serial

Regist

THIS HANDBOOK INCLUDE


S THE MATERIAL REQUIRED
TO BE
FURNISHED TO THE PILOT BY
CAR PART 3 AND CONS
TITUTES
THE FAA APPROVED AIRPLA
NE FLIGHT MANUAL.
i

\
COPYRIGHT 1981

CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMP


ANY
WICHITA, KANSAS, USA
Member of GAMA

11 Septemi
1981

THE AIRPLANE
S PROVIDED FOR
A
W
L
A
U
N
A
M
IS
TH
E TITLE PAGE ON
IDENTIFIED ON TH
ED BY CESSNA
VISIONS SUPPLI
SUBSEQUENT RE
PROPERLY IN
PANY MUST BE
AIRCRAFT COM
SERTED.

WNEE DIVISION
FT COMPANY, PA

C)

CESSNA AIRCRA

C)
%

.(

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CONGRATULATIONS

CONGRATULATIONS
and
Welcome to the ranks of Cessna owners! Your Cessna has been designed
that
constructed to give you the most in performance, economy, and comfort. It is our desire
you will find flying it, either for business or pleasure, a pleasant and profitable experience.
most
This Pilots Operating Handbook has been prepared as a guide to help you get the
Cessnas
your
about
information
contains
It
airplane.
your
from
pleasure and utility
and
equipment, operating procedures, and performance; and suggestions for its servicing
care. We urge you to read it from cover to cover, and to refer to it frequently.
Our interest in your flying pleasure has not ceased with your purchase of a Cessna.
Services
Worldwide, the Cessna Dealer Organization backed by the Cessna Customer
Department stands ready to serve you. The following services are offered by most Cessna
Dealers:

THE CESSNA WARRANTY,which provides coverage for parts and labor, is available at
Cessna Dealers worldwide. Specific benefits and provisions of warranty, plus other
important benefits for you, are contained in your Customer Care Program book,
supplied with your airplane. Warranty service is available to you at authorized Cessna
Dealers throughout the world upon presentation of your Customer Care Card which
establishes your eligibility under the warranty.

FACTORY-TRAINED PERSONNEL to provide you with courteous expert service.

FACTORY-APPROVED SERVICE EQUIPMENT to provide you efficient and accurate


workmanship.

A STOCK OF GENUINE CESSNA SERVICE PARTS on hand when you need them.

AIR
THE LATEST AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION FOR SERVICING CESSNA
PLANES, since Cessna Dealers have all of the Service Manuals and Parts Catalogs, kept
News
current by Customer Care Service Information Letters and Customer Care
Company.
Aircraft
Cessna
by
published
Letters,
Weurge all Cessna owners to use the Cessna Dealer Organization to the fullest.

The
A current Worldwide Customer Care Directory accompanies your new airplane.
Cessna
your
from
obtained
be
can
copy
current
and
a
frequently,
revised
is
Directory
Dealer. Make your Directory one of your cross-country flight planning aids; a warm
welcome awaits you at every Cessna Dealer.

11 September 1981

PERFORMANCESPECIFICATIONS

PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SPECIFICATIONS

*SPEED:
Maximum at 17,000 Ft
Cruise, 80% Puwer at 20,000 Ft
Cruise, 80% Power at 10,000 Ft
CRUISE: Recommended lean mixture with fuel allowance for
engine start, taxi, takeoff, climb and 45 minutes
reserve at 45% power.
80%. Power at 20,000 Ft
522 Pounds Usable Fuel
80% Power at 10,000 Ft
522 Pounds Usable Fuel
Maximum Range at 20,000 Ft
522 Pounds Usable Fuel
Maximum Range at 10,000 Ft
522 Pounds Usable Fuel
RATE OF CLIMB AT SEA LEVEL
SERVICE CEILING
TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE:
Ground Roll
Total Oistance Over 50-Ft Obstacle
LANDING PERFORMANCE:
Ground Roll
Total Oistance Over 50-Ft Obstacle
STALL SPEED (KCA5):
Flaps Up, Power Off
Flaps Down, Power Off
MAXIMUM WEIGHT:
Ramp
Takeoff
Landing
STANDARD EMPTY WEIGHT:
Turbo Centurion
Turbo Centurion II
MAXIMUM USEFUL LOAD:
Turbo Centurion
Turbo Centurion II
BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE: Maximum With 4 People
WING LOADING: Pounds/Sq Ft
POWER LOADING: Pounds/lip
FUEL CAPACITY: Total
OIL CAPACITY
ENGINE: Teledyne Continental, lurbocharged Fuel Injection
310 BHP at 2700 RPM (5-Minute Takeoff Rating)
285 BHP at 2600 RPM (Maximum Continuous Rating)
PROPELLER: 3-Bladed Constant Speed, Diameter
.

204 KNOTS
193 KNOTS
176 KNOTS

Range
Time
Range
Time
Range
Time
Range
Time

715 NM
4.0 HRS
685 NM
4.0 HRS
880 NM
6.8 HRS
900 NM
7.2 HRS
930 FPM
27,000 FT
1300 FT
2160 FT

765 FT
1500 FT
67 KNOTS
58 KNOTS
4016 LBS
4000 LBS
3800 LBS
2237 LBS
2303 LBS

LBS
LBS
LBS
GAL.

80 IN.

Speeds are based on mid-cruise weight.

The above performance figures are based on the indicated weights,


standard atmospheric.
conditions, level hard-surface dry runways, and no wind. They
are calculated values
derived from flight tests conducted by the Cessna Aircraft
Company under carefully
documented conditions and will vary with individual airplanes
and numerous factors
affecting flight performance.

11 September 1981

COVERAGE! REVISIONS!
LOG OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

COVERAGE

The Pilot s Operating Handbook in the airplane at the time of delivery from Cessna Aircraft
Company contains information applicable to the 1982 Model T210 airplane designated by the serial
number and registration number shown on the Title Page of this handbook. Thisinformation is based
on data available at the time of publication.

REVISIONS

Changes and/or additions to this handbook will be covered by revisions published by Cessna
Aircraft Company. These revisions are distributed to owners of U. S. Registered aircraft according to
FAA records at the time of revision issuance.
Revisions should be examined immediately upon receipt and incorporated in this handbook.
NOTE
It is the responsibility of the owner to maintain this handbook in a current
status when it is being used for operational purposes.
Owners should contact their Cessna Dealer whenever the revision status of their handbook is in
question.
A revision bar will extend the full length of new or revised text and/or illustrations added on new
or presently existing pages. This bar will be located adjacent to the applicable revised area on the
outer margin of the page.
All revised pages will carry the revision number and dat,e on the applicable page.
The following Log of Effective Pages provides the dates of issue for original and revised pages, and
a listing of all pages in the handbook. Pages affected by the Current revision are indicated by an
asterisk () preceding the pages listed.

LOG OF EFFECTIVE PAGES


Dates of issue for original and revised pages are:
11 September 1981
Original
16 December 1981
Revision 1
Date

Page
Title
Assignment Record
i thru ii
miii thru iv
v
vi Blank
1-1 thru 1-8
2-1
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2-3 thru 2-12
3-1 thru 3-3
9-4
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3-14 Blank
3-15 thru 3-24

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11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

Date

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1981
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LOG OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

CESSNA
MODEL T2WN

LOG OF EFFECTIVE PAGES (Continued)


Page
5-13 thru 5-35
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ii September
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16 December
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Date

Page

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8-3 thru 8-14

Date
11 September
16 December
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*8_is

8-16 thru 8-22


9-1
9-2 thru 9-3
9-4 Blank

1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981

NOTE
Refer to Section 9 fable of Contents for
supplentents applicable to optional sys
tems.

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0

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iv

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION
GENERAL

LIMITATIONS

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

NORMAL PROCEDURES

PERFORMANCE

WEIGHT & BALANCE/


EQUIPMENT LIST

AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS


DESCRIPTIONS
AIRPLANE HANDLING,
SERVJCE & MAINTENANCE

SUPPLEMENTS
(Optional Systems Description
& Operating Procedures)

11 September 1981

v/(vi blank)

SECTION 1
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 1
GENERAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

,,-

Three View
Introduction
Descriptive Data
Engine
Propeller
Fuel
Oil
Maximum Certificated Weights
Standard Airplane Weights
Cabin And Entry Dimensions
Baggage Space And Entry Dimensions
Specific Loadings
Symbols. Abbreviations And Terminology
General Airspeed Terminology And Symbols
Meteorological Terminology
Engine Power Terminology
Airplane Performance And Flight Planning Terminology
Weight And Balance Terminology

11 September 1981

1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7

1-1

SECTION;
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T2ON

1 3-O

,OT::ensjons
shown are based on
Standard enrpty weight and proper
nose gear and tire inflation.
2.

Maoiseorn height shown with


nose gear depressed as far as
possible and flashing beacon
installed.

3.

Wheel base length is 72.

4,

Propeller ground clearance is


107/8.

5.

Wing area is 175 sqoore feet.

6.

Mininrunr taming radios


I * pivot point to ootbnard
wing tipl is 26-1 1.

0
PIVOT POINT

PIVOT POINT

Figure 1-1. Three View

11 September 1981

SECTION 1
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

INTRODUCTION
j

This handbook contains 9 sections, and includes the material required


to be furnished to the pilot by CAR Part 3. It also contains supplemental
data supplied by Cessna Aircraft Company.
Section 1 provides basic data and information of general interest. It
also contains definitions or explanations of symbols, abbreviations, and
terminology commonly used.

DESCRIPTIVE DATA
ENGINE

Number of Engines: 1.
Engine Manufacturer: Teledyne Continental.
Engine Model Number: TSIO-520-R.
Engine Type: Turbocharged, direct-drive, air-cooled, horizontallyopposed, fuel-injected, six-cylinder engine with 520 cu. in. displace
ment.
Horsepower Rating and Engine Speed:
Maximum Power (5 minutes takeoff): 310 rated BHP at 36.5 inches Hg
and 2700 RPM.
Maximum Continuous Power: 285 rated BHP at 35 inches Hg and 2600
RPM.
-

PROPELLER
Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division.
Propeller Model Number: D3A34C402/9ODFA-10.
Number of Blades: 3.
Propeller Diameter, Maximum: 80 inches.
Minimum: 78.5 inches.
Propeller Type: Constant speed and hydraulically actuated, with alow
pitch setting of 12.4 and a high pitch setting of 28.5 (30 inch station).

FUEL
Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors):
100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).
NOTE
Isopropyl alcohol or ethylene glycol monomethyl ether
may be added to the fuel supply. Additive concentrations
shall not exceed 1% for isopropyl alcohol or .15% for
ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Refer to Section 8 for
additional information.

11 September 1981

1-3

SECTION 1
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

Total Capacity: 90 gallons.


Total Capacity Each Tank: 45 gallons.
Total Usable: 87 gallons.
NOTE
Before refueling or when the airplane is parked on a slope,
place the fuel selector handle in the LEFT ON or RIGHT
ON position, whichever corresponds to the low wing. This
action minimizes cross-feeding from the fuller tank and
reduces fuel seepage from the wing tank vents.

OIL
Oil Giade (Specification):
MIL-L-6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil: Use to replenish
supply during first 25 hours and at the first 25-hour oil change.
Continue to use until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil
consumption has stabilized.
NOTE
Ihe airplane was delivered from the factory with a corro
sion preventive aircraft engine oil. This oil should be
drained after the first 25 hours of operation.
Continental Motors Specification MHS-24 (and all revisions thereto),
Ashless Dispersant Oil: This oil must be used after first 50 hours or
oil consumption has stabilized.
Recommended Viscosity for Temperature Range:
All temperatures, use SAE 20W-50 or
Above 4C (40F), use SAE 50
Below 4C (40F), use SAE 30
NOTE
Multi-viscosity oil with a range of SAE 20W-50 is recom
mended for improved starting and turbocharger controller
operation in cold weather.
Oil Capacity:
Sump: 10 Quarts.
Total: 11 Quarts.

MAXIMUM CERTIFICATED WEIGHTS


Ramp: 4016 lbs.
Takeoff: 4000 lbs.
Landing: 3800 lbs.

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 1
GENERAL

Weight in Baggage Compartment:


Baggage Forward of wheel well on folded down aft seat (Station 89 to
110): 120 lbs.
Baggage On wheel well (Station 110 to 124): 50 lbs.
Baggage On and aft of wheel well (Station 110 to 152): 200 lbs.
-

NOTE
The maximum allowable combined weight capacity for
baggage forward, on and aft of the wheel well is 240
pounds.

STANDARD AIRPLANE WEIGHTS


Standard Empty Weight, Turbo Centurion: 2237 lbs.
Turbo Centurion II: 2303 lbs.
Maximum Useful Load, Turbo Centurion: 1779 lbs.
Turbo Centurion II: 1713 lbs.

CABIN AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS


Detailed dimensions of the cabin interior and entry door openings are
illustrated in Section 6.

BAGGAGE SPACE AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS


Dimensions of the baggage area and baggage door opening are
illustrated in detail in Section 6.

SPECIFIC LOADINGS
Wing Loading: 22.9 lbs./sq. ft.
Power Loading: 12.9 lbs/hp.

SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND


TERMINOLOGY
GENERAL AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS
KCAS

Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected


for position and instrument error and expressed in knots.
Knots calibrated airspeed is equal to KTAS in standard
atmosphere at sea level.

KIAS

Knots Indicated Airspeed is the speed shown on the


airspeed indicator and expressed in knots.

11 September 1981

1-5

SECTION 1
GENERAL

KTAS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
Knots True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots
relative to undisturbed air which is KCAS corrected for
altitude and temperature.
Maneuvering Speed is the maximum speed at which full or
abrupt control movements may be used.
Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed
permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended
position.
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed is the maximum
speed at which an airplane can be safely flown with the
landing gear extended.
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed is the maximum
speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or
retracted.
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that
should not be exceeded except in smooth air, then only with
caution.
Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be
exceeded at any time.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at
which the airplane is controllable.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at
which the airplane is controllable in the landing configu
ration at the most forward center of gravity.
Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in
the greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance.

V.

Best Rate-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in the


greatest gain in altitude in a given time.

METEOROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY
OAT

Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature.


It is expressed in either degrees Celsius or degrees Fah
renheit.

Standard
Temperature

Standard Temperature is 15C at sea level pressure alti


tude and decreases by 2C for each 1000 feet of altitude.

11 September 1981

SECTION 1
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

Pressure
Altitude

Pressure Altitude is the altitude read from an altimeter


when the altimeters barometric scale has been set to 29.92
inches of mercury (1013 mb).

ENGINE POWER TERMINOLOGY


BHP

Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine.


Percent power values in this handbook are based on the
maximum continuous power rating.

RPM

Revolutions Per Minute is engine speed.

MP

Manifold Pressure is a pressure measured in the engines


induction system and is expressed in inches of mercury
(Hg).

AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT PLANNING


TERMINOLOGY
Demonstrated
Crosswind
Velocity

Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity is the velocity of the


crosswind component for which adequate control of the
airplane during takeoff and landing was actually demonstrated during certification tests. The value shown is not
considered to be limiting.

Usable Fuel

Usable Fuel is the fuel available for flight planning.

Unusable
Fuel

Unusable Fuel is the quantity of fuel that can not be safely


used in flight.

PPH

Pounds Per Hour is the amount of fuel consumed per hour.

NMPG

Nautical Miles Per Gallon is the distance which can be


expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific engine
power setting and! or flight configuration.

g is acceleration due to gravity.

WEIGHT AND BALANCE TERMINOLOGY


Reference
Datum

Reference Datum is an imaginary vertical plane from


which all horizontal distances are measured for balance
purposes.

Station

Station is a location along the airplane fuselage given in


terms of the distance from the reference datum.

11 September 1981

SECTION 1
GENERAL

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to
the center of gravity (C.G.) of an item.

Moment

Moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied


by its arm. (Moment divided by the constant 1000 is used in
this handbook to simplify balance calculations by reduc
ing the number of digits.)

Center of
Gravity
(C.G.)

Center of Gravity is the point at which an airplane, or


equipment, would balance if suspended. Its distance from
the reference datum is found by dividing the total moment
by the total weight of the airplane.
Center of Gravity Arm is the arm obtained by adding the
airplanes individual moments and dividing the sum by
the total weight.

C.G.
Limits

Center of Gravity Limits are the extreme center of gravity


locations within which the airplane must be operated at a
given weight.

Standard
Empty
Weight

Standard Empty Weight is the weight of a standard airplane, including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and
full engine oil.

Basic Empty
Weight

Basic Empty Weight is the standard empty weight plus the


weight of optional equipment.

Useful
Load

Useful Load is the difference between ramp weight and the


basic empty weight.

Maximum
Ramp
Weight

Maximum Ramp Weight is the maximum weight approved


for ground maneuver. (It includes the weight of start, taxi
and runup fuel.)

Maximum
Takeoff
Weight

Maximum Takeoff Weight is the maximum weight


approved for the start of the takeoff roll.

Ivlaximurn
Landing
Weight

Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum weight


approved for the landing touchdown.

Tare

Tare is the weight of chocks, blocks, stands, etc. used when


weighing an airplane, and is included in the scale read
ings. Tare is deducted from the scale reading to obtain the
actual (net) airplane weight.

(3
(3
Th

11 September 1981

.1

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 2
liMITATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Airspeed Limitations
Airspeed Indicator Markings
Power Plant Limitations
Power Plant Instrument Markings
Weight Limits
Center Of Gravity Limits
Maneuver Limits
Flight Load Factor Limits
Kinds Of Operation Limits
Fuel Limitations
Other Limitations
Flap Limitations
Placards
.

11 September 1981

Page
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-9

2-1/(2-2 blank)

0
0
/

cc

0
0

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

INTRODUCTION
gs, and
Section 2 includes operating limitations, instrument markin
,
basic placards necessary for the safe operation of the airplane, its engine
in
ed
includ
ions
limitat
The
ent.
equipm
rd
standa
and
s
standard system
l Aviation
this section and in Section 9 have been approved by the Federa
d by
require
is
ions
limitat
ng
operati
these
of
ance
n.
Observ
Administratio
Federal Aviation Regulations.

NOTE
Refer to Section 9 of this Pilots Operating Handbook for
amended operating limitations, operating procedures,
performance data and other necessary information for
airplanes equipped with specific options.
NOTE
The airspeeds listed in the Airspeed Limitations chart
(figure 2-t) and the Airspeed Indicator Markings chart
(figure 2-2) are based on Airspeed Calibration data shown
in Section 5 with the normal static source. If the alternate
static source is being used, ample margins should be
observed to allow for the airspeed calibration variations
between the normal and alternate static sources as shown
in Section 5.
3A2l as
Your Cessna is certificated under FAA Type Certificate No.
Cessna Model No. T21ON.

11 September 1981

2-3

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
Airspeed limitations and their operational significance are shown in
figure 2-1.

SPEED

KCAS

KIAS

REMARKS

VNE

Never Exceed Speed

198

203

Do not exceed this speed in


any operation.

VNO

Maximum Structural
Cruising Speed

165

168

Do not exceed this speed


except in smooth air, and
then only with caution.

VA

Maneuvering Speed:
4000 Pounds
3350 Pounds
2700 Pounds

129
118
105

130
119
106

Do not make full or abrupt


control movements above
this speed.

Maximum Flap Extended


Speed:
To 10 Flaps
100 200 Flaps
20 30 Flaps

158
130
116

160
130
115

Do not exceed these speeds


with the given flap settings.

VFE

VLO

Maximum Landing Gear


Operating Speed

163

165

Do not extend or retract


landing gear above this
speed.

VLE

Maximum Landing Gear


Extended Speed

198

203

Do not exceed this speed


with landing gear extended.

Maximum Window Open


Speed

198

203

Do not exceed this speed with


windows open.

Figure 2-1. Airspeed Limitations

AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS


Airspeed indicator markings and their color code significance are
shown in figure 2-2.
2-4

11 September 1981

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

KIAS VALUE

MARKING

SIGNIFICANCE

White Arc

58- 115

Full Flap Operating Range. Lower limit is


maximum weight V in landing configu
ration. Upper limit is maximum speed per
missible with flaps extended.

Green Arc

74- 168

Normal Operating Range. Lower limit is


maximum weight V5 at most forward C.G.
with flaps retracted. Upper limit is maxi
mum structural cruising speed.

168

Yellow Arc

203

Maximum speed for all operations.

203

Red Line

Operations must be conducted with


caution and only in smooth air.

Figure 2-2. Airspeed Indicator Markings

POWER PLANT LIMITATIONS


Engine Manufacturer: Teledyne Continental.
Engine Model Number: TSIO-520-R.
Maximum Power, 5 Minutes Takeoff: 310 BHP rating.
Continuous: 285 BHP rating.
Engine Operating Limits for Takeoff and Continuous Operations:
Maximum Engine Speed, 5 Minutes Takeoff: 2700 RPM.
Continuous: 2600 RPM.
Maximum Manifold Pressure, 5 Minutes Takeoff: 36.5 inches Hg.
Continuous: 35 inches Hg.
-

NOTE
For manifold pressure limitations above 17,000 feet, refer
to the Minimum Fuel Flows placard in this section.
Maximum Cylinder Head Temperature: 460F (238C).
Maximum Oil Temperature: 240F (1 16 C).
Oil Pressure, Minimum: 10 psi.
Maximum: 100 psi.
Fuel Pressure, Minimum: 3.0 psi.
Maximum: 19.5 psi (186 PPH).
Fuel Grade: See Fuel Limitations.
Oil Grade (Specification):
MIL-L-6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil or Ashless Disper
11 September 1981

2-5

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T2WN

sant Oil conforming to Continental Motors Specification MHS-24 and


all revisions thereto.
Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division.
Propeller Model Number: D3A34C402/9ODFA-10.
Propeller Diameter, Maximum: 80 inches.
Minimum: 76.5 inches.
Propeller Blade Angle at 30 Inch Station, Low: 12.4.
High: 28.5.
Propeller Operating Limits: Avoid continuous operation between 1850
and 2150 RPM above 24 inches manifold pressure.

POWER PLANT INSTRUMENT MARKINGS


Power plant instrument markings and their color code significance
are shown in figure 2-3.
RED LINE
INSTRUMENT

MINIMUM
LIMIT

Tachometer

Manifold Pressure

Oil Temperature

CylinderHead
Temperature
(3.0 psi)

Oil Pressure

10 psi

Suction

22002500 RPM

2600
2700 RPM

15-30
in. Hg

35 36.5
in. Hg

1000

240F

200-460F

Fuel Flow
(Pressure)

Fuel Quantity

GREEN ARC YELLOW ARC WHITE ARC


NORMAL
NORMAL
CAUTION
OPERATING
RANGE
k8E

(7.5 Gal
Unusable
Each Tank)

36

120
PPH
-

30-60 psi
-

RED LINE
MAXIMUM
LIMIT
2700 RPM

Cl

36.5 in. Hg

240F

460F

120 162
PPH

186 PPH
(19.5 psi)
100 psi
-

4.6-5.4
in.Hg

Figure 2-3. Power Plant Instrument Markings


2-6

11 September 1981

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

WEIGHT LIMITS
Maximum Ramp Weight: 4016 lbs.
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 4000 lbs.
Maximum Landing Weight: 3800 lbs.
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment:
Baggage Forward of wheel well on folded down aft seat (Station 89 to
110): 120 lbs.
Baggage On wheel well (Station 110 to 124): 50 lbs.
Baggage On and aft of wheel well (Station 110 to 152): 200 lbs.
-

NOTE
The maximum allowable combined weight capacity for
baggage forward, on and aft of the wheel well is 240
pounds.

CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS


Center of Gravity Range with Landing Gear Extended:
Forward: 37.0 inches aft of datum at 3000 lbs. or less, with straight line
variation to 43.9 inches aft of datum at 4000 lbs.
Aft: 52.0 inches aft of datum at 4000 lbs., with straight line variation to
53.0 inches aft of datum at 3800 lbs., and 53.0 inches aft of datum at
3800 lbs. or less.
Reference Datum: Lower portion of front face of firewall.

MANEUVER LIMITS
This airplane is certificated in the normal category. The normal
category is applicable to aircraft intended for non-aerobatic operations.
These include any maneuvers incidental to normal flying, stalls (except
whip stalls), lazy eights, chandelles, and turns in which the angle of bank
is not more than 60.
Aerobatic maneuvers, including spins, are not approved.

FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR LIMITS


Flight Load Factors:
*Flaps Up: +3.8g, -1.52g
*Flaps Down: +2.Og
*The design load factors are 150% of the above, and in all cases, the
structure meets or exceeds design loads.

11 September 1981

2-7

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

KINDS OF OPERATION LIMITS


The airplane is equipped for day VFR and may be equipped for night
VFR and/or IFR operations. FAR Part 91 establishes
the minimum
required instrumentation and equipment for these operations.
The refer
ence to types of flight operations on the operating limitat
ions placard
reflects equipment installed at the time of Airworthiness Certifi
cate
issuance.

t.j

Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited; however, the


airplane
may be equipped with a known icing equipment package which
allows
flight penetration of icing conditions as defined by the FAA.

FUEL LIMITATIONS
2 Standard Tanks: 45 U.S. gallons each.
Total Fuel: 90 U.S. gallons.
Usable Fuel (all flight conditions): 87 U.S. gallons.
Unusable Fuel: 3 U.S. gallons.
Takeoff and land with the fuel selector valve handle
in the BOTH ON
position.
With 1/4 tank or less, prolonged uncoordinated flight is prohib
ited when
operating on either left or right tank.
When switching from dry tank, turn auxiliary fuel pump on
momentarily.
Use of left or right tank only is reserved for level flight.
Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors):
100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).

OTHER LIMITATIONS
FLAP LIMITATIONS
Approved Takeoff Range: 00 to 20.
Approved Landing Range: 0 to 30.

2-8

a
11 September 1981

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

PLACAR Os
The following information must be displayed in the form of composite
or individual placards.
1.

In full view of the pilot: (The DAY-NIGHT-VFR-IFR entry,


shown on the example below, will vary as the airplane is
equipped.)
The markings and placards installed in this airplane contain
operating limitations which must be complied with when
operating this airplane in the Normal Category. Other operat
ing limitations which must be complied with when operating
this airplane in this category are contained in the Pilots
Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual.
No acrobatic maneuvers, including spins, approved.
Flight into known icing conditions prohibited.
This airplane is certified for the following flight operations as
of date of original airworthiness certificate:
DAYNIGHTVFRIFR

2.

On control lock:

CONTROL LOCK
3.

CAUTION!
REMOVE BEFORE STARTING ENGINE

On fuel selector valve (at appropriate locations):


ALL FLIGHT ATTITUDES
BOTH
ON
FUEL

LEFT
ON
43.5 GAL.
LEVEL FLT ONLY

11 September 1981

87.0
GAL.
SELECTOR
RIGHT
ON
43.5 GAL.
LEVEL FLT ONLY

2-9

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
4.

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

Near fuel selector valve:


TAKEOFF AND LANDING ON BOTH
WHEN SWITCHING FROM DRY TANK TURN
AUX FUEL PUMP ON MOMENTARILY.

5.

Adjacent to fuel on-off valve control knob:


FUEL VALVE PUSH ON

6.

Aft of fuel tank caps:

SERVICE THIS AIRPLANE WITH 100LL/ 100 MIN AVIATION


GRADE GASOLINE. TOTAL CAPACITY 45.0 GAL.
7.

7
] (3

Forward of fuel tank cap:


CAPACITY 33.5 GALLONS TO
BOTTOM OF FILLER NECK EXTENSION.

L
8.

On baggage compartment door:

MAX BAGGAGE 200 LBS. TOTAL. REFER TO WEIGHT AND


BALANCE DATA FOR BAGGAGE/CARGO LOADING.

9.

On hand pump cover:

MANUAL GEAR EXTENSION


1.
2.
3.

SELECT GEAR DOWN.


PULL HANDLE FWD.
PUMP VERTICALLY.
CAUTION:
DO NOT PUMP WITH
GEAR UP SELECTED

11 September 1981

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
10.

Near manifold pressure/fuel flow indicator:


MINIMUM FUEL FLOWS
T.O.: 2700RPM
36.5 IN. MP., 186 LBS/HR

MAX. CONTINUOUS POWER: 2600 RPM


26
22 24
20
18
SL-17
ALT-FT/ 1000

28

30

26
108

24
102

22
96

MP. IN. HG
FUEL FLOW-LBS/HR

35
162

34
156

32
144

30 28
132 120

AVOID CONTINUOUS OPERATION BETWEEN 1850 AND 2150 RPM


ABOVE 24 IN. M.P.

11.

On flap control indicator:

0- 10

10- 20

20- FULL

12.

160 KIAS (partial flap range with dark blue


color code; also, mechanical detent
at 10.)
130 KIAS (indices at these positions with
light blue color code; also,
mechanical detent at 20.)
115 KIAS (white color code.)

On inside nose wheel doors;

WARNING
BEFORE WORKING IN WHEEL WELL AREA PULL
HYDRAULIC PUMP CIRCUIT BREAKER OFF.

11 September 1981

2-11

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
13.

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Near landing gear lever:


I-)

MAX SPEED lAS


GEAR OPER
165 KTS
GEAR DOWN
203 KTS
14.

A calibration card must be provided to indicate the accuracy of the


magnetic compass in 300 increments.

15.

On oil filler cap:

OIL
1OQTS

16.

Near airspeed indicator:


MANEUVER SPEED
130 KIAS

17.

In full view of the pilot:

MAJOR FUEL FLOW FLUCTUATIONS/POWER SURGES


1. AUX FUEL PUMP ON, ADJUST MIXTURE.
2. FUEL SELECTOR BOTH..
3. WHEN FUEL FLOW STEADY, RESUME NORMAL OPERA
TIONS.
SEE P.O.H. SECTION 3 FOR EXPANDED INSTRUCTIONS.
-

18.

Forward of each fuel tank filler cap in line with fwd arrow:
FUEL CAP FWD A ARROW ALIGNMENT
CAP MUST NOT ROTATE DURING CLOSING

0
0

2-12

11 September 1981

i,5I,O5iU5.hki

Fednz3vtRjnAdmHflstnjnon

Scerc Ic1
AD Stppteyvvt6n.t
to A 1
L

Airwoi thittees Directive


I

di.i ii Itctiisiti IiiIop

I i.tiiti

tint

DNP.\R I MI:N
Federal Ai

r or 1RANSPOR1 ATION

union

Administration

14 (FR Pail 30 [63 FR1tSl0 No. IS! 0015 05]

Docket No 07-fF-62-AD: Amendment 30-10773: AD i)54l5I4 RI


RIN 2l20-AA64
Ainroohtncss Dii ccci Cs: Cessna Models 121 ON, 1121 (IN. and P21 OR Airplanes
PitE Copm (II .SviiIahIe):

Ircainlilt Itttiti

A(iI:Nkt Federal .\viaiion Administration, DIII


AC ION: Fntal rule. con celion
SLIsIIsIARY: Ilns aniendnteni clarifies inftirni,uisni coniamed in .\inssnolttness Direetis e (AD) 061)514. sslnels currently
requires cci isitig the FAAappioved Airplane Flight Manual AIM) to speedy procedures that sros,ld prohibit liiultt in
sd crc ieiitn cisnduutns I as dcierinnted Its certain s suit cuesi. lintit or prohibit (lie use ufvarious Iliplu control sles ices
o bile ni sescie ieiitu condititsits. nisl pros ide the loOn ciesi is nIt recounnion cues hr. ansI procedures fr csiiine front.
,es crc ieittio conditions on certain Cessna Aircrat) Cisiiipan IC essnal Models 121 ON, P21 (IN. ansI P21 OR aiiplaiies. 1 Ice
iubltc.ti,iit tiieorreetlv references lie possibility itt ceriani (ci accan:nlatsiii sit lie Ion ci surlace ol the siiiig. instead of
bc tipper siichace ol the cute o tile operaone is itIt Fe laps estetided This incorrect statement tttav result in 1dm
un sntierpretation of the tcittc elfecis n ithi lie laps esieuded. ansI leail to an incorrect actioit. 1 Ins dssenntent replaces the
is ord Ion Cr svitlt sipper ni tIns setstetice. The acaons speci lied in ilus AD are attended to continue to nti ii ttiie tlte
potential Itacurds associated iciilli operating these airplanes in ses crc icing conditnins by pros iding niore clearly deli ned
procedures and litttitat ins assoct:tted ssiili snelt conditions
I) SI S Flfecuse Sepicinher 22. 1Q06.
.\DDRLSSIS: Suhuni cssmtnenis in triplicate to the Federal Si i,ition .Sdntiitistration IFAA I_Central Regnnt. Oflice al lie
Regional Conusel. .\uenaoty Rules Docket No. 97( E-62-AD, Rtioui 1558, (ill I F. I 2ili Street. Kansas Cita \hissosiri
h4lIln.
.

OR FURCHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr John P. Don, Sr.. Aerospace Ritanteer, USA. Sniall .snplaite
Ftiiect,sraie. 121)1 Waltitit, suite 0(111, Kansas Cits Missouri 641(16: teleplisine: 1616) 4266032. facsntnle: (SI 61 4262! hi),
.

SUPP1.LMISNTARY INFOIC\IATION:
D is cci sit, e
(Sn Fehoiara 24. (006, die 15A.\ issued AD OS-OSIl. Aittetidatent 35I 1l35 163 Fl?. 11151 0. MaccIt 1, 1005). u Itieli applies
to Cessna Models 121 ON, 1121 IN. and P21111k airplanes. AD i35M51 1 ss as the resuli ofa ret etc ssf the resluireittettts br

ol,lrJOii:..

i45,sil,.,i,

fi1fl) ri.t

I -IU

ii.Ci. iiiu iDO .1111 rnlr i!vsII

certitication ot these ii planes in ieiiie conditnias. lieu iif onanon on the due Ciii ursstilflcnt. and ieine data tsiovidcd
eairentlv to the flielit cress
-

AD 9505I 4 reqoires icvisine lie l_inthatiotts Section of lie FAAapproi cil Airplane Flielit Manaal (AFSL Ito specify
tirocedares that woo Id:

Require llioht

ciesrs

to inanediatcly rcqacst pnorutv liandlate flow Air 1 rattle Control to exit severe icing conditions (as

determiaed Isv certain visaal cnes(:

l5iiitahit diets iii ses cue (cisc conditions (as deierniioeil hy certain visnat cnesl:
t1iohihiu usc of the antripilot solien irs- is loraicd at( of the protected snrlisees of the wing. or silica ao uausual Lateral triut

condition

exists:

sot

Reqoire that all icing si-inc iastsection lights he otserat ire prior to (iota inisu knoivit or fsirccasi icing consliaons at
1 hat action also requires rcrusi io the Normal l5rneertnrcs Section otilie FAAatspros cut AFNt to speciR procertnres that

non hI:

tIme ase of the (laps and proliihh the use of the antopilot o lien ci is obsened brining ati ol lie protected sarihees of
lie n-inc. or if nnnsnal lateral trint rertuirenients or antopilot trini a arninos are encountered: and
Pros isle lie fliglo crew nitli ieemuenonin cnes fur, and piscednrcs lisr exiting (honi. scs crc icnio conditions.
Need mr thin Cnrrcctin,i
1 lie AD incorrectly states am paragraph lall I of Al) 95ItsIl that:
(tperatiisn with (laps cxteniled cami result ni a rerlneed ssnig ruingleoRrutack. is itli the possilsmlmtv o Hi. liirnting on the losser
ssirthce blurthier all on the snag than narnial. possibly af of the prritccied area. The snord losser in this sentence slurinld lie
apis-c
TIns incoriect statement may resalt in pilot nnsiuiterpreiation oftlie icing effects nitli the Oatss extended and lead is an
inco reci actnin. lhe pilot sif the alicciecl airplanes can only see lie (isis-er snug sarface. However. icc accretion on tIme utppei
surface of the sning. sclneli lie pilot caisnot obsen c. is nsnallv aceisntpanied liv ire accretism on the losser stirlitce. As stated
earlier. the pilot can ohsenc icc aecreaon on the losses snrlhce.
Fxicnsirsn isf (laps that results in a reduced anglemsfaoaek can change the relaiionsli it of tIme extent of icr on the tipper and
losser snrtiices of the is ing. For exanitsle. t ci snill tend to aeercte nmssre on lie nptier surface than on the lrssser surtiice at a
rerlneed angleofattack. I howeser. sslicn laps are exuendert in certain icing cisnditinns. the redneiton of icr Rirtlier all on lie
toss-er snrf cc sit the ssing niav leash the pilot to eonclncle ineiirrecilv that there is us reduction of ice hutrihier all on lie ritstier
snrf ce Thus is not corrcei: as stated earlier. the tendency is or niore ;c raccretissn on the tipper sarface. Ltsnuhhv. ice on the
tttsper sarthee of the ssnsg is nuire adverse icu the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane tItan is icr on lie hosrer stirthce
of the ising.

fisnseqtietnlv. the tA51 sass a neeil us clarify Al) itSItSIl to assnrc that this sisnal enc can he fohliso ed ansI that lie
appropriate casise aiid eftect relationship is descrilserl.
Cnrrrctinn ni Puhshicntinn
1 Ins document elarires the intent of the previously discossesl s isnal cue in paragraph I a1121 st AD 515tt5 II. This docunient
also aslcls lie anscadoietit to seetsius 39.13 of the Federal \ i iauisn Regulations (II C FR 351.131.
Since this actiisn only clarifies tIme dnseripuon ofa visnal cue in AD 9h-tt5-tl. it has no ailserse ecisiiommmic nntsaei and
inipiuses nis additional lint-den on atic person ihtati uruirilsl hiase been stecessary liv tIme existing AD. Ihieretisrc. the FAA has
deternuisucd ihiun prisir notice and ssppiurtunitv (hr pnlshic coniusettu are unsitecessan
List nf Subjects in 11 CFR Part 39
Air mransportaiion. Airerati
iation satcic. Saldis
r-ss:ss-,.

ii,: ii,_-i,i-s,cr 5i5ii_

550540 0s.-,isss,,_e_sO,OS,s,

5
-

es,5.,s-C540s aisi

.--:.

i.t.t.

tat,;S

DittO :.;iiDIc,Ii

htlopttno of the Antetttlntent


Accordictglv. pursuant to the authority delegated to ote by cite Administrator. cite Federal Aviation Administration
ntctends
part 39 of lice Federal Aviation Regulations (14 CFR can 391 as follows:
PAR! 39 AIRWORIIIINESS DIRECfI\ES
The atcticssritv citation (or part 39 coctttttues to read os Osliosss:
Acctitoritv: 49 U.S.C. I 06(gl. 31)113.417(11
39.13 .&ntendechi
2. Section 39.13 is atneccded by recccoviccg Ainsorticiness Dcrcctise t..\D) 98-05-Il. Amendment 39-10375 (63 FR 11)5(9.
March 4. I 9981. and by addittg a new AD to read as (hilTon s:

ltcatcl:ccicr t ctiisrcccat(itcc
98-68-14 RI CESSNA AIRCRAFT COTtIPANY: Atccecctlcccetct 39-11)773: Docket No. 7-CF-62-AD: Resises AD 08-05II, Aocetccltccetct 391 tt375.
Applicahiliitv: Models T2 ION (serial nccttchers 21 (63641 tlcrough 21 tt64897(, P2! (TN (serial ntttttbers P219110386 tltrongic
P21 tlt%18341. accd P2111th (all serial nnttabers( act]c(actes: certilicatcd itt attv eateootT.
NCifI I: Titis AD applies cc caclc aiqilatte ideitcilied icc the preceding applicability pros isiotc, regardless oft; itetlter it Itas
lweo tttoditied, altered, or repaired ccc 11cc area stcbtccc to the requirctctencs nftltis AD. For airplattes cicac base brett tttotliietl.
altered. tsr repaired ott Iliac cite pcrfonccactce of Ice rcquirecccents sit Isis AD is nff etecl. Ice osrcaeroperacor ncust reqccesc
alclarcss al 11cr act altcntat ive ccceclcod if cocccpliaccee icc accccrctatcec csitlc oaragtaplc (di of cicis AD. Tlcc reqccest sltottld iccctcctle
act assesstccent of Ice elteec of cite tttodifteaticctc, alceraciccic, or repair on cite tctcsalhi cccccdiciccu addressed by ticis AD: acid, if cite
ttttsati, ecsnditicccc itas cccct been elincinatcd. cite request sitctttid iccelcccle siteci Sc proposed aetioccs to address it.
Cnmplinnce: Rcqccicesl as itcdccaced a cIte body of titis .\D. ttttiess aircada tcctctttplislted.
I_cc ccc iccicccize lice pica ml Icaearck associated critic ccperat ing cite niqalatce icc set ore ccisg coccdicicsns icy prosidiug ctaccre
clearly deliued prtcccdttres and liuaitaticcccs asscceiated ssiclt sccelt cccuditiccccs, aeeoctcphsh lice following:
(at \Vitititt 311 days after .\pril 30. 1998 ltiie effective date Al) 1805il), aeccctttltlislc lice reqccireccccuts ccfparaorapits (all U
actd (01(21 if ticts :\D.
7113ff, 2: Uperatoru sitccctld tcciciace ucttocc to ccitt iis and ensure tlcac fliglct crecvcccecccicors are apprised ccf tick clcaccge.
(titles ise cite -AAapproved Airplane Fhgitt Ntatcccai I AFM thy icceccqcccrating cite following iccto cite Licccitaticcccs Seeticctc of
lice :\Fhl. Ticis cttav ice aeccccccplislcccl liv ttttencct000csf.v ccf liii, AD ccc Ice .sFhl.

Sec crc cecccg ttaay rescclc frccccc ettvirouttaeatai eccuclctcous otttsicie if cicccse for cricich ice airplane to eertilieated. Fliglct icc
fceeiccg raid, lreezittg driecie. or ucixed ieiccg conditions I supeccooled hqccid tracer and ice crpscalsl ucay result in icr build
ccp csct protected surfaces exceeding cite capability of lice ice protection s3 scent, or ttcay result icc (cc foruciccg aft of the
protected surfaces. TIck icr acay not be sited using cite ice protccciocc sastetas. and nay seriously degrade cite perforcccatcee
acid euttcrnliab(lity ccltlce airplane.
Dccriug light, set crc icing conditions that exceed those for crlcccic cite airplane is certificated sicall he tietonctined by clco
(oliosvittg rcsctai cues. If one or atom of these visual cues esists, iuctttediatolc reqccesc prtority icaudhog front Air fraffle
Control to facilitate a rondo or an altitude elcange cc exit cite cciccg coudicious.
Cttttsccallx exceusis a let aeeuncuhaciuu on Ice airfraucc accd cviccdslcicld in areas cot itonccallv obsenetl to collect icr.
Aeetcttc:iloticsct of icc ctcc tice lccsver outface of cite n ictg aft of the pcoceeced at ca.
Siccee cite atctcspi lot. cshcu installed and operattccn. ncoa ttcask tactile cues ticot iccdceace adverse elcuctges in ltattdliug
iwr

ci i.d,e

tdasi:

_u%.t,cc.dcc.c,jchrcy

siuc.cti4U.st.c4c{d54td5ccrd.,cc..,s.:.c&ci:..gccic

022 ,csoscjt

i\t

.,u ti,,&i, i2ilIN. 2 5 ,,i 150 vqSnc

ehatactensties. Lise ot the autopilot is prohibited when any ol the saul cues specihed above exist, or tvhes unusual lateral
rica reqnireiiieuts or aLitopilot trim warnings are encountered while the airplane is is icing coudit loss.
All visit icing isspectios lights must be operative prior to Ilight isto ksoivs or lorecasi icisg conditions at night. [NOTE:
Tias supersedes any relief pros ided by the Master Miuisuss F-quipsieut List IMMELI.]
12) Revise the FAAapprovcil AFM by iscorporatia the Folios-lag into the Normal Proeedtires Section
may be aecosiplislied by iusertisg a copy of this AD iii the ARsi.

ti)

the AFM. This

IIIE FOLLOWING WEAThER CONDIFIONS MAY BE CONI)UCI\E TO SEVERE IN-FLIGHT ICING:


Visible i ais at temperatures belasv 0 degrees Celsius amhieitt air teinpcratitre.
Droplets that splash or splatter on itispact at teittgeratnrcs hehosv It degrees (elsuis autbicst air temperature.
PROCEI)URFS FOR EXITING TIlE SEVERE ICING EN\IRONNIEN I:
I liese tuoceduics are applicable to all light phases iota takeo tlto Iaitditig. htositor the muihieitt air temperature. Folule
ses crc icing say lurut at tetageratares as cold as IS degrees Celsius. increased sigilasce is svarrastcd at temperatures
around Ii cecuio seitli sisihlc stoistuic presetit. I the i istial cues soecifled is the Lsuitatioas Section otthc Aliil for
itlcuti fvise ses ci c clog eoschitiotts ate tshsened, aeeouiplisli time liillosvisg:
lsaocdiaiely reqtiest priority liauillisg frost Air TratOe Ctsitrol to facilitate a route or as altitude cliatige to exit the set-crc
iriug eotiditioits iu order to as aid extetirled exposure to Iligiti roitditiotts store severe than iltose f-sr selselt the airplaite has
been certilieated,
As oid abrupt atid excessive itiatiesi erisg that stay exaeei tate control dtlIieulties.
Do sot cttgage lie aitiottiloi.
If the an vipilot is engaeeil. Itohl lie eumroh sslieel thritilv and disrtigage the autopilot.
If as rususual roll resposse or uucotttsiasded roll eoutrol sitisesiettt is obscrscd. rerluee ilte angleofattack.
Do stit extend Ottps tx-lies lttsldisg is iriug cosititioss, Operat itst ivitli lags extended eait result is a reduced tying ttitgle
of-attack. u-id lie possibility nt ui titrittiug ott the upper surlhee tiirtlier oh oit lie snug ihait sornial. possibla ill of lie

Isoteeted area.
L lie Ilags are esieitded. do ru retract theta unal the airhi-ame is clear of
Repott these is emlier eosditioos to .hir -l r,ihlie Cttutrol,

dO

its.

I It I scot tussling I ic A PhI i es isitsits. as required Isv thus At). sat- he pertisrsterl by mite oss tier tipermor Istildiug it leasi a
private pilot eertihhcaie as imiutltorized be seetisto 437 oItlie Federal Astauoti Regulatious 114 ClR 13-7t- aud ittusi be
vutered ittto cIte aircraft records shots-lug cttstgliasce uitli thtis AD iii aecordaitee stitlt section 43,55 oithte Fedeial Asiatitts
Regulatioss 114 CFIk 43.FoI ci Special ftigltt perutits stay be issued iii aceordattve sviili seetstitts 21,1 17 attd 21,100 tif lie Federal Asiatitsit Reguhatuitts
114 CFR 21.107 uitd 21,190) 10 operate lie aiqtlatte to t loeatios where lie requireittems of tins Al) eati lie tcctsittphishied.
Id) Ait alternative ittetliod of compliance or adjosititeiti of the eotttphiasre nine thtat pi-ovides Ott equis-aleict let ci tif saFots
may be apprsts-ed by the blattager. Sittahl Airplatte Directorate. FAA. 1201 \Valsut. suite SIlt), Kassas Cits-. Misssturi 641)16.
Fite request shah he Forwarded iltrough ott appropriate FA.-\ Nlattttesauee Inspector, ts-Ius itias- odd eoittstests acid titeit settd
it to lice Nlasauer. Stuall Airplane Directorate.
NOFE 3: lalorutattos couceotiog lice existettee of appros ed aitertiatis e titethods of eostphiattcc svitht this AD. faa. stay he
obtaitted iota the Sittall Aiqilatte Directorate,
Ic) All persons atfected by tltis directise mar exattsise ishhrstailott related to this AD at the FA.\. Ceutral Region. 010cc of
die Regional Cuuttsei. Roost 1555. ItOh C. I 2tlt Street. Kansas Citr. Missouri n-liItb.

If) Tins omesrhioeitt revises Al) 05-1)5- i4..-\tnettdtttest 30_I))375.


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Otis attsesrlateut becoities elfertis e imtt Septetither 22. I 095.

itt,,,, L;,:ii

.Ottt.tiL.,- litO sttt 5. t5,ti,,,,,smOiio. iO-;.:i t,-ittillllt,rt

:3iM

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
3-3
3-3

Introduction
Airspeeds For Emergency Operation
OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS
Engine Failures
Engine Failure During Takeoff Roll
Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff
Engine Failure During Flight (Restart Procedures)
Forced Landings
Emergency Landing Without Engine Power
Precautionary Landing With Engine Power
Ditching
Fires
During Start On Ground
Engine Fire In Flight
Electrical Fire In Flight
Cabin Fire
Wing Fire
Icing
Inadvertent Icing Encounter
Static Source Blockage (Erroneous Instrument Reading
Suspected)
Excessive Fuel Vapor
Fuel Flow Stabilization Procedures
Landing Gear Malfunction Procedures
Landing Gear Fails To Retract
Landing Gear Fails To Extend
Gear Up Landing
Landing Without Positive Indication Of Gear Locking
) Landing With A Defective Nose Gear (Or Flat Nose Tire)
Landing With A Flat Main Tire
Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions
Ammeter Shows Excessive Rate of Charge
(Full Scale Deflection)

11 September 1981

3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-8

3-9
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-fl
3-li
3-12
3-12

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page
Low-Voltage Light Illuminates During Flight
(Ammeter Indicates Discharge)
Emergency Descent Procedures
Smooth Air
Rough Air

3-12
3-13
3-13
3-13

AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
Engine Failure
Forced Landings
Landing Without Elevator Control
Fires
Emergency Operation In Clouds (Vacuum System Failure)
Executing A 180 Turn In Clouds
Emergency Descent Through Clouds
Recovery From A Spiral Dive
Inadvertent Flight Into Icing Conditions
Static Source Blocked
Spins
Rough Engine Operation Or Loss Of Power
Spark Plug Fouling
Magneto Malfunction
Engine-Driven Fuel Pump Failure
Excessive Fuel Vapor Indications
Low Oil Pressure
Landing Gear Malfunction Procedures
Retraction Malfunctions
Extension Malfunctions
Gear Up Landing
Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions
Excessive Rate Of Charge
Insufficient Rate Of Charge
.

3-2

3-15
3-16
3-16
3-16
3-17
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-19
3-20,
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-23
3-23
3-23
3-24

11 September 1981

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

INTRODUCTION

(J,

Section 3 provides checklist and amplified procedures for coping with


emergencies that may occur. Emergencies caused by airplane or engine
malfunctions are extremely rare if proper preflight inspections and
maintenance are practiced. Enroute weather emergencies can be minim
ized or eliminated by careful flight planning and good judgment when
unexpected weather is encountered. However, should an emergency arise,
the basic guidelines described in this section should be considered and
applied as necessary to correct the problem. Emergency procedures
associated with ELT and other optional systems can be found in Section 9.

AIRSPEEDS FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION

Engine Failure After Takeoff:


Wing Flaps Up
Wing Flaps Down
Maneuvering Speed:
4000 Lbs
3350 Lbs
2700 Lbs
Maximum Glide:
4000 Lbs
3350 Lbs
2700 Lbs
Precautionary Landing With Engine Power, Flaps Down
Landing Without Engine Power:
Wing Flaps Up
Wing Flaps Down
Emergency Descent:
Smooth Air
Rough Air:
4000 Lbs
3350 Lbs
2700 Lbs
.

85 KIAS
80 KIAS
130 KIAS
119 KIAS
106 KIAS
88
80
72
75

KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS

90 KIAS
80 KIAS
KIAS
130 KIAS
119 KIAS
106 KIAS

OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS
Procedures in the Operational Checklists portion of this section shown
in bold-faced type are immediate-action items which should be committed
to memory.

11 September 1981

3-3

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

ENGINE FAILURES
ENGINE FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF ROLL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

C)

Throttle
IDLE.
Brakes
APPLY.
Wing Flaps
RETRACT.
Mixture
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Ignition Switch
OFF.
Master Switch
OFF.
--

--

--

--

--

--

ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Airspeed
85 KIAS.
Mixture
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Fuel On-Off Valve
OFF (pull out).
Wing Flaps
AS REQUIRED (300 recommended).
Ignition Switch
OFF.
Master Switch
OFF.
--

--

--

- -

--

ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT (RESTART PROCEDURES)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Airspeed
85 KIAS.
Fuel Selector Valve
BOTH ON.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump
ON.
Throttle
HALF OPEN.
Mixture
Lean from full rich until restart occurs.
--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
If propeller is windmilling, engine will restart automati
cally within a few seconds. If propeller has stopped, verify
fuel flow indicator is in middle of the green arc range, then
retard the throttle and turn auxiliary fuel pump off. Turn
the ignition switch to START, advance throttle slowly
from idle, and (at higher altitudes) lean the mixture from
full rich.
6.
7.
8.

Mixture
ADJUST as required as power is restored.
Throttle ADJUST power as required (slowly at higher altitudes).
Auxiliary Fuel Pump
OFF.
--

- -

- -

NOTE
If the fuel flow indication immediately drops to zero,
signifying an engine-driven fuel pump failure, return the
auxiliary fuel pump switch to ON.
9.
10.
3-4

Mixture
ADJUST.
Fuel Selector Valve
- -

AS DESIRED after fuel flow is stabilized.


Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

FORCED LANDINGS
EMERGENCY LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

90 KIAS (flaps UP).


80 KIAS (flaps DOWN).
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Mixture
OFF (pull out).
Fuel On-Off Valve
OFF.
Ignition Switch
DOWN (UP if terrain is rough or soft).
Landing Gear
AS REQUIRED (300 recommended).
Wing Flaps
UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
Doors
OFF when landing is assured.
Master Switch
SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
Touchdown
APPLY HEAVILY.
Brakes
Airspeed

--

- -

--

- -

- -

--

--

--

- -

PRECAUTIONARY LANDING WITH ENGINE POWER


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

85 KIAS.
Airspeed
100.
Wing Flaps
Selected Field FLY OVER, noting terrain and obstructions, then
retract flaps upon reaching a safe altitude and airspeed.
OFF.
Electrical Switches
DOWN (UP if terrain is rough or soft).
Landing Gear
30 (on final approach).
Wing Flaps
75 KIAS.
Airspeed
UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
Doors
OFF when landing is
Avionics Power and Master Switches
assured.
SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
Touchdown
OFF.
Ignition Switch
APPLY HEAVILY.
Brakes
--

--

--

--

- -

--

--

--

--

- -

--

--

DITCHING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

TRANSMIT MAYDAY on 121.5 MHz, giving location and


Radio
intentions and SQUAWK 7700 if transponder is installed.
SECURE OR JETTISON.
Heavy Objects (in baggage area)
UP.
Landing Gear
30.
Wing Flaps
ESTABLISH 300 FT/MIN DESCENT AT 75 KIAS.
Power
INTO THE WIND.
High Winds, Heavy Seas
Approach
PARALLEL TO
Light Winds, Heavy Swells
SWELLS.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
If no power is available, approach at 85 KIAS with flaps up

11 September 1981

35

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

or at 80 KIAS with 100 flaps.


7.
8.
9.
10.

11.

Cabin Doors
UNLATCH.
Touchdown
LEVEL ATTITUDE AT 300 FT/MIN DESCENT.
Face
CUSHION at touchdown with folded coat.
Airplane
EVACUATE through cabin doors. If necessary, open
window and flood cabin to equalize pressure so doors can be
opened.
Life Vests and Raft
INFLATE.
--

--

--

--

--

0
FIRES
DURING START ON GROUND
1.
2.

Ignition Switch
START (continue cranking to obtain start).
Auxiliary Fuel Pump
OFF.
--

--

If engine starts:
3.
4.

Power
Engine

--

- -

1700 RPM for a few minutes.


SHUTDOWN and inspect for damage.

If engine fails to start:


3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

Cranking
CONTINUE (ignition switch in START).
Throttle
FULL OPEN.
Mixture
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Fire Extinguisher OBTAIN (have ground attendants obtain ft not
installed).
Engine
SECURE.
a. Ignition Switch
OFF.
b. Master Switch
OFF.
c. Fuel On-Off Valve
OFF (pull out).
Fire EXTINGUISH using fire extinguisher, wool blanket or dirt.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

8.

- -

NOTE
If sufficient ground personnel are available (and fire is on
ground and not too dangerous) move airplane away from
the fire by pushing rearward on the leading edge of the

horizontal tail.

9.

3-6

Fire Damage
INSPECT, repair damage or replace damaged
components or wiring before conducting another flight.
- -

11 September 1981

(J

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

IDLE CUT-OFF.
Mixture
OFF (pull out).
Fuel On-Off Valve
OFF.
Master Switch
OFF (except overhead vents).
Cabin Heat and Air
Airspeed
120 KIAS (If fire is not extinguished, increase glide
speed to find an airspeed which will provide an incombustible
mixture).
Forced Landing--EXECUTE (as described in Emergency Landing
Without Engine Power).
--

--

--

--

--

ELECTRICAL FIRE IN FLIGHT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Master Switch
OFF.
Avionics Power Switch
OFF.
All Other Switches (except ignition switch)
OFF.
CLOSED.
Vents/Cabin Air/Heat
Fire Extinguisher
ACTIVATE (if available).
--

- -

--

--

--

WARNING

If an oxygen system is available, occupants should use


oxygen masks until smoke and discharged dry powder
clears. After discharging an extinguisher within a closed
cabin, ventilate the cabin.
If fire appears out and electrical power is necessary for continuance of
flight:
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Master Switch
ON.
Circuit Breakers
CHECK for faulty circuit; do not reset.
Radio Switches
OFF.
Avionics Power Switch
ON.
Radio and Electrical Switches ON one at a time, with delay after
each until short circuit is localized.
OPEN when it is ascertained that fire is
Vents/Cabin Air/Heat
completely extinguished.
--

- -

--

- -

- -

--

CABIN FIRE
1.
2.
3.

Master Switch
OFF.
CLOSED (to avoid drafts).
Vents/Cabin Air/Heat
Fire Extinguisher
ACTIVATE (if available).

11 September 1981

- -

--

--

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

WARNING

If an oxygen system is available, occupants should use


oxygen masks until smoke and discharged dry powder
clears. After discharging an extinguisher within a closed
cabin, ventilate the cabin.
4.

Land the airplane as soon as possible to inspect for damage.

WING FIRE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Radar Altimeter (if installed)


OFF.
Navigation Light Switch
OFF.
Strobe Light Switch (if installed)
OFF.
Pitot Heat Switch (if installed)
OFF.
Radar (if installed)
OFF.
--

- -

- -

- -

NOTE
Perform a sideslip to keep the flames away from the fuel
tank and cabin, and land as soon as possible.

ICING
INADVERTENT ICING ENCOUNTER
1.
2.
3.
4.

Turn pitot heat, propeller anti-ice, and windshield anti-ice


switches ON (if installed).
Turn back or change altitude to obtain an outside air temperature
that is less conducive to icing.
Pull cabin heat and defrost controls full out to obtain maximum
windshield defroster effectiveness.
Increase engine speed to minimize ice build-up on propeller
blades. If excessive vibration is noted, momentarily reduce engine
speed to 2200 RPM with the propeller control, and then rapidly
move the control full forward.
NOTE
Cycling the RPM flexes the propeller blades and high RPM
increases centrifugal force, causing ice to shed more
readily.

5.

Watch for signs of induction air filter ice and regain manifold
pressure by increasing the throttle setting.

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

NOTE
If ice accumulates on the intake filter (causing the alter
nate air valve to open), a decrease of up to 10 inches of full
throttle manifold pressure will be experienced.
6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

11.
12.

If icing conditions are unavoidable, plan a landing at the nearest


airport. With an extremely rapid ice build-up, select a suitable off
airport landing site.
With an ice accumulation of 1/4 inch or more on the wing leading
edges, be prepared for a significantly higher power requirement,
approach speed, stall speed, and landing roll.
Open the window and, if practical, scrape ice from a portion of the
windshield for visibility in the landing approach.
Use a 100 to 20 landing flap setting for ice accumulations oft inch
or less. With heavier ice accumulations, approach with flaps
retracted to ensure adequate elevator effectiveness in the
approach and landing.
Approach at 85 to 95 KIAS with 20 flaps and 95 to 105 KIAS with 00
to 100 flaps, depending upon the amount of ice accumulation. If ice
accumulation is unusually large, decelerate to the planned
approach speed while in the approach configuration (landing gear
and flaps down) at a high enough altitude which would permit
recovery in the event that a stall buffet is encountered.
Land on the main wheels first, avoiding the slow and high type of
flare-out.
Missed approaches should be avoided whenever possible because
of severely reduced climb capability. However, if a go-around is
mandatory, make the decision much earlier in the approach than
normal. Apply maximum power and maintain 95 KIAS while
retracting the flaps slowly in 10 increments. Retract the landing
gear after immediate obstacles are cleared.

STATI C SOURCE BLOCKAGE


(Erroneous Instrument Reading Suspected)
1.
2.
3.

Static Pressure Alternate Source Valve


PULL ON.
Airspeed
Climb 5 knots faster and approach 7 knots faster than
normal or consult appropriate table th Section 5.
Altitude
Cruise 160 feet higher and approach 70 feet higher than
normal.
--

- -

--

EXCESSIVE FUEL VAPOR


FUEL FLOW STABILIZATION PROCEDURES
(If Fuel Flow Fluctuations Of 5 PPH Or More Or Power Surges Occur)
1.

Auxiliary Fuel Pump

11 September 1981

--

ON.

3-9

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

2.
3.

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Mixture
RESET as required.
Fuel Selector Valve
BOTH ON if vapor symptoms continue.
--

--

NOTE
If selector was on BOTH ON, select a single tank which
contains fuel. If symptoms persist, select opposite tank for
30 seconds, then switch back to previous single tank.
4.
5.
6.

Auxiliary Fuel Pump


OFF after fuel flow has stabilized.
Mixture
RESET as required.
Fuel Selector Valve AS DESIRED after fuel flow has stabilized
for one minute, provided there is fuel in any single tank selected.
- -

- -

- -

0
LANDING GEAR MALFUNCTION PROCEDURES
LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Master Switch
ON.
Landing Gear Lever
CHECK (lever full up).
Landing Gear and Gear Pump Circuit Breakers
IN.
Gear Up Light
CHECK.
Landing Gear Lever
RECYCLE.
Gear Motor
CHECK operation (ammeter and noise).
--

--

--

- -

--

--

LANDING GEAR FAILS TO EXTEND


1.
2.

Landing Gear Lever


DOWN.
Emergency Hand Pump --EXTEND HANDLE, and PUMP (perpen
dicular to handle until resistance becomes heavy
about 35
cycles).
Gear Down Light
ON (master switch on).
Pump Handle
STOW.
--

--

3.
4.

- -

--

GEAR UP LANDING
1.
2.
3.
4.

3-10

Landing Gear Lever


UP.
Landing Gear and Gear Pump Circuit Breakers
IN.
Runway
SELECT longest hard surface or smooth sod runway
available.
Wing Flaps
30 (on final approach).
--

- -

- -

11 September 1981

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

75 KIAS.
Airspeed
UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
Doors
OFF when landing is
Avionics Power and Master Switches
assured.
SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
Touchdown
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Mixture
OFF.
Ignition Switch
OFF (pull out).
Fuel On-Off Valve
EVACUATE.
Airplane
--

- -

--

--

- -

--

--

--

LANDING WITHOUT POSITIVE INDICATION OF GEAR LOCKING


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

COMPLETE.
Before Landing Check
NORMAL (full flap).
Approach
Landing Gear and Gear Pump Circuit Breakers
TAIL LOW as smoothly as possible.
Landing
MINIMUM necessary.
Braking
SLOWLY.
Taxi
SHUTDOWN before inspecting gear.
Engine
--

- -

IN.

--

--

--

--

LANDING WITH A DEFECTIVE NOSE GEAR (Or Flat Nose Tire)


1.
2.
3.
4.

TRANSFER to baggage area.


Movable Load
MOVE to rear seat.
Passenger
COMPLETE.
Before Landing Checklist
HARD SURFACE or SMOOTH SOD.
Runway
--

--

--

NOTE
If sod runway is rough or soft, plan a wheels-up landing.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

30.
Wing Flaps
UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
Cabin Doors
OFF when landing is
Avionics Power and Master Switches
assured.
SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
Land
IDLE CUT-OFF.
Mixture
OFF.
Ignition Switch
OFF (pull out).
Fuel On-Off Valve
Elevator Control HOLD NOSE OFF GROUND as long as possi
ble.
EVACUATE as soon as it stops.
Airplane
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE


1.
2.

NORMAL (full flap).


Approach
Touchdown GOOD TIRE FIRST, hold airplane off flat tire as long

11 September 1981

--

- -

3-11

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

3.

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

as possible with aileron control.


Directional Control
MAINTAIN using brake on good wheel as
required.
- -

(D

ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM


MALFUNCTIONS
AMMETER SHOWS EXCESSIVE RATE OF CHARGE
(Full Scale Deflection)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Alternator
OFF.
Alternator Circuit Breaker
PULL.
Nonessential Electrical Equipment
OFF.
Flight
TERMINATE as soon as practical.
--

- -

--

()

--

LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHT ILLUMINATES DURING FLIGHT


(Ammeter Indicates Discharge)

NOTE
Illumination of the low-voltage light may occur during
low RPM conditions with an electrical load on the system
such as during a low RPM taxi. Under these conditions, the
light will go out at higher RPM. The master switch need not
be recycled since an over-voltage condition has not
occurred to de-activate the alternator system. Momentary
illumination and/or ammeter needle deflection may also
occur during startup of the landing gear system hydraulic
pump motor.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Avionics Power Switch


OFF.
Alternator Circuit Breaker
CHECK IN.
Master Switch
OFF (both sides).
Master Switch
ON.
Low-Voltage Light
CHECK OFF.
Avionics Power Switch
ON.
-

- -

--

--

- -

--

If low-voltage light illuminates again:


7.
8.
9.

3-12

Alternator
OFF.
Nonessential Radio and Electrical Equipment
Flight
TERMINATE as soon as practical.
--

- -

OFF.

--

11 September 1981

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

EMERGENCY DESCENT PROCEDURES


SMOOTH AIR

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

SECURE.
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses
IDLE.
Throttle
HIGH RPM.
Propeller
FULL RICH
Mixture
EXTEND.
Landing Gear
UP.
Wing Flaps
Airspeed:
165 KIAS.
a. During landing gear extension
203 KIAS.
b. After landing gear is fully extended
--

--

--

- -

--

--

- -

- -

ROUGH AIR
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses


IDLE.
Throttle
HIGH RPM.
Propeller
FULL RICH.
Mixture
EXTEND
Landing Gear
Wing Flaps
UP.
Airspeeds:
130 KIAS.
4000 Lbs
119 KIAS.
3350 Lbs
106 KIAS
2700 Lbs

--

SECURE.

--

- -

--

--

--

--

--

--

11 September 1981

3-13/(3-14 blank)

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
The following Amplified Procedures elaborate upon information
contained in the Operational Checklists portion of this section. These
procedures also include information not readily adaptable to a checklist
format, and material to which a pilot could not be expected to refer in
resolution of a specific emergency.

ENGINE FAILURE
If an engine failure occurs during the takeoff roll, the most important
thing to do is stop the airplane on the remaining runway. Those extra items
on the checklist will provide added safety after a failure of this type.

,,

Prompt lowering of the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a glide


attitude is the first response to an engine failure after takeoff. In most
cases, the landing should be planned straight ahead with only small
changes in direction to avoid obstructions. Altitude and airspeed are
seldom sufficient to execute a 180 gliding turn necessary to return to the
runway. The checklist procedures assume that adequate time exists to
secure the fuel and ignition systems prior to touchdown.
After an engine failure in flight, the best glide speed as shown in figure
3-1 should be established as quickly as possible. While gliding toward a
20,000

I
I
I
* PROPELLER WINDMILLING
* FLAPS & GEAR UP
* ZERO WIND

18,000
F

16,000

z 14,000

iij

12,000
w
H

w 10, 000
>
0
H
I
0

uuu
BEST GLIDE SPEED

60

.*::

WEIGHT ILBS)

Lu

Aflflfl

KIAS

4000
3350
2700

0
0

10

15

GROUND DISTANCE

88
80
72

20

25

30

35

NAUTICAL MILES

Figure 3-1. Maximum Glide

11 September 1981

3-15

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T2 iON

suitable landing area, an effort should be made to identify the cause of the
failure. If time permits, an engine restart should be attempted as shown in
the checklist. If the engine cannot be restarted, a forced landing without
power must be completed.

FORCED LANDINGS
If all attempts to restart the engine fail and a forced landing is
imminent, select a suitable field and prepare for the landing as discussed
under the Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist.
Before attempting an off airport landing with engine power availa
ble, one should fly over the landing area at a safe but low altitude to inspect
the terrain for obstructions and surface conditions, proceeding as dis
cussed under the Precautionary Landing With Engine Power checklist.

c::)

Prepare for ditching by securing or jettisoning heavy objects located


in the baggage area and collect folded coats for protection of occupants
face at touchdown. Transmit Mayday message on 121.5 MHz giving
location and intentions and squawk 7700 if a transponder is installed.
Avoid a landing flare because of difficulty in judging height over a water
surface.
In a forced landing situation, do not turn off the avionics power and
master switches until a landing is assured. Premature deactivation of the
switches will disable the encoding altimeter and airplane electrical sys
tem s.

LANDING WITHOUT ELEVATOR CONTROL


Trim for horizontal flight (with an airspeed of approximately 80 KIAS
and flaps set to 20) by using throttle and trim tab controls. Then do not
change the trim tab setting and control the glide angle by adjusting power
exclusively.
At flareout, the nose-down moment resulting from power reduction is
an adverse factor and the airplane may hit on the nose wheel. Consequent
ly, at flareout, the trim tab should be set at full nose-up position and the
power adjusted so that the airplane will rotate to the horizontal attitude for
touchdown. Close the throttle at touchdown.

FIRES
Improper starting procedures involving the excessive use of auxiliary
fuel pump operation can cause engine flooding and subsequent collection
of fuel on the parking ramp as the excess fuel drains overboard from the
intake manifolds. This is sometimes experienced in difficult starts in cold
weather where engine pre-heat service is not available. If this occurs, the
3-18

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

airplane should be pushed away from the fuel puddle before another engine
start is attempted. Otherwise, there is a possibility of raw fuel accumula
tions in the exhaust system igniting during an engine start, causing a long
flame from the tailpipe, and possibly igniting the collected fuel on the
pavement. If a fire occurs, proceed according to the checklist.
Although engine fires are extremely rare in flight, the steps of the
appropriate checklist should be followed if one is encountered. After
completion of this procedure, execute a forced landing. Do not attempt to
restart the engine.
The initial indication of an electrical fire is usually the odor of burning
insulation. The checklist for this problem should result in elimination of
the fire.

EMERGENCY OPERATION IN CLOUDS


(Vacuum System Failure)
In the event of a complete vacuum system failure during flight, the
directional indicator and attitude indicator will be disabled, and the pilot
will have to rely on the turn coordinator or the turn and bank indicator if he
inadvertently flies into clouds. The following instructions assume that
only the electrically-powered turn coordinator or the turn and bank
indicator is operative, and that the pilot is not completely proficient in
instrument flying.

EXECUTING A 1800 TURN IN CLOUDS


Upon inadvertently entering the clouds, an immediate plan should be
made to turn back as follows:
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

Note the compass heading.


Note the time of the minute hand and observe the position of the
sweep second hand on the clock (use timer mode with digital
clock).
When the sweep second hand (or timer) indicates the nearest halfminute, initiate a standard rate left turn, holding the turn coordina
tor symbolic airplane wing opposite the lower left index mark for
60 seconds. Then roll back to level flight by leveling the miniature
airplane.
Check accuracy of the turn by observing the compass heading
which should be the reciprocal of the original heading.
If necessary, adjust heading primarily with skidding motions
rather than rolling motions so that the compass will read more
accurately.
Maintain altitude and airspeed by cautious application of elevator
control. Avoid overcontrolling by keeping hands off the control
wheel as much as possible and steering only with rudder.

ii September 1981

3-17

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

EMERGENCY DESCENT THROUGH CLOUDS


If conditions preclude reestablishment of VFR flight by a 1800 turn, a
descent through a cloud deck to VFR conditions may be appropriate. If
possible, obtain radio clearance for an emergency descent through clouds.
To guard against a spiral dive, choose an easterly or westerly heading to
minimize compass card swings due to changing bank angles. In addition,
keep hands off the control wheel and steer a straight course with rudder
control by monitoring the turn coordinator. Occasionally check the
compass heading and make minor corrections to hold an approximate
course. Before descending into the clouds, set up a stabilized let-down
condition as follows:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

Extend landing gear.


Reduce power to set up a 500 to 800 ft 1mm rate of descent.
Adjust mixture for smooth operation.
Adjust the elevator and rudder trim control wheels for a stabilized
descent at 105 KIAS.
Keep hands off control wheel.
Monitor turn coordinator and make corrections by rudder alone.
Adjust rudder trim to relieve unbalanced rudder force.
Check trend of compass card movement and make cautious
corrections with rudder to stop turn.
Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.

RECOVERY FROM A SPIRAL DIVE


If a spiral is encountered, proceed as follows:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

Close the throttle.


Stop the turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder control to
align the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator with the
horizon reference line.
Cautiously apply control wheel back pressure to slowly reduce the
airspeed to 105 KIAS.
Adjust the elevator trim control to maintain a 105 KIAS glide.
Keep hands off the control wheel, using rudder control to hold a
straight heading. Adjust the rudder trim to relieve unbalanced
rudder force.
Clear engine occasionally, but avoid using enough power to
disturb the trimmed glide.
Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.

INADVERTENT FLIGHT INTO ICING CONDITIONS


Flight into icing conditions is prohibited. An inadvertent encounter

3-18

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

with these conditions can best be handled using the checklist procedures.
The best procedure, of course, is to turn back or change altitude to escape
icing conditions.

STATIC SOURCE BLOCKED


If erroneous readings of the static source instruments (airspeed,
altimeter and vertical speed) are suspected, the static pressure alternate
source valve should be pulled on, thereby supplying static pressure to
these instruments from the cabin.
Cabin pressures will be affected by open ventilators or windows and
varying airspeeds, and this will affect the readings.

,,

With windows closed, maximum airspeed and altimeter variation from


normal occurs with the vents closed and reaches 10 knots and 160 feet
respectively at maximum cruise (instruments read high). During
approach with vents closed, typical variations are 7 knots and 70 feet
respectively (reads high). Opening the vents tends to reduce these varia
tions by one third.

With windows open, variations up to 18 knots and 130 feet occur near
stall (reads low) and up to 14 knots and 220 feet at maximum cruise (reads
high). During approach, typical variations are 3 knots and 30 feet (reads
high).

With the alternate static source on, fly the airplane at airspeeds and
altitudes which compensate for the variations from normal indications.
For more exact airspeed correction, refer to the alternate static source
airspeed calibration table in Section 5, appropriate to the vent/window
configuration.

SPINS
Intentional spins are prohibited in this airplane. Should an inadvert
ent spin occur, the following recovery technique may be used:
1.
2.
3.
4.

RETARD THROTTLE TO IDLE POSITION.


PLACE AILERONS IN NEUTRAL POSITION.
APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIREC
TION OF ROTATION.
JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP, MOVE THE
CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO
BREAK THE STALL. Full down elevator may be required at aft
center of gravity loadings to assure optimum recoveries.

11 September 1981

3-19

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
5.

6.

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS.


Premature relaxation of the control inputs may extend the recov
ery.
AS ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE RUDDER, AND MAKE A
SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE.
NOTE
If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the
direction of rotation, the symbolic airplane in the turn
coordinator or the needle of the turn and bank indicator
may be referred to for this information.

ROUGH ENGINE OPERATION OR LOSS OF


POWER
SPAR K PLUG FOULING
A slight engine roughness in flight may be caused by one or more
spark plugs becoming fouled by carbon or lead deposits. This may be
verified by turning the ignition switch momentarily from BOTH to either L
or R position. An obvious power loss in single ignition operation is
evidence of spark plug or magneto trouble. Assuming that spark plugs are
the more likely cause, lean the mixture to the recommended lean setting for
cruising flight. If the problem does not clear up in several minutes,
determine if a richer mixture setting will produce smoother operation. If
not, proceed to the nearest airport for repairs using the BOTH position of
the ignition switch unless extreme roughness dictates the use of a single
ignition position.

MAGNETO MALFUNCTION
A sudden engine roughness or misfiring is usually evidence of
magneto problems. Switching from BOTH to either L or R ignition switch
position will identify which magneto is malfunctioning. Select different
power settings and enrichen the mixture to determine if continued opera
tion on BOTH magnetos is practicable. If not, switch to the good magneto
and proceed to the nearest airport for repairs.

ENGINE-DRIVEN FUEL PUMP FAILURE


Failure of the engine-driven fuel pump will be evidenced by a sudden
reduction in the fuel flow indication prior to a loss of power, while
operating from a fuel tank containing adequate fuel.
320

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

In the event of an engine-driven fuel pump failure during takeoff,


immediately hold the left half of the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the HI
position until the airplane is well clear of all obstacles. Upon reaching a
safe altitude, reduce the power settings to give cruise power. Then release
the HI side of the switch, allowing the right side of the switch to remain in
the ON position for level flight.

This ON position provides a reduced fuel flow which results in lean


mixtures at two portions of the manifold pressure range. For example, at
2500 RPM excessively lean mixtures with resulting roughness and/or
power drop off are experienced at approximately 22 inches (just before the
throttle switch activates) and again at 28 or more inches of manifold
pressure.
To avoid these areas of rough engine operation. select 2200 RPM and
sufficient manifold pressure within the green arc range for the flight
condition at hand. If more power is required, use progressively more RPM
and select a manifold pressure where smooth engine operation and normal
airspeed can be obtained.
The landing approach should be planned so that approximately 15
inches of manifold pressure can be used. If the throttle is brought back to
idle position, the mixture becomes very rich. This could cause a sluggish
power response if the throttle had to be advanced rapidly during landing.

EXCESSIVE FUEL VAPOR INDICATIONS


Excessive fuel vapor indications are most likely to appear during
climb and the first hour of cruise on each tank, especially when operating
at higher altitudes or in unusually warm temperatures.
Indications of excessive fuel vapor accumulation are fuel flow gage
fluctuations greater than 5 PPH. This condition with leaner mixtures or
with larger fluctuations may result in power surges, and if not corrected,
may cause power loss.
To eliminate vapor and stabilize fuel flows, turn the auxiliary fuel
pump on and reset the mixture as required. If vapor symptoms persist,
change the selector valve position in accordance with the checklist. When
fuel flows stabilize, turn off the auxiliary fuel pump and reset the mixture
as desired.

LOW OIL PRESSURE


If low oil pressure is accompanied by normal oil temperature, there is
a possibility the oil pressure gage or relief valve is malfunctioning. A leak
in the line to the gage is not necessarily cause for an immediate precau
tionary landing because an orifice in this line will prevent a sudden loss of

11 September 1981

3-21

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

oil from the engine sump. However, a landing at the nearest airport would
be advisable to inspect the source of trouble.
If a total loss of oil pressure is accompanied by a rise in oil tempera
ture, there is good reason to suspect an engine failure is imminent. Reduce
engine power immediately and select a suitable forced landing field. Use
only the minimum power required to reach the desired touchdown spot.

LANDING GEAR MALFUNCTION PROCEDURES

In the event of possible landing gear retraction or extension malfunc


tions, there are several general checks that should be made prior to
initiating the steps outlined in the following paragraphs.
In analyzing a landing gear malfunction, first check that the master
switch is ON and the LDG GEAR and GEAR PUMP circuit breakers are
in; reset if necessary. Also, check both landing gear position indicator
lights for operation by pressing-to-test the light units and rotating them
at the same time to check for open dimming shutters. A burned-out bulb
can be replaced in flight by using the bulb from the remaining gear
position indicator light.

RETRACTION MALFUNCTIONS
Normal landing gear retraction time is approximately 8 seconds. If the
landing gear fails to retract normally or an intermittent GEAR UP
indicator light is present, check the indicator light for proper operation
and attempt to recycle the landing gear. Place the landing gear lever in the
GEAR DOWN position. When the GEAR DOWN light illuminates, reposi
tion the gear lever in the GEAR UP position for another retraction attempt.
If the GEAR UP light still fails to illuminate, the flight may be continued to
an airport having maintenance facilities, if practical. If gear motor
operation is audible after a period of one minute following gear lever
retraction actuation, pull the GEAR PUMP circuit breaker to prevent the
electric motor from overheating. In this event, remember to re-engage the
circuit breaker just prior to landing. Intermittent gear motor operation
may also be detected by momentary fluctuations of the ammeter needle.

EXTENSION MALFUNCTIONS
Normal landing gear extension time is approximately 6 seconds. If the
landing gear will not extend normally, perform the general checks of \
circuit breakers and master switch and repeat the normal extension
procedures at a reduced airspeed of 100 KIAS. The landing gear lever must
be in the down position with the detent engaged. If efforts to extend and lock
3-22

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

fTh

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

the gear through the normal landing gear system fail, the gear can be
manually extended (as long as hydraulic system fluid has not been
completely lost) by use of the emergency hand pump. The hand pump is
located between the front seats.
A checklist is provided for step-by-step instructions for a manual gear
extension.
If gear motor operation is audible after a period of one minute
following gear lever extension actuation, pull the GEAR PUMP circuit
breaker to prevent the electric motor from overheating. In this event,
remember to re-engage the circuit breaker just prior to landing.

GEAR UP LANDING

If the landing gear remains retracted or is only partially extended, and


all efforts to fully extend it (including manual extension) have failed, plan
a wheels up landing. In preparation for landing, reposition the landing
gear lever to GEAR UP and push the LOG GEAR and GEAR PUMP circuit
breakers in to allow the landing gear to swing into the gear wells at
touchdown. Then proceed in accordance with the checklist.

ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM


MALFUNCTIONS

tJ)

Malfunctions in the electrical power supply system can be detected by


periodic monitoring of the ammeter and low-voltage warning light;
however, the cause of these malfunctions is usually difficult to determine.
A broken alternator drive belt or wiring is most likely the cause of
alternator failures, although other factors could cause the problem. A
defective alternator control unit can also cause malfunctions. Problems of
this nature constitute an electrical emergency and should be dealt with
immediately. Electrical power malfunctions usually fall into two catego
Ties: excessive rate of charge and insufficient rate of charge. The para
graphs below describe the recommended remedy for each situation.

EXCESSIVE RATE OF CHARGE


After engine starting and heavy electrical usage at low engine speeds
(such as extended taxiing) the battery condition will be low enough to
accept above normal charging during the initial part of a flight. However,
after thirty minutes of cruising flight, the ammeter should be indicating
less than two needle widths of charging current. If the charging rate were
to remain above this value on a long flight, the battery would overheat and
evaporate the electrolyte at an excessive rate.

11 September 1981

3-23

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Electronic components in the electrical system could be adversely


affected by higher than normal voltage. The alternator contro unit
l
includes an over-voltage sensor which normally will automatically shut
down the alternator if the charge voltage reaches approximately 31.5 volts.
If the over-voltage sensor malfunctions, as evidenced by an excess
ive rate
of charge shown on the ammeter, the alternator should be turned
off, the
alternator circuit breaker pulled, nonessential electrical equipm
ent
turned off and the flight terminated as soon as practical.

INSUFFICIENT RATE OF CHARGE


NOTE
Illumination of the low-voltage light and ammeter dis
charge indications may occur during low RPM conditions
with an electrical load on the system, such as during a low
RPM taxi. Under these conditions, the light will go out at
higher RPM. The master switch need not be recycled since
an over-voltage condition has not occurred to de-activate
the alternator system. Momentary illumination and? or
ammeter needle deflection may also occur during startup
of the landing gear system hydraulic pump motor.
If the over-voltage sensor should shut down the alternator or if the
alternator output is low, a discharge rate will be shown on the ammet
er
followed by illumination of the low-voltage warning light. Since
this may
be a nuisance trip-out, an attempt should be made to reactiv
ate the
alternator system. To do this, turn the avionics power switch off, check
that
the alternator circuit breaker is in, then turn both sides of the master
switch off and then on again. If the problem no longer exists, norma
l
alternator charging will resume and the low-voltage light will go off.
The
avionics power switch may then be turned back on. If the light illumin
ates
again, a malfunction is confirmed. In this event, the flight
should be
terminated and? or the current drain on the battery minimized becaus
e the
battery can supply the electrical system for only a limited period
of time.
Battery power must be conserved for later operation of the landin
g gear
and wing flaps and, if the emergency occurs at night, for possib
le use of the
landing lights during landing.

3-24

11 September 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Speeds For Normal Operation

Page
4-3
4-3

CHECKLIST PROCEDURES

Preflight Inspection
Cabin
Empennage
Right Wing, Trailing Edge
Right Wing
Nose
Left Wing
Left Wing, Leading Edge
Left Wing, Trailing Edge
Before Starting Engine
Starting Engine
Before Takeoff
Takeoff
Normal Takeoff
Short Field Takeoff
Enroute Climb
Normal Climb
Maximum Performance Climb
Cruise
Descent
Before Landing
Landing
Normal Landing
Short Field Landing
Balked Landing
After Landing
Securing Airplane

11 September 1981

4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-13
4-13
4-13
4-1/

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
Preflight Inspection
Starting Engine
Taxiing
Before Takeoff
Warm-Up
Magneto Check
Alternator Check
Takeoff
Power Check
Wing Flap Settings
Short Field Takeoff
Crosswind Takeoff
\ Landing Gear Retraction
Enroute Climb
Cruise
Leaning With An EGT Indicator
Stalls
Descent
Before Landing
Landing
Normal Landing
Short Field Landing
Crosswind Landing
Balked Landing
Cold Weather Operation
Noise Characteristics
.

4-15
4-16
4-18
4-18
4-18
4-18

4-21
4-21

0
0
0

4-26
4-26

0
0

a
4-2

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION
Section 4 provides checklist and amplified procedures for the conduct
of normal operation. Normal procedures associated with optional systems
can be found in Section 9.

SPEEDS FOR NORMAL OPERATION


Unless otherwise noted, the following speeds are based on a maximum
weight of 4000 pounds and may be used for any lesser weight. However, to
achieve the performance specified in Section 5 for takeoff distance and
climb performance, the speed appropriate to the particular weight must be
used.

Takeoff:
80-90 KIAS

Normal Climb Out


78 KIAS
Short Field Takeoff, Flaps 10, Speed at 50 Feet
Up:
Gear
and
Flaps
Enroute Climb,
105-120 KIAS
Normal
100 KIAS
17,000
Feet
Level
to
Sea
of
Climb,
Rate
Best Rate of Climb, 24,000 Feet
97 KIAS
Best
82 KIAS
Best Angle of Climb
Landing Approach (3800 Ibs):
85-95 KIAS
Normal Approach, Flaps Up
70-80 KIAS
Normal Approach, Flaps 30
74 KIAS
Short Field Approach, Flaps 30
Balked Landing (3800 Lbs):
70 KIAS
Maximum Power, Flaps 20
Speed:
Penetration
Air
Turbulent
ed
Maximum Recommend
130 KIAS
4000 Lbs
119 KIAS
3350 Lbs
106 KIAS
2700 Lbs
Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity:
21 KNOTS
Takeoff or Landing

11 September 1981

4-3

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

\.

c
C
NOTE
Visually check airplane for general condition during
walk-around inspection. In cold weather, remove even
small accumulations of frost, ice or snow from wing, tail
and control surfaces. Also, make sure that control surfaces
contain no internal accumulations of ice or debris. Prior to
flight, check that pitot heater (if installed) is warm to touch
within 30 seconds with battery and pitot heat switches on.
If a night flight is planned, check operation of all lights,
and make sure a flashlight is available.

Figure 4-1. Preflight Inspection


4-4

11 September 1981

PILOT OPERATING PROCEDURES


-

FIGURE 1
PREFLIGHT FUEL SYSTEM QUANTITY CHECK

The following procedures are to be used on certain Cessna 210. P210, and T210 Series airplanes
whenever more than 75 gallons of fuel are needed for range and reserve.

1.
Verify that the airplane is level laterally and is approximately 4.5 degrees nose up
(normal nose strut on a level surface).
NOTE: The airplane turn and bank instrument may be used to check lateral leveling.

2.
Visually inspect each fuel tank for fuel level with the upper wing surface when full
fuel capacity is intended to be in each tank.

3.
Check each fuel cap and seal for security and wing surface for a lack of fuel stains aft
of each fuel cap.

NOTE: It is highly recommended that the wing tips and flap trailing edges are checked during
flight for evidence of fuel siphoning.

NOTE 2: A check for the presence of water using the fuel reservoir quick drains
prior to the first flight of each day is considered good operating practice.

NOTE 1: The fuel reservoir(s) are located under the fuselage between the firewall
and forviard door post on all airplane models. Consult the pilots Operating
Handbook or Owners Manual in order to determine if one or two reservoir(s) are
installed.

4. If the airplane has been exposed to rain, sleet or snow, or if the wing fuel tanks
or fuel strainer drains produce water, the fuel reservoir(s) must be checked for the
presence of water by operating the fuel reservoir quick drains. The airplane fuel
system must be purged to the extent necessary to insure that there is no water,
ice or other fuel contamination.

3. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 on each wing tank quick drain.

2. Inspect the flcHd drained from the fuel strainer and each wing tank quick drain
for evidence of fuel contamination in the form of water, rust, sludge. ice or any
other substance not compatible with fuel. Also check for proper fuel grade before
the first flight of each day and after each refueling. If any contamination is
detected. comply with 4 below.

1. Place a suitable container under the fuel strainer drain outlet prior to operating
the strainer drain control for at least 4 seconds. Check strainer drain closed.

Fuel sampling: Fuel strainer, wing tank and reservoir quick drains.

PILOT OPERATING PROCEDURES-PREFLIGHT FUEL SYSTEl CHECK

APPENDIX 86-19-11

Airworthiness Directive
Federal Register Information
Header Information

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Aviation Administration
14 CFR Part 39
Amendment 39-5407, AD 86-19-11

POP Copy (if Availoblet:

Airworthiness Directives Cessna Models P172 thu P172K, FR72E thu


FR172K, 177 thu 1778 and 177PG, F177RG, 185 thru 185E, A185E, A165F,
A188, A188A, A1885, T188C, 205 and 205A. 206, U206, U2064 thru U206G,
TU206A th TU2O6G, P206, P206A th P206E, TP206A thru 1P2066: 207 and
207A, T207 and T207A. 210B thru 21CR, T210F thu 121CR, P210N and P210R
Airplanes

Preamble Information

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration DOT

DATES. Ettective October 4, 1986

V
Regulatory Information

86-19-11 CESSNA. Amenoment 39-5407. Applies to Models P172 thru R172K.


FR1726 thru FR 172K. 177 th 1778 and 177RG, F177RG, 185 thru 185E,
A185E,A18SFA18SA18SA A1888.T1S8C 2O5and2OSA 206 U206 U206A
thru U206G TU2Q6A thru TU206G P206, P206A thu P2066, TP2O6A thru
TP2066, 207 and 207A, T207 and T207A, 2106 thru 210R T21OF thru T2IOR
P210N and P21OR (all Serial Numbers IS/Nil airplanes equipped with fuel

of this AD, untesa already


whichever comes firat atter the ettective dale
accomplished.

reduction due to contaminated fuel.


To eliminate the possibility of engine power
accomplish the following
R172H, )S/Ns P172-0001 thu
(a( On Cessna Models P172, P1726 thru
thru
F817200001 thru FR17200530) 177
P1720625) FP172E thru F8172] (5/Na
177RG (S/Ne 177RG0001 thru
177A (S/Ns 17700001 thu 17702123) Model
F177RG01221 2100 and T2I0G
177RG0592) FI77PG (S/Na F177R00001 thru
21060539 and T210-0t98 thrci
thw 210L and T2IOL (S/Na 21058819 thru
fuel reservoirs and wing fuel tanks
T2100451) airplanes, install quick drains in the
with Cessna Single Engine Customer
if not presentty equipped in accordance
SEa-I
5 dated September10 1979, and
Care Service Information Letters SE79-1
aircraft standard hardware.
S dated March 16, 1981, or using equivalent
,
. R172F, P172G. R172H, R172J, P172K
(b) On all Cessna Models 8172, R172E
410 and on) FR172E, FR172F.
(S/Na P172-0001 thru P172-0409 end P1720
FR17200001 thw FR17200675( 177,
FPI72G, F8172H, FR172J, FR172K (S/Na
(S/Na 177RG0001 end on( F177RG
177A, 1778 (S/Ns 17700001 and on). 177RG
185, 185A, 1858 1850. 185D, 1856,
(SNs F177RG0001 thru F177RG0177(
185-1599, 18501600 and on) A188
AI85E, A1S5F (S/Na 632, 185-0001 th
(SiNs 18800573 thru 18800832)
(S/Ns 653, 188-0001 thru 188-05721 A168A (S/Na T18803307T, T18803308T.
A188B (S/Na 676T, 18800833 and on) T188C
01 and on( 206, U206, U206A.
T18803325T and On) 205. 205A, (S/Na 205-00
. TU2O6A. 1U2068. TU2O6C.
U2066, U2O6C, U206D, U206E, U2O6F, U206G 01 thru 206-0275, U206-0276
TU2O6D, TU2O6E, TU2O6F, TU2O6G ((SINs 206-00
, P2O6E. TP2O6A, TP2066.
and on) P206, P206A, P2068, P2060, P2060
thru P206006471 207, 207A, T207.
TP2O6C, TP206D, TP2O6E, (S/Ns P206-0001
210G. 2106, 210F. 210G. 210H
T207A (S/Ne 20700001 and onl 2105, 2100,
,-T210G, T21OH, T2101, T210K.
210J, 210K. 210L, 210M, 210N, 2108, T210F and onl P210N and P2108 IS/Na
41
T21OL. T21OM, T210N, T21OR (S/Na 210578
ation that is included in the
P21000001 and on) airplanes, attach the inform
ATING PROCEDURES PREFLIGHT
appendix to this AD (entitled PILOT OPER
ents
FUEL SYSTEM CHECK) to the airplane docum
this AD may be used it approved by
(ci An equivalent means of compliance with
FAA, 1801 Airport Road Room 100.
the Manager, Aircraft Certification Of lice,
.
fitid-Continent Airport, Wichita, Kansas 67209

oblan copies of the documentisi


All persons affected by this directive may
t Company. P:stn Aucra)t
referred to herein upon request to Cessna Aiicrata Kansas 67201: or FAA, Office
Marketing Doision Post Office Box 1521. Wichit
East 12th Street, Ksnsa Cily M:ssouri
of the Regionat Counsel. Room 1558. 601
64106.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CHECKLIST PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
CABIN

(.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

--

Pilots Operating Handbook AVAILABLE IN THE AIRPLANE.


REMOVE.
Control Wheel Lock
SET.
Parking Brake
OFF.
Avionics Power Switch
OFF.
Ignition Switch
DOWN.
Landing Gear Lever
OFF.
Radar (if installed)
OFF.
Air Conditioner (if installed)
Master Switch
ON.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

WARNING

When turning on the master switch, using an external


power source, or pulling the propeller through by hand,
treat the propeller as if the ignition switch were on. Do not
stand, nor allow anyone else to stand, within the arc of the
propeller, since a loose or broken wire, or a component
malfunction, could cause the propeller to rotate.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

--

Low Voltage and Alternator Out Warning Lights (if installed)


ON.
CHECK both
Vacuum Gage Warning Buttons (if installed)
extended.
GREEN and PRESS TO TEST
Landing Gear Lights and Horn
(with throttle closed).
ON (push full in).
Fuel On-Off Valve
CHECK QUANTITY.
Fuel Quantity Indicators
BOTH ON.
Fuel Selector Valve
CHECK AUDIBLY FOR OPERATION.
Avionics Cooling Fan
OFF.
Master Switch
OFF.
Static Pressure Alternate Source Valve
Trim Controls
NEUTRAL.
CHECK.
Oxygen Supply Pressure (if installed)
AVAILABLE.
Oxygen Masks (if installed)

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

EMPENNAGE
1.

Static Source Openings (both sides of fuselage)


stoppage.

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

--

CHECK for

4-5

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
2.
3.
4.
5.

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Baggage Door
CHECK for security.
Rudder Gust Lock
REMOVE.
Tail Tie-Down
DISCONNECT.
Control Surfaces
CHECK freedom of movement and security.
- -

- -

--

--

RIGHT WING Trailing Edge


1.
2.
3.
4.

Main Wheel Tire and Wheel Well--CHECK tire for proper inflation
and wheel well for condition and cleanliness.
Aileron
CHECK for freedom of movement and security.
Aileron Gap Seal
CHECK security and fit.
Fuel Tank Vent at Wing Tip Trailing Edge CHECK for stoppage.
- -

--

- -

RIGHT WING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Wing Tie-Down
DISCONNECT.
Fuel Quantity
CHECK VISUALLY for desired level.
Fuel Filler Cap
SECURE and vent unobstructed.
Radome (if weather radar is installed) CHECK for condition and I
security.
Fuel Tank Sump Quick-Drain Valve --DRAIN fuel (using sampler
cup) to check for water, sediment, and proper fuel grade before first
flight of the day and after each refueling. If water is observed, take
further samples until there is no evidence of water contamination
Retractable Cabin Step (if installed)
CHECK for security and
cleanliness and retraction well for cleanliness.
--

- -

--

NOSE
1.

Propeller and Spinner


CHECK for nicks, security and oil leaks.
Air Inlets
CHECK engine induction air (right), heater air (left)
and oil cooler air (lower), for restrictions.
Landing and Taxi Lights
CHECK for condition and cleanliness.
Nose Gear Doors
CHECK for security.
Nose Wheel Tire, Strut and Wheel Well CHECK tire and strut for
proper inflation and wheel well for condition and cleanliness.
Nose Tie-Down
DISCONNECT.
Engine Oil Filler Cap
CHECK secure.
Engine Oil Dipstick
CHECK oil level, then check dipstick
SECURE. Do not operate with less than seven quarts. Fill to ten
quarts for extended flight.
Fuel Strainer Quick-Drain Valve
DRAIN fuel (using sampler
cup) to check for water, sediment and proper fuel grade before first
flight of day and after each refueling. Check strainer drai
CLOSED. If water is observed, the fuel system may contai
additional water, and further draining of the system at the strainer,
fuel tank sumps, reservoir, and vapor return line drain (below
vicinity of selector valve) must be accomplished.
- -

- -

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

4-6

--

--

--

--

- -

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

LEFT WING
1.

2.
3.

Fuel Tank Sump Quick-Drain Valve DRAIN fuel (using sampler


cup) to check for water, sediment, and proper fuel grade before first
flight of day and after each refueling. If water is observed, take
further samples until there is no evidence of water contamination.
CHECK VISUALLY for desired level.
Fuel Quantity
SECURE and vent unobstructed.
Fuel Filler Cap
- -

--

- -

LEFT WING Leading Edge


1.
2.

3.

REMOVE and check opening for stoppage.


Pitot Tube Cover
CHECK for freedom of movement. While
Stall Warning Vane
master switch is turned on, horn should sound when vane is
pushed upward.
DISCONNECT.
Wing Tie-Down
--

- -

--

LEFT WING Trailing Edge


1.
2.
3.
4.

Fuel Tank Vent at Wing Tip Trailing Edge CHECK for stoppage.
CHECK for freedom of movement and security.
Aileron
CHECK security and fit.
Aileron Gap Seal
Main Wheel Tire and Wheel Well CHECK tire for proper inflation
and wheel well for condition and cleanliness.
- -

- -

- -

- -

BEFORE STARTING ENGINE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

COMPLETE.
Preflight Inspection
COMPLETE.
Passenger Briefing
Seats, Seat Belts, Shoulder Harnesses
TEST and SET.
Brakes
OFF.
Avionics Power Switch
--

--

--

ADJUST and LOCK.

--

--

CAUTION
The avionics power switch must be OFF during engine
start to prevent possible damage to avionics.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

CHECK IN.
Circuit Breakers
OFF.
Radar Altimeter (if installed)
OFF.
Electrical Equipment
DOWN.
Landing Gear Lever
OFF.
Air Conditioner (if installed)
OFF.
Radar (if installed)
OFF.
Autopilot (if installed)
Cowl Flaps OPEN (move lever out of locking hole to reposition).
IN and LOCKED.
Manual Primer (if installed)
--

- -

- -

--

--

--

--

--

- -

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

4-7

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

STARTING ENGINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Throttle
CLOSED.
Propeller
HIGH RPM.
Mixture
RICH.
Propeller Area
CLEAR.
Master Switch -- ON.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump
ON.
Throttle ADVANCE to obtain 50-60 PPH, then RETURN to IDLE
POSITION.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump
OFF.
Ignition Switch
START.
Throttle
ADVANCE slowly.
Ignition Switch
RELEASE when engine starts.
--

- -

--

- -

- -

--

--

- -

- -

--

NOTE
The engine should start in two or three revolutions. If it
does not continue running, start again at step 6 above. If
the engine does not start, leave auxiliary fuel pump switch
off, set mixture to idle cut-off, open throttle, and crank until
engine fires or for approximately 15 seconds. If still
unsuccessful, start again using the normal starting proce
dure after allowing the starter motor to cool.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Throttle
RESET to desired idle speed.
Oil Pressure
CHECK.
Avionics Power Switch
ON.
Low-Voltage Light -- OFF (approximately 800 RPM).
Alternator Off Lights (if installed)
OFF.
Fuel Computer/Digital Clock (if installed) -- SET.
Navigation Lights and Flashing Beacon
ON as required.
Radios
ON.
--

--

- -

- -

- -

--

BEFORE TAKEOFF
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

4-8

Parking Brake
SET.
Seats, Seat Belts, Shoulder Harnesses
CHECK SECURE.
Cabin Doors
CLOSED and LOCKED.
Flight Controls
FREE and CORRECT.
Flight Instruments
CHECK and SET.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch
OFF.
Mixture
RICH.
Fuel On-Off Valve
RECHECK ON (full in).
Fuel Quantity
CHECK.
--

--

--

- -

- -

- -

--

--

--

11 September 1981

()

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

10.
11.
12.

RECHECK BOTH ON.


Fuel Selector Valve
SET for takeoff.
Elevator and Rudder Trim
1700 RPM.
Throttle
a. Magnetos CHECK (RPM drop should not exceed 150 RPM on
either magneto or 50 RPM differential between magnetos).
b. Propeller CYCLE from high to low RPM; return to high RPM
(full forward).
c. Suction Gage--CHECK in green arc and low vacuumwarning
buttons retracted (if installed).
d. Engine Instruments and Ammeter/Voltmeter (if installed)
CHECK.
1000 RPM.
Throttle
ADJUST.
Throttle Friction Lock
AS DESIRED.
Strobe Lights
SET.
Radios and Avionics
OFF.
Autopilot (if installed) (200A, 300A)
PREFLIGHT TEST (See
(400B, IFCS)
Section 9), then OFF.
SET for takeoff (see Takeoff checklists).
Wing Flaps
FULL OPEN.
Cowl Flaps
OFF
Air Conditioner (if installed)
RELEASE.
Brakes
--

--

- -

--

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

--

- -

--

--

--

18.
19.
20.
21.

--

--

--

--

TAKEOFF
NORMAL TAKEOFF
1.
2.
3.
4.

0- 10 (10 preferred).
Wing Flaps
36.5 INCHES Hg and 2700 RPM (5 minute limitation).
Power
ADJUST to 186 PPH.
Mixture
LIFT NOSE WHEEL at 65 to 70 KIAS.
Elevator Control
--

--

-.

--

NOTE
When the nose wheel is lifted, the gear motor may run 2-3
seconds to restore hydraulic pressure.
5.
6.
7.
8.

80-90 KIAS.
Climb Speed
APPLY momentarily when airborne.
Brakes
RETRACT in climb out.
Landing Gear
RETRACT after reaching 85 KIAS.
Wing Flaps
--

--

--

--

.3HORT FIELD TAKEOFF


1.
2.

10.
Wing Flaps
APPLY.
Brakes
--

--

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

4-9

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8..
9.

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

Power
36.5 INCHES Hg and 2700 RPM (5 minute limitation).
Mixture
ADJUST to 186 PPH.
Brakes
RELEASE.
Elevator Control
LIFT NOSE WHEEL AT 65 KIAS.
Climb Speed
78 KIAS until all obstacles are cleared.
Landing Gear
RETRACT after obstacles are cleared.
Wing Flaps
RETRACT after reaching 85 KIAS.
--

--

--

- -

--

--

--

NOTE
Do not reduce power until wing flaps and landing gear
have been retracted.

ENROUTE CLIMB
NORMAL CLIMB
1.
2.
3.

Airspeed
105-120 KIAS.
Power
30 INCHES Hg and 2500 RPM.
Mixture
LEAN to 120 PPH.
--

--

--

NOTE
On hot days, it may be necessary to utilize the auxiliary
fuel pump to maintain 120 PPH fuel flow.
4.

Cowl Flaps

- -

OPEN as required (full open on warm days).


NOTE

On hot days, turn on auxiliary fuel pump momentarily if


switching tanks in climb.

MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE CLIMB


1.
2.
3.

c::)

Airspeed
100 KIAS.
Power
35 INCHES Hg and 2600 RPM.
Mixture
ADJUST to 162 PPH.
-

--

NOTE
1

See power and fuel flow placard for maximum continuous


power manifold pressure and fuel flow above 17,000 feet.
Refer to Section 5 for airspeed above i7,000 feet.
4-10

11 September 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
NOTE

On hot days at higher altitudes, be alert for fuel vapor


indications. If fuel flow fluctuations are observed or if
desired fuel flows cannot be maintained, turn the auxiliary
fuel pump ON and reset the mixture as required. If symp
toms persist, select a single fuel tank having adequate
fuel.
4.

Cowl Flaps

FULL OPEN.

--

NOTE
On hot days, turn auxiliary fuel pump ON momentarily if
switching tanks in climb.

CRUISE
1.
2.
3.

15-30 INCHES Hg, 2200-2500 RPM.


Power
ADJUST.
Elevator and Rudder Trim
flow using the EGT gage, a Cessna
fuel
cruise
for
LEAN
Mixture
Section 5.
in
Power Computer, or the data
-

--

NOTE
vapor
In hot weather at high altitudes, be alert for fuel
ained
indications. If fuel flow fluctuations or an unexpl
fuel
ry
auxilia
the
place
ed,
observ
are
drop in fuel flow
e control
pump switch in the ON position and reset mixtur
fuel
as desired. If vapor symptoms persist, place the
ns.
selector valve in either of the other two detent positio
pump
fuel
ry
auxilia
the
,
steady
s
remain
flow
When fuel
.
may be turned off and the mixture reset as desired
4.

Cowl Flaps
altitude).

CLOSED (open as required on hot days or at high


NOTE

On hot days, turn auxiliary fuel pump ON momentarily if


switching tanks within first 30 minutes of cruise.

DESCENT
1.

Auxiliary Fuel Pump

11 September 1981

--

OFF.
4-11

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CAUTION
Failure to turn the auxiliary fuel pump off may result in a
complete power loss at reduced throttle settings due to an
excessively rich mixture.
2.
3.
4.

Power
AS DESIRED.
Mixture ADJUST for smooth operation (full rich for idle power)
.
Cowl Flaps
CLOSED.
--

--

--

BEFORE LANDING
1.
2.

Seats, Seat Belts, and Shoulder Harnesses


Auxiliary Fuel Pump
OFF.

--

SECURE.

--

CAUTION
Failure to turn the auxiliary fuel pump off may result in
a
complete power loss at reduced throttle settings due to an
excessively rich mixture.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Fuel Selector Valve


BOTH ON.
Landing Gear
EXTEND (below 165 KIAS).
Landing Gear
CHECK (observe main gear down and green
indicator light on).
Mixture
RICH.
Propeller
HIGH RPM.
Radar (if installed)
OFF (after landing assured).
Autopilot (if installed)
OFF.
Wing Flaps
AS DESIRED (00 to 10 below 160 KIAS, 10 to 200
below 130 KIAS, and 20 to 30 0 below 115 KIAS).
Air Conditioner (if installed)
OFF.
--

--

--

- -

--

- -

--

--

--

LANDING
NORMAL LANDING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

4-12

C)

Airspeed
85-95 KIAS (flaps UP).
Wing Flaps
AS DESIRED (flaps down preferred).
Airspeed
70-80 KIAS (flaps DOWN).
Elevator Trim
ADJUST.
Touchdown
MAIN WHEELS FIRST.
Landing Roll
LOWER NOSE WHEEL GENTLY.
--

--

--

--

--

--

11 September 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
7.

Braking

--

MINIMUM tEQUIRED.

SHORT FIELD LANDING


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

FULL DOWN.
Wing Flaps
74 KIAS.
Airspeed
ADJUST.
Elevator Trim
REDUCE to idle after clearing obstacle.
Power
MAIN WHEELS FIRST.
Touchdown
APPLY HEAVILY.
Brakes
RETRACT.
Wing Flaps
--

--

--

--

--

--

BALKED LANDING

,-..,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

36.5 INCHES Hg and 2700 RPM.


Power
RETRACT to 20 (immediately).
Wing Flaps
70 KIAS (until obstacles are cleared).
Climb Speed
RETRACT SLOWLY (after reaching safe altitude
Wing Flaps
and 75 KIAS).
OPEN.
Cowl Flaps
--

--

--

--

--

AFTER LANDING
1.
2.

Wing Flaps
Cowl Flaps

--

RETRACT.
OPEN.

SECURING AIRPLANE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

SET.
Parking Brake
OFF.
Avionics Power Switch, Electrical Equipment
IDLE CUT-OFF (pulled full out).
Mixture
OFF.
Ignition Switch
OFF.
Master Switch
INSTALL.
Control Lock
LEFT ON or RIGHT ON (select low-wing
Fuel Selector Valve
tank if parked on sloping surface to minimize cross-feeding and
spillage).
--

--

11 September 1981

--

--

--

--

4-13/(4-14 blank)

DO

oCo

CQ

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
The Preflight Inspection, described in figure 4-1 and adjacent check
list, is recommended for the first flight of the day. Inspection procedures
for subsequent flights are normally limited to brief checks of control
surface hinges, fuel and oil quantity, security of fuel and oil filler caps and
draining of the fuel tank sumps and strainer. If the airplane has been in
extended storage, has had recent major maintenance, or has been operated
from marginal airports, a more extensive exterior inspection is recom
mended.

(
\.
1r

After major maintenance has been performed, the flight and trim tab
controls should be double-checked for free and correct movement and
security. The security of all inspection plates on the airplane should be
checked following periodic inspections. If the airplane has been waxed or
polished, check the external static pressure source holes for stoppage.
If the airplane has been exposed to much ground handling in a crowded
hangar, it should be checked for dents and scratches on wings, fuselage,
and tail surfaces, as well as damage to navigation and anti-collision lights,
and avionics antennas.
Outside storage for long periods may result in dust and dirt accumula
tion on the induction air filter, obstructions in airspeed system lines, and
condensation in fuel tanks. If any water is detected in the fuel system, the
fuel tank sump quick-drain valves, fuel reservoir quick-drain valve, vapor
return line quick-drain valve, and fuel strainer quick-drain valve should
all be thoroughly drained until there is no evidence of water or sediment
contamination. Outside storage in windy or gusty areas, or tie-down
adjacent to taxiing airplanes, calls for special attention to control surface
stops, hinges, and brackets to detect the presence of wind damage.
If the airplane has been operated from muddy fields or in snow or
slush, check the main and nose gear wheel wells for obstructions and
cleanliness. Operation from a gravel or cinder field will require extra
attention to propeller tips and abrasion on leading edges of the horizontal
tail. Stone damage to the propeller can seriously reduce the fatigue life of
the blades.
Airplanes that are operated from rough fields, especially at high
altitudes, are subjected to abnormal landing gear abuse. Frequently check
all components of the landing gear, shock strut, tires, and brakes. If the
shock strut is insufficiently extended, undue landing and taxi loads will be
subjected on the airplane structure.
11 September 1981

4-15

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

To prevent loss of fuel in flight, make sure the fuel tank filler caps are
tightly sealed after any fuel system check or servicing. Fuel system vents
should also be inspected for obstructions, ice or water, especially after
exposure to cold, wet weather.
The interior inspection will vary according to the planned flight and
the optional equipment installed. For example, if the airplane is equipped
with an oxygen system, check the condition and quantity of oxygen face
masks and hose assemblies prior to high-altitude flight. The oxygen
supply system should be functionally checked to ensure that it is in
working order and that an adequate supply of oxygen is available.

STARTING ENGINE
Proper fuel management and throttle adjustments are the determining
factors in securing an easy start from your turbocharged continuous-flow
fuel-injection engine. The procedure outlined below should be followed
closely as it is effective under nearly all operating conditions.
Conventional full rich mixture and high RPM propeller settings are
used for starting; the throttle, however, should be fully closed initially.
When ready to start, place the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON
position and advance the throttle to obtain 50-60 PPH fuel flow. Then
promptly return the throttle to idle and turn off the auxiliary fuel pump.
Place the ignition switch in the START position. While cranking, slowly
advance the throttle until the engine starts. Slow throttle advancement is
essential since the engine will start readily when the correct fuel! air ratio
is obtained. When the engine has started, reset the throttle to the desired
idle speed.
When the engine is hot or outside air temperatures are high, the engine
may die after running several seconds because the mixture became either
too lean due to fuel vapor, or too rich due to excessive prime fuel. The
following procedure will prevent over-priming and alleviate fuel vapor in
the system:
1.
2.

Set the throttle 1!3 to 1!2 open.


When the ignition switch is in the BOTH position and you are ready
to engage the starter, place the right half of the auxiliary fuel pump
switch in the ON position until the indicated fuel flow comes up to
25 to 35 PPH; then turn the switch off.
NOTE
During a restart after a brief shutdown in extremely hot
weather, the presence of fuel vapor may require the use of
the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON position for up to

4-16

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

USE UP AILERON
ON LH WING AND
NEUTRAL ELEVATOR

USE UP AILERON
ON RH WING AND
NEUTRAL ELEVATOR

USE DOWN AILERON


USE DOWN AILERON
I
ON RH WING AND
ON LH WING AND
ELEVATOR
DOWN E LEVATC)DO

NOTE

CODE
WIND DIRECTION

Strong quartering tail winds require caution.


Avoid sudden bursts of the throttle and sharp
braking when the airplane is in this attitude.
Use the steerable nose wheel and rudder to
maintain direction.

Figure 4-2. Taxiing Diagram


11 September 1981

4-17

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

1 minute or more before the vapor is cleared sufficiently to


obtain 25 to 35 PPH for starting. If the above procedure does
not obtain sufficient fuel flow, fully depress and hold the
left half of the switch in the HI position to obtain additional
fuel pump capability.
3.
4.

5.

Without hesitation, engage the starter and the engine should start
in 3 to 5 revolutions. Adjust throttle for 1200 to 1400 RPM.
If there is fuel vapor in the lines, it will pass into the injector
nozzles in 2 to 3 seconds and the engine will gradually slow down
and stop. When engine speed starts to decrease, hold the left half of
the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the HI position for approximate
ly one second to clear out the vapor. Intermittent use of the HI
position of the switch is necessary since prolonged use of the HI
position after vapor is cleared will flood out the engine during a
starting operation.
Let the engine run at 1200 to 1400 RPM until the vapor is eliminated
and the engine idles normally.

If prolonged cranking is necessary, allow the starter motor to cool at


frequent intervals, since excessive heat may damage the armature.
After starting, if the oil pressure gage does not begin to show pressure
within 30 seconds in normal temperatures and 60 seconds in very cold
weather, shut off the engine and investigate. Lack of oil pressure can cause
serious engine damage.

TAXIING
Taxiing over loose gravel or cinders should be done at low engine
speed to avoid abrasion and stone damage to the propeller tips. Refer to
figure 4-2 for additional taxiing instructions.

BEFORE TAKEOFF
WARM-UP
Since the engine is closely cowled for efficient in-flight cooling,
precautions should be taken to avoid overheating on the ground. Full
power checks on the ground are not recommended unless the pilot has good
reason to suspect that the engine is not turning up properly.

MAGNETO CHECK
The magneto check should be made at 1700 RPM as follows. Move

ignition switch first to R position and note RPM. Next move switch back to

BOTH to clear the other set of plugs. Then move switch to the L position,

4-18

11 September 1981

C)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

(
\.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

note RPM and return the switch to the BOTH position. RPM drop should not
exceed 150 RPM on either magneto or show greater than 50 RPM differen
tial between magnetos. If there is a doubt concerning operation of the
ignition system, RPM checks at higher engine speeds will usually confirm
whether a deficiency exists.
An absence of RPM drop may be an indication of faulty grounding of
one side of the ignition system or should be cause for suspicion that the
magneto timing is set in advance of the setting specified.

ALTERNATOR CHECK
Prior to flights where verification of proper alternator and alternator
control unit operation is essential (such as night or instrument flights), a
positive verification can be made by loading the electrical system
momentarily (3 to 5 seconds) with the landing light during the engine
runup (1700 RPM). The ammeter will remain within a needle width of the
initial indication if the alternator and alternator control unit are operating
properly.

TAKEOFF
POWER CHECK
It is important to check takeoff power early in the takeoff roll. Any sign
of rough engine operation or sluggish engine acceleration is good cause
for discontinuing the takeoff.
Full power runups over loose gravel are especially harmful to pro
peller tips. When takeoffs must be made over a gravel surface, it is very
important that the throttle be advanced slowly. This allows the airplane to
start rolling before high RPM is developed, and the gravel will be blown
back of the propeller rather than pulled into it.
On the first flight of the day, when the throttle is advanced for takeoff,
manifold pressure will normally exceed 36.5 inches Hg and fuel flows will
exceed 186 PPH if the throttle is opened fully. On any takeoff, the manifold
pressure should be monitored and the throttle set to provide 36.5 inches Hg;
then, for maximum engine power, the mixture should be adjusted during
the initial takeoff roll to 186 PPH. With a heat-soaked engine on a hot day, it
may be necessary to use the auxiliary fuel pump to obtain the recom
mended takeoff fuel flow.
After the throttle is advanced to 36.5 inches Hg, adjust the throttle
friction lock clockwise to prevent the throttle from creeping from a
maximum power position. Similar friction lock adjustments should be

11 September 1981

4-19

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

made as required in other flight conditions to maintain a fixed throttle


setting.

WING FLAP SETTINGS


For normal takeoffs, use of 100 flaps is preferred since it results in
easier nose wheel lift-off and lower initial climb attitude, as well as a 10%
reduction in ground roll and total distance over an obstacle compared to
takeoff with flaps up. Compared to 20 flaps, use of 10 flaps facilitates
transition to normal climb without significantly increasing total takeoff
distance over an obstacle.
The use of 20 flaps is reserved for minimum ground roll or takeoffs
from soft or rough fields, since it will allow safe use of slower takeoff
speeds, resulting in shortening the ground roll approximately 10% com
pared to 10 flaps. However, most of the advantage is lost in the climb to the
obstacle.
Flap settings greater than 20 are not approved for takeoff.

SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF


If an obstruction dictates the use of a steep climb angle, after liftoff
accelerate to and climb out at an obstacle clearance speed of 78 KIAS with
10 flaps and gear extended. This speed provides the best overall climb
speed to clear obstacles when taking into account the turbulence often
found near ground level. The takeoff performance data in Section 5 is based
on this speed and configuration.
Minimum ground roll takeoffs are accomplished using 20 flaps by
lifting the nose wheel off the ground as soon as practical and leaving the
ground in a slightly tail-low attitude. However, the airplane should be
leveled off immediately to accelerate to a safe climb speed. If 20 of flaps
are used on soft or rough fields with obstacles ahead, it is normally
preferable to leave them extended rather than partially retract them in the
climb to the obstacle. With 20 flaps, use an obstacle clearance speed of 74
KIAS. After clearing the obstacle, and reaching a safe altitude, the flaps
may be retracted slowly as the airplane accelerates to the normal climbout speed.

CROSSWIND TAKEOFF
Takeoffs into strong crosswinds normally are performed with the
minimum flap setting necessary for the field length, to minimize the drift
angle immediately after takeoff. With the ailerons partially deflected into
the wind, the airplane is accelerated to a speed higher than normal, and
then pulled off abruptly to prevent possible settling back to the runway
4-20

11 September 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

while drifting. When clear of the ground, make a coordinated turn into the
wind to correct for drift.

LANDING GEAR RETRACTION


Landing gear retraction normally is started after reaching the point
over the runway where a wheels-down, forced landing on that runway
would become impractical. Since the landing gear swings downward
approximately two feet as it starts the retraction cycle, damage can result
by retracting it before obtaining at least that much ground clearance.
Before retracting the landing gear, the brakes should be applied
momentarily to stop wheel rotation. Centrifugal force caused by the
rapidly-spinning wheel expands the diameter of the tire. If there is an
accumulation of mud or ice in the wheel wells, the rotating wheel may rub
as it is retracted into the wheel well.

EN ROUTE CLIMB
Power settings for climb must be limited to 35 inches of manifold
pressure and 2600 RPM up to 17,000 feet with decreasing manifold pressure
above 17,000 feet as noted on the power and fuel flow placard.
A cruising climb at 30 inches of manifold pressure, 2500 RPM, 120 PPH
fuel flow, and 105 to 120 KIAS is normally recommended to provide an
optimum combination of performance, visibility ahead, engine cooling,
economy and passenger comfort (due to lower noise level). However, use of
higher power may be desirable on hot days near maximum weight to
increase climb performance. In this event, establish 2600 RPM and consult
the power and fuel flow placard for manifold pressure and fuel flow setting
combinations.
NOTE
During warm weather, if there is an indication of vapor in
the fuel system (fluctuating fuel flow) or if the desired fuel
flow cannot be maintained with the mixture control in the
full rich position, turn on the auxiliary fuel pump and reset
the mixture as required until cruising altitude has been
obtained and the system is purged (usually 5 to 15 minutes
after establishing cruising flight). If vapor symptoms
persist, select BOTH ON or a single tank having adequate
fuel. When fuel flow remains steady, the auxiliary fuel
pump may be turned off and the mixture reset as desired.

11 September 1981

4-21

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

If it is necessary to climb rapidly to clear mountains or reach favorable


winds or better weather at high altitudes, the best rate-of-climb speed
should be used with maximum continuous power. This speed is 100 KIAS
from sea level to 17,000 feet, decreasing to 97 KIAS at 24,000 feet.
If an obstruction dictates the use of a steep climb angle, climb with
flaps retracted and maximum continuous power at 82 KIAS.

CRUISE
Normal cruising is performed between 60% and 80% of the maximum
continuous power rating. The power settings and corresponding fuel
consumption for various altitudes can be determined by using your Cessna
Power Computer or the data in Section 5.
NOTE

Cruising should be done at 70% to 80% power until a total of


50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabil
ized. This is to ensure proper seating of the rings and is
applicable to new engines, and engines in service follow
ing cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one or more
cylinders.

The Cruise Performance Table, figure 4-3, illustrates the advantage of


higher altitude on both true airspeed and nautical miles per gallon. In
addition, the beneficial effect of lower cruise power on nautical miles per
gallon at a given altitude can be observed. This table should be used as a
guide, along with the available winds aloft information, to determine the
most favorable altitude and power setting for a given trip. The selection of
80% POWER
ALTITUDE

70% POWER

60% POWER

KTAS

NMPG

KTAS

NMPG

KTAS

NMPG

5000 Feet

166

9.5

158

10.3

146

11.0

10,000 Feet

174

10.0

164

10.7

151

11.4

15,000 Feet

183

10.4

170

11.1

156

11.8

20,000 Feet

190

10.9

177

11.6

161

12.2

Standard Conditions

Zero Wind

Figure 4-3.
4-22

Cruise Performance Table

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

cruise altitude on the basis of the most favorable wind conditions and the
use of low power settings are significant factors that should be considered
on every trip to reduce fuel consumption.
For reduced noise levels, it is desirable to select the lowest RPM in the
green arc range for a given percent power that will provide smooth engine
operation. The cowl flaps should be opened, if necessary, to maintain the
cylinder head temperature at approximately two-thirds of the normal
operating range (green arc).
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, the engine should be
operated at six pounds per hour leaner than shown in this handbook and on
the power computer. This will result in approximately 5% greater range
than shown in this handbook accompanied by approximately 4 knots
decrease in speed.

The fuel injection system employed on this engine is considered to be


non-icing. In the event that unusual conditions cause the intake air filter to
become clogged or iced over, an alternate intake air valve opens automati
cally for the most efficient use of either normal or alternate air, depending
on the amount of filter blockage. Due to the lower intake pressure available
through the alternate air valve or a partially blocked filter, manifold
pressure can decrease up to 10 in. Hg from a cruise power setting. This
pressure should be recovered by increased throttle setting or higher RPM
as necessary to maintain the desired power. Maximum continuous mani
fold pressure (35 in. Hg) is available up to 14,000 feet under hot day
conditions using the alternate air source with a fully blocked filter.

LEANING WITH AN EGT INDICATOR


Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) as shown on the Cessna economy
mixture indicator or the optional engine combustion analyzer (when set on
position 7) may be used as an aid for mixture leaning in cruising flight at
80% power or less. To adjust the mixture, using either of these indicators,

MIXTURE
DESCRIPTION
RECOMMENDED LEAN
(Pilcts Operating Handbook
and Power Computer)
BEST ECONOMY
(70/o Power or Less)

EXHAUST GAS
TEMPERATURE

50F Rich of Peak EGT

Peak EGT

Figure 4-4. EGT Table

11 September 1981

4-23

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

lean to establish the peak EST as a reference point and then enrichen by an
increment based on data in figure 4-4.
Continuous operation at peak EGT is authorized only at 70% power or
less. This best economy mixture setting results in approximately 5%
greater range than shown in this handbook accompanied by approximate
ly 4 knots decrease in speed.
NOTE
Operation on the lean side of peak EGT is not approved.

When leaning the mixture, if a distinct peak is not obtained, use the
corresponding maximum EGT as a reference point for enrichening the
mixture to the desired cruise setting. Any change in altitude or power will
require a recheck of the EGT indication.
Detailed information on use of the engine combustion analyzer is
presented in Section 9, Supplements.

STALLS
The stall characteristics are conventional and aural warning is
provided by a stall warning horn which sounds between 5 and 10 knots
above the stall in all configurations. Altitude loss during a stall recovery
may be as much as 300 feet from a wings-level stall and even greater from a
turning stall.

Power-off stall speeds at maximum weight for both forward and aft
C.G. are presented in Section 5.

DESCENT
Descent should be initiated far enough in advance of estimated landing
to allow a gradual rate of descent at cruising speed. Just prior to beginning
the descent, check that the auxiliary fuel pump has been turned off.

CAUTION
Failure to turn the auxiliary fuel pump off could cause a
complete power failure at reduced throttle settings due to
an abnormally rich mixture if throttle switch rigging or
4-24

11 September 1981

()

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

fuel pressure settings are out of tolerance. In this event,


turn the auxiliary fuel pump off, set the throttle to one-half
open, and lean or adjust the mixture to regain power. Have
the fuel metering system inspected as soon as practicable.

,--

Descent should be at approximately 500 FPM for passenger comfort,


using enough power to keep the engine warm. The optimum engine RPM in
a descent is usually the lowest RPM in the green arc range that will allow
cylinder head temperature to remain in the recommended operating range
and provide smooth engine operation. If a steep descent is required, the
landing gear can be extended at speeds as high as 165 KIAS after which the
speed can be increased as desired in smooth air up to 203 KIAS.
The airplane is equipped with a specially marked altimeter to attract
the pilots attention and prevent misreading the altimeter. A striped
warning segment on the face of the altimeter is exposed at all altitudes
below 10,000 feet to indicate low altitude.

BEFORE LANDING
In view of the relatively low drag of the extended landing gear and the
high allowable gear operating speed (165 KIAS), the landing gear should
be extended before entering the traffic pattern. This practice will allow
more time to confirm that the landing gear is down and locked. As a further
precaution, leave the landing gear extended in go-around procedures or
traffic patterns for touch-and-go landing.
Landing gear extension can be detected by illumination of the gear
down indicator light (green), absence of a gear warning horn with the
throttle retarded below 15 inches of manifold pressure, and visual inspec
tion of the main gear position. Should the gear indicator light fail to
illuminate, the light should be checked for a burned-out bulb by pushing to
test. A burned-out bulb can be replaced in flight with the landing gear up
(amber) indicator light.

LANDING
NORMAL LANDING
Normal landing approaches can be made with power-on or power off
with any flap setting desired. Use of flaps down is normally preferred to
minimize touchdown speed and subsequent need for braking. For a given
flap setting, surface winds and turbulence are usually the primary factors
in determining the most comfortable approach speed.
11 September 1981

4-25

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Actual touchdown should be made with power off and on the main
wheels first to reduce the landing speed and subsequent need for braking in
the landing roll. The nose wheel is lowered to the runway after the speed
has diminished to avoid unnecessary nose gear load. This procedure is
especially important in rough or soft field landings.

SHORT FIELD LANDING


For short field landings, make a power approach at 74 KIAS with full
flaps. After all approach obstacles are cleared, progressively reduce
P?wer. Maintain 74 KIAS approach speed by lowering the nose of the
airplane. Touchdown should be made with the throttle closed, and on the
main wheels first. Immediately after touchdown, lower the nose gear and
apply heavy braking as required. For maximum brake effectiveness after
all three wheels are on the ground, retract the flaps, hold full nose up
elevator and apply maximum possible brake pressure without sliding the
tires.
At light operating weights, during ground roll with full flaps, hold the
control wheel full back to ensure maximum weight on the main wheels for
braking. Under these conditions, full nose down elevator (control wheel
full forward) will raise the main wheels off the ground.

CROSSWIND LANDING
When landing in a strong crosswind, use the minimum flap setting
required for the field length. Although the crab or combination method of
drift correction may be used, the wing-low method gives the best control.
After touchdown, hold a straight course with the steerable nose wheel and
occasional braking if necessary.

BALKED LANDING
In a balked landing (go-around) climb, the wing flap setting should be
reduced to 200 immediately after full power is applied. After all obstacles
are cleared and a safe altitude and airspeed are obtained, the wing flaps
should be retracted.

COLD WEATHER OPERATION


The use of an external pre-heater and an external power source is
recommended whenever possible to reduce wear and abuse to the engine
and the electrical system. Pre-heat will thaw the oil trapped in the oil
cooler, which probably will be congealed prior to starting in extremely
cold temperatures. When using an external power source, the position of

4-26

ti September 1981

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

the master switch is important. Refer to Section 7, paragraph Ground


Service Plug Receptacle, for operating details.
For quick, smooth engine starts in very cold temperature, use six
strokes of the manual primer (if installed) before cranking, with an
additional one or two strokes as the engine starts.

In very cold weather, no oil temperature indication need be apparent


before takeoff. After a suitable warm-up period (2 to 5 minutes at 1000
RPM), the engine is ready for takeoff if it accelerates smoothly and the oil
pressure is normal and steady.
NOTE
The waste gate controller will not respond quickly to
variations in manifold pressure when oil temperature is
near the lower limit of the green arc. Therefore, under these
conditions, throttle motions should be made slowly and
care should be exercised to prevent exceeding the 36.5
inches Hg manifold pressure limit. In addition, the fuel
flow indications may exceed 186 PPH on takeoff if the
mixture isnt leaned to compensate.
The turbocharged engine installation has been designed such that a
winterization kit is not required. With the cowl flaps fully closed, engine
temperature will be normal (in the lower green arc range) in outside air
temperatures as low as 20 to 30C below standard. When colder surface
temperatures are encountered, the normal air temperature inversion will
result in warmer temperatures at cruise altitudes above 5000 feet.
If low altitude cruise in very cold temperatures results in engine
temperature below the green arc, increasing cruise altitude or cruise
power will increase engine temperature into the green arc. Cylinder head
temperatures will increase approximately 50F as cruise altitudes
increase from 5000 to 24,000 feet.
During descent, observe engine temperatures closely and carry suffi
cient power to maintain them in the recommended green arc operating
range.

NOISE CHARACTERISTICS
Increased emphasis on improving the quality of our environment
requires renewed effort on the part of all pilots to minimize the effect of
airplane noise on the public.

11 September 1981

4-27

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

We, as pilots, can demonstrate our concern for environmental


improvement, by application of the following suggested procedures, and
thereby tend to build public support for aviation:
1.

2.

Pilots operating aircraft under VFR over outdoor assemblies of


persons, recreational and park areas, and other noise-sensitive
areas should make every effort to fly not less than 2000 feet above
the surface, weather permitting, even though flight at a lower level
may be consistent with the provisions of government regulations.
During departure from or approach to an airport, climb after
takeoff and descent for landing should be made so as to avoid
prolonged flight at low altitude near noise-sensitive areas.
NOTE
The above recommended procedures do not apply where
they would conflict with Air Traffic Control clearances or
instructions, or where, in the pilots judgment, an altitude
of less than 2000 feet is necessary for him to adequately
exercise his duty to see and avoid other aircraft.

The certificated noise level for the Model T21ON at 4000 pounds
maximum weight is 77.4 dB(A). No determination has been made by the
Federal Aviation Administration that the noise levels of this airplane are
or should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation at, into, or out of, any
airport.

c)
-_.-

0
0

4-28

11 September 1981

uc

\ -e

SILl. 1215N 12105 rod 12101 .\rr1I.oo,

At
-.

j%

e(

-roaorthinusu Ornc.nve
-

I cilcial IIc5lir

I either littor
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Aviation Adittinjstratjon
4 CFR (art 39 [63 FR 4961) Nw I SI 091896]
Docket No. 97-CE-62-AD: Att,ettdme,tt 39-10773: Al) 98-05-14 RI
RIN 2120-AA64
Airwoctlttitess Directives:
P1)15 Copi (If .tvn(Iable(:

fessita

Models 121 ((N, P2 IIIN. and P21 OR Airplanes

o Irt,,iaititu Int,,riii;,tii,ii

A(iI:NCt: Federal r\viatiiltt Adtttittisttatt,ctt, 001


hE ION: Fatal title: eorrcctiott
SCNIhI,\Ri: (his amendmettt clarilies ittft,rittattoit contained in .\tnvi,Ittitess Direcitse (AD) 6R_1t5_14. svltie(t currecttlv
reqtt,res ret otto tite FAAapproved Airplatte FIiItt Nlattual t .61 hI I to speedS procedures tltat trould proltilit tlieht itt
sesere teitte cottdttirs,ts (as deternti,ted Os eettant v,sual cues), limit or pricltihtt (tn use of various tl,eltt control devtccs
wltile itt severe tcitts cottdtttons. attd 11015 ide cIte lltultt crew wttlt reeoettitiou ctces (hr. and procedures fat exititto trout.
ltttt
sd crc icitse cottditions ott certa itt Cessna Aircra I) Coinpattu (Cesstta I Morlels (21 ON. P21 (IN, attcl P21 OR airplattes 1
instead of
pulrlic:ttirtr tncunectlv references tie possibility if certaiti iii aceutttnlatcott Ott Ite los, ci surOce it the letup.
lie si1tper stirtltce of tlte wine while operaiittg witlt tltc flaps estended, Tltis i,tcorrect staletttetrt uta result in pilot
act hot. I tin document replaces ilte
tttiot i,terpret:ctiott of ilte icitte etfects with tlte laps extettded. ar.d lead to alt incorrect
word lois Cr svith upper ci iltis se,ttettee, Tite aetiotts specified in tltis AD are intettded to coocittite to ittittitttize tlte
clearly detined
potential Itacarits tssociated is hIt operatine iltese airplanes in severe tcittp eoctcliiions ba prouidinp ittore
pmeednres and liittitaiti,tts associated wttlt such ciinditti,tts
0.6 11 5: lltthetis e September 22. 1998,
Re3iott. 0Itice oftlte
.\DDRESSES: Stibtttit eottttttents it, triplicate to die Federal At iatiot, Adttti,tistratiott FAA I. Central
City, Missouri
Renintal Conttsel. Attentioit Rrtles Docket No, 97-CE-62-AD. Rsnntt 1556. 1,01 F. 12th Street. Kansas
64106
Aimlacte
FOR FURTHER INFt)RSIAI ION CUNTACT: SIr. John P. Doss. Sr.. Aerospace Ecteuteer, FAA. Stoall
6) 42t,2 169.
ttitectorate, 121)1 6halttut, suite 9(6), Katrsas Cita Missouri 64106: teleplsotte: 1616) 4266932. faesttttcle: (SI
.

SUPPlEMENTARY INFORMATION:
I) is C USSItt It
which applieo
Oct [cOrn_sri 14. 199,9, cIte -6.6 issued AD OSOSIl. Acttendtttettt 30111375 (o3 FR 1)1519, Marc), 4, l90S(.
was tlte result tofu ms iew of tite requirecttents fr
:0 Lesstta SIcilels I 21 (IN, P21 IN. atsd PT I OR aimlanes, AD 9505Il

r.tiirh{}t4]oeO,,

h41,,L iiOlW ly,,l).-.ooLo,&itisIIl:u!li-

5112 22 .hlls 55 StSt

.iiii,Lt, 12155 P2155 iO IS ltIO,toiiii

cectilicattoit ol these aiqtlaties


ciii rent Iv to I lie 1 clii crew.

iii

icing coiiditions. itctt iiilorittotion ott lie icing ciii irontneiii, iticl icing data provided

AD 95115i I reqtnces tevising tile Littntaiittns Section oftlie FAAappcos ed Atiplatte Flight Manual ArM liii speeils
I
procedttres iltat scititld.
Reqttire Iliglo ccesvs to intmediatelv reqnest priority ltattdlittg front Air (rome Control to exit severe icing cnochitions
(as
deiectttitted liv certain visual cites):
Iucoltibit limb

itt

set crc ieittg conditions tas deiennined by certain visinil etiesl:

Prohibit use of lie iiitoopilot tiltett icr is lncnicd all of the protected tortures of the trittg. or is-lieu
contlit ion exists: ttntl

Ott

ttttttsttitl lateral nut

Require lint all ieitta icing ittspeetion lights be operative prior to Iliglti itito hunts n tic hbrccast icittg eoitditiotts at tight.
That aciloti also resttnies ret isittg the Notitial lkocciltures Scctiott if the FAAapproved ArM to specilb
hitsceclttrcs that
iron Lb
the use of the laps mid prolnhit lie itse of the autopilot n lien her sutbsened titritaittg till oftlte protected stirtitces
tiEttog.ortint7ts7t,iflatcral tritit reqttnetttcttts tic ttntipilttt tritti sstritittgs nrc etucoittttcred: atid

iii

lrtivtsle lie fltglit mcii iritlt rcctinnititsu cites Dc_and tsitscetlttces br esttntg frottt. severe citig conditions.
Need For the Correetioti
1 lte AD incorrect);- states itt paragraph 101121 of AD ttyIiS_ II iltat:
(lperatitsti ititlt (laps extetided cttit result ii t reduced tynig iiitigleoFttt:tch. isitli lie possiltilttv oh icr tonttittg ott
tlte Itiss-ec
sttrhitce ftrtlier till tin the snug thttut ittirtital. possibly till tif the prtitcctetl mccii. (lie oticcl loss-cr in this sentetice sliiiuhrl lie
upper.
I his itcoteet statcineiti nb; result lit ttii ittisiiitequietotioti oftite icitig efhbcis initlt the laps extended atid lent) it alt
incorrect ociiott. fltc pilot of lie afhbcied nirplaites cait otilv see the lint cc ivitig suirfacc. l-lttsseser. (ci iccretiott iiit
die ttppei
surface of the ivitig, snbnch the ptlot cantiot ohsene, is ttsnahhv acctnttptttnesl hr icr aceretititt tnt tlte losser snrtbce.
As statesl
earlier. the piltst can ohsers c icc acceetioti tsit the lost ci surfitce.
Lxtensitsn if flaps dint t esults ni a rednccd nitghettfattach cait eliatige lie rclatitinshtip ttf the extetit of icc tsit
die tipper otis)
last cc stirfitces tif tlte snug. Fur exattiplc. icc trill icttd to accrete mine titi the ttpaer surface tltati nit tlte Icoser
sttrlitcc at
eethttccd moleofattack. ((nit ci cc, tvhicn laps are extended in ccciaiit icing ctandititutts, lie rcdtictioit of irs
thtrtlier all tnt lie
hisser surface of ilte sting mar leash the piltit iii ctittclttde ittctnrecilv that iltere is it tedtictioit itt ice (uniter
till ott lie tipper
snrtltce. fltis is itt correct: as stated eat 11cc, the ictidenen is fr lottie icc accretistit tin lie upper sttrthcc
Dsnallv. icr tin tlte
ttpper sttcl.icc tif the utitig is ntttre ails eric itt tlte aertuth; itantic clt:ti acteristics of lie oiiplane iliatt is ice nit
lie loss cc surface
if die sting.
ktsnsedhitetiths ilte FAA sass a tees) iii clot ilk AD 931t5h 1 to asstitv that dtis stsnal cue eon he thlltass ed .intl that the
itpprtipriaic cause and eflbct relauittnslttn is described.
.

Correction of Publicatinn
ibis dtucsittcni clarifies the ittietu of thin pies itaitslv discussetl s isuah cue in paragraph ha 1121 if AD osabS
II. This dtucnittettt
alstt adds tlte anactiditieni to sectittit 39.13 if the Fesleral Aviatitita Reguhailnits (11 CFR 39.13)
Sitice this actititi tntlv clarifies the thcsecipsoit ala t isnal cite in \l) 9S11514. ii ltts to aths ense ectstiitntc
itnlrtct atid
imposes no aslditiottal haurdeit silt Ott> persoit titan is mild has c been nccessntv by- the existing AD. I hcrctbcc.
the I-A-S has
tleteuittitietl ilim prtttr notice and opporustnnv Dr piNe ctntttuctti ace titniccessan
-

List uf Subjects lo II CFR Part 39


Air transportation. Aircraft Aviation satbi; Safety
.

op i-sit sn, iys,,i,u,,r_i,si iii. is itissy iin,u,ics_si s isnitti


iiissts,srssnitisi,dti

si 2,.iyi:;ssuis

sti

55.i_i. i2IiiNi1i1\

r.i

stats

i!qh,..

Atloption of the Ameothmeot


Accssrdittg)v. pursuant to tire authority delegated to nm ks he Administrator, the Federal Aviation Administration amends
part 39 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (II CFR part 39) as follows:
PART 39 AIRWORFIIINESS DIIOECIlOES
1 lie attdtoritv ritatiott Or pail 39 continues to rear! as foliosvs:
Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g). 40113.41701.
39.13 Arneodedl
2. Section 39.13 is anteoded by reittostuo Ainvortltisess Directive (AD) OS-OS-Il. Atuteudtoent 39-10375 (63 FR 1(519.
March 4. 199S(. and by udditigu neo AD to read us flalloos.

Itrxsilatura hoist tisutissis


Othtt5-t4 RI CESSNA hIRCIUf9 COMPAN :Ataenduteitt 39-1tt773: Docket No. 7-CE-62-AD: Revises AD 98-05
14. Anteitsltsient 39-1)1375.
.\lstakcahtlitv: Models 12! ((N (serial utitithers 21063641 through :11)648971. p:i ON (serial ositithers P2100(1386 through
P2119(0834). otis) P2! (Uk (all serial nstttthers( stitpiattes: certificated ut stmtv eategttt.
NO! F I lists .\D tophies to each aiqslatte ideittilied itt (se preeeshttg attplieahiltts saros isiotu. regarshleso ufu (tether it bias
heeit ntodified. aheresl. sir repaired itt the area stibeet tsr the reqtsiresttettts of this AD. hor airpluttes thtat have sects modifies)
ahteres). or repaired so that lie perlonisattee of the trqairentettts of this AD is afflietesh. lie osvnersslserator titlist request
apprsisa( tisr art altermtatise timetluod of eoittpliaoce isa arcorshauee as (iii paragraph (dl of tins AD. The teqitest should istc(m ste
au assesssttens of the effect of lie mttusdi ficatiotm. alteranott. or repair iso the tutsa&- cosiditien addresses! by tIns AD: am(. it tim
ttttsatd essitditiomt has tot heett elititiutated. the request should include specific proposes! actions to ashdress it.
Comphtaoee: Requires! as indicated in lie hotly of Otis Al). sinless alreaslv stresstttplisltetb.
hi ntittitttiee tire (sotetitia( ltaearsL associated ss itlt ispersstittg the aiqakitte in severe teitig eotmditioiis hy provishtrg itsore
clearly delittesl proceslitres ansi litatitat ions assiseiates( svitlt such courhitions. aeeotttplislt lie fsshlisss (tag:
(at Withiit 3tt days utfier April 30. 1998 (the effectis e slate Al) 9805Ill. acesstttpiislt tise reqioreutettts of paragraphs (a)) (
attn (ut(h2( ofultis AD.
NI) r 0 2: (iperotots dtoald istitiate octusit to tiati IS asid eitsttre that light ctrsrtttettthers are ataprisesh sf this chattge.
I ) Rca ise tlte FAAapproved Airplaite Flight Xlostii.i( tAFhI tIn inessqsisrotisg the foilosritag muss the Litttstatioits Section o
lie .\Fhl. This ituav he area sttplished Isv titsening a coos of this AD sit lie AFM.
WARNING
Sea crc icimig itsas resmt(t frsimtt ettvtrotamttetttal esandit tons ssmstside ssf thssse liar solticit tlto atqa(atte is certificated. Flight (it
result in tee hamlsh
)ieeliitg rain, freezing driozle. or umixed ieistg cunsistions I supercooled liquid sramer and ice emsto(s( usov
aft of tlte
sip sit protected sisriaces exeeesb(ttg thte eapahilitvof tlte icr prsstectioss ss stemtt. or iitav result its ire tssrttaittg
protected surfaces. This icr ttmay not be sited using (se ice protection systents. and usay seriously degrade time perfomatsaitee
attm( eotttrollahihitv of the airphaise.
the
During flight. ses crc icing cottditions that exceed those tisr us hichi time airplane is certificated shall he demeotisned by
fssllosving visual cues lfsstme sir naore of these vismial rues exists. imnittediate(y reqitest )trioritv htatmdhsng front Air Traffic
Control to facilitate a route sir ott altimsude change to exit the ieiiug conditions.
Unstsmmai(s extensise ire aeemmnmulation on tIme airframe amid sa immdshie(d in areas not noossally sabsen ed to collect icr.
-\rcuutommiatiomm of see suit the 5555cr serface nsf tIme us itig aft of the sat usrected utica
tiasidhimag
S ismce die asutsqmuhssm. ss imemi stmstahied asid operatisag. tttav itsask tactile roes that itudicate adverse chammges its

ts[r

ella. m5st

elI

ltsleI

c5ews

stalsos4..yiSuslIlusnThsSrIssal

.e:&tisltl_5

.153.n

sa:_n

Illness

55.r.t. i2iiS.tiOv..mt 200

characteristics, rise of tire autopilot is prohibited rviren any of tire visual cries specified abate exist, or svlrert nitusnrrl lateral
trim requirerttettts or autopilot trirrr svarninos are eneourrteretl stlsile tire airplane is itt icing coirdit iorrs.
All sting icing inspection lights trust he operative prior to Iliglrt into Lrrown or forecast icing conditions an night. fNOl F,:
Tins strpersedes arty relietprovided ho tire Master Mirrirtttrrnr Eqtniprtrerrt List I MNIEL).]
121 Res ise tire FAAapproved AFM by incorporating tire following into tire Nomtaljedures Section of the AFrO. Uris
may be rrecorttpiisited by irtsertintg a copy ottitis AD in tire .-\FM.
TIlL FOLLOWING NVEATIIER CONI)ITIONS MAY BE CONDLtCIVE 10 SE\ERE IN-FLIGHT ICINGr
Visible rairr at terrrpet arnees below it degrees Ceisirrs arrrlrierrr air terttperature.
o Drusirlets tirar splash tir sirlarter rrrr irrrtvtet at tetttperarrtres helstrs it degrees Celsmtts attrbiertm air tetrrperatrrre.
o

PROCEDURES FOR EXITING THE SEVERE ICING ENNIRONMENT:


irese rtrocerirtres arc applicable to all ttigitr pltases fitnrtr rakeoilro iattdirtg. blotriror tlte arttbiemtt urrr rettrperurtttre. Wimile
crc icing trray torttt at tentperatrtres as cold as IN riegrees Leisirrs. irmereased sigilartee is ssarrarmted at temrrttcratmrres
arorrtrd freezing ssitir risible ntoistrrre presettt. I ftime s isrrai cites specitied itt tire Lirtritatirrrrs Section of tire AFrO for

idetrti fyittg severe icirrp cottditiorts are ttbsened, aecortrtrhsim rite folittrritrg:
Itrrtttertiateiy request priority iramtriiitrg front Air I raffle Crtntroi tim taeilirate a route or air altitude cirarrge to exit tire severe
rcrrtg eurrtdttrtntrs itt rrrrier to as oirI cxrettdeut evposrtte tin firgirt eottdiritrtrs ttrtrre ms crc titatt drtrse fur svIrrelr tire ntrpiatte itas
heemt cerliticated.
Astrid abrrrpt mntrd e.cessir e ttrartent erirrg tirar trta\ exaccrinate cortrroi ditticuities.
Do tot ettgage tire trrtotriiot.
If tire arrtotniior to ettgaged. iroiri rite currrtrtnl ssireei fit rrris rtrd disengage tire arrrtrpiiot.
titrrr trtmmtsrrai rutH res1rutrtre rrr rtttetrttttttartderi nih ctrttrrtnl tttor ettretrt is observeri, redrrce tire attgierriattack.
Drr ttrrr extettd flairs rvltett itrslrhrrg itt icing cortrhtiorrs, t)trerar ion srirlt flairs exrerrded cart restuit itt a reritteed wirto attgle
rrfattrtek, svitit rite rossilrihty irf ten forrttitto tnrt tire u1t1rer srtrhrce tirrrirer rf ott rite rvittg titart rrortttai. prtssibis aft rnitire
irroteeterl rtrea.
ilritc flaps are exterrded. dtr tin retract titettt atttri rite airirartte is clear at
Repot r tirese ss eurriter rortdrtitrtts tts Air I rattle Lrtrrtrtni.
i iii irreorirorarirto rite AFrO restsirtrts. as retittired by iris AD. tttav he perttrrrrteri liv rite trrvrrer operatutr ittnlihng itt least a
itrivate pilot cenihicare as antirorieerl liv seetiorr 43,7 tnt tire Federuti Avtrttiott Regrriariotts ill CF R
arrd tttust be

etrrered irrttt tire aircraft records sirinrtitto eottrpliattcc rvrtit ntis ND


Reguiatiotts ill C FR 15.9

ut

recorriattee nrirIt sectrurn

tSuJ

of rlre Federal Asirrtrutrr

el Special iligirr petirtrrs trtay be issrted itt aeeordattce rsitir seetitntts 21.1117 atrd 2I.i Ol rrf rite Federal Asiatirrrr Reprnlarirrrts
ill CFR 21,197 atrd 2 I, i
tin rtperate titeaitplarre rtr a ittearinntt rsitere rite reqrtiretttctrts of ntis Al) catt ire accrttttphsired.
idi Atr altertraris e trtetitod of eonttphattee or adjusttrrcrrr ofrire eotrutrhattce tittre titan prosiries att eqrrisaiettt level trfsaibtv
stay he appritsed by the Manager. Srrraih Attviane Directorate, FAA, 1201 Waittat, srtire fttltt, Kansas (its, NI isstrttri b-I I rib,
Tite reqrtest shaH ire forsra rileri rirrurugir ait appropriate F1\A Nlaitrtenartce lttspcetrrr. rvito tray arid cortttrtenrs atrri titett sertd
it to the N lanager. Snrail Airolatre Directorate.
NO I E 7: irrforrrratrrtrt cirrrcerlring rite evistetteeof apprurs ed airertraris e rrrerluods urf corsrpharce ss tnt titts AD. if ant. rrrav Ire
obrairted fottt rite Srtrali :\iqniatte Directorate.
tel All persons affected by this direerise ttrav exartnine tnfortttarirstr related to Iris AD at tire FAA. Central Region. Office urf
rite Regiottai Counsel. Roortt 1558, itti I E. I 2tit Street. Kartsas Ctt, Nlisstnuri till rib,
10 T iris nnttterrdttsertt ret

ises

Al) os_n isil. Arrrerrdttrerrr

or Tirrs artsetnrintenr hceotttes efieetru e

ott

Sit,

I 1775

Sepretrrher 22, 1998.

rrt.uI,Iit.t...usruit5Jsnuu,ts,uu:uun,,n,,ttnninu i.:nO,n mrs

5uuIs 5 nt

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Introduction
Use Of Performance Charts
Sample Problem
Takeoff
Cruise
Fuel Required
Landing
Demonstrated Operating Temperature
Figure 5-1, Airspeed Calibration Normal Static Source
Airspeed Calibration Alternate Static Source
Figure 5-2, Temperature Conversion Chart
Figure 5-3, Stall Speeds
Figure 5-4, Wind Components
Figure 5-5, Takeoff Distance 4000 Lbs
Takeoff Distance 3700 Lbs And 3400 Lbs
Figure 5-6, Maximum Rate Of Climb
Figure 5-7, Time, Fuel, And Distance To Climb
Maximum Rate Of Climb
Time, Fuel, And Distance To Climb
Normal Climb
Figure 5-8, Cruise Performance 2000 Feet
Cruise Performance 4000 Feet
Cruise Performance 6000 Feet
Cruise Performance 8000 Feet
Cruise Performance 10,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 12,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 14,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 16,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 18,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 20,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 22,000 Feet
Cruise Performance 24,000 Feet
Ligure 5-9, Range Profile 384 Pounds Fuel
Range Profile 522 Pounds Fuel
Figure 5-10, Endurance Profile 384 Pounds Fuel
Endurance Profile 522 Pounds Fuel
Figure 5-11, Landing Distance

,.

5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-5
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16

5-17

11 September 1981

5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-29
5-30
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-34
5-35

5-1/(5-2 blank)

D
o
oDo

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

INTRODUCTION
that
Performance data charts on the following pages are presented so
conditions,
you may know what to expect from the airplane under various
reasonable
and also, to facilitate the planning of flights in detail and with
tests
accuracy. The data in the charts has been computed from actual flight
piloting
average
using
and
condition
in
good
engine
and
with the airplane
techniques.

,.

It should be noted that the performance information presented in the


range and endurance profile charts allows for 45 minutes reserve fuel at
the
the specified cruise power. Fuel flow data for cruise is based on
recommended lean mixture setting. Some indeterminate variables such as
mixture leaning technique, fuel metering characteristics, engine and
propeller condition, and air turbulence may account for variations of 10%
or more in range and endurance. Therefore, it is important to utilize all
available information to estimate the fuel required for the particular
flight.

USE OF PERFORMANCE CHARTS


Performance data is presented in tabular or graphical form to illus
is
trate the effect of different variables. Sufficiently detailed information
used
and
selected
can
be
values
provided in the tables so that conservative
to determine the particular performance figure with reasonable accuracy.

SAMPLE PROBLEM
The following sample flight problem utilizes information from the
various charts to determine the predicted performance data for a typical
flight. The following information is known:
AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION
Takeoff weight
Usable fuel

3950 Pounds
522 Pounds

TAKEOFF CONDITIONS
Field pressure altitude
Temperature
Wind component along runway
Field length

3500 Feet
24C (16 C above standard)
12 Knot Headwind
4000 Feet

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

CRUISE CONDITIONS
Total distance
Pressure altitude
Temperature
Expected wind enroute

665 Nautical Miles


11,500 Feet
8C
10 Knot Headwind

LANDING CONDITIONS
Field pressure altitude
Temperature
Field length

3000 Feet
25C
3000 Feet

TAKEOFF
The takeoff distance chart, figure 5-5, should be consulted, keepin
g in
mind that the distances shown are based on the short field techniq
ue.
Conservative distances can be established by reading the chart at the
next
higher value of weight, altitude and temperature. For examp
le, in this
particular sample problem, the takeoff distance information presen
ted for
a weight of 4000 pounds, pressure altitude of 4000 feet and a temper
ature of
30C should be used and results in the following:
Ground roll
Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle

1920 Feet
3200 Feet

These distances are well within the available takeoff field length.
How
ever, a correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note
2 of the
takeoff chart. The correction for a 12 knot headwind is:
12 Knots
10 Knots

10%

12% Decrease

This results in the following distances, corrected for wind:


Ground roll, zero wind
Decrease in ground roll
(1920 feet x 12%)
Corrected ground roll
Total distance to clear a
50-foot obstacle, zero wind
Decrease in total distance
(3200 feet x 12%)
Corrected total distance
to clear a 50-foot obstacle

1920
230
1690 Feet
3200
384

2816 Feet

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CRUISE
The cruising altitude should be selected based on a consideration of
trip length, winds aloft, and the airplanes performance. A cruising
altitude and the expected wind enroute have been given for this sample
problem. However, the power setting selection for cruise must be deter
mined based on several considerations. These include the cruise perfor
mance characteristics presented in figure 5-8, the range profile charts
presented in figure 5-9, and the endurance profile charts presented in
figure 5-10.
The relationship between power and range is illustrated by the range
profile charts. Considerable fuel savings and longer range result when
lower power settings are used. For this sample problem, a cruise power of
approximately 70% will be used.
The cruise performance chart for 12,000 feet pressure altitude is
entered using 20C above standard temperature. These values most nearly
correspond to the planned altitude and expected temperature conditions.
The power setting chosen is 2300 RPM and 30 inches of manifold pressure
which results in the following:
Power
True airspeed
Cruise fuel flow

70%
169 Knots
91 PPH

The power computer may be used to determine power and fuel consump
tion more accurately during the flight.

FUEL REQUIRED
The total fuel requirement for the flight may be estimated using the
performance information in figures 5-7 and 5-8. For this sample problem,
the time, fuel, and distance to climb may be determined from figure 5-7 for a
normal climb using the data for 4000 pounds. The difference between the
values shown in the table for 4000 feet and 12,000 feet results in the
following:
Time
Fuel
Distance

15 Minutes
30 Pounds
30 Nautical Miles

The above values are for a standard temperature and are sufficiently
accurate for most flight planning purposes. However, a further correction
for the effect of temperature may be made as noted on the climb chart. The
11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

5-5

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

approximate effect of a non-standard temperature is to increase the time,


fuel, and distance by 10% for each 7C above standard temperature. due to
the lower rate of climb. In this case, assuming a temperature 16C above
standard, the correction would be:

16C

10%

23% Increase

With this factor included, the fuel estimate would be calculated as follows:
Fuel to climb, standard temperature
Increase due to non-standard temperature
(30 23%)
Corrected fuel to climb

30
7
37 Pounds

Using a similar procedure for time and distance during a climb, the
following results are obtained:
Time to climb
Distance to climb

18 Minutes
37 Nautical Miles

The distances shown on the climb chart are for zero wind. A correction for
the effect of wind may be made as follows:
Distance with no wind
37
Decrease in distance due to wind
(18/60 x10 knot headwind)
3
Corrected Distance to Climb
34 Nautical Miles
The resultant cruise distance is:
Total distance
Climb distance
Cruise distance

665
631 Nautical Miles

With an expected 10 knot headwind, the ground speed for cruise is


predicted to be:
169
-10
159 Knots

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Therefore, the time required for the cruise portion of the trip is:
631 Nautical Miles
159 Knots

4.0 Hours

The fuel required for cruise is:


4.0 hours

91 pounds/hour

364 Pounds

A 45-minute reserve requires:


91 pounds/hour

68 Pounds

The total estimated fuel required is as follows:


Engine start, taxi, and takeoff
Climb
Cruise
Reserve
Total fuel required

16
37
364
68
485 Pounds

Once the flight is underway, ground speed checks will provide a more
accurate basis for estimating the time enroute and the corresponding fuel
required to complete the trip with ample reserve.

LANDING
A procedure similar to takeoff should be used for estimating the
landing distance at the destination airport. Figure 5-11 presents landing
distance information for the short field technique. The distances corres
ponding to 3000 feet pressure altitude and a temperature of 30C are as
follows:
Ground roll
Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle

900 Feet
1705 Feet

A correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note 2 of the
landing chart using the same procedure as outlined for takeoff.

DEMONSTRATED OPERATING TEMPERATURE


Satisfactory engine cooling has been demonstrated for this airplane
with an outside air temperature 23C above standard. This is not to be
considered as an operating limitation. Reference should be made to
Section 2 for engine operating limitations.

11 September 1981

5-7

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
NORMAL STATIC SOURCE

1
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Power required for level flight or maximum power during descent.

FLAPS UP
KIAS
KCAS

60
60

80
80

100
99

120
119

140
139

160
158

180
177

200
196

60
60

70
70

80
80

90
90

100
99

120
119

140
138

160
158

60
63

70
72

80
81

90
91

100
100

110
110

120
120

130
130

C)

50
59

60
66

70
74

80
82

90
91

100
100

110
111

115
116

FLAPS 10
KIAS
KCAS
FLAPS 20
KIAS
KCAS
FLAPS 300
KIAS
KCAS

Figure 5-1. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 1 of 2)

5-8

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
ALTERNATE STATIC SOURCE
HEATER/VENTS AND WINDOWS CLOSED
FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

60
59

80
83

100
105

120
127

140
148

160
170

180
192

60
60

70
73

80
85

90
96

100
107

120
128

140
147

50
60

60
69

70
78

80
87

90
98

100
109

110
122

FLAPS 10
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
FLAPS 30
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

HEATER/VENTS OPEN AND WINDOWS CLOSED


FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

60
58

80
81

100
103

120
126

140
147

160
168

180
189

60
58

70
70

80
82

90
92

100
104

120
125

140
145

50
57

60
66

70
75

80
84

90
95

100
105

110
117

FLAPS 10
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
FLAPS 30
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

WINDOWS OPEN
FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

60
42

80
73

100
102

120
129

140
152

160
174

180
194

60
40

70
57

80
73

90
87

100
103

120
130

140
153

50
45

60
58

70
70

80
82

90
95

100
107

110
122

FLAPS 10
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
FLAPS 30
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS

Figure 5-1. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

5-9

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART


120

100

---

80

60
H
U
ZIZ

-40

-20

0
DEGREES

20

40

60

CELSIUS

Figure 52. Temperature Conversion Chart


5-10

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

STALL SPEEDS
CONDITIONS:
Power Off
Gear Up or Down
NOTES:
1. Altitude loss during a stall recovery may be as much as 300 feet from a wings-level stall
and even greater from a turning stall.
2. KIAS values are approximate.

MOST REARWARD CENTER OF GRAVITY


ANGLE OF BANK
WEIGHT
LBS

FLAP
DEFLECTION

00

600

45

30

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

UP

68

67

73

72

81

80

96

95

10

62

63

67

68

74

75

88

89

20

58

60

62

64

69

71

82

85

30

55

58

59

62

65

69

78

82

4000

MOST FORWARD CENTER OF GRAVITY


ANGLE OF BANK
WEIGHT
LBS

FLAP
DEFLECTION

00

60

45

30

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

KIAS

KCAS

UP

74

73

80

78

88

87

105

103

100

68

68

73

73

81

81

96

96

20

63

64

68

69

75

76

89

91

30

58

61

62

66

69

73

82

86

4000

Figure 5-3.

11 September 1981

Stall Speeds
5-11/(5-12 blank)

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

WIND COMPONENTS
NOTE:
Maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity is 21 knots (not a limitation).

40

Lu

C)

H
0

Lu

0
0

Ci

-J

10

15

25

20

CROSSWIND COMPONENT

30

KNOTS

Figure 5-4. Wind Components

11 September 1981

5-13

I-.

CD

CD

S
C.

CD

CD

4000

WEIGHT
LBS

72

78

S.L.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000

1140
1215
1290
1375
1465
1565
1670
1785
1905

1885
1995
2115
2245
2380
2530
2695
2865
3055
1245
1325
1410
1505
1605
1710
1825
1950
2085

2065
2185
2320
2465
2620
2790
2970
3165
3380
1360
1445
1540
1645
1755
1870
2000
2140
2290

2265
2400
2555
2715
2890
3080
3285
3510
3755

1485
1580
1685
1795
1920
2050
2190
2345
2510

Figure 5-5. Takeoff Distance (Sheet; of 2)

2490
2650
2820
3000
3200
3420
3655
3915
4195

1620
1730
1845
1970
2100
2245
2405
2575
2760

2755
2930
3125
3340
3570
3820
4095
4400
4735

TAKEOFF
0C
10C
20C
30C
40C
SPEED
PRESS
KIAS
ALT
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
FT
GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
LIFT AT
ROLL
50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT CBS
OFF 50 FT

NOTES:
1. Short field technique as specified in Section 4.
2. Decrease distances 10% for each 10 knots headwind. For operation with tailwinds up to 10 knots, increase
distances by 10%
for each 2.5 knots.
3. For operation on a dry, grass runway, increase distances by 15% of the ground roll figure.

CONDITIONS:
Flaps 10 ,
2700 RPM,1Inches Hg, and Mixture Set at 186 PPH Prior to Brake Release.
Cowl Flaps Open
Paved, Level, Dry Runway
Zero Wind

SHORT FIEjp]

MAXIMUM WEIGHT 4000 LBS

TAKEOFF DISTANCE

cZ

Li0

I.

CD

0
CD

CD

Ct

CD

U)

69

66

3400

OFF

j7

72

75

50 FT

KIAS

3700

WEIGHT

TAKEOFF
SPEED

PRESS

0C

10C
20C

1855

1965
2085
2215
2355
2505
1290
1365
1440
1525
1615
1715
1815
1930
2050

1145

1215
1300
1385
1480
1580

780
830
885
940
1000
1070
1140
1215
1300

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000

2155
2290
2435
2590
2760

1330
1420
1515
1615
1725
1405
1485
1570
1665
1765
1870
1985
2110
2245

2030

1245

850
905
965
1025
1095
1165
1245
1325
1415

1705
1805
1915

1035
1100
1170

30C

925
985
1050
1120
1190
1270
1355
1450
1550

1530
1620
1715
1820
1930
2050
2180
2315
2465

1010
1075
1145
1220
1300
1390
1480
1585
1695

1670
1770
1875
1990
2115
2250
2390
2550
2715

2605
2775
2955
3155
3370

1585
1695
1810
1935
2070
2365
2515
2675
2855
3045

2300
2445

1395
1485

2095
2225

1275
1360

1450
1550
1655
1770
1890

2045
2170

1230
1310

1865
1975

1125
1200

Figure 5-5. Takeoff Distance (Sheet 2 of 2)

1565
1655
1750

950
1010
1075

SL.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000

40C

1100
1170
1250
1330
1420
1515
1620
1730
1855

1735
1855
1980
2120
2270

1625

1340
1430
1525

1830
1940
2060
2185
2325
2475
2635
2815
3005

2880
3070
3280
3510
3755

2700

2245
2385
2535

TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS

S.L.
1000
2000

ALT
FT

I SHORT FIELDI

3700 LBS AND 3400 LBS

TAKEOFF DISTANCE

REFER TO SHEET 1 FOR APPROPRIATE CONDITIONS AND NOTES.

zo

tj

ocuJ

Ci

c1J

0Li
hlCi)

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

MAXIMUM RATE OF CLIMB

C,
CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Gear Up
2600 RPM
Cowl Flaps Open

PRESS ALT

MP

PPH

S.L. to 17,000
18,000
20,000
22,000
24,000

35
34
32
30
28

162
156
144
132
120

0
0

WEIGHT
LBS

PRESS
ALT
FT

CLIMB
SPEED
KIAS

-20C

0C

20C

40C

4000

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

100
100
100
100
100
99
97

1170
1080
980
870
740
485
190

1035
940
840
730
605
355
70

895
800
695
590
470

755
655
555

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

99
99
99
99
99
97
95

1310
1215
1115
1000
865
600
295

1165
1070
965
855
730
470
170

1020
925
815
710
590

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

97
97
97
97
97
96
94

1465
1370
1265
1150
1010
730
405

1320
1220
1110
995
865
595
275

1165
1065
955
845
725

3700

3400

RATE OF CLIMB

FPM

875
775
670
-

1015
910
795

Figure 5-6. Maximum Rate of Climb


5-16

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

TIME, FUEL, AND DISTANCE TO CLIMB


[MAXIMUM RATE OF CUiI
CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Gear Up
2600 RPM
Cowl Flaps Open
Standard Temperature

PRESS ALT
S.L. to 17,000
18,000
20,000
22,000
24,000

PPH
162
156
144
132
120

MP
35
34
32
30
28

NOTES:
Add 16 pounds of fuel for engine start, taxi and takeoff allowance.
1.
Increase time, fuel and distance by 10% for each 10C above standard temperature.
2.
Distances shown are based on zero wind.
3.

WEIGHT
LBS

PRESS

CLIMB

RATE OF
CLIMB

FROM SEA LEVEL


TIME
MIN

FUEL USED
POUNDS

DISTANCE
NM

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

100
100
100
100
100
99
97

930
890
845
799
720
515
270

0
4
9
14
1-9
26
37

0
12
24
38
52
69
92

0
7
16
25

3700

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

99
99
99
99
99
97
95

1060
1020
975
915
845
630
370

0
4
8
12
17
22
30

0
10
21
33
45
59
77

0
6
13
21
30
42
60

3400

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000
24,000

97
97
97
97
97
96
94

1205
1165
1120
1060
985
760
485

0
3
7
11
15
19
26

0
9
19
29
39
51
65

0
5
12
18
26
36
50

4000

50
74

Figure 5-7. Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

5-17

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TIME, FUEL, AND DISTANCE TO CLIMB

NORMAL CLIMB-liD KIASI


CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Gear Up
2500 RPM
30 Inches Hg
720 PPH Fuel Flow
Cowl Flaps Open
Standard Temperature

NOTES:
1. Add 16 pounds of fuel for engine start, taxi and takeoff allowance.
2. Increase time, fuel and distance by 10% for each 7C above standard temperature.
3. Distances shown are based on zero wind.

WEIGHT
LBS

4000

PRESS
ALT
FT

RATE OF
CLIMB
FPM

FROM SEA LEVEL


TIME
MIN

FUEL USED
POUNDS

DISTANCE
NM

4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000

605
570
530
485
430
365

0
7
14
22
31
41

0
14
28
44
62
82

0
13
27
43
63
87

3700

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000

700
665
625
580
525
460

0
6
12
19
26
34

0
12
24
37
52
68

0
11
23
37
53
72

3400

S.L.
4000
8000
12,000
16,000
20,000

810
775
735
690
635
565

0
5
10
16
22
29

0
10
21
32
44
57

0
9
20
31
45
61

S.L.

Figure 5-7. Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (Sheet 2 of 2)


5-18

11 September 1981

0
U

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 2000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-9C
RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

BHP

KTAS

PPH

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
11C
BHP

KTAS

PPH

20CABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
31C
BHP

KTAS

PPH

\
-

157
78
71
\151
64
145
57
136

102
93
84
75

80
74
67
60
53

162
157
151
143
134

105
96
88
80
72

75
69
63
57
50

161
156
149
141
131

99
91
83
75
68

2400

30
28
26
24
22

80
74
67
60
54

158
153
147
141
132

105
96
88
80
72

76
69
63
57
51

158
153
146
139
130

99
91
83
75
68

71
65
59
53
48

158
152
144
136
127

93
86
78
71
65

2300

30
28
26
24
22

76
70
64
58
52

155
150
145
138
129

99
92
84
77
69

71
66
61
55
49

155
150
144
136
127

94
87
80
73
66

67
62
57
51
46

154
148
141
133
124

88
82
76
69
62

2200

30
28
26
24
22

72
66
60
54
48

152.
147
141
133
125

95
87
79
72
66

68
62
57
51
46

152
146
13
131
122

89
82
75
69
62

64
59
53
48
43

150
143
136
128
118

84
78
71
65
59

Figure 5-8.

11 September 1981

Cruise Performance (Sheet 1 of 12)

5-19

_k
jIc

.4

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 4000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

0
20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-13C

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
7C

RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

79
72
65
58

160
155
149
140

103
95
\86
77

30
28
26
24
22

80
74
68
61
55

161
156
151
144
136

105
97
89
81
73

2300

30
28
26
24
22

77
71
65
59
52

158
154
148
141
132

2200

30
28
26
24
22

73
67
61
55
49

2400

BHP

//

KTAS

/44
/136
127

KIAS

PPH

81
74
68
62
55

166
160
155
147
138

106
97
90

76

KTAS

PPH

73

76
70
64
58
51

165
159
152
144
135

100
91
84
77
69

16/
156
150
142
133

99
92
84
77
70

71
66
60
54
49

160
155
147
139
130

93
86
79
73
66

100 / 72
67
93j
8$
61
,18
55
49
/70

158
153
147
139
130

95
88
81
74
67

68
63
58
52
46

157
151
144
136
127

89
83
76
70
63

68
63
57
52
46

155
149
141
133
125

90
83
76
70
63

64
59
54
49
44

153
146
138
130
121

84
78
72
66
60

155/

i7

PPH

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
27C

95
88
80
73
67

BHP

\7o
64
58
52

81

BHP

Figure 5-8.

5-20

Cruise Performance (Sheet 2 of 12)

11 September 1981

0
0

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 6000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-17C

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
3C

RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

79
73
67
59

164
159
152
144

104
96
88
79

30
28
26
24
22

81
75
69
62
56

165
160
154
147
139

106
98

2300

30
28
26
24
22

77
72
66
60
53

162
157
152
144
135

101
94
87
79
72

2200

30
28
26
24
22

73
158
68
13
62
i147
56
139
50/
130

96
89
82
75
68

2400

BHP

KTAS

PPH
-

90.
82
75

KTAS

PPH

81
75
69
63
56

169
164
158
151
141

107
98
91
83
75

76
71
65
59
,3

165
160
153
145
137

BHP

73\
162
\156
68
to
62
14
56
133
50
69
64
58
53
47

158
152
144
137
128

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
23C
KTAS

PPH

76
70
65
59
53

168
162
156
148
138

100
92
85
78
71

100
93
85
78
71

72
66
61
55
50

164
158
150
142
134

94
87
80
74
67

96
89
82
75
68

69
64
58
53
47

160
154
147
139
129

90
84
77
71
64

Q0
8\
77\
71
64

65
60
55
50

156
149
141
133
124

85
79
73
67
61

BHP

Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance (Sheet 3 of 12)

11 September 1981

5-21

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 8000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

C
20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-21C
RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

KTAS

PPH

80
74
68
60

16?
162
156
147

105
9?
89
80

30
28
26
24
22

81
75
69
63
57

168
163
158
150
142

106
99
91
83
76

30
28
26
24
22

78
72
67
60
54

30
28
26
24
22

73
68
63
57
51

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-1C
KTAS

PPH

81
75
70
64
57

172
167
161
154
144

107
99
91
84
76

76
71
65:
54

168
163
156
148
140

102/
165
9
161
,7
155
/80
147
72
138/

73
68
63
57
51

165
160,
153
145
136

i6

69
64
59
54
48

161
155
147
139
130

---

BHP

2300

2200

6
/150
/ 142
133

Figure 5-8.

5-22

96
89
82
75
69

KTAS

PPH

76
71
65
60
53

171
165
159
151
141

100
93
86
79
72

100
93
86
79
72

72
67
61
56
51

166
160
153
145
136

94
87
81
74
68

96
90
83
76

69
64
59
54
48

163
157
150
142
132

90
84
78
72
65

65
60
55
50
-45

158
152
144
136
126

86
80
74
68
62

BHP

\
2400

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
19C

\69
9\
85\
78
72
65

Cruise Performance (Sheet 4 of 12)

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T2ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 10,000 FEET
I
CONDITIONS:
400CPounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
etate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-25C
KTAS

PPH

80
75
69
62

170
166
159
151

105
98
90
81

30
28
26
24
22

81
76
70
64
58

171
167
161
154
146

107
99
92
84
77

2300

30
28
26
24
22

78
73
67
61
55

169
164
158
15Q.
144

2200

30
28
26

74
69

RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

2400

BHP

1Q
,6
88
81
73

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
- 15C

STANDARD

TEMPERATURE
-5C

KTAS

PPH

76
71
66
61
55

175
168
162
154
145

100
93
87
80
73

101
94
87
80
73

72
67
62
57
51

170
163
156
148
140

94
88
82
75
69

169
163
156
-148
19

97
90
84
77
70

69
65
60
54
49

166
160
153
145
135

91
85
79
73
66

70
65
60

164
158
151

92
\85
7
7366

66
61
56

161
155
147

86
81
75

51
46

139
129

69
63

KTAS

PPH

81
76
71
65
58

176
170
165
157
148

107
99
92
85
77

77
71
66
60
:55

771
166
159
151
143

74
69..
64
58
52

BHP

s/

/165
160
153

97
90
84

24

145

77

54

143

22

/52

136

70

49

133

-.

:
Figure 5-8.

11 September 1981

Cruise Performance (Sheet 5 of 12)

5-23

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 12,000 FEET
CON Dl TI ONS
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or lea, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

C
20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-29C
RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

--

80
75
69
62

174
169
162
153

2400

30
28
26
24
22

81
76
70
65
59

2300

30
28
26
24
22

79
73
68
62
56

2200

28
26
24
22
2Q

69/

BHP

/58
52
46

KTAS

PPH

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-9C
BHP

KTAS

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
11C

PPH

BHP

KTAS

PPH

105
98
90
82

81
76
71
65
59

179
173
167
160
151

107
99
93
85
./ 78

76
71
66
61
55

177
171
165
157
147

100
93
87
81
73

175
170
164
157
149

107
99
92
85
78

77
71
66
61
55

174
169
162
154
146

101
94
87
80
74

72
67
62
57
52

172
166
159
151
142

94
88
82
76
70

172
167
161
i53
)44

1Q3
96
89
82
74

74
69
64
58
53

172
166
159
150
141

97
91
84
77
71

70
65
60
55
49

169
163
155
147
137

91
85
79
73
67

163
156
148
139
128

91
84
77
70
63

65
60
55
49
44

16b
153
145
136
124

86
80
73
67
60

61
57
52
46
41

157
150
142
131
118

81
75
70
63
57

\
_

Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance (Sheet 6 of 12)


5-24

11 September 1981

C
0
0

Lt7ft7
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 14,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-13C

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-33C
RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

2400

2300

2200

KTAS

PPH

76
71
67
62
56

180
174
16?
160
150

100
93
88
81
74

101
94
88
81
75

72
67
63
58
53

175
168
161
154
145

95
89
83
77
71

144

98
92
85
78
72

70
66
61
55
50

172
166
158
150
140

92
86
80
74
68

164
157
149
138
126

87
\81
14
68\
61

62
5?
52
47
42

160
153
144
133
120

82
76
70
64
58

KTAS

KTAS

PPH

70
63

177
172
165
157

105
99
91
83

81
76
71
66
59

182
176
170
163
154

107
99
93
86
78

30
28
26
24
22

82
76
71
65
60

178
173
167
160
152

107
100
93
86
79,

77
72
67
61
56

178
171
165
157
149

30
28
26
24
22

79
74
68
63
57

176
171
164
156
147

74
70.
65
59
53

175
169
162

66
61
56
50
45

28
26
24
22
20

BHP
-

BHP

\ 80

75

70
65
59
53
47

104
97
/90
/ 83
75

/
16W
15
142
131

92
85
78
71
64

200C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
7C
BHP

/1

Figure 5-8.

11 September 1981

Cruise Performance (Sheet 7 of 12)

5-25

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 16,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

0
20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-37C
RPM

MP

2500

30
28
26
24
22

BHP

KTAS

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-17C

PPH

BHP

KTAS

PPH

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
3C
BHP

KTAS

PPH

185
179
173
166
15/

106
99
93
86
79

76
71
67
62
56

183
176
170
162
153

100
93
88
81
74

72
67
63
58
53

177
171
164
156
147

94
88
83
77
71

80
75
70
63

180
175
168
159

105
99
91
83

81
76
71
66
60

30
28
26
24
22

81
76
71
66
60

182
176
170
163
155

107
100
93
86
79

77
72
67
62
57

180
174
167
160
152

101
94
88
81
75

2300

30
28
26
24
22

79
74
69
63
57

179
174
167.
159
150

103
97
90
83
76

74
70
65
59
54

177
171
164
156
147

97
92
85
79
72

70
66
61
56
51

174
168
161
153
142

91
86
80
74
68

2200

28
26
24
22
20

70
65
60
54
48

169
162
154
145
134

92
86
79
72
65

66
62
56
51
45

166
160
151
141
129

87
81
75
68
62

62
58
53
48
42

163
156
147
135
122

82
77
71
65
59

2400

Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance (Sheet 8 of 12)


5-26

11 September 1981

0
0

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 18,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

RPM

MP

2500

30

BHP

TEMPERATURE
-21C

PPH

KTAS

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
-1C

STANDARD

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-41C

BHP

KTAS

PPH

BHP

KTAS

PPH

81

188

106

76

185

100

28
26
24
22

80
75
70
63

184
178
171
162

105
99
91
84

76
71
66
60

182
176
168
159

99
93
86
79

71
67
62
56

178
172
164
155

93
88
81
75

2400

30
28
26
24
22

81
76
71
66
61

185
179
172
165
158

107
100
93
87
80-,

77
72
67
62
,-7

183
177
170
163
155

101
94
88
82
76

72
67
63
58
54

180
173
166
159
150

94
88
83
77
72

2300

30
28
26
24
22

79
74
69
64
58

182
176
170
162
154

103,
97
91
84
77

74
O
6.
60
55

180
174
167
159
150

97
91
86
79
73

70
65
61
56
51

176
170
163
155
145

91
86
81
75
65

26
24
22
20

66
61
55
49

166/
15
148
/36

87
80
73
66

62
57
51
46

82
76
154\
69
144
\63
131

58
54
48
43

159
150
138
124

77
72
66
59

2200

Figure 5-8.

11 September 1981

Cruise Performance (Sheet 9 of 12)


5-27

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

A
CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 20,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-45C
RPM
2500

MP
30
28
26
24
22

BHP

KTAS

PPH

BHP

KTAS

PPH

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
-5C
KTAS

PPH

76
,-71
66
62
56

188
181
174
166
156

99
93
87
$1
75

BHP

80
75
70
64

186
180
173
164

105
98
91
84

80
75
71
66
60

106
700
93
87
81

76
72
67
62
57

186
179
172
165
157

100
94
88
82
76

72
67
63
58
54

182
175
168
160
151

94
88
83
77
72

97
,fi1
/ 84
78

69
65
60
55

776
170
162
153

91
86
80
74

65
61
57
52

172
766
157
147

86
81
75
70

81
74
67

58
52
46

157
146
133

76
O
63\

54
49
44

152
139
125

72
66
60

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-25C

2400

30
28
26
24
22

87
76
71
66
61

188
182
175
168
160

2300

28
26
24
22

74
69
64
59

179
172
765
157/

2200

24
22
20

61
55

/14
157
738

191
184
178
170
161

105
99
93 ,
86
79

/
Figure 5-8.

5-28

Cruise Performance (Sheet 10 of 12)

11 September 1981

0
0
0
0

I& J7; /
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 22,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

KTAS

183
178
170
161
152

93
88
82
77
72

172
165
156
145

86
80
75
69

61
57
53
48

168
160
149
138

81
76
71
65

159
148
135

77
70
64

54
49
44

153
141
127

73
67
61

187
181
174
166
158

91
85
79
73

65
61
56
51

81
74
67

58
52
47

2400

30
28
26
24
22

80
76
71
66
61

189
184
177
170
16/

2300

26
24
22
20

69
/75
65
168
160
5W
151
V4

22i

71
67
62
58
54

75
71
67
62
57

104
98
91
83

163
153
141

99
93
87
82
76

105
99
;93
86.
80

189
182
175
166

61
56
50

98
92
87
81
74

104
98
92
86
79

80
75
69
63

189
183
176
167
157

193
186
180
172
162

30
28
26
24
22

24
22

75
70
66
61
56

80
75
70
65
59

2500

2200

PPH

PPH

MP

KTAS

KTAS

PPH

RPM

BHP

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
-9C

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-29C

20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-49C

BHP

BHP

\
\

Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance (Sheet 11 of 12)

11 September 1981

5-29

4
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T2LON

CRUISE PERFORMANCE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE 24,000 FEET
CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
Cowl Flaps Closed

NOTE
For best fuel economy at 70% power or less, op
erate at 6 PPH leaner than shown in this chart
or at peak EGT.

0
20C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
-53C
RPM

MP

2500

28
26
24
22

2400

STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
-33C

KTAS

PPH

79
74
68
62

191
784
176
167

104
97
90
82

74
70
64
59

188
181
173
163

98
91
85
78

28
26
24
22

75
70
65
60

186
179
771
163

99
92

183
176
167

93
87

79

J1
j
61
57

2300

26
24
22
20

69
65
60
55

177
177
163
154

91
85
79
74

65
61
57
52

2200

22
20

56,
50

754
142

74
68

52
47

BHP

85

BHP

KTAS

20C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
-13C
KTAS

PPH

70
65
60
55

185
177
168
156

92
86
80
74

75

66
62
57
53

179
171
162
151

87
82
76
71

174
167
158
148

86
81
75
70.

61
57
53
49

169
161
151
141

81
76
71
66

149
136

70
64

49
\44

141
127

66
61

158

PPH

81

BHP

Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance (Sheet 12 of 12)


5-30

11 September 1981

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

RANGE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
384 LBS. USABLE FUEL

CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
Zero Wind
NOTE:
This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb and the
distance during a normal climb up to 20,000 feet and maximum climb above 20,000
feet.

24,000

W ffl2143

Lu
Lu
Lu
U

D
I
I
-J

J4

KTAS____

193 1XKTAS1IKTAS
KTASII

20,000

16,000
139
KTAS

157
KTAS

184 111172
KTAS11IKTAS

4
-biH
134
149

12,000

1fl162

8000

J_

KTAS
f/ KTAS JJJ
1/ I
j

KTAS

KTAS

JL LJL

4000
-

151

159

1bKTAS KTAS

S.L.
400

450

RANGE

500

127
KTAS

KTAS
550

LO

600

650

NAUTICAL MILES

Figure 5-9. Range Profile (Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

5-31

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

RANGE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
522 LBS. USABLE FUEL

CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
Zero Wind

NOTE:
This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb and the
distance during a normal climb up to 20,000 feet and maximum climb above 20,000
feet.

C
C

24,000
H--193 4-4182
KTAS
KTAS

20,000

U
U
LL
U

0
D
I
I
-J

16,000

143
KTAS

JT
I

165
KTAS

t184
1r172
KTASKTAS+
-

157
KIAS

139
KTAS

12,000

8000

4000
-

159
tKTAS

S.L.
600

650

jf;

27
KTAS

700

RANGE

750

800

850

900

950

NAUTICAL MILES

Figure 5-9. Range Profile (Sheet 2 of 2)


5-32

11 September 1981

SECTIOi
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

ENDURANCE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
384 LBS. USABLE FUEL

CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
NOTE:
This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb and the
time during a normal climb up to 20,000 feet and maximum climb above 20,000 feet.

24,000
H

20,000
--

rn

----

Lu
Lu
LI..
Lu

F I]

16,000

1fL-

12,000

D
H
H
-J

HH

8000

tI

--

w--.w--

-3

-0-0
-

4000

D..

t_
OO

S. L.
1

3- --3--

0-

ENDURANCE

]:LE
2

0---0--

H
5

HOURS

Figure 5-10. Endurance Profile (Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

5-33

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

ENDURANCE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
522 LBS. USABLE FUEL

ID

CONDITIONS:
4000 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
NOTE:
This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb and the
time during a normal climb up to 20,000 feet and maximum climb above 20,000 feet.

0
24,000----------------------

\----

20,000

U
U

O
D
I
H
-J

16,000t

ti!1

l2OOO---b------J--L

8000

4000

HH

:::+:

S.L.

ENDURANCE

HOURS

Figure 5-10. Endurance Profile (Sheet 2 of 2)


5-34

11 September 1981

CD

01

01

01

I.

CD

I-.

CD

CD

CD

a)

3800

WEIGHT
LBS

74

S.L.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000

725
750
780
870
840
870
905
940
975

1440
1480
1525
1565
1615
1660
1710
1765
1815

1480
1520
1565
1610
1660
1710
1765
1815
1870

780
805
835
870
900
935
970
1010
1050

1520
1560
1605
1660
1705
1755
1810
1870
1930

Figure 5-11. Landing Distance

750
780
810
840
870
905
940
975
1010

805
835
865
900
930
965
1005
1045
1085

1560
1605
1650
1705
1750
1805
1860
1920
1980

830
860
895
930
965
1000
1035
1075
1720

1600
1645
1695
1750
1800
1855
1910
1970
2035

40C
30C
20C
10C
0C
SPEED
PRESS
AT
ALT
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
50 FT
FT
GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
KIAS
ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS ROLL 50 FT OBS

NOTES:
1. Short field technique as specified in Section 4.
2. Decrease distances 10% for each 10 knots headwind. For operation with tailwinds up to 10 knots, increase distances by
10% for each 2.5 knots.
3. For operation on a dry, grass runway, increase distances by 40% of the ground roll figure.
4. If a landing with flaps up is necessary, increase the approach speed by 14 KIAS and allow for 35% longer distances.

CONDITIONS:
Flaps 30
Power Off
Maximum Braking
Paved, Level, Dry Runway
Zero Wind

ISHORT FIELD I

LANDING DISTANCE

oZ

oc)

ci)

(
C

0
0
0
0
0

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction
Airplane Weighing Procedures
Weight And Balance
Baggage Tie-Down
Equipment List
.

11 September 1981

6-3
6-3
6-6
6-6
6-15

6-1!(6-2 blank)

a
0
0
0
0
0
C

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

INTRODUCTION
(

This section describes the procedure for establishing the basic empty
weight and moment of the airplane. Sample forms are provided for
reference. Procedures for calculating the weight and moment for various
operations are also provided. A comprehensive list of all Cessna equip
ment available for this airplane is included at the hack of this section.
It should be noted that specific information regarding the weight, arm,
moment and installed equipment for this airplane as delivered from the
factory can only be found in the plastic envelope carried in the back of this
handbook.
It is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that the airplane is loaded
properly.

AIRPLANE WEIGHING PROCEDURES


1.

2.

3.
7

4.

5.
6.

Preparation:
a. Inflate tires to recommended operating pressures.
b. Remove the fuel tank sump quick-drain fittings and use
sampler cup at quick-drain valve in reservoir to drain all fuel.
c. Service engine Oil as required to obtain a normal full indica
tion (ten quarts on dipstick).
d. Move sliding seats to the most forward position.
e. Raise flaps to the fully retracted position.
f. Place all control surfaces in neutral position.
Leveling:
a. Place scales under each wheel (minimum scale capacity, 1000
pounds).
h. Deflate the nose tire and! or lower or raise the nose strut to
properly center the bubble in the level (see figure 6-1).
Weighing:
a. With the airplane level and brakes released, record the weight
shown on each scale. Deduct the tare, if any, from each reading.
Measuring:
a. Obtain measurement A by measuring horizontally (along the
airplane center line) from a line stretched between the main
wheel centers to a plumb bob dropped from the firewall.
b. Obtain measurement B by measuring horizontally and paral
lel to the airplane center line, from center of nose wheel axle,
left side, to a plumb bob dropped from the line between the main
wheel centers. Repeat on right side and average the measure
ments.
Using weights from item 3 and measurements from item 4, the
airplane weight and C.G. can be determined.
Basic Empty Weight may be determined by completing figure 6-1.

11 September 1981

6-3

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Datum (Firewall, Front Face, Lower Portion)

0
Level on Leveling Screws
)Left Side of Tailcone)

L&R

C
Scale Position

Tare

Scale Reading

Symbol

Left Wheel

Right Wheel

Nose Wheel

Sum of Net Weights (As Weighed)

X=ARM(A)-)N)x(B);X=(

)- (

Net Weight

0
)=(

)x(

)IN.

Item

Weight (Lbs.)

Airplane Weight IFrom Item 5, Page 6-3)


Add: Unusable Fuel (3 Gal at 6 Lbs/Gal)

78

X C.G. Arm (In.) =

38.0

Moment/i 000
(Lbs.-ln.)

0.7

Equipment Changes

Airplane Basic Empty Weight

Figure 6-1. Sample Airplane Weighing


6-4

11 September 1981

Cii

I-.
CD

CD

CD

C.

CD

CI)

DATE

In

Out

ITEM NO.

AIRPLANE MODEL

As Delivered

Wt.
(lb.)
Arm
(In.)

Moment
/1000
Wt.
(lb.)

Arm
(In.)

REMOVED

Figure 6-2. Sample Weight and Balance Record

OF ARTICLE OR MODIFICATION

DESCRIPTION

ADDED )+)

WEIGHT CHANGE

SERIAL NUMBER

(Continuous History of Changes in Structure or Equipment Affecting Weight and Balance)

Moment

/1000

Wt.
(lb.)

Moment
/1000

RUNNING BASIC
EMPTY WEIGHT

PAGE NUMBER

SAMPLE WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORD

EncXj

zo
H

I-do

ti

En

hlCJ)

0Li

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

WEIGHT AND BALANCE


The following information will enable you to operate your Cessna
within the prescribed weight and center of gravity limitations. To figure
weight and balance, use the Sample Loading Problem, Loading Graph, and
Center of Gravity Moment Envelope as follows:
Take the basic empty weight and moment from appropriate weight and
balance records carried in your airplane, and enter them in the column
titled YOUR AIRPLANE on the Sample Loading Problem.
NOTE
In addition to the basic empty weight and moment noted on
these records, the C.G. arm (fuselage station) is also
shown, but need not be used on the Sample Loading
Problem. The moment which is shown must be divided by
1000 and this value used as the moment! 1000 on the loading
problem.
Use the Loading Graph to determine the moment! 1000 for each
additional item to be carried, then list these on the loading problem.
NOTE
Loading Graph information for the pilot, passengers and
baggage is based on seats positioned for average occu
pants and baggage loaded in the center of the baggage
areas as shown on the Loading Arrangements diagram.
For loadings which may differ from these, the Sample
Loading Problem lists fuselage stations for these items to
indicate their forward and aft C.G. range limitation (seat
travel or baggage area limitation). Additional moment
calculations, based on the actual weight and C.G. arm
(fuselage station) of the item being loaded, must be made if
the position of the load is different from that shown on the
Loading Graph.
Total the weights and moments/ 1000 and plot these values on the
Center of Gravity Moment Envelope to determine whether the point falls
within the envelope, and if the loading is acceptable.

BAGGAGE TIE-DOWN
A nylon baggage net having six tie-down straps is provided to secure
baggage in the area aft of the wheel well and on the backs of the fifth and
sixth seats when they are used for stowing baggage.
6-6

11 September 1981

()

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

When using the baggage net to secure baggage stowed aft of the wheel
well, only four of the net tie-down straps are usually used. They are
fastened to the two tie-down rings located on the forward edge of the wheel
well and two rings at the bottom edge of the rear cabin window. If the fifth
and sixth seats are not occupied, the seat backs may be folded forward to
create more baggage area. If this area is used, all six tie-down straps must
be used. Tie the front straps of the net to the front legs of the fifth and sixth
seats and the remaining four straps to the tie-down rings provided.
Weight and balance calculations for baggage forward of the wheel well
and stowed on the backs of the fifth and sixth seats can be figured on the
AFT PASSENGERS line of the Loading Graph. Note that the baggage load
in this area is limited to 120 pounds. Separate lines are provided for
computing weight and balance of baggage in the baggage areas on and aft
of the wheel well. The baggage load on the wheel well is limited to 50
pounds. The baggage load aft of the wheel well is limited to 200 pounds. The
maximum allowable combined weight capacity for baggage on and aft of
the wheel well is 200 pounds. The maximum allowable combined weight
capacity forward, on and aft of the wheel well is 240 pounds.

it September 1981

6-7

cD

CD

CD

CD

(I)

Pilot or passenger center of


gravity on adjustable seats
positioned for average occu
pant. Numbers in parentheses
indicate forward and aft limits
of occupant center of gravity
range.

**117_

101

(6177)

37
(34-46)

C.G.
ARM

WHEEL
WELL

AFT PASS.

Go

t-)

Figure 6-3. Loading Arrangements

BAGGAGE
2. The aft baggage wall (approxi *138
mate station 152) can be used
as a convenient interior refer
152
ence point for determining the
location of baggage area fuse
6 OCCUPANTS
lage station.
AND AFT BAGGAGE

NOTES:
1. TheusablefuelC.G. arm is
located at station 43. 0.

**Baggage area center of


gravity.

LOADING
ARRANGEM ENTS

AJIIJ

117

101

WHEEL
WELL

ON AFT SEA

BAGGAGE

4 OCCUPANTS
BAGGAGE ON AFT SEAT
AND AFT BAGGAGE

152

**138_ BAGGAGE

**

**

(61-77)

71Lit 7

(34-46)

C.G.
ARM

HcD

HZ

HcJ

1JU2

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T2WN

CABIN HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS

DOOR OPENING DIMENSIONS

CABIN DOOR
BAGGAGE DOOR

WIDTH
(TOP)

WIDTH
(BOTTOM)

HEIGHT
(FRONT)

HEIGHT
(REAR)

31
19

36
28W

40
8%

38V
14%

= WIDTH
LWR WINDOW
LINE

* CABIN FLOOR

CABIN WIDTH MEASUREMENTS

CABIN
STATIONS
(C.G. ARMS)

Figure 6-4.

11 September 1981

Internal Cabin Dimensions


6-9

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SAMPLE

SAMPLE

MRPLANE

LOADING PROBLEM
1.

Basic Empty Weight (Use the data pertaining


to your airplane as it is presently equipped.
Includes unusable fuel and full oil)

2.

Usable Fuel (At 6 Lbs/Gal.)


Standard Tanks (87 Gal. Maximum)
Reduced Fuel (64 Gal.)

Weight
b Weight
(lbs.)
(lbs.)
/1000)

2362

99.5

522

22.4

3.

Pilot and Front Passenger (Station 34 to 46)

340

72.6

4.

Center Passengers (Station 61 to 77)

340

24.1

340

34.3

112

15.5

4016

208.4

5.

Aft Passengers

6.

Baggage Forward of wheel well on folded down


aft seat (Station 89 to 710) (720 lbs. max.)

7.

Baggage On wheel well


(Station 110 to 724) (50 lbs. max.)

8.

Baggage Aft of wheel well


(Station 124 to 152) (200 lbs. max.)

9.

RAMP WEIGHT AND MOMENT

2536,8

/1000)

(o ( .1

10.

Fuel allowance for engine start, taxi and runup

11.

TAKEOFF WEIGHT AND MOMENT


(Subtract step 10 from step 9)

72.

YOUR
MRPLANE

-16

.7

4000
207.7
Locate this point (4000 at 207.7) on the Center of Gravity Moment Envelope. Since
this loading falls within the shaded area of the moment envelope, proceed with steps
13, 14 and 15. If the computed loading point falls w thin the clear area of the moment
envelope, no further steps are required and the loading is assumed satisfactory for
take
off and landing provided that flight time is allowed for fuel burn-off
to a maximum of
3800 pounds before landing.

13.

Estimated Fuel Burn-Off (Climb and Cruise)


(38 gallons at 6 lbs/gal.)

14.

Subtract step 13 from step 11 for estimated


airplane landing weight

j3772

15.

Locate this point (3772 at 197.9)on the Center of Gravity Moment Envelope. Since
this point falls within the overall envelope, the loading may be assumed acceptable
for landing.

-9.8
197.9

The maximum allowable combined weight capacity for baggage on and aft
of the wheel well is 200 lbs. The maximum allowable combined weight
capacity for baggage forward, on and aft of the wheel well is 240 lbs.

Figure 6-5. Sample Loading Problem (Sheet 1 of 2)


6-10

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

2 of 2)
Figure 6-5. Sample Loading Problem (Sheet

11 September 1981

6-11

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

st1v1iDO7I)l) 1HOI1A avoi


C
IC

C
C
(N

(N
(N

(N

IL)

If)

IC

If)

II)

02
C
If).

-4-

C
C

-D 0

-4

-I-

00

:00
0

(N

0
C
IL)
(N

CC
U

[ I

H HH-1

(N

>.-o
Iii

LC

IC

tti-t

-J

o
o

;itt

CD
C

1-.,L

ID

-I-S)>

S
5

]__t I
f(

(Nt

C
C
(N

6_ 6_

80

-J

C
C

(5

--_

<

o
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4
mi
7

H Hr

-J4_.I

UiI HiI ITTT ii H.

Iffi

0.0

-I

lit:

CO

CC
U
C

o
(N

C
CC
(N

C
C
(N

I.

CL)

C
C

C
IC

ID

tSGNflOd) 1H9IM avo,

6-12

CC

L1& c.

i2

jj:

iH-l-i-H--H
+

I 4..

4tLL 1
it

1111 ttI4 IIt

Lu

tZTtL
r

H0

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1
c

If)

0I

I
0

!-o

uJ

:4

C4

00

LI_I
-J

1 R1

(I,

11 September 1981

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON
LOADED AIRPLANE MOMENT/WOO (KILOGRAM

,..

....

4100

MILLIM[TERS(

2100 2200 2300 2400


900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1900 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
I
IIiiiI
iiil

1
-1850
: ::z: : :. ui,:
-

3900

3800

:;t ;

4000

ti---h--f

-1800

CENTER OF GRAVITY
MOMENT ENVELOPE

-1750
--

%J

TAKEOFF AND LANDING


AKEOFF ONLY

3600

:-

390C,

1.

rrn

cc,: 1

-1550

-1500

L:

1%

Hi U

1600

0,

::; ;;

[4 t:

;.

-1650

::

e:

k:::

..

i4
3400

z
D
a

-uuu

,.

CODE
3700

1450

3200
tII

a
0

-1
-J
a
0

a
a
a

3000

L+F

2900
I

1350

s
-

j.!fJ H

. .

+-.,

280C

-1300

Il

li

II
1250

-J

270C-

ILtW[120

260C

1-ft

_i

250C

240C

44,
t

tI

.
-

I I

210C

200C
70

I I

-,

tJ

:L

80

4.

NOTE

Loadiegswithirs clear area are satisfactory for


takeoff and landing except where takeoff
weight is more than the maximum allowable
landing weight of 3800 pounds In this case,
flight tone must be allowed for fuel burn-off
toat least 3800 pounds before landing
In shaded area, takeoff is approved, but com
putatioe of loading after estimated fuel burnoff must be made to verify that CO will
remain within overall envelope for landing

2300

2201-

I4

-1160

-1100

1050

1000

I
90

j 110

100

U
fH U

L1

CL

120

130

140

150

-r

44u1

950

Hi1
160

170

180

190

200

LOADED AIRPLANE MOMENT/bOO IPOUND-INCHESI

Figure 6-7.

11 September 1981

Center of Gravity Moment Envelope


6-13

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AIRPLANE CU, LOCATION


925

950

975

000

tt2N

1050 10U

::.Ni

110

MILLIMETERS AFT OF DATUM ISTA 0.0)


1150 1175 120 1225 1250 7275

1125

1325

1350

1850
rI

%4

::

00

1300

-.-.

1750

CENTEROFGRAVITY

LIMITS
jHjIt:Iif
L
j
J14 :ji:t J [H
CODE
::1_
_
t
I

3600

1650

.....

3456

::.i

TAKEOFF AND LANDING

.t

t.

TAKEOFF ONLY

1550

3306
A

-fUi

3200
-

3100

3006

tH

::
:.

1400

1400

t
E. El E

..

A
1350

2900
=

1300

1250

U
A
C

2800

2700

2500

2500
.

2400

NOTE
Loadings within clear atea are satisfactory Ion takeoff and tanding,
noccpt where takeoff wnight o snore than the nranirnunr allowable
lenoing wnight of 3800 pounds. In this caaa, flight tirtie
be
I
dl I lb
If
II
36005
d bef
I d 9

nest

In ahodnd area, taktoff it approved, but cowpuration of loading


at ret estimated fuel burn all east bn ieado to verify that CU.
will terrain within overall cnan lope for landing.

F
J

uJ

TT.

t9

.,::-

1200

1150

.
.

..

1100

--

2300

i__..____

1.3

11

fr:;::

Ill

22o0_______.__-.____t____n__

_f_n_r__l_r_._____._

2100

1050

1000

4.

36

37

38

39

44

41

42

we

44

AIRPLANE CD. LOCATfON

Figure 6-8.

6-14

45
-

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

INCHES AFT OF DATUM ISTA 001

Center of Gravity Limits

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST

EQUIPMENT LIST
The following equipment list is a comprehensive list of all Cessna equipment
available for this airplane. A separate equipment list of items installed in your
specific airplane is provided in your aircraft file. The following list and the specific
list for your airplane have a similar order of listing.
This equipment list provides the following information:
An item number gives the identification number for the item. Each number is
prefixed with a letter which identifies the descriptive grouping (exam
ple: A. Powerplant & Accessories) under which it is listed. Suffix letters
identify the equipment as a required item, a standard item or an optional
item. Suffix letters are as follows:
-R = required items of equipment for FAA certification
-S = standard equipment items
-O = optional equipment items replacing required or standard
items
-A = optional equipment items which are in addition to
required or standard items
A reference drawing column provides the drawing number for the item.
NOTE
If additional equipment is to be installed, it must be done in
accordance with the reference drawing, accessory kit instruc
tions, or a separate FAA approval.
Columns showing weight (in pounds) and arm (in inches) provide the weight
and center of gravity location for the equipment.
N OTE
Unless otherwise indicated, true values (not net change
values) for the weight and arm are shown. Positive arms are
distances aft of the airplane datum negative arms are distan
ces forward of the datum.
NOTE
Asterisks (*) after the item weight and arm indicate complete
assembly installations. Some major components of the assem
bly are listed on the lines immediately following. The summa
tion of these major components does not necessarily equal the
complete assembly installation.

H September 1981

6-15

Cc

I-i

CD

CD

U)
CD
C
C.

POWERI-LANI &

ACCE55cFIES

AS 7k

AS 3k

CONTROLLER

44.0

71.9

1.2

1.4

C 1650 040 502


C.820020 108

4.0

C1o50 060 105

3.5
2a.5

C2950010101

125041914

3.0

125041912

34.0*
35 4
37.0
37 0
27.7
19.6*
10.7
4.1
0.3
4.5

7.0

().0

26.5

13.0

44.5

44.5

4.1*
-4..
4 7

35

4.7

4 8*
15.2
10.7

8.7*

17.7*
12.5
18.5
19.5
5.0
4.8

ARM INS

10.7

1.2

4555*
12.9
4.a
3.1
17.8
1.1

WT LBS

3.5

C 161040-0 106

12011927
Cal 15050101
Cal 1503OICZ

000

TURbOChARGER LVERBUUST RELIEF VALVE

TURbOChARGER

TORbUCIIARGER WASTE GAIL VALVE ASSEMBLY

PCLISHtU

PROPELLER

A49R

SPINNER,

(MCCAULEY C29W4/14)

TUREUCHARC,ER ASSEMBLY

SPINNER,

A 41U

PRUP

A.5R

GOVERNU,

Auk

ClalO ClC 101

PROPELLER ASSEMbLY, 3 bLADE 80 INCHES


MCCAULEY hUb/bLADE OA.3s.C4O2/9ODI-AiO

A. 1k

12011891
C6l 15030103
040205
N7365

SECOND ALTRNR7OR INSJALLATION


AL1ERNATOR
oL AMP
SHEAVE PLAIE
b ELI
tRACKEl C MISC. hEMS

12506 .61
Lb 115030 102

AO9U

60 AMP

ALTERNATUR INS1ALLA1IUN, NEt CHANGE


ALTERNATOR, cb VOLT, 15 NIP. ADDED
ALTERNATOR, 6 VOLT, 60 P. DELE1EI

VULT,

A.WiU1

ALIEI&NATOR,

ENGINE AIR INDUCTION

FILTER

1CM 634433
C2945070102

SL 350C

1250051
SLICK 662

REF DRAWING

AC 5k

ENGiNE, CONTINENTAL 1510 520k SPC.6


TWO MAGNETOS WATt-i IMPULSE COUPLINGS
-OIL COOLER
TWELVE 16MM A 3/t Q3A uPARs PLtJGS
S1ARTtR, . VuLI PRESTULITE
SEMtiLY
-+ILIEK

A.

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

A 09k

A01R

ITEM NO

Li0

iC1)

cc
cc

CD

CD

CD

U)

WHEEL, URAIcE U lIRE A5SY,


WHEEL ASSY, MCCAULEY
tIRAIcE ASSY,
ERAL ASSY,
TIRE, u PLY TEU
t USE

bOik2

C.

ELEC1R1CAL SYSTEMS

MCCAULEY

000XO MAIN
(2)
(EACH)
tLEFI J
(RiGHT)
(EACH)
(EACH)

ot)OXb MAiN
(2)
40756 (EACH)
3052
CLEFT)
302 (RIGHT)
(EACH)
C EACH)

C 1 1tE ASSY, SCCXS NOSE,


MELL ASSY
TIRE, 10 PLY RAILU
I ubE

WhEEL

2POINT

L ACCESSORiES

WHEEL, t3RAtE U TIRE ASSY,


-4iHEEL ASSY, CLEVELAND
8kAst ASSY, CLEVELAND
tRA,cC ASSY, CLEVELANU
TIRE, 6 PLY RATED
TUbE

LANU1NU CEAR

B0YR-1

6.

ENO1NE PRiMER

Al 0A
MANIFOLD

UUAL VALUUM PUMP 1NSIALLA1IUN


VACUUM PUMP (2)
SUCTION OACE
RELIEF VALVE (21
OYR{J FILlER ASSY
HOSES & MiSC. HAKUWARE

A6 iA6

SYSTEM,

VACUUM SYSTEM, S1NOLL


VACUUM PUMP
t<EL1EF VALVE
suCiluN UAUL
1YRU FILlER
MISC. HEMS
PUMP

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

AblAi

ITEM NO

01o30 1880 107


C1o30050201
C2o20030202
C262C230 101

016301980607
C1630060 103
C1o30320209
C1o30320210
C2o2003O 208
2o20230 102

C tO 30010301
C1b30300315
016 3030031o
02620030408
02620230102

21010104

12011 801
C4310030102
Coo 85190101
C4820010702
120 10751

12011822
C43 10030102
C46200107O1
Coo 85400101
12010751

REF DRAWING

9.8*
3.6
4.6
1.4

41.6*
6.4
3.1
3.1
8.0
1.3

40 2 *
7.8
3.0
3.0
8.0
1.3

0.8

8.8*
3.6
0.3
0.7
0.3
2.7

4.5*
1.9
0.3
0.3
0.3
1.8

WT LBS

74*
7 4
7 4
7.4

64.3*
64.0
66.5
66.5
64.0
64.0

64.3*
64.0
66.5
66.5
64.0
64 0

5.7

1.1*
6.1
18.5
5.1
11.6
7.5

1.1*
6 1
5.1
18.5
11.6
3.3

ARM INS

cx

Li

cc

Ot1

CD

CD

CD

CD

Ci)

9)

INSIL.,

ki)

(SET UP

C57M

1LLUMINA1 INO LiOhi

UI)

LANDINO C

(rLUOU)

L1CHTS, COwL MUuNftU


416H1 6ULoS isel

UP J

1AX1

Ut

LiGhtS INS1L., WINO lIP SlROb6


-+ LASh iNt, PUwhR SUPPLY
STRUoL LiohiS IN WINO liP (SLI
WIRLNO C M1SC. hARDWARE

(SLI

C 46A

(SL7

L1(,hI 1N1ALLAliUN, UMNIfrLASM bLACji


3ACN LiOtli iN -IN TIP
i-LASF1< POweR SUPPLY (AN FIN lIP)

LIGH1

C 4 3A

wirC, UNLJEISSILJE

DEIhCIL*CS,

NAV1LA1ION

CULJRT6SY

C,OA

ul-

hLAL

P1101

05W

C3 1A

LiOtilS,

POST

INSTALLATION

1uSTRUM6N1

SNSLt

WARN1NO N5Ur
Nh1 CHANOhI

LIOhI INSIkurltNI PANLL


ELeCI KULUMINtSCCNLb

L1L,H1

HLATIN(, SYS1tM,
(wi. NEI CHAtGE)

Ci 9Ui

STALL

hA1Li P1101 0 1ALL


ruTh J40A ONLY (ruT.

LIP7ACLt

120109s

1Z120i1

12310o91

1213401
OE 4591

CDZ2CO80 10?

1.7

2.0*
1.0

2.3
0.2
0.6

226.0

30.0*
34.5

38.9*
39.9
3a.7
3b.0

22 6. 0*
253.0
253.1

51.4
0.5
NEGL

12211 032

1.0*
0.4
0.7

17.5
2.3

21010095

120i091
C6 10010102
C5945C01O
1011 291

19.5

0.5

iQi009

26.3

27.4

0.7

12600 711
Cal 1003olul
12601531

i0iUs1

4.5
216.7*
215.2
220.0

2.0
4.1*
0.2
3.3

0.4

12106211

3.0
3.4

24.6

L614001O10
Co110050 101

Ww

LuCY
11h -il0fr1 ANL

6L6VA1UC LtCkIL 7R1M INSTALLA1IUN


VUL1ALL ROuLA1UK
URlV MLTuAILjR ASSY.

OOUNU S6sV1L PLUO

C 19Ui

C 1u

CC?

CC 4is

hAVY

ULI,

ALThKNAIUk CU11OL N1F


VUL1AGE SN31i,

61It<Y,

CO 1U

3.0

22.6

CU1Y

140 Cl 0 105

S1NDARC

CLI,

6ATTh1&Y,

ARM INS

WI LBS

REF DRAWING

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

CC 1K

ITEM NO

HO)

Li0

HZ
C)

HO)

C)H

CD

CD

CD

CD

CD

Ci)

ALT jMIt:R

sL7 lMIER,

ALTiMETER, SENSITIVE
MARKING IN IERVALS

U 07k

UG 7ui

00702

21010135
21010112

ALT METER
ENCODING (REQUIRES RELUCATICri
OR REGULAR ALT1METERJ (FEEl C MILLI6ARS)

ALTITUDE ENCODER, ELIND


MOUNTIN1 NOT uIREt))
L N CO U ER

ALTiTUDE ALERI INSTALLATION


tNCUuING AL11METEK
AL1ITULE ALER1ER
%AELES C MISC. ITEMS

ELECTRIC

LLiCIR1C

Di oA3

0255

0250

LLUCI\,

CLOCK

LIG11AL RLAUUUI

(INSTRuMENT PANEL

06645 110 102

C13C6O 102

9102165
210 101310
e33 100 000

C1eOO1G 102

2101013

210101 3-

D1oA2

SIDE)

LNLUU1NG (RELU1RLS RELOCATLCXd


ALTIME7 ER)

(R.H.

ALl IMtILK
OF REGULA

1ISTRUMEN1

Cao10250 102

CoblOil0202

LbbiOli0201

1201032i

DADAi

NL

227
120110E1 1

12011001

ALT AMLTLR,

20 FEEl

MILLIBARS)

35,000 1-1,

(IEET

(WINGI

REF DRAWING

U 10A

SENSITiVE

S ENS ii A d

STAIIC AIR ALTERNATE

DO 4k
SOURCE

ikuL AIkSPtU

INUICATUR,

DO 1U

fNSIRUMENTS

ILL DETECTOR

AIRSPEED

Li.

INSTALLATiON,

INOIC A7OR,

LIL.h1

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

001i

C61A

ITEM NO

0.3

0.3

1*
2.7
0.7
0.7

1.3

1.6*

3.0

3.0

1.1

0.7

0.9

0.9

0.3

0.u

0.7

0.6

WT CBS

18.0

18.0

17.4*
17.5
18.7
15.7

15.5

16.6*

16.0

16.0

17.5

18.0

18.0

18.0

1o.5

18.0

16.0

9.6

ARM INS

zo

ZLQ

tjtIj

t:1icn

jR.

:r]

Ci)

QLTJ

Cc

CD

CD

C-

CD

Cl)

21010019

I-UEL C()IPU1ER/CLU(.R INSiALLALlUN

GAGL,

GYRO INS1L., NUN AUlUPILUI


.-tEADING lNUlLlOR
A1J1IoUL: INuICAIUR
HOSES U MISC. HARGWARt

GYRO INSTL., .C.JA NAVOMAIC W/hSI


UN SLAV hi)
ATJ1TOUL: INUILATUR
HS1 GYRO (UNSLAVED)
r.U5E U NISO. HARLiWARE

052U

055R

0b4A1

1NU.

1NSTL.,

L:Nt,INE ANALYSER

MAN1fOLU kRLSSURL: ANU RIEL FLOW

EGI

GYRO

1NSIALLA11UN,

210i00I7

375 700 105


407600104

2101001.

41010013
c.o 10760 103
407 oO0 104

446902000

Coo 107o0 103

06620 370 05

21010572

12005

GoobSOlOZil
Cbo5O10 206
Ce,b85010204

1100b774

00

-.Ob NAVUMA7IC

GYRO INSFALLA1IUN, 40Gb NAV-QMAUC WI1H


UN5LAVED HEADING INUICAIOR
TI11 OUL INDILArUR
U1RhC1iONL INUICATUR
nOSES C MISC. HARDWARE

INSTALLA1YON, 300A NAVOMATIC


AI1II000 INU1LAIUR
tiEUlNG INLICATOR tUG) (ARC)
HOSES C MISC. HARUWARE

GYRO

41010011
Cbo 10750101
0661u7o0103

ALCOR

0490

OiL PtcLSSURL:

CL,695270 101

INUILA1UR INS1 L., Et.UNOMY Mlxi oRE


t01 1NU., ALCUR 2022AY
IHLRMOCDUPCL LUAU wiRE
R0bL:, ALCCiR 01005lA.,

0495

AMMtTER

GAGE,

Cob960 101

U43R

IN LOWER PEDESIAL1

HEAD U OIL TL:MPL:RATURL:

i-ut c UAN) I1Y

CYLINLL:R

GAG,

C.005010102

GAUL:,

MAbN1C

REF DRAWING

03 8R

COMPASS,

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

041k

ITEM NO

15.1*
6.0*

16.0
15.0
11.2

15.1*

15.1*
16.0
15.0
11.2

2.3
2.7
0.4

0.4

5.3*
2.1
2.7

0.4

2.1
4.5

16.0

15.1*
7.0*

0.4

15.0
11.2

15.1*
15.0
16 0
11.2
5.5*
3.0

2.1

17.5

13.5

8.3

1.0

0.7

2.0

18.0

10.8*
16.3
0 3

0.1
0.1

18.2

0.4

18.2

20.0

20.0

ARM INS

0.7*
0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

WT LBS

Li0

LiCfl

c)
C,

CD

CD
-1

CD

CD

ci)

(,AGE,

INSTALLATION

INUICA1UR, IURN CUDRUINArOR


NAVOMAI1L 200A AND SOQA)

iNDICATOR,

INDLCA7OR,

065Ui

U8 e02

091S

E.

INDICATOR,

08 652

RECORDING

INDICAIUR,

ONLY)

(USE Mliii

(1030 VOLTS)

(24 VOLT

CAbIN ACCUMMODATILIS

VERTICAL SPEED

IURN AND HANK

TURN COORDiNATOR

7URN CUORUINATUR

TACHOMETER,

D8k

08 HSi

OUT SIDE uiR ILMPERATURE

HUURMETER

D82S

GYRO 1NS1ALLA1IUN, 4b06 NAVUMATIC


W/UNSLAVLU iS1 (use FOR H31Ab)
HORIZONTAL INDiCATOR
HS1
GYRO UNSLAVLD
HOSES C MISC. HARLWARE

GYRO INSt ALLAI1UN, ,00E 1(-CS


(Use FOR h31--3)
401
H S I
tIOSES C MISC. HARDWARE

GYRO iNSiLLAliUN, ,iOb NRVUMA7IC


W/SLAVED us! (USe FOR H31A7)
t1UR1ZUNTAL GYuU
HSI GYRU
HOSES C MISC. HARUWARL

W/SLtzU hEAUINt. INU (USE FUR HilA5)


ATff)bU YNL)1LA1OI< (HG)
uIRECfIuNL 1NUILA7UR tOG)
HOSES C MiSC. HARDWARE

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

1)61A

U64Ro

ITEM NO

06610600101

513032

423200026

C6610030506

CoblOO30 507

C6&8507O 101

21000 101

375700105
446902000

210100110

446900000

446 700000

2101001-8

375700 105
446900000

21010016

377O0 105
447600000

REF DRAWING

5*

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.3

1.3

0.6

0.1

0.5

2.3
4.5
0.4

7.2*

3.1
5.0
0.4

2.3
5.0
0.4

2.3
3.3
0.4

WI LBS

17.5

17.5

17.8

17.8

17.8

17.5

26.5

9. 8

16.0
15.0
11.2

15.1*

16.0
15.0
11.2

15.1*

16.0
15.0
11.2

15.1*

16.0
15.0
11.2

ARM INS

zo
zo

Cf)

-3

CiD
L:j

0Li

CD

CD

CD

CD

C,)

71.0

1NbOARL.
-4. 0
39.5

25.4

1214175

SLAT, PILOT AKIICULA1 IN( VERTICAL ADJUST


WiTh LttiSAR SuPPORT

E 050

E 29U

E 2%S

h27U

E27S

L2S

bELl

tSLl

0)-

15E7

OF

00

3RD ROW

2)

3RD ROw UCLuPANTS (SET U)- )

C HARNESS ASSY.,

BELT ASSY,

LAP

CUPiLOT

2ND ROW

RUM QLCUPAN1

StiLULUER hARNESS ASSY,

ASSY,

&

bELlS C ShUuLD.K hARNESS,


OCCUPANT LAP (Sti Ct- 11

BELl

bELT

1NLR1IA RbtL INS1L., 151 ROW StAl


tthLT AND SHULJLUhR HARNESS tNhT (JiG)

PILO1

E19A

hAtcNhSS ASSY,

ShOUL1JR

15S

PILOT

SbAI oELT

ASSY,

2 PLACES iku ROW bENCH

15k

SEA;,

89.1
37.0

O.o
1.6

12010571
3227 53

101.0
101.0
.2
32275

71.0
2.0

3.2
5 17t

5227 55

71.0

37.0

5227 5201

2.0

37 0
0.6

5174 o25

104.5

12141 7o

EliS

SEATS, 2 PLACES 2ND ROW

1.0

1i41 74

E0703

23.4

73.0
37.5

12 1tl 75

SEAT, CUPILOt VERTICAL ADJUST. AND


AR1ICULA11N(, wiTh LUMbAR SUPPORT

EC702

522? 5103

39.5
25.4

1214175

sEAl, COPILOT VtR7ICAL ADJUST.


AND ARTICULATLND

t:0 701

iNDIVIDUAL

39.5

24 3

1214175

SEAT, COPicUl 1-IXED HE1.,t1T, ARICULATIND


WITh LUIbAR SUPPORI

t09S

44.0
44.0

18 S
19.4

1214175

I-bb hEiGhT, ARJICULATIND

CUPILDI

SA),

E07S

VbRTILAL

23.5

INI-INIIe

12141 7.

PILOT,

UJUSTING

(1

37.0

1.5
1.5

1214121
121fi 21

RUM RMOVA8L INBOARD

ND ROW REMOVAELE

151

ARM INS

WI LBS

SbAT,

ARM RESS

E02A

c)

REF DRAWING

E05R

ARM RESTS

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

O 1A

ITEM NO

L10

II-.

63
63

9)

CD

CD

CD

CD

CI)

OXYGEN SYS7IM iNSTALLATION, AFT CYLINUIR


76 Lu. El., LAPAC11Y
-UXYGEN CYLINDER IMPlY, UVERWHELL WILL
OXYUtN (7o CU. FT., 1800 PSi i O.0b32
LtE3S/CU. T.J
OXYGEN MASKS (1 PILOT 6 5 PASSENGERS)
t-iQSES I HAfcC,**ARt

OXYGEN SYSTEM INS1ALLATYUN, OVERHEAD


CYLINULR, 7s CU. (-1 LAPAC1T Y
UAYGLN CYLiNDER, EMPTY
OXYGEN CYL1NLERS, UNOFF VALVES,
IMPlY (SIT UI )
t]AYGEN CYLiNDER, 0NOF VALVE, IMPlY
OXYGEN MASKS, 1 P1LU1 6 5 PASSENGERS
*iUSEs C MiSC. HARDWARE

bEVERAGE

IEVEXAGE

HEAL$ES1,

l-LAL*ESf,

HEAL)RESI,

SUNVISUCS

APPROACH

t47A1

147A2

I 49AI

E49t*--2

150A

ES 1A

15 A

155S

159A

RUW

RE1RRUIASLE,

RETRACTAULE,

UI- )

(LACH)

(EACH)

(tACH)

PLATE HULULK

(sit

D ROW

ND

ROw

HULLER,

I-RUNT

LU

CUP hLDER,

PILOT
CuPiLOT

07150831

1414087

1215073

1215073

1215073

2011 *22

0.1

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.1

0.1

8.2
1.5
6.6

C15600301Li3
ClooOOS
120112ki

9.6
22.5

54.6*

1.5
2.1

6.3

23.7

33.6*

3.0

C1&b0O10605
C1&60030102

12011 oo5

C1o6005

0166001

120 11664

12011663

01010655
2.3

sYs7tM INS1ALLAJION

kh CAbiN DULW, NET


ChANLE

PARTIAL OArGtN

W1NUUw,

UPENAILI

137A

147S

1.5
3.0

PLACE

LEATHER SEAlS FULL CL.VERING, 6 PLACE


(ADDS WEIDHi OF 0.5 Lb. PER SEAT)

2.0

E35C2

1. 15 150

LEAThER SEATS PART COVERIN(s, 6

CHANGE

WT lBS

135Ui

NIl

REF DRAWING

UPHOLS1ERY,

LEATHER SILiEPANELS

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

E3eO

ITEM NO

22.0

33.0

112.0

82.0

48.0

17.0

17.0

60.6
67.2
41.3

52.0
56.3

55.4*

67.2
84.0

116.0
116.0

111.7*

71.3

47.0

73.1

73.1

65.0

ARM INS

fl

0)51

Si

0)

zt.o
zo

irJ

63

t-4

CD

CD

CD

CD

Co

t-LiC,hT INtO cNUWN

ICING CONU11ION

FIGS

PiLOTS CHECK

LIST

SFCWED

PLACARD,

STALL C GEAR WARNANU ELAC,SEUX tkJ1RE5


ITEM h61R FUr AUUIbLt OPERATION)

ED 103

F07R

0.5
0.3

NE GL
21050154

NE GL

12707 332

050508715

DAY

OLkAfiuNAL LiMITATIONS IER,

PLACARD,
NIGHT

E01u

NEOL

0505Cb7f 4

DAY

UPERAIIUNAL

PLCARb,
N1GHI

FO 1uI

LIMITATIONS VFR,

LPERATIUNAL

PLACAI(U,

NEGL

26.0

050508713

C MANUALS

1250800

LY

WARNINGS

EXHAUST

NE GL

10.4
14.2
31.6

20.2

7.3

0.7

WI LBS

LiMiTATIONS VFR,

PLACARDS,

Eelk

F.

ENGINE

SYSTEM

E9.R

1-LAIINU

12707471

LUNThUL WhhL ALL PoRPUSL NET CHANGE


1NLLUDb MIC. S1TCH, MAP L1G-tT, AUXI
LIARY M1L. JALc WiTh HIRiNG

9S

CAbIN

1201162
C413001U 113
04130100101
04130110101

AIR CCLIIiuNLNG SYSTEM INSTL.


CUMPe.ESSUR C CLOTH
(.0NUNSER CUlL
-VA?URATOI% CUlL t & CLI.MCR
-tiOS5, DXES C MISC. ITEMS

E t FA

12c0004b

12151 711

DUAL CONTROL INS1ALLAFIUN, RIGhT SIDE


WHEEL, PLUALS C iDE 8RAKCS

L,UrU NT

REF DRAWING

07001 64s

8AGGAGE Tie

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

5TREICi-triNS1L., LUSIUMAIR LH0XD)


(USE ALFOAL 1N5TMLLU wT L ARM CHANtL
(NOT ETURY INSTALLhO)

Eb5S

ITEM NO

ZQ 5

71.5

49.1

172.3

31

50.9*

14.1

138.0

ARM INS

1C]

r-3

CD

CD
1

CD

CD

U)

12O000
12040443

12000281

TOW

PAiNT, UVbiALL EXThRIOR


UVERMLL WhilE EASE
COLURID S1R1PE

]ACI. PADS,

LUN1RuL LA8LS, CURRuSIO RCSIS1ANI


(iNCLUDED 0510165 & 12605051 (NET ONG)

622S

625S

625S

031U

wiNG,

STAbiLiZER C

SBCMN,

Uk

VU FIN

DECE YSTEM,

GbAi

PILO1

PEDAL EXILNSIUN, RUDDER REMUVABLE


(S1 CF 2) (SIOWADLE, INSTALLED ARM
NOl FACTURY 1NS)ALLEU)

UN BACK

Go7A

MOUNTED

XIIN6UiSt-lK, HANL 1YPE

FiRE

WR1JING 1ABLE,
COPiLOT SEAl

(1NSIALLtU ARM ShOWN)

655A

S1uwU

TELESCUPE hANDLE

GolA

3Ak,

05000413

STA1LILER AAS11JN OUTS

(SET

12011971

O5O108k

17150721

12011771

12b04177

12011313

019A

10)

12o01001
OF

SIAIIL U1SChIkbRS 1NSTL.

iNTERNAL

CORROSION

6iSA

G1oi

PRUOF1NO,

120U190

0712433

MOISI1NO RINOS, AIPLANE


(NOr FAC1URY INS IALLDJ

ShOWN)

L(juIPMENT

607A

AUX1L1AY

D12713Ph

REF DRAWING

TOw riUDic (INS1ALLhU ARM


(NOT 1-AC1ORY INS1ALLEU)

C,.

PILOTS OAliN6 HAN6SDOK APi FAA


APPRuVO A1ICAbl FLI6hI MANUAL (SlOwED)
(LOCA7D Al bA.Js OF PILOT sEAr)

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

1,04A

ITEM NO

29.2*

2.3

5.5

5.5

NEOL

0.2

13.2*
12.2
0.6

2.0

2.7

0.4

10.0

1.0

0.5

1.5

WT LBS

8.0

bl.5

35.0

54.9

92.1*
91.5
103.7

138.0

202.0

130.5

70.0

38.5

231.0

49.5

ARM INS

U)U)

zq
zo

U)0

U)

-jCi)
U)

CU)

I-

CD

CD

CD

ft

CD

Ci)

1.7

42.0

3.5

HO 1Ai

AViONICS C AU7OPILOTS

CESSNA 300 AUf INS1ALLATION W/BFO


RECEIVER, R546E
INDICATOR, 1N34oA
LOOP ANTENNA
SENSE ANTENNA INSTL.
WIRING C HARDWARE

H.

STEP, RH SiDE, RETRACTA8LE

2 1010 1912

WINDSHIELD ANTIICE SYSTEM INSTALLATION


(USED FOR J46A KNOWN iCING CONDITIONS)

G82A2

CABIN

2.7

1201060-4
15134606

WINDSHIELD ANTI1LL SYSTEM


-REMOVABLE HEATING PANEL
(INSTALLED ARM SHOWN)

682Ai

696A

17.1

2.1*
1.9

1201188i
C16502001O1
040 106
C40 187

DE1CE SYSTEM, 3 BLADE PROPELLER


TiMER
SLIP RING
6R05H BLOCK
WiRING C HARDWARE

391015910
412400001
409801001
410001000
396 01152

12115002

0.3
1.6

0.9
1.4

3.3

7.5*

5 1*
0.9
1.7
0.3
2.2

1.7
12.6
13 6

0.4

25.4*
12.5
16.0
39.8
142.4
22.7

9.2*
9.0

37.0
36.2
21.2

9.0

22.0*

37.3

73.1

90.5

10.0

56.3*

28.3*

12011973
302 60003
302 35701
Z5D 505101

48.9

4.2

12011972

619A

43.0

73.7
230.2

10.0
90.5

ARM INS

DE1CE SYSTEM, WING L STABILIZER


(INCLUDED DUAL VACUUM SYSTEM)
TIMER
FLOW VALVES (SET OF 3)
-CEICE BOOTS (SET OF 4)
HOSES C MISC. HARDWARE

12.6
0.8
13 7

0.4

WT LBS

676A3

505 1015

255505101

30235701

30260003

REF DRAWING

DEICE, PARTIAL PLUMBING

(INCLUDED DUAL VACUUM PUMP C USE W/]46A)


I IMER
FLOW VALVES (SET OF 3)
CEICE BOOTS (SET OF 5)
-CEICE VERTICAL FIN
HOSES C MISC. HARDWARE

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

G76A2

ITEM NO
Q

Li0

Li

trJz

LTJ0)

CD

CD

CD

C.

CD

Ci)

RML INSIALLA11UN, wIlMOUl CKS L.ATUM


IROS Abe-, SLAVEU SYST. C SLAVFO
AUUP1LUT bt 1NSTALLU
GYROS
w/bOUT Sh<Ae- lYPE SLAVED ACCS5.)
KMI INUICA1UR, 1N4ti4A IWAL NLDLE1
-KEJ7E GUN1UMLTER IRMI 1ND. DRIVER)
U YNAV ERl ER
AUI- INbILA7Ui, UIzLtTtU
WiRiNG C MISC. ITEMS

AMfM SIEREG C LASSE1IL RECEIVER/PLAYER


INSTALLATION WiTh 2 MEAUSETS
CEIVER/7APE PLAYER INSIL.
HEAUSL1S t2 LISTtU, t MAY LE USEU
ANT., wIRING C MISC. HARDWARE

MC 1A

h0A

COLLINS bMLC INS1ALLA7ION


1NLIGAUR, IN450C
TRANSCEIVER, TCR4t1
ANTENNA, AN1tSl
WIRING . hARDWARE

CULLINS ANS.51C RNAV iNSTALLATiON


INUICATUR, iN4tAR, AUDLU
INUICATUR, 1NiSA ULLE7EU
COMPU7LF( R1eA\I, ANS351C
(OULING, WIRING C hARDWARt

MG A2

HG 5Ak

INiL.
300 UK 400 NAV/WM
CONleUL UNIT, L4A
REtJTL TRANSCEIVER UNI7
A NT EN N A
KEiJfE MOUNIING RAL1c
wiRING t MISC. MAROWARE

CESSNA tUU LIML

hOtA--1

CESSNA tOG LI- iNSTALLATiON


tCIhR W/DUAL LiNERS, k4%bA
jNLdCA7U, 1N3+L.A
LOOP AN1LNN%
ShNSE ANTENNA INSIL.
vIkINfs C hAKDWAJt

EQUIPMENT liST DESCRIPTION

MC ilii

ITEM NO

91U2148
439 1GIOCC
to8 601000
622 57 9001

9102 i15
6225588001
b22361000 I
b224O1 1001

16.4*
15.5
15.5
15.5
19.1

3.6*
1.0
1.6
0.9

15c.9*
14.0
173.4
173.0
155.3

132.1*
14.0
173.4
173.0
173.4
71.1

15.0
37.0
57..

3j.Q*

9.2*
0.6
5.3
0.2
3.1

14.6*
1.6
9.0
0.2
0.4
3.4

2.7
2.0
0.7

9i02111
C59b5.s20101
9101678
440201000
440000000
i29 .00 000
440880000

5 4*

5.4
0.9
0.6

17.0
15.0
97.0
16.0
tO. 6

69.2*

8 7*

1.3

22.7

2.1

25.7*
12.5
lb. 0
39.8
142.4

3.3
0.9
1.4
0.3
1.6

ARM INS

77*

WI LBS

102 095

500404
419500001
475 500 COO
tO9eOlOOi

+et

91G2 04

39101608
430 9c1 028
409 601001
tIUOG1 000
39D 01152

REF DRAWING

o
Ci)j
H

ZQ

CTJ

otI
U)

cc
cx

CD

CD

C.

CD

U)

cx

MUuN7

(NET

hO 6A2

INLILA7UR,
IN385A

DELEJED

REF DRAWING

48 o02 200

39101 9b2

b8 sOI 000

4o6601200

39101961

42100{I 000
tsti7O1300
46670-2300
SZ173i

39101 51la

.2 1 00U 000
S4 ?.:1
o0-2 000
4686 61 000

39I0119

a7CiOc

4o8 801310

441000000
t4091-0000

3910158

1.1 000000
10 000
*39101000
468 o01 000

91Oi 68

000

NAy. INU. MRLILS EXChANGE w/VQR1LS


(USE rl/rlulM1 u c-c07A2, RT. NE1 0MG)
ARC/ILS 1NUICAIUR, INj8bAC ADDED

VOW/cuD

RAcIAL CENtERING)

NAy. INU ARC/LDL tACHANGE w/VURLOC


(USE /h2A1 L h22A2, wT. NET CHD)
-ARC/LUC 1NU1ttUR, IN365AC MOOED

MC 6Ai

(AU1U

CESSNA .c GL1UE$LOPE INSIL., 1N46SAC ILS


EXCr, WJiNtE5AC VOR/LOC (151 c 2ND UNIT)
uL1ULSLORE RECEiVER, R.1Sh
VUR/LUC INDICATOR, iit5AC DELE7O
VUR/ILS INDICATuR, 1NlbbC ADDED
COUPLER ANNNI IIT CHANGE)
WiRiNG C MISC. HARDWARE

ADDED
DELETED

CHANGE)

vUk/ILS NU1CA1UR, IN3bA


VOR/cUL INUICA1UR, iN3bA
RIRINC, C Misc. HARDwAR

ANTcNN

1NSIL., 1N306A ILS


tLjU bLIUSLUPt
W/IN3J5M .UR/LDC (151 C 2ND uNiT)
IDfz5L0E RtCEIVLR, R4,3t

-tUUPLER

EXCrYG

CESSNA

1TMS

CELEIED

1Nit..6AC ADDED

MOUNt

1NuiAIOt%,

WiRING C MISC.

cJAV/LUH

INDiCATOR,

..UMPU1R

CESSNA .CO RNAV With INIC+EAC EAChANCE


lAVA) LA6L .1Ih tOO NAV/COM ONLY)
NAV LUMPUIEc, RN4IEA

Ok/cUC 1NO1CATQI, IN4tAR AUU1)


NAV/CUM INUICATUk, IN385A DELEtED
wIRIND t MIC. HARUWARE

-COMPUThR

CSSNA .DC RN.V., .UC DR 4CC NMV/COM


wiTh 3Cc) SLAIEs INuICAIURS EXtMANGE
sNV CuM(Ur, RNt78A

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

h07A2

hC 7Ai

H0A-3

ITEM NO

1.8

0.1*

1.6

1.8

0.2*

2.1
1.9
2.0
NEGL
1.9

4.1*

2.1
NEOL
1.7
1.8
1.9

4.1*

3.6
0.6
1.5
1 9
0.5

0.8
1.0
1.6
0.6

4.6*

WT LBS

16.5

16.5*

16.5

io.5

16.5*

47: d

99.3
16.5

72.5*

16.5
16.5
47.8

99.3

72.5*

14.2
14.2
16.5
16.5
10.9

13.6*

14.2
14.2
16.5
16.5
13.4

13.8*

ARM INS

C.

HoD

Li0

C
Li

0)

i:jU)

CD

I.
CD

CD

CD

ft

CD

U)

WEATHER RADAR INSIL., RCA SCW1


INDICATOR (VIEWING SCREEN)
RADAR ANTENNAtRANSCEIVER
RADOME C W1Nf, POD ASSEMBLY
CAbLES & MISC. ITEMS

CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER INSTALLATION


TRANSCEIVER, RT459A
A N1ENNA
-WIRiNG
MISC. HARDWARE

H15A3

H lbA

C w)

WEAtHER RADAR INSIL., ELNOIX RDRloO (DOW)


INDICAIUR (VIEWING SCREEN), IN1SZA
RADAR ANTENNAtRANSCEIVER, ARTloT.
RADOME C WiNG POD ASSEMBLY
CAbLES C MiSC. liENS

H15A2

(B

WLATHR CULUR RADAR INSTL.t bENDiX RDRl


INUICATuR (VIEwiNG SCREEN), IN202oA
RADAR ANTENNATRANSCEiVER, ARTAol
RAWML C WINL, POD ASSEMbLY
-.AbLES C MISC. ITEMS

hiSAi

II

91O 2252
1Ot01d4OO
104 018 oO0
104010300

RADAR ALT )MEtR 1NSALLATION


I NOIC AILR
VOLt. C0NVERR
ANTENNA
W1RINt, C HARDWARE

H14A

3910128b
414701028
429400000

39102073
MIS 852561
MI 585204
21703001

39101 793
40009465201
40010186101
21703001

391020714
.00 12942601
4001018o105
217 03001

3910104
424105 128
39001th2

39101 5b19
99b lb
990b1
99391
3900117I
s9501c9

408002 COO

CL5SA ,GO MARKEI ELACON INSIALLAIUN


REMUt RECEiVER, R402A
ANT. INSTL., PLUSH MID IN TAiL
-%1RiNC t MISC. ITbMS

ASb125

UbLLTEU

H 13A

IN3bA

REF DRAWING

SUNAIR 31N(,L Slob bANU INS1L.,


ANTbNNA LOAD bUX
tRANSCLVER $Sb
fQWbR SUPPLY C SHUCK MOUNT
HF ANIbNNA INSIL.
WIRIMO C MISC. ItEMS

VUR/ILS INDICA(OR,

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

Hi iA

ITEM NO

(N

3.7*
2.8
0.2
0.?

22.6*
4.6
8.9
6.1
3.0

23.5*
5.1
9.3
6.1
3.0

27.9*
9.5
9.3
6.1
3.0

3.5*
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.0

2.5*
0.7
0.9
0.9

23.9*
4.9
5.3
8.5
0.3
4.9

1 7

WT LBS

14.8*
11.5
60.S
14.5

31.9*
12.2
34.4
43.9
30.1

31.5*
12.2
34.4
43.9
30.1

2 8.4*
12.2
34.4
43.9
30.1

28.9*
18.7
14.6
46.7
28.5

8 8.0*
11.5
206.9
51.6

113. 7*
159.4
13.5
159.7
173.4
78.5

16.5

ARM INS

LJ

zt:io
zo
-C)

5:jL:rj

t:rj

U)

0rj

CD
CD

CD
1

CD

CD

Ci)

C.3

CESSNA 4UC, NAV/COM w/R1.8S8 TRANSCE19ER


RE(UIRESh,.A 1U 81 OPERATIONAL 151 UlIT
H7i To bh UPERA1IONAL ZN).) UNiT
RECLIVERIRANSCEIVER, R1AbSb
VUR/LUC INLICAUR, IN385A
liR1NC, C HARDWARE

EM1RGLKY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER


1RANSMi11k, U C M DMtLTo1
ANTENNA, CAELLS C HARDWARE

H 22A.

H28Ai

H3 1Ai

NAVOMAI 1).. ZUUA

AF295b

INSTL.,

CESSNA 400 NAV/LUM 7t0 Oh COM INSJALLA11LJI


is; & 2ND UNiTS wf.O0 SERItS iNDiCATORS
RElU1RES--h3.A 10 OPLRATt 1ST UNIT
h37A 10 OPERATE 2ND UNIT
RLCLIVtRTRANSCE1VER, RT485A
VOR/LOC INCACAIOR, IN485AC
MUL.f4T, MitINC, C MISC. HARDWARE

HZ ZA3

EMEROENCY LOCATOR TRNSMIT1ER


(USED IN CANADA)
TRANSMITTER, U C M DMLLI6IC
ANTENNA, CAbLES C HARDWARE

CESSNA 400 NAV/&CJM 720 OH CUM INSTALLAT1Ct


151 0 2ND ONuS w/.OL SERiES INDICATORS
REUIRESh34A TO OPERATE 1ST uNit
H..,7A 1U UPERATt 2ND UNIT
ktCIVtR1RANSCE1VER, RT-45A
VUR/LUC iNDiCATOR, IN385A
MOJ1T, WIR1ND C MISC. HARDWARE

H 2 2A2

H2 8AZ

CESSNA 300 NAV/CUM 720 OH 0DM INST4LLATLW


151 & D UNiTS w/300 SERIES INDiCATORS
REJUiRESH34A TU OPERATE 1ST UNIT
h37A 10 OPERATE 2ND UNIT
{&ECEIVERIRANSCE1VER, RT385A
90R/LUC INO1CATOK, IN385A
-MOLKIT, WLRIN(., C MISC. HARDWARE

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

H2 2Ai

ITEM NO

13.7*
12.5
16.5
10.7
15 9. 0*
160.1
142.5

8.3*
5.5
1.6
1.2
35*
3.3

492501000
468601 000
047041915
589511Oil?
C5895110109

3910162la

C5U95110113
C589511O 109

0.704 19la

391022212

8.2*

3.3
0.2

35*

160.1
142.5

159. 0*

13.5
16.5
10.7

5.5
1.8
1.2

47.a0lO00
468701300

0.2

13.7*

s910189

473601000
468601000

8.5*

16.5
10.7

13.5

13.7*

ARM INS

13.5
16.5
10.7

8.3*

5.5
1.6
1.2

WT CBS

5.5
1.6
1.2

3910189

.68 601000
395012933

460 aGi 000

3910183

REF DRAWING

LiCJ)

Cn

-Ci)

0
Si0

Si

C)

CD

CD

CD

CD

0)

CESSNA .005 NAVUMA[IC INSTALLATION


WITHOUT RADIO (lAR1lAL 1NSTL.)
AiLERON ROLL ACTUAIOR, PA495i
ELEVATOR PuGh ACTUATOR, PAt952
C U NTR U CL ER
-CUMPUERAMPLIFIER
ALT1TUCE SENSOR
P11CM TRiM ACTUATOR
1ib4-A. GYRO, NUNSLAVEC
A01Al VACUUM SYSTEM
ACCESS uNl7 iNSTALLATION

H3

1A4

CESSNA tUOb li-CS W/SLAVEU hSI INSTALLATiON


CESSNA 40 Lb li-CS W/ALI1JOUE ALERT OPTION
CONTROLLER
MODE SELEL7UR
PITCH ACTUA7CR
ALTITUGE SENSOR
CUMPU1 LRAMi-L1FIEK
PITCri TRIM ACTUATOR
ROLL ACIUATUR
--1J04A-7 GYRO i-UK li-CS
AolAi VACUUM SYSTEM
CONVERTER INSIL.
VOR/ILS 1NUICATUR DELETED
i-LOX LiETECTOR 1NS1L.
COiO
OAITERY CHANGED 10 HEAVY DUTY
FiLTER, WIKIN(S & MISC. iTEMS
016A4 ALTITUDt ALERT

H3 1A3

(NET L.HG)

NAVOMAIIC 300A INSIL.., AF---395A


W1N(, StRVU iNSTALLATION
CUNTkULLAMLIi-IER INSIL., C395A
004A-S OYRO INSTALLATiON
A01A1 VACUUM SYSTEM
o38Oi TURN 000RU1NATUR iNtl Cl-tO)
WIRING C MISC. ITEMS

CONTROLLER INSTALLATION
-{)i8U1 1uRN CUUKOINAIUR
-iIN0 SERVO INSTALLATiON
WIRiNG C MiSC. HARDWARE

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

H3 IA2

ITEM NO

458 502 909


458503912
379601026
426800007
444000000
444 3 03 025
21010014
12011822
39302001

3910154129

391 OZlo5

41u901018
427100000
458503912
.44000000
42080-0007
444303025
456502909
210 10016
12011822
39402361
468 701300
39402002
(.6140010106

391019b5

3910163jo
12002377
39301457
21010013
120 11822
423200028

393 0i,47
t2s20-0026
12002377

REF DRAWING

4.2
4.2
1.6
5.6
2.3
2.2
5.4
.5
1.0

47.3*

61.6*
65.7*
1.3
2.6
4.2
2.3
5.6
2.2
4.2
8.5
4.5
1.1
1.7
0.8
2.0
23.2
4.1

18.6*
4.6
2.2
5.3
4.5
NE OL
2.0

1.4
NEOL
4.6
2.2

WT LBS

56.2
154.7
18.0
98.0
97.5
220.5
15.1
1.1
15.0

65.8*

98.0
16.5
44.9
3.0
43.7
17.4

L.A

97.5
98.0
220.5
56.2
15.1

154.7

57.2*
54.3*
16.5
13.0

48.1

24.9*
56.6
14.5
15.1
1.1

56.6
42.1

14.5

ARM INS

CJ)jZ

ZtC)

trJ

a)

C)
0L]

CC

CD
1

CD

C.

CD

Ci)

00

BASIC AViONICS i1 INSTALLATION


RELUIRa) W/iSl uNIT NAy/GUM RADIO INSTL.
-MiCROPHONE INSTL., HAND HELD

iNTERCOM SYS1EM iNSTALLATION


REVSEb5A1 DUAL CONTROL WHEEL
jACK FUR 1NEkPH0NE, R.H.
1158A HIAUPrIONE C MIKE ()
INtERCOM, P/C BOARD ASSY.
CONTROL WHEEL 1NSTL., R.H.

1133A

CESSNA 40Cb NAVUMATIC W/SLAVEU 1151


lNtj., 1NLLUOtS 7HE 1-ULLUWING iTEMS
t-i31A--4 400b NAVQMATIC, PARTIAL
CONVERTER INS1ALLATIUN
SLAViNG ACCESSORY
FLUX DE1EC1OR INSIL.
O6,A4 GYRO i I-i31A, UELTED
{J4At GYRO SLAVEL) 1151, ADDED
-(.AbLS SLAVED 1151
VURILS INDiCATOR, DELETED

113 iA?

H . -

CESSNA 4OCiiS NAyUMAuL WINUNSLAVED hSl


IND., iNCLUDES ThE FOLLOWING ITEMS
1131A4 %OUb NAyUMAuL, PARTIAL
CONVERTER INSTALLATION
Oo*A4 bYRU 41 113iA4, DELETED
64AE CYRU UNSLAVED 1151, AOD[)
CABLbS UNLAVED hSI
VUR/ILS INDiCATOR, OELETEL)

hEAVY UuW
lTtMS

To

ri3 1Ab

bAI1tY ChAN(E
1R1NO C MISC.

CESSNA +OuL NVuM?T1C, SLAVL UEAD1N(


IND., INCLULJES ThE 1-ULLOWINC? liENS
h31A C0b NAyUMAuL, PARTIAL
SLAVEU ACCCSSURV ti/b BOuT STRAP)
FLUX uTtCiUR 1NSIL.
U4--A4 bYRD Al r131A-4, UBLE1ED
1JbrA5 CYRU SLAVU, AOL)w
-C.AbLES SLAVED

001U
1-1L7LR,

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

H31A-5

ITEM NO

39701431

391018611

397 01505
C9o5310 101
39701491
397015312

s9102101 2

3910154129
394 02361
394 02291
s94 0200 2
210 10014
210 10018
39 01393
4b701 300

391019117

39023o1
21010014
210100110
395013929
48B701300

3910 154129

391019725

39 10
394 02291
39402002
ciOIUOI4
21010017
395013925

i9 rO 1979

C140010 108

REF DRAWING

1.1

0.3

8 2*

0.3
2.2
0.2
0.3

2.9*

0.6
0.8
4
7.7
2.1
1.?

47 3

52.5*

_5

47 3
1.1
4
7.2
1.6
1

50.1*

1.1

+7 3
0.8
0.8
-5.4

50.4*

2.0
14.1

WT LBS

15.1

14.0

17.9

56.3*

19.0

18.0
13.0

15.0*

40.0
16.5

65.8
98.0
49.4
44.9
15.1

64.4*

65.8
96.0
15.1
15.1
55.5
16.5

bb.0*

65.8
49.4
44.9
15.1
15.1
8.3

3.0
58.1

ARM INS
L:rj

QH

Cz

I-.

Cc

CD

CD

C.

CI)
CD

C59o5 10ti 101


591020819
393 02171
395012910
395012947
39601420
39601 1 1
397013a.

GEAR WARNING G CAbIN SPEAKER

AVIONICS

H61R

OPTION A (EXPORT
ELOWEK RADIO GUUL1NG INSIL.
OMNI ANINNA C,8Lt INSIL.
GOM ANTENNA G1bLL INSTL.
-OMNI ANTENNA iNSTALLATION
OM ANTtNNA INSTALLAJ ION
-t-IEAIJPHUNE INSTALLATiON

PARTIAL

C 965 3 10 101

hEADS buM 1CRUPHUN,

MS bA

ONLY

ITEM)

HEADSETbOOM MICRUP,-tUNL CUMbINAULt4

H55A

(STOwED

BALANGED LOOP ANTENNA


NSTALLATIUN
(EXCHANL,D w/OMNI ANT.) (WI. NET Glib.)
bALANCED LOUP ANtENNA
OMN1 ANT. Kit, DELLIEG
M15&. HARDWARE

H9A

PADDED

C59o530 101

ADF ANIIPRECiI ANTENNA

H 4b A

C59b5050 101
C59 s5040 101

91tb1 5t139

391015471

396011114
396 01132
395012946
39301867
39601393

39101659

393 02171 ,2
39401481
395012947
9501Z91O
39601426
39601131
397 01521
39701384
39301866
39801393
393017810
3940%t7 3

REF DRAWING

CUM ANIENNA L UMNI CUUPLR KIT 1NSIL.


R&Lu1RLD W/NO jNll NAV/CUM RADIO INSTL.
OMNf ANT. COuPLEt INSIL.
VHF UM AN). INS1L.
VHF GUM ANT. GAbLE 1NSIL., RH WiNG
2ND NAy/GUM 7KANChIVER Ku
AUAPTLR ANTENNA (DELETED)

RADiO CUOLING INSTL.


NOISE 1-ILJEk INSIL.
-VHF GUM ANT. CAt3LE 1NSTL., LH WING
VHF NAV AN. GAtLE INSIL.
Vr,t- UMNI ANT. INSTALLA1ICN
VHF GuM ANT. INSIL., LI-i
AUDIO CUN1RUL ANL C WiRING
HEADPhONE 1NS7ALLAIIUN
1ST N/C TANSGt1tR KIT INStL.
ADAPTER AN1. 1NS1ALLA7ION
buS bAR INSTALLATION
i-USE hOLDER INS1L.

EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

M3?A

ITEM NO

4.0*
1.1
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.2

1.9

1.1

0.3

2.3
0.4
0.3

2.2*

0.7

0.2
0.5
0.5
0.1
0 2

1.1*

1.1
0.1
0.6
0.8
0.5
0.5
1.8
0.2
0.1
0.2
NEGL
NEOL

WT LBS

50.7
14.5

250.5

76.2*
12.7
132.6
43.3

iS. 8

14.0

16.1

231.1

243.0

245.4

244. 0*

94 7

5.0
50.7
43.3
18.5
7.0

44.0*

14.5
18.5
7.0

12.0

50.7

12.7
2.0
43.3
132.6
250.5

ARM INS

LiiLi]

Lii

1,3

Ci)

-ia)

QLTJ

I-.

Cc

CD

CD

ft

CD

Ci)

NAVtC li4STL., (AVAILAbLE Will KiT)


1122Ai
00 NAV/COM VOR/LQC, 2ND UNIT
2ND UNiT
HO7A2 t0U GLIDESLOPu

J 04A

SPECiAL OPTiON PACKAGES

THE TURbO CEN1uR1uN Ii KIT C(SISTS UI


THE 1-OLLOWINC, 1TEM
A6iA
VACUUM SYSTEM (RU FR GYRO)
(..U7A
GROUND SERVICE RECEPTACLE
L19Ut HEAEC P1701 C STALL StNSUR
(Wi. NET CHANGE)
INSTRUMENT POST LIGHTS
C22A
C:31A
COUR7ESY NiRANLE LiGHTS
CtOA
NAViGATION LiGHT DEFECTORS
UMNI I-LAShiNG bEACON
C.A
0010
IRuE A1KSPbED 1NU. (NET CHG?
0b4Ai GYRO INSTALLA11ON
u07U% VER1. ADJUST RH SLAT (NET CHG)
bbSA
DUAL I-LIGHT CONTROLS
bibA
SIA1IC UISCHARCERS (SET OF 10)
EX7ER1OR STYLiNG (NET ONG)
G45S
HOtAi
00 AUI- INSIL., RS4oE
HibA
+UO TRANSPONDtR, RT459A
h22M1 300 NAy/CON VOR/LOC, 151 UNIt
ty28A1 t.L.T. INSTALLATION
H31AL %OOA NAyUMAuL
HkA
bASIC AVIONICS KIT

i.

91C183
391015724

2101009i
122 i10.i2
122 12011, 2
120 1049i
0ii08I1
21010011
1214175
126 00048
140iii3
120 40s44
391015910
391012816
91018332
047041915
91 016216
391018611

120 11b22
127 0621 1
12010931

8*

16.0*
8.3
4.1

7.5
3.7
8.3
3.5
8.2

5.8
7.3
0.4

0.5
0.5
NEGL
1.6
0.1

4.5
2.0
0.2

65

13.7
72.5

25:4
1k. 8
13.7
159.0
44.5
56.3

18.0
15.1
25.1
14.1
130.5

226.0

19.5
51.4

1.1
4.5
Zb.3

36.6*

22.5

0.2

39102055

76.2
5.0
50.7
43.3

S .3*
i-.0
0.2
0.5
0.6

REMUIE TRANSPUNUEK bENT SWITCH


(IN PiLOT CONTROL WHEEL)

17.9

0.3

39701431
39102 u2 C
31O2Obi9
39o 011114
39c, 01132
395012946

INSTALLATiON

ARM INS

WI LBS

REF DRAWING

AVIONiCS PR71AL OP1IUN C (EXPORT ONLY)


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ANT. COUPLER I-UK ND NAV RECEIVER
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EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

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EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION

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CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS
DESCRiPTiONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Airframe
Flight Controls
Trim Systems
Instrument Panel
Ground Control
Wing Flap System
Landing Gear System
Landing Gear Lever
Landing Gear Position Indicator Lights
Landing Gear Operation
Emergency Hand Pump
Landing Gear Warning System
Retractable Cabin Entry Step
Baggage Compartment
Seats
Seat Belts And Shoulder Harnesses
Seat Belts
Shoulder Harnesses
Integrated Seat Belt/Shoulder Harnesses With Inertia Reels
Entrance Doors And Cabin Windows
Control Locks
Engine
Engine Controls
Engine Instruments
New Engine Break-In And Operation
Engine Oil System
ignition-Starter System
Air Induction System
Exhaust System
Fuel Injection System
Cooling System
Turbocharging System
11 September 1981

Page
7-3
7-3
7-8
7-8
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-10
7-11
7-fl
7-11
7-12
7-13
7-13
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-15
7-15
7-17
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-19
7-20
7-21
7-21
7-22
7-22
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-24

7-1

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page
Propeller
Fuel System
Hydraulic System
Brake System
Electrical System
Master Switch
Avionics Power Switch
Ammeter
Alternator Control Unit And Low Voltage Warning Light
Circuit Breakers And Fuses
Ground Service Plug Receptacle
Lighting Systems
Exterior Lighting
Interior Lighting
Cabin Heating, Ventilating And Defrosting System
Oxygen System
Pitot-Static System And Instruments
Airspeed Indicator
Vertical Speed Indicator
Altimeter
Vacuum System And Instruments
Attitude Indicator
Directional Indicator
Suction Gage
Stall Warning System
Avionics Support Equipment
Avionics Cooling Fan
Microphone-Headset Installations
Static Dischargers

7-2

7-38

11 September 1981

r)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

INTRODUCTION
This section provides description and operation of the airplane and its
systems. Some equipment described herein is optional and may not be
installed in the airplane. Refer to Section 9, Supplements, for details of
other optional systems and equipment.

AIRFRAME
The airplane is an all-metal, six-place, high-wing, single-engine
airplane equipped with retractable tricycle landing gear and designed for
general utility purposes.
The construction of the fuselage is a conventional formed sheet metal
bulkhead and skin design referred to as semimonocoque. Incorporated into
the fuselage structure are two large cabin door openings and a baggage
door opening. Major items of structure include a forward carry-through
spar and a forged aluminum main carry-through spar to which the wings
are attached. The lower aft portion of the fuselage center section contains
the forgings and structure for the retractable main landing gear.
The full cantilever wings have integral fuel tanks and are constructed
of a forward spar, main spar, conventional formed sheet metal ribs and
aluminum skin. The integral fuel tanks are formed by the forward spar,
two sealing ribs, and an aft fuel tank spar forward of the main spar. The
Frise-type ailerons and single-slot type flaps are of conventional formed
sheet metal ribs and smooth aluminum skin construction. The ailerons are
equipped with ground adjustable trim tabs on the inboard end of the
trailing edge, and balance weights in the leading edges.
The empennage (tail assembly) consists of a conventional vertical
stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator. The vertical stabiliz
er consists of a forward and aft spar, formed sheet metal ribs and
reinforcements, four skin panels, formed leading edge skins, and a dorsal.
The rudder is constructed of a forward and aft spar, formed sheet metal ribs
and reinforcements, and a wrap-around skin panel. The top of the rudder
incorporates a leading edge extension which contains a balance weight.
The horizontal stabilizer is constructed of a forward and aft spar, ribs and
stiffeners, center upper skin panel, and two left and two right wrap-around
skin panels which also form the leading edges. The horizontal stabilizer
Mso contains the elevator trim tab actuator. Construction of the elevator
consists of a forward and aft spar, ribs, torque tube and bellcrank, left
upper and lower skin panels, a formed one-piece left trailing edge, right
upper and lower skin panels, and right inboard and outboard formed
trailing edges. The elevator trim tab consists of a bracket assembly, hinge

ii September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM

RUDDER AND RUDDER TRIM


SYSTEMS

/
/1

0
0
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Figure 7-1. Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 1 of 2)


74

11 September 1981

,c_)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM

ELEVATOR TRIM
CONTROL SYSTEM

2
Figure 7-1. Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

75

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Figure 7-2.

7-6

Instrument Panel (Sheet 1 of 2)

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

CD

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CD

CD

CD

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28.
29.

27.

24.
25.
26.

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

15.
16.
17.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

9.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.
2.

Sidewall Circuit Breaker Panel


Avionics Power and Avionics
Emergency Power Switches
Suction Gage
Propeller Anti-Ice Ammeter
Alternator Off Warning Lights
Low-Voltage Warning Light
Wing De-Ic. Pressure Indicator Light
Electric Elevator Trim, IFCS
Go-Around and Microphone Switches
Autopilot and Electric Elevator
Trim Disengage Switches
Approach Plate Holder
Flight Instrument Group
Map Light and Switch
Altimeter
IFCS Pitch Synchronizer and
Transponder Remote IDENT Switches
DME
IFCS Mode Selector
Marker Beacon Indicator Lights
and Switches
Audio Control Panel
NAV/COM Radios
Area Navigation (RNAV) Radio
Transponder
Weather Radar
Manifold Pressure/Fuel Flow
Indicator
Tachometer
Engine Combustion Analyzer
Cylinder Head Temperature and Oil
Temperature Gages
Volt-Ammeter, Selector Switch
and Oil Pressure Gage
ADF Radio
Flight Hour Recorder

AM/FM Cassette Stereo Entertainment


Center
31.
Map Compartment
Auxiliary Cabin Air Control
32.
Cabin Air Control
33.
34.
Defrost Control
Cabin Heat Control
35.
Wing Flap Switch Lever and
36.
Position Indicator
Autopilot Control Unit
37.
Mixture Control
38.
Propeller Contr&
39.
Cowl Flap Cont;ul Lever
40.
41.
Microphone
Rudder Trim Control Wheel and
42.
Position Indicator
Fuel Quantity lid icators
43.
Fuel Selector Valve Handle
44.
45.
Fuel ON-OFF Valve Control
Primer
46.
Elevator Trim Control Wheel
47.
and Position Indicator
Throttle (With Friction Lock)
48.
Landing Gear Lever and
49.
Position Indicator Lights
Electrical Switches
50.
Parking Brake Handle
51.
Instrument and Control Panel
52.
Lighting Controls
Radar Altimeter
53.
Ignition Switch
54.
Auxiliary Mike and Phone Jacks
55.
Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch
56.
Static Pressure Alternate
57.
Source Valve
Master Switch
58.
30.

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4-1(1)

(Thti

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

half, and a wrap-around skin panel. Both elevator tip leading


edge
extensions incorporate balance weights.

FLIGHT CONTROLS
The airplanes flight control system (see figure 7-1) consist
s of
conventional aileron, elevator and rudder control surface
s. The control
surfaces are manually operated through mechanical linkage
using a
control wheel for the ailerons and elevator, and rudder/brake
pedals for
the rudder. The elevator control system is equipped with
a down-spring,
and an aileron-rudder interconnect is incorporated to provid
e improved
stability in flight.
Extensions are available for the rudder/brake pedals. They consist
of a
rudder pedal face, two spacers and two spring clips. To install
an exten
sion, place the clip on the bottom of the extension under the bottom
of the
rudder pedal and snap the top clip over the top of the rudder
pedal. Check
that the extension is firmly in place. To remove the extensions,
reverse the
above procedures.

TRIM SYSTEMS
Manually-operated rudder and elevator trim is provided
(see figure 71). Rudder trimming is accomplished through a bungee
connected to the
rudder control system and a trim control wheel mounted
on the control
pedestal. Rudder trimming is accomplished by rotating the
horizontally
mounted trim control wheel either left or right to the desired
trim position.
Rotating the trim wheel to the right will trim nose-right;
conversely,
rotating it to the left will trim nose-left. Elevator trimming
is accomp
lished through the elevator trim tab by utilizing the vertica
lly mounted
trim control wheel. Forward rotation of the trim wheel will
trim nosedown; conversely, aft rotation will trim nose-up. The airplan
e may also be
equipped with an electric elevator trim system. For details
concerning this
system, refer to Section 9, Supplements.

INSTRUMENT PANEL
The instrument panel (see figure 7-2) is designed around the
basic T
configuration. The gyros are located immediately in front
of the pilot, and
arranged vertically. The airspeed indicator and altimeter
are located to the
left and right of the gyros respectively. The remain
der of the flight
instruments are located around the basic T. Avion
ics equipment is
stacked approximately on the centerline of the panel, with
the right side of
7-8

11 September 1981

C)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

(
r

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

the panel containing the manifold pressure/fuel flow indicator, tachome


ter, weather radar, AM/FM cassette stereo, map compartment, and space
for additional instruments and avionics equipment. The engine instru
ment cluster and economy mixture indicator (EGT) or engine combustion
analyzer are on the right side of the avionics stack near the top of the panel.
A switch and control panel, at the lower edge of the instrument panel.
contains most of the switches and controls necessary to operate the
airplane. The left side of the panel contains the master switch, auxiliary
fuel pump switch, ignition switch, light intensity controls, electrical
switches, landing gear lever and indicator lights, and static pressure
alternate source valve control knob. The center area contains the throttle,
propeller control, and mixture control. The right side of the panel contains
the wing flap switch lever and indicator, cabin heat control knob, cabin air
control knob, defroster control knob and auxiliary cabin air control knob.
A pedestal, extending from the edge of the switch and control panel to the
floorboard, contains the elevator and rudder trim control wheels, cowl flap
control lever, engine primer, fuel on-off valve control, and microphone
bracket. The fuel selector valve handle is located at the base of the pedestal
with the fuel quantity indicators immediately forward of the handle. A
parking brake handle is mounted under the switch and control panel in
front of the pilot. All circuit breakers for general electrical equipment and
avionics are mounted in a circuit breaker panel located on the left cabin
sidewall adjacent to the pilots seat.
For details concerning the instruments, switches, circuit breakers and
controls on this panel, and the circuit breaker panel, refer in this section to
the description of the systems to which these items are related.

GROUND CONTROL

\,

Effective ground control while taxiing is accomplished through nose


wheel steering by using the rudder pedals; left rudder pedal to steer left and
right rudder pedal to steer right. When a rudder pedal is depressed, a
spring-loaded steering bungee (which is connected to the nose gear and to
the rudder bars) will turn the nose wheel through an arc of approximately
14.5 each side of center. By applying either left or right brake, the degree of
turn may be increased up to 35 each side of center.
Moving the airplane by hand is most easily accomplished by attaching
a tow bar to the nose gear strut. If a tow bar is not available, or pushing is
required, use the main landing gear struts as push points. Do not use the
vertical or horizontal tail surfaces to move the airplane. If the airplane is
to be towed by vehicle, never turn the nose wheel more than 35 either side
of center or structural damage to the nose gear could result.
The minimum turning radius of the airplane, using differential

11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

braking and nose wheel steering during taxi, is approximately 26 feet 11


inches.

WING FLAP SYSTEM


The wing flaps are of the large span, single-slot type (see figure 7-3),
and are extended or retracted by positioning the wing flap switch lever
on
the instrument panel to the desired flap deflection position. The switch
lever is moved up or down in a slotted panel that provides mechanical
stops at the 100 and 20 positions. For flap settings greater than 10, move
the switch lever to the right to clear the stop and position it as desired.
A
scale and pointer on the left side of the switch lever indicates flap travel
in
degrees. The wing flap system circuit is protected by an 10-ampere circuit
breaker, labeled FLAP, on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel.

LANDING GEAR SYSTEM


The landing gear is a retractable, tricycle type with a steerable
nose
wheel and two main wheels. Shock absorption is provided by
the tubular
spring-steel main landing gear struts and the air/oil nose gear shock strut.

0
0

Figure 7-3. Wing Flap System


7-10

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

Each main wheel is equipped with a hydraulically actuated disc-type


brake on the inboard side of the wheel.

Landing gear extension, retraction, and down lock operation is


accomplished by hydraulic actuators powered by an electrically-driven
hydraulic power pack (see figure 7-8). The power pack assembly is housed
within the control pedestal. Hydraulic system fluid level may be checked
by utilizing the dipstick/filler cap, on the power pack, behind a snap-out
cover panel on the right side of the control pedestal. The system should be
checked at 25-hour intervals. If the fluid level is at or below the ADD line on
the dipstick, hydraulic fluid (MIL-H-5606) should be added. Nose gear
wheel and strut door operation is accomplished mechanically.
Power pack operation is initiated by a landing gear lever, and is turned
off by a pressure switch. Two position-indicator lights are provided to
show landing gear position. The landing gear system is also equipped with
a nose gear safety switch, an emergency extension hand pump, and a gearup warning system.

LANDING GEAR LEVER

The landing gear lever, mounted to the left of the engine controls, has
two positions (up labeled GEAR UP and down labeled GEAR DOWN)
which give a mechanical indication of the gear position selected. From
either position, the lever must be pulled out to clear a detent before it can be
repositioned. Moving the lever out of the GEAR DOWN detent will start the
hydraulic power pack. Positioning the lever in the GEAR UP position will
direct hydraulic pressure to retract the landing gear. Operation of the
landing gear system to extend the gear will not begin until the landing gear
lever is repositioned in the GEAR DOWN detent.

LANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATOR LIGHTS

,---

Two position indicator lights, mounted adjacent to the landing gear


lever, indicate that the gear is either up or down and locked. The lights are
the press-to-test type. The gear-down indicator light (green) has two
positions; with the light pushed in half way (throttle retarded and master
switch on) the gear warning system should be heard intermittently on the
airplane speaker, and with the light pushed full in, it should illuminate.
The gear-up indicator light (amber) has only one test position; with the
light pushed full in, it should illuminate. The indicator lights contain
dimming shutters for night operation.

LANDING GEAR OPERATION


To retract or extend the landing gear, pull out on the gear lever and
move it to the desired position. After the lever is positioned, the

11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

electrically-driven hydraulic power pack will create pressure in the


system and the landing gear will be actuated to the selected position.

CAUTION
If for any reason the hydraulic pump continues to run after
gear cycle completion (up or down), the 35-amp pull-off
type circuit breaker, labeled GEAR PUMP should be pulled
out. This will shut off the hydraulic pump motor and
prevent damage to the pump and motor. Refer to Section 3
for complete emergency procedures.
During a normal cycle, the gear stops full up or locks down and the
position-indicator light (amber for up and green for down) comes on. When
the light illuminates, hydraulic pressure will continue to build until a
pressure switch turns off the hydraulic pump. The gear is held in the full up
position by hydraulic pressure. If the system pressure drops below
minimum, the power pack pressure switch will turn the power pack on and
return the pressure to maximum except when the nose gear safety (squat)
switch is open. During cruising flight with the landing gear retracted,
automatic cycling on of the hydraulic pump motor to restore system
pressure bleed down may normally occur up to twice per hour. More
frequent cycling is an indication of abnormal pressure loss and the cause
of this condition should be investigated.
A landing gear safety (squat) switch, actuated by the nose gear strut,
electrically prevents inadvertent retraction by the electrically-driven
hydraulic power pack whenever the nose gear strut is compressed by the
weight of the airplane. When the nose gear is lifted off the runway during
takeoff, the squat switch will close, causing the power pack to operate for 1
to 2 seconds which will return system pressure to maximum in the event
pressure has dropped.
A pull-off type circuit breaker, mounted on the left sidewall circuit
breaker panel, should be used for safety during maintenance. With the
circuit breaker pulled out, landing gear operation by the gear motor cannot
occur. After maintenance is completed, and prior to flight the circuit
breaker should be pushed back in.

WARNING

Safety placards are installed in the nose wheel well to


warn against any maintenance in this area with the circuit
breaker pushed in.

EMERGENCY HAND PUMP


A hand-operated hydraulic pump, located between the two front seats,
7-12

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

is provided for extension of the landing gear in the event of a hydraulic or


electrical system failure. The landing gear cannot be retracted with the
hand pump. To utilize the pump, extend the handle forward and pump
vertically. For complete emergency procedures, refer to Section 3.
For practice manual gear extensions, pull out the GEAR PUMP circuit
breaker before placing the landing gear lever in the GEAR DOWN
position. After the practice manual extension is completed, push the
circuit breaker in to restore normal gear operation.

LANDING GEAR WARNING SYSTEM


The airplane is equipped with a landing gear warning system designed
to help prevent the pilot from inadvertently making a wheels-up landing.
The system consists of a throttle-actuated switch which is electrically
connected to a dual warning unit. The warning unit is connected to the
airplane speaker.
When the throttle is retarded below approximately 15 inches of
manifold pressure (master switch on), the throttle linkage will actuate a
switch which is electrically connected to the gear warning portion of a dual
warning unit. If the landing gear is retracted (or not down and lockcdl. an
intermittent tone will be heard on the airplane speaker. The system may be
checked for correct operation before flight by retarding the throttle to idle
and depressing the green gear-down position indicator light half way in.
With the indicator light depressed as described, an intermittent tone
should be heard on the airplane speaker.

RETRACTABLE CABIN ENTRY STEP


The airplane may be equipped with a retractable cabin entry step
located on the right side of the fuselage below the cabin door. The step
cycles directly with the landing gear, and is spring loaded to the extended
position. A cable attached to the nose gear hydraulic actuator thru-bolt
retracts the step as the nose gear is retracted.

BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
The baggage compartment consists of the area from the back of the
rear passenger seats to the aft cabin bulkhead. Access to the baggage
compartment is gained through a lockable baggage door on the left side of
the airplane, or from within the airplane cabin. A baggage net with six tie
down straps is provided for securing baggage and is attached by tying the
straps to tie-down rings provided in the airplane. When loading the
airplane, children should not be placed or permitted in the baggage
compartment, and any material that might be hazardous to the airplane or
11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

occupants should not be placed anywhere in the airplane. For baggage


area and door dimensions, refer to Section 6.

SEATS
The seating arrangement consists of four separate adjustable seats
and a one-piece fixed seat. The pilots seat is a six-way adjustable seat, and
the front and center passengers seats are four-way adjustable. The front
passengers seat is also available in the six-way adjustable configuration.
The two aft passengers utilize a one-piece fixed seat.
The six-way adjustable pilots seat may be moved forward or aft,
adjusted for height, and the seat back angle is infinitely adjustable.
Position the seat by lifting the tubular handle, under the center of the seat
bottom and slide the seat into position; then release the handle and check
that the seat is locked in place. Raise or lower the seat by rotating a large
crank under the right corner of the seat. Seat back angle is adjustable by
rotating a small crank under the left corner of the seat. The seat bottom
angle will change as the seat back angle changes, providing proper
support. The seat back will also fold full forward. If the front passengers
seat is six-way adjustable, it will function the same as the pilots seat
except the height adjusting and back reclining cranks will be opposite the
respective adjustment cranks of the pilots seat.
Six-way adjustable seats may be equipped with variable lumbar
supports located inside the lower seat backs. The firmness of the lower seat
back may be controlled by utilizing a button located on the lower inboard
side of the seat back. After adjusting the seat back to a comfortable
position, move forward on the seat to remove all the weight from the seat
back. Hold the button in until the support fully inflates, release the button,
and lean back in the seat. If the support is too firm, hold the button in until
the desired amount of firmness is obtained.
The four-way adjustable front and center passengers seats may be
moved forward and aft, and the seat back angle is infinitely adjustable.
Position the seat by lifting up on the tubular handle under the center of the
seat bottom of the front passengers seat, or the handle under the inboard
corner of the center passengers seats, and slide the seat into position; then
release the handle and check that the seat is locked in place. The seat back
angle of either front or center passenger seats may be adjusted by rotating
a crank under the outboard corner of the seat. The seat bottom angle will
change as the seat back angle changes, providing proper support. The seat
backs will also fold full forward.
The aft passengers seats consist of a fixed position one-piece seat
bottom and a one-piece fold-down seat back. If the seats are not to be

7-14

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

occupied, a camming action permits the seat back to fold down completely
flat, providing more space for baggage. To fold down the seat back, grasp
the top edge and rotate it downward.
Headrests are available for any of the seat configurations. To adjust
the headrest, apply enough pressure to it to raise or lower it to the desired
level. The headrest may be removed at any time by raising it until it
disengages from the top of the seat back.

SEAT BELTS AND SHOULDER HARNESSES


All seat positions are equipped with seat belts (see figure 7-4). The
pilots and front passengers seats are also equipped with separate
shoulder harnesses; separate shoulder harnesses are available for the
remaining seat positions and can be readily installed to attach points
furnished in the airplane. Integrated seat belt/shoulder harnesses with
inertia reels can be furnished for the pilots and front passengers seat
positions if desired.

SEAT BELTS

(\}

The seat belts used with the pilot, front passenger, and center pas
senger seats are attached to fittings on the floorboard. The buckle half is
inboard of each seat and the link half is outboard of each seat. The belts for
the aft seat are attached to the seat frame, with the link halves on the left
and right sides of the seat bottom, and the buckles at the center of the seat
bottom.
To use the seat belts for the front and center seats, position the seat as
desired, and then lengthen the link half of the belt as needed by grasping
the sides of the link and pulling against the belt. Insert and lock the belt
link into the buckle. Tighten the belt to a snug fit. Seat belts for the aft seat
are used in the same manner as the belts for the front and center seats. To
release the seat belts, grasp the top of the buckle opposite the link and pull
upward.

SHOULDER HARNESSES

Each front seat shoulder harness is attached to a rear doorpost above


the window line and is stowed behind a stowage sheath above the cabin
door. To stow the harness, fold it and place it behind the sheath. When
shoulder harnesses are furnished for the remaining seats, they are
attached above and aft of the side windows. Each harness is stowed behind
a stowage sheath above the side windows.
To use the shoulder harness, fasten and adjust the seat belt first.
Lengthen the harness as required by pulling on the connecting link on the

ii September 1981

7-15

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

STANDARD SHOULDER
HARNESS

NAI1ROSV RELEASE STIbLI


)Pull up when lee15hieni,ig

(PILOTS SEAT SHOWN)

SEAT BELT/SHOULDER
HARNESS WITH INERTIA
REEL

C
C
C
0

FREE ENS) OF SEAT


Pull Is highlen)

SEAT IIELT SHOULDER HARNESS


AD!IUSTAHLE LINK
(Poselee haL eel below shoulder
level; 1)1111 1mb aed harness dawn
eaed ho ceased he seal bell bauble)
SEAT HELT HUCKLE
(Nec :Ldluslahhe(

Figure 7-4.

Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses


11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

,.

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

end of the harness and the narrow release strap. Snap the connecting link
firmly onto the retaining stud on the seat belt link half. Then adjust to
length. A properly adjusted harness will permit the occupant to lean
forward enough to sit completely erect, but prevent excessive forward
movement and contact with objects during sudden deceleration. Also, the
pilot will want the freedom to reach all controls easily.
Removing the shoulder harness is accomplished by pulling upward on
the narrow release strap, and removing the harness connecting link from
the stud on the seat belt link. In an emergency, the shoulder harness maybe
removed by releasing the seat belt first and allowing the harness, still
attached to the link half of the seat belt, to drop to the side of the seat.

INTEGRATED SEAT BELT/SHOULDER HARNESSES WITH


INERTIA REELS

Integrated seat belt/shoulder harnesses with inertia reels are availa


ble for the pilot and front seat passenger. The seat belt! shoulder harnesses
extend from inertia reels located in the cabin top structure, through the
overhead console marked PILOT and COPILOT, to attach points inboard of
the two front seats. A separate seat belt half and buckle is located outboard
of the seats. Inertia reels allow complete freedom of body movement.
However, in the event of a sudden deceleration, they will lock automatical
ly to protect the occupants.
To use the seat belt/shoulder harness, position the adjustable metal
link on the harness just below shoulder level, puil the link and harness
downward, and insert the link in the seat belt buckle. Adjust belt tension
across the lap by pulling upward on the shoulder harness. Removal is
accomplished by releasing the seat belt buckle, which will allow the
inertia reel to pull the harness inboard of the seat.

ENTRANCE DOORS AND CABIN WINDOWS


(

--

\..

Entry to, and exit from the airplane is accomplished through either of
two entry doors, one on each side of the cabin at the front seat positions
(refer to Section 6 for cabin and cabin door dimensions). The doors
incorporate a recessed exterior door handle, a conventional interior door
handle, a key-operated door lock (left door only), a door stop mechanism,
and an openable window in the left door. An openable right door window is
also available.
NOTE
The door latch design on this model requires that the
outside door handle on the pilot and front passenger doors
be extended out whenever the doors are open. When closing
the door, do not attempt to push the door handle in until the
door is fully shut.
11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

To open the doors from outside the airplane, utilize the recessed door
handle near the aft edge of each door. Grasp the forward end of the handle
and pull outboard. To close or open the doors from inside the airplane, use
the conventional door handle and arm rest. The inside door handle is a
three-position handle having a placard at its base with the positions
OPEN, CLOSE, and LOCK shown on it. The handle is spring-loaded to the
CLOSE (up) position. When the door has been pulled shut and latched, lock
it by rotating the door handle forward to the LOCK position (flush with the
arm rest). When the handle is rotated to the LOCK position, an over-center
action will hold it in that position. Both cabin doors should be locked prior
to flight, and should not be opened intentionally during flight.
NOTE
Accidental opening of a cabin door in flight due to
improper closing does not constitute a need to land the
airplane. The best procedure is to set up the airplane in a
trimmed condition at approximately 85 KIAS, momentar
ily shove the door outward slightly, and forcefully close
and lock the door.
Exit from the airplane is accomplished by rotating the door handle full
aft to the OPEN position and pushing the door open. To lock the airplane,
lock the right cabin door with the inside handle, close the left cabin door,
and using the ignition key, lock the door.

,..

The left entry door is equipped with an openable window which is held
in the closed position by a detent-equipped latch on the lower edge of the
window frame. To open the window, rotate the latch upward. The window is
equipped with a spring-loaded retaining arm which will help rotate the
window outward and hold it there. An openable window is also available
for the right door, and functions in the same manner as the left window. If
required, either window may be opened at any speed up to 203 KIAS. The aft
side windows, and rear window are of the fixed type and cannot be opened.

0
CONTROL LOCKS
A control lock is provided to lock the aileron and elevator control
surfaces to prevent damage to these systems by wind buffeting while the
airplane is parked. The lock consists of a shaped steel rod and flag. The flag
identifies it as a control lock and cautions about its removal before starting
the engine. To install the control lock, align the hole in the right side of the
pilots control wheel shaft with the hole in the right side of the shaft collar
on the instrument panel and insert the rod into the aligned holes. Installa

7-18

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

tion of the lock will secure the ailerons in a neutral position and the
elevators in a slightly trailing edge down position. Proper installation of
the lock will place the flag over the ignition switch. In areas where high or
gusty winds occur, a control surface lock should be installed over the
vertical stabilizer and rudder. The control lock and any other type of
locking device should be removed prior to starting the engine.

ENGINE

The airplane is powered by a horizontally-opposed, six-cylinder,


overhead-valve, turbocharged, air-cooled, fuel injected engine with a wet
sump oil system. The engine is a Continental Model TSIO-520-R and is
rated at 310 horsepower at 2700 RPM and 36.5 inches of manifold pressure
for five minutes, and 285 horsepower at 2600 RPM and 35 inches of manifold
pressure continuous. Major accessories include a propeller governor on
the front of the engine and dual magnetos, starter, belt-driven alternator,
and full flow oil filter on the rear of the engine. Other major accessories
include a turbocharger, connected to the induction air and exhaust sys
tems, and associated components. Provisions are also made for a second
belt-driven alternator and air conditioner compressor on the front of the
engine and either one or two vacuum pumps on the rear of the engine.

ENGINE CONTROLS

Engine manifold pressure is controlled by a throttle located on the


lower center portion of the instrument panel. The throttle operates in a
conventional manner; in the full forward position, the throttle is open, and
in the full aft position, it is closed. A friction lock, which is a round knurled
disk, is located at the base of the throttle and is operated by rotating the
lock clockwise to increase friction or counterclockwise to decrease it. The
throttle linkage is designed to mechanically actuate a microswitch electri
cally connected to the landing gear warning system. The switch will cause
a warning tone to sound anytime the throttle is retarded with the landing
gear retracted, with less than approximately 15 inches of manifold pres
sure.
The mixture control, mounted above the right corner of the control
pedestal, is a red knob with raised points around the circumference and is
equipped with a lock button in the end of the knob. The rich position is full
forward, and full aft is the idle cut-off position. For small adjustments, the
control may be moved forward by rotating the knob clockwise, and aft by
rotating the knob counterclockwise. For rapid or large adjustments, the
knob may be moved forward or aft by depressing the lock button in the end

11 September 1981

7-19

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

of the control, and then positioning the control as desired.

ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
Engine operation is monitored by the following instruments: oil
pressure gage, oil temperature gage, cylinder head temperature gage,
tachometer, manifold pressure/fuel flow indicator and an economy mix
ture (EGT) indicator. An engine combustion analyzer is also available.
The oil pressure gage, located on the upper right side of the instrument
panel, is operated by oil pressure. A direct pressure oil line from the engine
delivers oil at engine operating pressure to the oil pressure gage. Gage
markings indicate that minimum idling pressure is 10 P51 (red line), the
normal operating range is 30 to 60 PSI (green arc), and maximum pressure
is 100 PSI (red line).
Oil temperature is indicated by a gage adjacent to the oil pressure
gage. The gage is operated by an electrical-resistance type temperature
sensor which receives power from the airplane electrical system. Gage
markings indicate the normal operating range (green arc) which is 100F
(38C) to 240F (116C), and the maximum (red line) which is 240F (116C).
The cylinder head temperature gage, adjacent to the oil temperature
gage, is operated by an electrical-resistance type temperature sensor on
the engine and is powered by the airplane electrical system. Gage mark
ings indicate the normal operating range (green arc) which is 200F (93 C)
to 460F (238C) and the maximum (red line) which is 460F (238C).
The engine-driven mechanical tachometer is located on the lower right
side of the instrument panel. The instrument is calibrated in increments of
100 RPM and indicates both engine and propeller speed. An hour meter
below the center of the tachometer dial records elapsed engine time in
hours and tenths. Instrument markings include a normal operating range
(green arc) of 2200 to 2500 RPM, a five minute maximum power range
(yellow arc) of 2600 to 2700 RPM, and a maximum (red line) of 2700 RPM.
The manifold pressure gage is the left half of a dual-indicating
instrument mounted above the tachometer. The gage is direct reading and
indicates induction air manifold pressure in inches of mercury. It has a
normal operating range (green arc) of 15 to 30 inches of mercury, a five
minute maximum power range (yellow arc) of 35 to 36.5 inches of mercury,
and a maximum (red line) of 36.5 inches of mercury.
The fuel flow indicator is the right half of a dual-indicating Instrument
mounted above the tachometer. The indicator is a fuel pressure gage
7-20

11 September 1981

(D

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

calibrated to indicate the approximate pounds per hour of fuel being


metered to the engine. The normal cruise range (green arc) is from 36 to 120
PPH the normal climb range (white arc) is from 120 to 162 PPH the
minimum (red line) is 3.0 PSI, and the maximum (red line) is 186 PPH (19.5
PSI).
An economy mixture (EST) indicator is located on the right side of the
instrument panel. A thermocouple probe in the exhaust manifold at the
inlet to the turbocharger measures exhaust gas temperature and transmits
it to the indicator. The indicator serves as a visual aid to the pilot in
adjusting cruise mixture. Exhaust gas temperature varies with fuel-to-air
ratio, power, and RPM. However, the difference between the peak EGT and
the EGT at the cruise mixture setting is essentially constant and this
provides a useful leaning aid. The indicator is equipped with a manually
positioned reference pointer. An engine combustion analyzer (seven probe
EGT system) is also available. Details of this system are presented in
Section 9, Supplements.

NEW ENGINE BREAK-IN AND OPERATION

The engine underwent a run-in at the factory and is ready for the full
range of use. It is, however, suggested that cruising be accomplished at
70 to 80% power until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil
consumption has stabilized. This will ensure proper seating of the rings.
The airplane is delivered from the factory with corrosion preventive
oil in the engine. If, during the first 25 hours, oil must be added, use only
aviation grade straight mineral oil conforming to Specification No. MIL
L-6082.

ENGINE OIL SYSTEM

Oil for engine lubrication, propeller governor operation, and turbo


charger system control is supplied from a sump on the bottom of the
engine. The capacity of the engine sump is 10 quarts (one additional quart
is contained in the engine oil filter). Oil is drawn from the sump through a
filter screen on the end of a pickup tube to the engine-driven oil pump. Oil
from the pump passes through the full flow oil filter to the turbocharger
system controls, a pressure relief valve at the rear of the right oil gallery,
and a thermostatically controlled remotely located oil cooler. Oil from the
cooler is then circulated to the left gallery and propeller governor. The
engine parts and turbocharger are then lubricated by oil from the galleries.
After lubricating the engine, the oil returns to the sump by gravity, and oil
from the turbocharger is returned to the sump by a scavenger pump. The
oil filter adapter is equipped with a bypass valve which will cause
lubricating oil to bypass the filter in the event the filter becomes plugged,
or the oil temperature is extremely cold.
11 September 1981

7-21

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

An oil dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on the left side, and an
oil filler tube is on top of the crankcase near the front of the engine. The
dipstick and oil filler are accessible through doors on the engine cowling.
The engine should not be operated on less than 7 quarts of oil. Tominhnize
loss of oil through the breather, fill to 8 quarts for normal flights of less
than three hours. For extended flight, fill to 10 quarts (dipstick indication
only). For engine oil grade and specifications, refer to Section 8 of this
handbook.

IGNITION-STARTER SYSTEM
Engine ignition is provided by two engine-driven magnetos and two
spark plugs in each cylinder. The right magneto fires the lower left and
upper right spark plugs, and the left magneto fires the lower right and
upper left spark plugs. Normal operation is conducted with both magnetos
due to the more complete burning of the fuel- air mixture with dual ignition.
Ignition and starter operation is controlled by a rotary type switch
located on the left switch and control panel. The switch is labeled clock
wise, OFF, R, L, BOTH, and START. The engine should be operated on both
magnetos (BOTH position) except for magneto checks. The R and L
positions are for checking purposes and emergency use only. When the
switch is rotated to the spring-loaded START position, (with the master
switch in the ON position), the starter contactor is energized and the
starter will crank the engine. When the switch is released, it will automati
cally return to the BOTH position.

0
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
The engine air induction system receives ram air through a duct in the
right intake in the front of the engine cowling. The duct extends down the
right side of the engine to an air filter which removes dust and other
foreign matter from the induction air. On the aft side of the filter is a duct
assembly which contains an alternate air door. If the induction air filter
becomes blocked, suction created by the engine will open the door and draw
unfiltered air from inside the cowling. An open alternate air door will
result in a decrease of up to 10 inches Hg manifold pressure from a cruise
power setting. Maximum continuous manifold pressure (35 inches Hg) can
be maintained with throttle and! or RPM adjustment up to 14,000 feet under
hot day conditions with the alternate air door open. A flexible duct,
connected to the duct assembly, directs induction air from the air filter to
the compressor section of the turbocharger. At this point, induction air is
compressed. The pressurized air is then ducted through a fuel! air control
unit and induction manifold to the cylinders.
7-22

ii September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust gas from each cylinder passes through riser assemblies into
an exhaust manifold which discharges the gas into the turbine section of
the turbocharger. After the exhaust gas has passed through the turbine, it
is vented overboard through a tailpipe. A waste gate is incorporated into
the exhaust manifold, and controls the amount of exhaust gas to the turbine
by venting excess gas to the tailpipe through a bypass. A shroud, attached
to the left side of the exhaust manifold, forms a heating chamber for cabin
heater and windshield defrost air.

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM


The engine is equipped with a fuel injection system. The system is
comprised of an engine-driven fuel pump, fuel/air control unit, fuel
manifold, fuel flow indicator, and air-bleed type injector nozzles.

Fuel is delivered by the engine-driven fuel pump to the fuel! air control
unit behind the engine. The fuel! air control unit correctly proportions the
fuel flow to the induction air flow. After passing through the control unit,
induction air is delivered to the cylinders through intake manifold tubes,
and metered fuel is delivered to a fuel manifold. The fuel manifold, through
spring tension on a diaphragm and valve, evenly distributes the fuel to an
air-bleed type injector nozzle in the intake valve chamber of each cylinder.
A pressure line is also attached to the fuel manifold, and is connected to a
fuel flow indicator on the instrument panel.

COOLING SYSTEM

(
...

Ram air for engine cylinder cooling enters through two intake open
ings in the front of the engine cowling. The cooling air is directed around
the cylinders and other areas of the engine by baffling, and is then
exhausted through cowl flaps on the lower aft edge of the cowling. A
separate inlet on the lower left front of the cowling provides cooling air for
the remote air cooler. The cowl flaps are mechanically operated from the
cabin by means of a cowl flap lever on the right side of the control pedestal.
The pedestal is labeled COWL FLAP, OPEN, CLOSED. During takeoff and
high power operation, the cowl flap lever should be placed in the OPEN
position for maximum cooling. This is accomplished by moving the lever
to the right to clear a detent, then moving the lever up to the OPEN position.
Anytime the lever is repositioned, it must first be moved to the right. While
in cruise flight, cowl flaps should be adjusted to keep the cylinder head
temperature at approximately two-thirds of the normal operating range
(green arc). During extended let-downs, it may be necessary to completely
close the cowl flaps by pushing the cowl flap lever down to the CLOSED
position.

ii September 1981

7-23

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM
Because the engine is turbocharged, some of its characteristics are
different from a normally aspirated engine. The following information
describes the system and points out some of the items that are affected by
turbocharging. Section 4 contains the normal operating procedures for the
turbocharged engine.
The following steps, when combined with the turbocharger system
schematic (figure 7-5), provide a better understanding of how the turbo
charger system works. The steps follow the induction air as it enters and
passes through the engine until it is expelled as exhaust gases.
1.

2.
3.
4.

()

Engine induction air is taken in through an opening in the nose


cap, ducted through a filter and into the compressor where it is
compressed.
The pressurized induction air then passes through the throttle
body and induction manifold into the cylinders.
The air and fuel are burned and exhausted to the supercharger
turbine.
The exhaust gases drive the turbine which, in turn, drives the
compressor, thus completing the cycle.

0
0

RAM AIR
INTAKE AIR FROM
CO NP RE $ S 0 R

0
Figure 7-5.

7-24

Turbocharger System

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

The compressor has the capability of producing manifold pressures in


excess of the 5 minute takeoff maximum of 36.5 inches Hg. In order not to
exceed 36.5 inches of manifold pressure, a waste gate is used so that some
of the exhaust will bypass the turbine and be vented into the tailpipe.

It can be seen from studying Steps 1 through 4 that anything that


affects the flow of induction air into the compressor or the flow of exhaust
gases into the turbine will increase or decrease the speed of the turbocharger. This resultant change in flow will have no effect on the engine if
the waste gate is still open because the waste gate position is changed to
hold compressor discharge pressure constant. A waste gate controller
automatically maintains maximum allowable compressor discharge
pressure any time the turbine and comjDressor are capable of producing
that pressure.
At high altitude, part throttle, or low RPM, the exhaust flow is not
capable of turning the turbine and compressor fast enough to maintain
maximum compressor discharge pressure, and the waste gate will close to
force all of the exhaust flow through the turbine.

When the waste gate is fully closed, any change in turbocharger speed
will mean a change in engine operation. Thus, any increase or decrease in
turbine speed will cause an increase or decrease in manifold pressure and
fuel flow. If turbine speed increases, the manifold pressure increases; if the
turbine speed decreases, the manifold pressure decreases. Since the
compression ratio approaches 3 to 1 at high altitude, any change in
exhaust flow to the turbine or ram induction air pressure will be magnified
proportionally by the compression ratio and the change in flow through
the exhaust system.
MANIFOLD PRESSURE VARIATION WITH ENGINE RPM

When the waste gate is open, the turbocharged engine will react the
same as a normally aspirated engine when the engine RPM is varied. That
is, when the RPM is increased, the manifold pressure will decrease
slightly. When the engine RPM is decreased, the manifold pressure will
increase slightly.
However, when the waste gate is closed, manifold pressure variation
with engine RPM is just the opposite of the normally aspirated engine. An
increase in engine RPM will result in an increase in manifold pressure,
and a decrease in engine RPM will result in a decrease in manifold
pressure.
MANIFOLD PRESSURE VARIATION WITH ALTITUDE
At full throttle, the turbocharger has the capability of maintaining the

11 September 1981

7-25

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

maximum continuous manifold pressure of 35 inches Hg to well above


17,000 feet depending on engine and atmospheric conditions. However,
engine operating limitations establish the maximum manifold pressure
that may be used. Manifold pressure should be reduced above 17,000 feet, as
noted on the operating placard in the airplane (subtract 1 inch Hg from 35
inches for each 1000 feet above 17,000 feet).
At part throttle, the turbocharger is capable of maintaining cruise
climb power of 2500 RPM and 30 inches Hg from sea level to 20,000 feet in
standard temperatures, and from sea level to 8000 feet under hot day
conditions without changing the throttle position, once the power setting
is established after takeoff. Under hot day conditions, this climb power
setting is maintained above 8000 feet by advancing the throttle as neces
sary to maintain 30 inches of manifold pressure in the same manner as a
normally aspirated engine during climb.

MANIFOLD PRESSURE VARIATION WITH AIRSPEED


When the waste gate is closed, manifold pressure will vary with
variations in airspeed. This is because the compressor side of the turbo
charger operates at pressure ratios of up to 3 to 1 and any change in
pressure at the compressor inlet is magnified at the compressor outlet
with a resulting effect on the exhaust flow and turbine side of the turbo
charger.

FUEL FLOW VARIATIONS WITH CHANGES IN MANIFOLD PRES


SURE
The engine-driven fuel pump output is regulated by engine speed and
compressor discharge pressure. Engine fuel flow is regulated by fuel
pump output and the metering effects of the throttle and mixture control.
When the waste gate is open, fuel flow will vary directly with manifold
pressure, engine speed, mixture, or throttle control position. In this case,
manifold pressure is controlled by throttle position and the waste gate
controller, while fuel flow varies with throttle movement and manifold
pressure.
When the waste gate is closed and manifold pressure changes are due
to turbocharger output, as discussed previously, fuel flow will follow
manifold pressure even though the throttle position is unchanged. This
means that fuel flow adjustments required of the pilot are minimized to (1)
small initial adjustments on takeoff or climb-out for the proper rich climb
setting, (2) lean-out in cruise, and (3) return to full rich position for
approach and landing.
7-26

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

MANIFOLD PRESSURE VARIATION WITH INCREASING OR


DECREASING FUEL FLOW
When the waste gate is open, movement of the mixture control has little
or no effect on the manifold pressure of the turbocliarged engine.
When the waste gate is closed, any change in fuel flow to the engine will
have a corresponding change in manifold pressure. That is, increasing the
fuel flow will increase the manifold pressure and decreasing the fuel flow
will decrease the manifold pressure. This is because an increased fuel flow
to the engine increases the mass flow of the exhaust. This turns the
turbocharger faster, increasing the induction air flow and raising the
manifold pressure.
MOMENTARY OVERSHOOT OF MANIFOLD PRESSURE

(\

Under some circumstances (such as rapid throttle movement, espe


cially with cold oil), it is possible that the engine can be overboosted
slightly above the maximum five minute takeoff manifold pressure of 36.5
inches. This would most likely be experienced during the takeoff roll or
during a change to full throttle operation. in flight. The induction air
pressure relief valve will normally limit the overboost to 2 to 3 inches.
A slight overboost of 2 to 3 inches of manifold pressure is not
considered detrimental to the engine as long as it is momentary. No
corrective action is required when momentary overboost corrects itself
and is followed by normal engine operation. However, if overboosting of
this nature persists when oil temperature is normal or if the amount of
overboost tends to exceed 3 inches or more, the throttle should be retarded
to eliminate the overboost and the controller system, including the waste
gate and relief valve, should be checked for necessary adjustment or
replacement of components.
ALTITUDE OPERATION

Because a turbocharged airplane will climb faster and higher than a


normally aspirated airplane, fuel vaporization may be encountered. When
fuel flow variations of 5 PPH or more are observed (as a nervous fuel
flow needle), or if a full rich mixture setting does not provide the desired
fuel flow, placing the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON position will
control vapor. However, it will also increase fuel flow, making it neces
sary to adjust the mixture control for the desired fuel flow. The auxiliary
fuel pump should be left on for the remainder of the climb. It can be turned
off whenever fuel flow will remain steady with it off, and the mixture must
be adjusted accordingly. The auxiliary fuel pump should be turned off and
the mixture reset prior to descent.

11 September 1981

7-27

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

HIGH ALTITUDE ENGINE ACCELERATION


The engine will accelerate normally from idle to full throttle with full
rich mixture at any altitude below 20,000 feet. At higher altitudes, it is
usually necessary to lean the mixture to get smooth engine acceleration
from idle to maximum power. At altitudes above 25,000 feet, and with
temperatures above standard, it takes one to two minutes for the turbine to
accelerate from idle to maximum RPM although adequate power is
available in 20 to 30 seconds.

0.

PROPELLER
The airplane has an all-metal, three-bladed, constant-speed, governorregulated propeller. A setting introduced into the governor with the
propeller control establishes the propeller speed, and thus the engine
speed to be maintained. The governor then controls flow of engine oil,
boosted to high pressure by the governing pump, to or from a piston in the
propeller hub. Oil pressure acting on the piston twists the blades toward
high pitch (low RPM). When oil pressure to the piston in the propeller hub
is relieved, centrifugal force, assisted by an internal spring, twists the
blades toward low pitch (high RPM).
A control knob on the lower center portion of the instrument panel is
used to set the propeller and control engine RPM as desired for various
flight conditions. The knob is labeled PROP PITCH PUSH INCR RPM.
When the control knob is pushed in, blade pitch will decrease, giving a
higher RPM. When the control knob is pulled out, the blade pitch increases,
thereby decreasing RPM. The propeller control knob is equipped with a
vernier feature which allows slow or fine RPM adjustments by rotating the
knob clockwise to increase RPM, and counterclockwise to decrease it. To
make rapid or large adjustments, depress the button on the end of the
control knob and reposition the control as desired.

FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system (see figure 7-6) consists of two vented integral fuel
tanks (one in each wing), a fuel selector valve, a reservoir, an auxiliary
fuel pump, on-off valve, fuel strainer, engine-driven fuel pump, fuel/air
control unit, fuel manifold, and fuel injection nozzles.
NOTE
Unusable fuel is at a minimum due to the design of the fuel
7-28

11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T2ON

DRAIN
VALVE

CODE

IllUu15
m

AND
DRAIN

FUELTANK SELECTOR PANEL

FUEL
ON OFF
CONTROL
-

TO
ENGINE

MIXTURE
CONTROL
FUEL FLOW
INDICATOR

Rght HI! 0!
D.,uI IflBIrsIItD,Iti

THROTTLE

ENGINE

t
Figure 7-6. Fuel System

11 September 1981

7-29

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

FUEL QUANTITY DATA (U.S. GALLONS)


FUEL TANKS

FUEL
LEVEL
(QUANTITY EACH TANK)

TOTAL
FUEL

TOTAL
UNUSABLE

TOTAL
USABLE
ALL FLIGHT
CON DITI ONS

FULL
(45)

90

87

REDUCED
(33.51

67

64

STANDARD

Figure 7-7.

Fuel Quantity Data

system. However, when the fuel tanks are 1/4 full or less,
prolonged uncoordinated flight such as slips or skids can
uncover the fuel tank outlets, possibly causing fuel starva
tion and engine stoppage. Therefore, with low fuel
reserves, do not allow the airplane to remain in uncoordi
nated flight for periods in excess of 30 seconds with the fuel
selector on left or right tanks or one minute with the
selector in the BOTH ON position.
Fuel flows by gravity from the two integral tanks (one in each wing) to
a two-segment, three-position selector valve labeled LEFT ON, RIGHT
ON. and BOTH ON.
NOTE
When the fuel selector valve handle is in the BOTH ON
position in cruising flight, unequal fuel flow from each
tank may occur if the wings are not maintained exactly
level. Resulting wing heaviness can be alleviated gradu
ally by turning the selector valve handle to the tank in the
heavy wing.
With the selector valve handle in one of the designated (detent) positions,
fuel from either the left tank, right tank or both tanks flows through the
selector valve, the reservoir, through a bypass in the auxiliary fuel pump
(when it is not in operation, and through a fuel on-off valve to a strainer
mounted on the firewall. The engine-driven fuel pump delivers fuel from
the strainer to the fuel/air control unit where it is metered and directed to
a
manifold which distributes it to each cylinder. Vapor and excess fuel from
the engine-driven fuel pump and the fuel/air control unit are returned by
way of a separate segment of the selector valve to the wing fuel tank or
tanks, as selected by the fuel selector handle position.

7-30

11 September 1981

C
0
0

CESSNA
MOI)EL T2ION

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

A two-position on-off valve is incorporated into the fuel system to be


used for maintenance purposes or in the event of emergency conditions
requiring fuel flow to be shut off. A push-pull control, labeled FUEL
VALVE PUSH ON and located on the lower left side of the pedestal,
controls valve position. Under normal conditions the control is pushed
fully in to the ON position. To shut off fuel flow, the control is pulled fully
out.
Fuel system venting is essential to system operation. Complete
blockage of the venting system will result in decreasing fuel flow and
eventual engine stoppage. Venting is accomplished by vent lines, one from
each fuel tank, which are equipped with check valves, and a tank intercon
nect vent line. The fuel filler caps are equipped with vacuum operated
vents which open, allowing air into the tanks, should the fuel tank vent
lines become blocked.

Fuel quantity is measured by two float-type fuel quantity transmitters


(one in each tank) and indicated by two electrically-operated fuel quantity
indicators on the lower portion of the pedestal adjacent to the fuel selector
valve handle. The indicators are marked in pounds (top scale) and gallons
(bottom scale) with a red line indicating an empty tank. When an indicator
shows an empty tank, approximately 1.5 gallon remains in the tank as
unusable fuel. The indicators cannot be relied upon for accurate readings
during skids, slips or unusual attitudes. Maximum indicator travel is
reached with 40 to 41 gallons in the tank. Therefore, indications at the right
end of the scale (40 gallons to F) should be verified by visual inspection of
the tanks if a short field takeoff or a long range flight is planned. If both
indicator pointers should rapidly move to a zero reading, check the
cylinder head temperature and oil temperature gages for operation. If
these gages are not indicating, an electrical malfunction has occurred.
The airplane may be serviced to a reduced capacity to permit heavier
cabin loadings. This is accomplished by filling each tank to the bottom
edge of the fuel filler neck, thus giving a reduced fuel load of 201 pounds in
each tank (192 pounds usable in all flight conditions).
Before refueling or when the airplane is parked on a slope, place the
fuel selector handle in the LEFT ON or RIGHT ON position, whichever
corresponds to the low wing. This action minimizes crossfeeding from the
fuller tank and reduces fuel seepage from the wing tank vents.

The auxiliary fuel pump switch is located on the left side of the
instrument panel and is a yellow and red split-rocker type switch. The
yellow right half of the switch is labeled START, and its upper ON position
is used for normal starting. minor vapor purging and continued engine
operation in the event of an engine-driven fuel pump failure. With the right
half of the switch in the ON position, the pump operates at one of two flow

11 September 1981

7-31

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T2IUN

rates that are dependent upon the setting of the throttle. With the throttle
open to a cruise setting, the pump operates at a high enough capacity to
supply sufficient fuel flow to maintain flight with an inoperative enginedriven fuel pump. When the throttle is moved toward the closed position
(as doring letdown, landing, and taxiing), the fuel pump flow rate is
automatically reduced, preventing an excessively rich mixture during
these periods of reduced engine speed.
NOTE
If the engine-driven fuel pump is functioning and the
auxiliary fuel pump switch is placed in the ON position, an
excessively rich fuel/air ratio is produced unless the
mixture is leaned. Therefore, this switch should be turned
off during takeoff and landing.

NOTE
If the auxiliary fuel pump switch is accidentally placed in
the ON position with the master switcb on and the engine
stopped, the intake manifolds will be flooded.
The red left half of the switch is labeled EMEHG, and its upper HI
position is used in the event of an engine-driven fuel pump failure during
takeoff or high power operation. The HI position may also be used for
extreme vapor purging. Maximum fuel flow is produced when the left half
of the switch is held in the spring-loaded HI position. In this position, an
interlock within the switch automatically trips the right half of the switch
to the ON position. When the spring-loaded left halt of the switch is
released, the right half will remain in the ON position until manually
returned to the off position.
Under hot day-high altitude conditions, or conditions during a climb
that are conducive to fuel vapor formation, it may be necessary to utilize
the auxiliary fuel pump to attain or stabilize the fuel flow required for the
type of climb being performed. In this case, turn the auxiliary fuel pump on
and adjust the mixture to the desired fuel flow. If fluctuating fuel flow
(greater than 5 PPH is observed during climb or cruise at high altitudes on
hot days, place the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON position to clear
the fuel system of vapor. The auxiliary fuel pump may be operated
continuously in cruise, if necessary, but should be turned off prior to
descent. Each time the auxiliary fuel pump switch is turned on or off, the
mixture should be readjusted.
If it is desired to completely exhaust a fuel tank quantity in flight, the
auxiliary fuel pump will be needed to assist in restarting the engine when
fuel exhaustion occurs. Therefore, it is recommended that proper opera
tion of the auxiliary fuel pump be verified prior to running a fuel tank dry
7-32

ii September 198i

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

by turning the auxiliary fuel pump ON momentarily and checking for a


slight rise in fuel flow indication.
To ensure a prompt engine restart in flight after running a fuel tank
dry, immediately switch to the tank containing fuel or to BOTH ON at the
first indication of fuel pressure fluctuation and/or power loss. Then place
the right half of the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON position
momentarily (3 to 5 seconds) with the throttle at least 1/2 open. Excessive
use of the ON position at high altitude and full rich mixture can cause
flooding of the engine as indicated by a short (1 to 2 seconds) period of
power followed by a loss of power. This can later be detected by a fuel flow
indication accompanied by a lack of power. If flooding does occur, turn off
the auxiliary fuel pump switch, and normal propeller windmilling should
start the engine in 1 to 2 seconds.

If the propeller should stop (possible at very low airspeeds) before the
tank containing fuel is selected, place the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the
ON position and advance the throttle promptly until the fuel flow indicator
registers approximately 1/2 way into the green arc for 1 to 2 seconds
duration. Then retard the throttle, turn off the auxiliary fuel pump, and use
the starter to turn the engine over until a start is obtained.

The fuel system is equipped with drain valves to provide a means for
the examination of fuel in the system for contamination and grade. The
system should be examined before the first flight of every day and after
each refueling, by using the sampler cup provided to drain fuel from the
wing tank sumps, and by utilizing the fuel strainer quick-drain on the
lower left side of the engine cowling. A quick-drain valve is also provided
for the fuel reservoir and in the vapor return line. These valves are located
beneath the cabin. The fuel tanks should be filled after each flight to
minimize condensation.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Hydraulic power (see figure 7-8) is supplied by an electrically-driven
hydraulic power pack located behind the control pedestal. The power
packs only function is to supply hydraulic power for operation of the
retractable landing gear. This is accomplished by applying hydraulic
pressure to actuator cylinders which extend or retract the gear and operate
the gear down locks. The electrical portion of the power pack is protected
by a 35-amp pull-off type circuit breaker on the circuit breaker panel.
The hydraulic power pack is turned on, and the direction of actuation is
selected by the landing gear lever when it is placed in either the gear-up or
gear-down position. When the gear has fully extended and locked, or
11 September 1981

7-33

CD

-P

CD

S
C

CD

Ct
St

U)

-J
Ca,

NOSE
GEAR

AIRPLANE
SPEAKER

TO STALL
WARNING
UNIT IN WING

CLGSE

LE1TTLE

DUAL
WARNING
UNIT

GPEN

THROAT

CONDiTION

-:

UP

Figure 7-8.

I
...-----

-1

Hydraulic System

ENGINE AND ELECTRICAL POWER OFF

LOCKS

EMERGENCY
HAND PUMP

PUMP VERTICALLY

4 EXTENO HANDLE-

NGSE GEAR UP SWITCH

RIGHT MAIN GEAR


UP SWITCH

LEFT MAIN GEAR


UP SWITCH

TO LEFT AND
RIGRT MAIN

DOWN

LANDING
GEAR
LEVER

SELECTOR

AIRPLANE ON OROUNO

ACTUATOR

DOWN LOCK
ACTUATOR

L.

Ii

AMRER GEAR UP
PRESS-TO-TEST
INGICATGR LIGHT

GREEN GEAR GGWN


PRESS-TO-TEST
INGICATGR LIGHT

LGG
GEAR

NGSE GEAR
GGWN SWITCH

NOSE GEAR
ACTUATOR

STALL
WARN

RIGHT MAIN
GEAR DGWN
SWITCH

LEFT MAIN
GEAR GOWN
SWITCH

-T

VENT

I.IAIN OEAR

CODE

HYORAULIC
PGWER PACK

PRESSURE
SWITCH *

ELECTRIC
PUMP
MGTOR

Pressure SwrIch

lEGS PSI OFF

lOSS PSI ON

PRESSURE
VENT
CRETURN

SUMP

SOUAT SWITCH
IIN NGSE GEARI

TO2NOMAIN
GEAR ACTUATOR

_;>

-1

MAIN GEAR
ACTUATOR
121

PUMP TIOTOR
CONTACTGR

_________
____

oZ

HU)

IT-IC

C
d

U)

H
-P

-P

IT-I
U)
C

U)

IT-I

U)
H

U)

go

ZZ

>U)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

retracted, a series of electrical switches will illuminate one of two


indicator lights on the instrument panel to show gear position. A hydraulic
pressure switch will automatically turn off the power pack when hydrau
lic pressure reaches a preset value.
The hydraulic system includes an emergency hand pump to permit
manual extension of the landing gear in the event of hydraulic power pack
or electrical system failure. The hand pump is located on the cabin floor
between the front seats.
During normal operations, the landing gear should require from 6 to 8
seconds to fully extend or retract. For malfunctions of the hydraulic and
landing gear systems, refer to Section 3 of this handbook.

BRAKE SYSTEM

(
\_

The airplane has a single-disc, hydraulically-actuated brake on each


main landing gear wheel. Each brake is connected, by a hydraulic line, to a
master cylinder attached to each of the pilots rudder pedals. The brakes
are operated by applying pressure to the top of either the left (pilots) or
right (copilots) set of rudder pedals, which are interconnected. When the
airplane is parked, both main wheel brakes may be set by utilizing the
parking brake which is operated by a handle under the left side of the
instrument panel. To apply the parking brake, set the brakes with the
rudder pedals, pull the handle aft, and rotate it 900 down.

For maximum brake life, keep the brake system properly maintained,
and minimize brake usage during taxi operations and landings.

Some of the symptoms of impending brake failure are: gradual


decrease in braking action after brake application, noisy or dragging
brakes, soft or spongy pedals, and excessive travel and weak braking
action. If any of these symptoms appear, the brake system is in need of
immediate attention. If, during taxi or landing roll, braking action
decreases, let up on the pedals and then re-apply the brakes with heavy
pressure. If the brakes become spongy or pedal travel increases, pumping
the pedals should build braking pressure. If one brake becomes weak or
fails, use the other brake sparingly while using opposite rudder, as
required, to offset the good brake.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The airplane is equipped with a 28-volt, direct-current electrical
11 September 1981

735

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

system (see figure 7-9). The system uses a battery located on the forward
side, upper left portion, of the firewall as the source of electrical energy
and a belt-driven, 60-amp alternator (or 95-amp, if installed) to maintain
the batterys state of charge. Power is supplied to most general electrical
and all avionics circuits through the primary bus bar and the avionics bus
bar, which are interconnected by an avionics power switch. The primary
bus is on anytime the master switch is turned on, and is not affected by
starter or external power usage. Both bus bars are on anytime the master
and avionics power switches are turned on. The airplane may be equipped
with a dual 60-amp alternator electrical system. Details of this system are
presented in Section 9. Supplements.

CAUTION
Prior to turning the master switch on or off, starting the
engine or applying an external source, the avionics power
switch labeled AVN PWR should be turned off to prevent
any harmful transient voltage from damaging the avio
nics equipment.

MASTER SWITCH
The master switch is a split-rocker type switch labeled MASTER, and
is on in the up position and off in the down position. The right half of the
switch, labeled BAT, controls electrical power to the airplane through the
primary bus bar. The left half, labeled ALT, controls the alternator.
Normally, both sides of the master switch should be used simultaneously; however, the BAT side of the switch could be turned on separately
to
check equipment while on the ground. To check or use avionics equipment
or radios while on the ground, the avionics power switch must also
be
turned on. The ALT side of the switch, when placed in the off position,
removes the alternator from the electrical system. With this switch in the
off position, the entire electrical load is placed on the battery. Continued
operation with the alternator switch in the off position will reduce battery
power low enough to open the battery contactor, remove power from the
alternator field, and prevent alternator restart.

AVIONICS POWER SWITCH


Electrical power from the airplane primary bus to the avionics bus
(see figure 7-9) is controlled by a rocker-type circuit breaker-switch
labeled AVN PWR. The switch is located on the left sidewall circuit breaker
panel and is ON in the forward position and OFF in the aft position. With
the switch in the OFF position, no electrical power will be applied to the
avionics equipment, regardless of the position of the master switch or the
individual equipment switches. The avionics power switch also functions
7-36

it September 1981

Q
(J

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

To DOUR LIGHTS. 000RTSRV LIGHTS AND S000nUE Sour

GLAREEHIRLO MOUNTED PL000LIGTTE

DIR CONOIrICTISH E0STEU


)_TO DIR CONDITIONING SVSTEM

WING CE ICE OTETEU


,,UTURTER

TO UOSTET SWITCH

WINCSOIELO ANTI rUE EYSTEU

OENTECPITOTONE STALL WEANING

)....

T H DL NIL POET F LEO SUM P

TO OTLIHOET HEED TEMPERATURE EDO OIL TEMPERATURE NOONS


RREAKE

.___TO TURN CHOROIRATCE CS TURN AND DOER INOiOATOR


REDOT000
NOEL QUANTITY ISOIEDTIEO ETRTEU

).._... 0 0

STALL WENRIEG NT GTE S


POSITION INDICATOR SHOTS

CL COCK

ODD LEAD ALONINO SYSrEM


FIRST NOVIOCA ONE LLIOE SLOPE RROEIUEfl

CE
)._..._TO 0000SO TOVIUCU
)._.....007EOSHPHSUEE ADO ES000IEG ALTIMETER OR BLISS RROUEER

AVIUNILSPOWET
WOUNR005

EHEUKER

)....TO RADIO

RART
)_TU ROEIT
TO MOREER BEACON RESElLER
).....TO REOPENS RECAP

CODE
)......TO SLAVED MORON ORO TSP ETETRU

IDIU

3
-lb

SLOTH

ORTI
S ROCK COURSE

IIEOLIT ERTABEEIRLOO TO RETOOl


A K

TATOOITOE!OOISEOIOTERI
FLOE

_44-

DIODE

:INCitOToVUGOTS
AUTOPILOT ROLL ADO PITCH ACTUATORS

O0T/p ROTATOR

Figure 7-9. Electrical System

11 September 1981

7-37

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

as a circuit breaker. If an electrical malfunction should occur and cause the


circuit breaker to open, electrical power to the avionics equipment will be
interrupted and the switch will automatically move to the OFF position. If
this occurs, allow the circuit breaker to cool approximately two minutes
before placing the switch in the ON position again. If the circuit breaker
opens again, do not reset it. The avionics power switch should be placed in
the OFF position prior to turning the master switch on or off, starting the
engine, or applying an external power source, and may be utilized in place
of the individual avionics equipment switches.

AMMETER
The ammeter, located on the upper right side of the instrument panel,
indicates the amount of current, in amperes, from the alternator to the
battery or from the battery to the airplane electrical system. When the
engine is operating and the master switch is turned on, the ammeter
indicates the charging rate applied to the battery. In the event the
alternator is not functioning or the electrical load exceeds the output of the
alternator, the ammeter indicates the battery discharge rate.

ALTERNATOR CONTROL UNIT AND LOW-VOLTAGE WARNING


LIGHT
The airplane is equipped with a combination alternator regulator
high-low voltage control unit mounted on the cabin side of the firewall and
red warning light, labeled LOW VOLTAGE, near the upper left corner of
the instrument panel.
In the event an over-voltage condition occurs, the alternator control
unit automatically removes alternator field current which shuts down the
alternator. The battery will then supply system current as shown by a
discharge rate on the ammeter. Under these conditions, depending on
electrical system load, the low-voltage warning light will illuminate when
system voltage drops below normal. The alternator control unit may be
reset by turning the master switch off and back on again. If the warning
light does not illuminate, normal alternator charging has resumed;
however, if the light does illuminate again, a malfunction has occurred,
and the flight should be terminated as soon as practicable.
NOTE
Illumination of the low-voltage light and ammeter dis
charge indications may occur during low RPM conditions
with an electrical load on the system, such as during a low
RPM taxi. Under these conditions, the light will go out at
higher RPM. The master switch need not be recycled since
an over-voltage condition has not occurred to de-activate
the alternator system. Momentary illumination of the low
voltage warning light and/or ammeter needle deflection
7-38

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

may also occur during startup of the landing gear system


hydraulic pump motor.
The warning light may be tested by turning on the landing lights and
momentarily turning off the ALT portion of the master switch while
leaving the BAT portion turned on.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND FUSES

Most of the electrical circuits in the airplane are protected by push-to


reset type circuit breakers mounted on a single circuit breaker panel on
the left cabin sidewall between the forward doorpost and the instrument
panel. Six pull off type circuit breakers on this panel protect the
alternator output, landing gear system hydraulic pump motor, wing and
stabilizer de-ice system, electric elevator trim system, autopilot pitch and
roll actuators and the avionics cooling fan circuits. All of the avionics
circuits are protected by circuit breakers grouped together in the lower
portion of the circuit breaker panel and also by a rocker-type circuit
breaker switch labeled AVN PWR. Fuses protect the battery contactor
closing circuit (when used with external power), and the clock and flight
hour recorder circuits.

GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE


A ground service plug receptacle may be installed to permit the use of
an external power source for cold weather starting and during lengthy
maintenance work on the airplane electrical system. Details of the ground
service plug receptacle are presented in Section 9, Supplements.

LIGHTING SYSTEMS
EXTERIOR LIGHTING
Conventional navigation lights are located on the wing tips and tail
stinger, and dual landing lights are installed in the cowl nose cap.
Additional lighting is available and includes a strobe light on each wing
tip, a flashing beacon on top of the vertical stabilizer, two courtesy lights,
one under each wing, just outboard of the cabin door, and vertical tail
illumination lights, mounted on the top of each horizontal stabilizer.
Details of the strobe light system are presented in Section 9, Supplements.
The courtesy lights are operated by a switch located on the left rear door
post. All exterior lights, except the courtesy lights, are controlled by
rocker-type switches on the left switch and control panel. The switches are
on in the up position and off in the down position.

11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21IIN

The flashing beacon should not be used when flying through clouds or
overcast: the flashing light reflected from water droplets or particles in
the
atmosphere. particularly at night, can produce vertigo and loss of orienta
ion.

INTERIOR LIGHTING
Instrument and control panel lighting is provided by flood and integral
lighting, with electroluminescent and post lighting also available. Rheos
tats and control knobs, located on the left switch and control panel, control
the intensity of all lighting. The following paragraphs describe the
various lighting systems and their controls.
Switches and controls on the lower part of the instrument panel and the
marker beacon! audio control panel may be lighted by electroluminescent
panels which do not require light bulbs for illumination. To utilize this
lighting, turn on the NAV light switch and adjust light intensity with the
small (inner) control knob of the concentric control knobs labeled EL
PANEL, ENG-RADIO.
Instrument panel flood lighting consists of six red flood lights on the
underside of the glare shield, up to eight red post lights for the bottom and
left and right instruments, and two red flood lights in the forward part of
the overhead console (one, if an air conditioner is installed). All of these
lights are utilized by adjusting light intensity with the large (outer)
control knob of the concentric control knobs labeled POST, FLOOD.
The instrument panel may be equipped with white post lights which
are mounted at the edge of each instrument or control and provide direct
lighting. To operate the post lights, adjust light intensity with the small
(inner control knob of the concentric control knobs labeled POST. FLOOD.
To combine post and flood lighting, adjust flood light intensity with the
large (outer) control knob.
lhe engine instrument cluster, radio equipment. digital clock,
and
magnetic compass have integral lighting and operate
independently of
post or flood lighting. The light intensity of instrument
cluster, magnetic
compass. digital clock. and radio equipment lighting is controlled
by the
large (outer) control knob of the concentric control knobs
labeled EL
I1ANEL. END-RADIO. If the airplane is equipped with avionics
incorpo
rating incandescent digital readouts, thc END-RADIO (large outer)
con
trol knob controls the light intensity of the digital readouts. For daylight
operation. the control knob should be rotated full counterclockwise
to
proclce maximum light intensity for the digital readouts only. Clockwise
rotation of the control knob will provide normal variable light
intensity for
nighttime operation.

7-40

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

,.

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

If the airplane is equipped with a Cessna 400B Integrated Flight


Control System, individual dimming of both the white and the green Mode
Selector panel lamps is provided by the concentric control knobs labeled
IFCS, WHITE, GREEN. A push- to-test feature is incorporated into the
small (inner) knob to test for proper green mode selector lamp operation.
The control pedestal has integral lights, and a white post light adjacent
to the fuel on-off valve. If the airplane is equipped with oxygen or air
conditioning, the overhead console is illuminated by post lights. Pedestal
and console light intensity is controlled by the large (outer) control knob of
the concentric control knobs labeled POST, FLOOD.

Map lighting is provided by overhead console map lights and a glare


shield mounted map light. The airplane may also be equipped with a
control wheel map light. The overhead console map lights (not installed if
an air conditioner is installed) operate in conjunction with instrument
panel flood lighting and consist of two openings just aft of the red
instrument panel flood lights. The map light openings have sliding covers
controlled by small round knobs which uncover the openings when moved
toward each other. The covers should be kept closed unless the map lights
are required. A map light and toggle switch, mounted in front of the pilot on
the underside of the glare shield, is used for illuminating approach plates
or other charts when using a control wheel mounted approach plate holder.
The switch is labeled MAP LIGHT ON, OFF and light intensity is con
trolled by the POST, FLOOD control knob. A map light mounted on the
bottom of the pilots control wheel illuminates the lower portion of the
cabin in front of the pilot, and is used for checking maps and other flight
data during night operation. The light is utilized by turning on the NAV
LIGHTS switch, and adjusting light intensity with the rheostat control
knob on the bottom of the control wheel.
The airplane is equipped with a dome light aft of the overhead console,
and a baggage compartment light above the baggage area. The lights are
operated by a slide-type switch, adjacent to the dome light.
The most probable cause of a light failure is a burned out bulb;
however, in the event any of the lighting systems fail to illuminate when
turned on, check the appropriate circuit breaker. If the circuit breaker has
opened (white button popped out), and there is no obvious indication of a
short circuit (smoke or odor), turn off the light switch of the affected lights,
reset the breaker, and turn the switch on again. If the breaker opens again,
do not reset it.

CABIN HEATING, VENTILATING AND


DEFROSTING SYSTEM
The temperature and volume of airflow into the cabin can be regulated
11 September 1981

7-41

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

0
0
0

0
0

ADJUSTASLE AFT
OVERHEAD VENTILATORS
TYPICAL)

Figure 7-10.

Cabin Heating, Ventilating, and Defrosting System

7-42
11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

by manipulation of the push-pull CABIN HEAT and CABIN AIR control


knobs (see figure 7-10). When partial cabin heat is desired, blending warm
and cold air will result in improved ventilation and heat distribution
throughout the cabin. Additional outside air for summer ventilation is
provided through the heat and vent system by operation of the push-pull
AUX CABIN AIR knob. All three control knobs are the double button type
with locks to permit intermediate settings.
Front cabin heat and ventilating air is supplied by outlet holes spaced
across a cabin manifold just forward of the pilots and copilots feet. Rear
cabin heat and air is supplied by two ducts from the manifold, one
extending down each side of the cabin to an outlet at the front door post at
floor level.

Windshield defrost air is supplied by a duct from the cabin manifold to


an outlet on top of the antiglare shield; therefore, the temperature of the
defrosting air is the same as heated cabin air. A push-pull type control
knob, labeled DEFROST, regulates the volume of air to the windshield.
Pulling out on the knob increases defroster air flow.
Additional cabin ventilating air is supplied by two adjustable ventila
tors mounted in the forward and aft overhead consoles and one ventilator
in each console located above the rear side windows. Flow to the outlets is
controlled by valves in each wing root, as selected by a single lever in the
forward overhead console labeled OVERHEAD AIR VENTS. In the ON
(right) position, the valves are open and ventilating airflow from the wing
leading edge intakes is supplied to all the adjustable outlets. When the OFF
(left) position is selected, the valves are closed and flow to the outlets is
shut off. An air conditioning system may be installed in the airplane.
Details of this system are presented in Section 9, Supplements.

OXYGEN SYSTEM
The airplane is equipped with a partial oxygen system which consists
of the outlets, pressure gage, a filler valve, associated plumbing, and an
on-off control. If the airplane is equipped with a complete oxygen system,
refer to Section 9, Supplements, for complete details and operating
instructions.

PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM AND INSTRUMENTS


The pitot-static system supplies ram air pressure to the airspeed
indicator and static pressure to the airspeed indicator, vertical speed
indicator and altimeter. The system is composed of a pitot tube mounted on
the lower surface of the left wing, two external static ports, one on each side
of the fuselage below the rear corners of the aft side windows, and the
associated plumbing necessary to connect the instruments to the sources.
11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

The airplane may also be equipped with a pitot heat system. The
system consists of a heating element in the pitot tube, a rocker-type switch
labeled PITOT HEAT on the lower left side of the instrument panel, a 10amp circuit breaker on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel, and
associated wiring. When the pitot heat switch is turned on, the element in
the pitot tube is heated electrically to maintain proper operation in
possible icing conditions. Pitot heat should be used only as required.
A static pressure alternate source valve is installed on the left side of
the lower instrument panel and can be used if the external static source is
malfunctioning. This valve supplies static pressure from inside the cabin
instead of the external static ports.
If erroneous instrument readings are suspected due to water or ice in
the pressure lines going to the standard external static pressure source,
the alternate static source valve should be pulled on.
Pressures within the cabin will vary with open cabin ventilators and
windows. Refer to Sections 3 and 5 for the effect of varying cabin pressures
on airspeed and altimeter readings.

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
The airspeed indicator is calibrated in knots and miles per hour.
Limitation and range markings (in KIAS) include the white arc (58 to 115
knots), green arc (74 to 168 knots), yellow arc (168 to 203 knots), and a red
line (203 knots).
If a true airspeed indicator is installed, it is equipped with a rotatable
ring which works in conjunction with the airspeed indicator dial in a
manner similar to the operation of a flight computer. To operate the
indicator, first rotate the ring until pressure altitude is aligned with
outside air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Pressure altitude should
not be confused with indicated altitude. To obtain pressure altitude,
momentarily set the barometric scale on the altimeter to 29.92 and read
pressure altitude on the altimeter. Be sure to return the altimeter baromet
ric scale to the original barometric setting after pressure altitude has been
obtained. Having set the ring to correct for altitude and temperature, read
the true airspeed shown on the rotatable ring by the indicator pointer. For
best accuracy, the indicated airspeed should be corrected to calibrated
airspeed by referring to the Airspeed Calibration chart in Section 5.
Knowing the calibrated airspeed, read true airspeed on the ring opposite
the calibrated airspeed.

VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR


The vertical speed indicator depicts airplane rate of climb or descent in

744

11 September 1981

0
(J

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

feet per minute. The pointer is actuated by atmospheric pressure changes


resulting from changes of altitude as supplied by the static source.

ALTIMETER
Airplane altitude is depicted by a barometric type altimeter. A knob
near the lower left portion of the indicator provides adjustment of the
instruments barometric scale to the current altimeter setting.

VACUUM SYSTEMS AND INSTRUMENTS

Two engine-driven vacuum systems are available and provide the


suction necessary to operate the attitude indicator and directional indica
tor. One system (see figure 7-11) consists of a single vacuum pump on the
engine, a vacuum relief valve and vacuum system air filter on the aft side
of the firewall below the instrument panel, vacuum-operated instruments,
and a suction gage on the left side of the instrument panel. The other
vacuum system (see figure 7-12) offers a dual pump installation on the rear
of the engine, two vacuum relief valves a system air filter, a check valve
manifold, vacuum-operated instruments, and a suction gage, equipped
with dual warning indicators labeled L and R, on the left side of the
instrument panel.

ATTITUDE INDICATOR
\

[\

An attitude indicator is available and gives a visual indication of flight


attitude. Bank attitude is presented by a pointer at the top of the indicator
relative to the bank scale which has index marks at 10, 20, 300,600, and 90
either side of the center mark. Pitch and roll attitudes are presented by a
miniature airplane superimposed over a symbolic horizon area divided
into two sections by a white horizon bar. The upper blue sky area and the
lower ground area have arbitrary pitch reference lines useful for pitch
attitude control. A knob at the bottom of the instrument is provided for in
flight adjustment of the miniature airplane to the horizon bar for a more
accurate flight attitude indication.

DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR

A directional indicator is available and displays airplane heading on a


compass card in relation to a fixed simulated airplane image and index.
The directional indicator will precess slightly over a period of time.
Therefore, the compass card should be set in accordance with the magnetic
compass just prior to takeoff, and occasionally re-adjusted on extended
flights. A knob on the lower left edge of the instrument is used to adjust the
compass card to correct for any precession.
11 September 1981

7-45

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

I
I
[::::::

VACUUM

WA

DISCHARGE AIR

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

INLET AIR

VACUUM SYSTEM
AIR FILTER

Figure 7-11. Single-Pump Vacuum System

7-46

11 September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

VACUUM RELIEF
VALVE

VACUUM RELIEF
VALVE

CODE
IN LET AIR

E.::::

VACUUM
DISCHARGE AIR

Figure 7-12. Dual-Pump Vacuum System


11 September 1981

7-47

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SUCTION GAGE
A suction gage is located on the left side of the instrument panel when
the airplane is equipped with a vacuum system. Suction available for
operation of the attitude indicator and directional indicator is shown by
this gage, which is calibrated in inches of mercury. The desired suction
range is 4.6 to 5.4 inches of mercury. A suction reading out of this range
may indicate a system malfunction or improper adjustment, and in this
case, the indicators should not be considered reliable.
If the airplane is equipped with a dual vacuum pump system, the
suction gage incorporates two red warning buttons, marked Land R, which
extend visibly in the event either or both sources fail.

STALL WARNING SYSTEM


The airplane is equipped with a vane-type stall warning unit in the
leading edge of the left wing. The unit is electrically connected to a dual
warning unit located above the right cabin door behind the headliner. The
vane in the wing senses the change in airflow over the wing, and operates
the dual warning unit, which produces a continuous tone overthe airplane
speaker between 5 and 10 knots above the stall in all configurations.
If the airplane has a heated stall warning system, the vane-type unit in
the wing leading edge is equipped with a heating element. The heated part
of the system is operated by the PITOT HEAT switch, and is protected by
the PITOT HEAT circuit breaker.
The stall warning system should be checked during the rei1ight
inspection by momentarily turning on the master switch and actuating the
vane in the wing. The system is operational if a continuous tone is heard on
the airplane speaker as the vane is pushed upward.

AVIONICS SUPPORT EQUIPMENT


If the airplane is equipped with avionics, various avionics support
equipment may also be installed. Equipment available includes an avio
nics cooling fan, microphone-headset installations and control surface
static dischargers. The following paragraphs discuss these items. Des
cription and operation of radio equipment is covered in Section 9 of this
handbook.

7-48

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

AVIONICS COOLING FAN


An avionics cooling fan system is provided whenever a factory
installed Nay/Corn radio is installed. The system is designed to provide
internal cooling air from a small electric fan to the avionics units and
thereby eliminate the possibility of moisture contamination using an
external cooling air source.
Power to the electric fan is supplied directly from a pull-off type
circuit breaker labeled AVN FAN, located on the left sidewall circuit
breaker panel. Hence, power is supplied to the fan anytime the master
switch is ON. This arrangement provides air circulation through the
radios to remove a possible heat soak condition before the radios are
turned on after engine start. It is recommended that the circuit breaker be
left ON except during periods of lengthy maintenance with the master
switch ON.

MICROPHONE-HEADSET INSTALLATIONS
Three types of microphone-headset installations are offered. The
standard system provided with avionics equipment includes a hand-held
microphone and separate headset. The keying switch for this microphone
is on the microphone. Two optional microphone-headset installations are
also available; these feature a single-unit microphone-headset combina
tion which permits the pilot or front passenger to conduct radio communi
cations without interrupting other control operations to handle a handheld microphone. One microphone-headset combination is a lightweight
type without a padded headset and the other version has a padded headset.
The microphone-headset combinations utilize a remote keying switch
located on the left grip of the pilots control wheel and, if an optional
intercom system is installed, a second switch on the right grip of the front
passengers control wheel. The microphone and headset jacks are located
on the lower left and right sides of the instrument panel. Audio to all three
headsets is controlled by the individual audio selector switches and
adjusted for volume level by using the selected receiver volume controls.
NOTE
When transmitting, with the hand-held microphone, the
pilot should key the microphone, place the microphone as
close as possible to the lips and speak directly into it.

STATIC DISCHARGERS
If frequent IFR flights are planned, installation of wick-type static
dischargers is recommended to improve radio communications during
flight through dust or various forms of precipitation (rain, snow or ice
ii September 1981

SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

crystals). Under these conditions, the build-up and discharge of static


electricity from the trailing edges of the wings, rudder, elevator, propeller
tips, and radio antennas can result in loss of usable radio signals on all
communications and navigation radio equipment. Usually the ADF is first
to be affected and VHF communication equipment is the last to be affected.
Installation of static dischargers reduces interference from precipita
tion static, but it is possible to encounter severe precipitation static
conditions which might cause the loss of radio signals, even with static
dischargers installed. Whenever possible, avoid known severe precipita
tion areas to prevent loss of dependable radio signals. If avoidance is
impractical, minimize airspeed and anticipate temporary loss of radio
signals while in these areas.

7-50

11 September 1981

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
AIRPLANE HANDLING,
SERVICE & MAINTENANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Introduction
Identification Plate
Owner Notification System
Publications
Airplane File
Airplane Inspection Periods
FAA Required Inspections
Cessna Progressive Care
Cessna Customer Care Program
Pilot Conducted Preventive Maintenance
Alterations Or Repairs
Ground Handling
Towing
Parking
Tie-Down
Jacking
Leveling
Flyable Storage
Servicing
Engine Oil
Fuel
Landing Gear
Oxygen
Cleaning And Care
Windshield-Windows
Painted Surfaces
Stabilizer Abrasion Boot Care
Propeller Care
De-Ice/Anti-Ice Boot Care
Landing Gear Care
Engine Care
Interior Care
Bulb Replacement During Flight
.

8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9

11 September 1981

8-1/(8-2 blank)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

INTRODUCTION
r

This section contains factory-recommended procedures for proper


ground handling and routine care and servicing of your Cessna. It also
identifies certain inspection and maintenance requirements which must
be followed if your airplane is to retain that new-plane performance and
dependability. It is wise to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and
preventive maintenance based on climatic and flying conditions encoun
tered in your locality.
Keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer and take advantage of his
knowledge and experience. He knows your airplane and how to maintain
it. He will remind you when lubrications and oil changes are necessary,
and about other seasonal and periodic services.

IDENTIFICATION PLATE
All correspondence regarding your airplane should include the
SERIAL NUMBER. The Serial Number, Model Number, Production Certif
icate Number (PC) and Type Certificate Number (TC) can be found on the
Identification Plate, located on the lower part of the left forward doorpost.
Located adjacent to the Identification Plate is a Finish and Trim Plate
which contains a code describing the interior color scheme and exterior
paint combination of the airplane. The code may be used in conjunction
with an applicable Parts Catalog if finish and trim information is needed.

OWNER NOTIFICATION SYSTEM


/

As the owner of a Cessna, you will receive applicable Cessna Owner


Advisories at no charge. These Owner Advisories will be mailed to owners
of record. A subscription service for Service Information Letters is
available directly from the Cessna Customer Services Department. Your
Cessna Dealer will be glad to supply you with details concerning this
subscription program, and stands ready, through his Service Department,
to supply you with fast, efficient, low-cost service.

11 September 1981

8-3

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

PUBLICATIONS
Various publications and flight operation aids are furnished in the
airplane when delivered from the factory. These items are listed below.

CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM BOOK


PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK AND FAA APPROVED
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
PILOTS CHECKLISTS
POWER COMPUTER
WORLDWIDE CUSTOMER CARE DIRECTORY
DOS AND DONTS ENGINE BOOKLET

The following additional publications, plus many other supplies that


are applicable to your airplane, are available from your Cessna Dealer.

INFORMATION MANUAL (Contains Pilots Operating Handbook


Information)
SERVICE MANUALS AND PARTS CATALOGS FOR YOUR:
AIRPLANE
ENGINE AND ACCESSORIES
AVIONICS AND AUTOPILOT

Your Cessna Dealer has a Customer Care Supplies Catalog covering


all available items, many of which he keeps on hand. He will be happy to
place an order for any item which is not in stock.

0
NOTE
A Pilots Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Air
plane Flight Manual which is lost or destroyed may be
replaced by contacting your Cessna Dealer or writing
directly to the Customer Services Department, Cessna
Aircraft Company, Wichita, Kansas. An affidavit contain
ing the owners name, airplane serial number and registra
tion number must be included in replacement requests
since the Pilots Operating Handbook and FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manual is identified for specific airplanes
only.

ii September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

AIRPLANE FILE
There are miscellaneous data, information and licenses that are a part
of the airplane file. The following is a checklist for that file. In addition, a
periodic check should be made of the latest Federal Aviation Regulations
to ensure that all data requirements are met.

be displayed in the airplane at all times:


Aircraft Airworthiness Certificate (FAA Form 8100-2).
Aircraft Registration Certificate (FAA Form 8050-3).
Aircraft Radio Station License, if transmitter installed (FCC Form
556).

A.

To
1.
2.
3.

B.

To be carried in the airplane at all times:


1. Pilots Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual.
2. Weight and Balance, and associated papers (latest copy of the
Repair and Alteration Form, FAA Form 337, if applicable).
3. Equipment List.

C.

To be made available upon request:


1. Airplane Log Book.
2. Engine Log Book.

Most of the items listed are required by the United States Federal
Aviation Regulations. Since the Regulations of other nations may require
other documents and data, owners of airplanes not registered in the United
States should check with their own aviation officials to determine their
individual requirements.
Cessna recommends that these items, plus the Pilots Checklists,
Power Computer, Customer Care Program book and Customer Care Card,
be carried in the airplane at all times.

AIRPLANE INSPECTION PERIODS


FAA REQUIRED INSPECTIONS

f\.....J

As required by Federal Aviation Regulations, all civil aircraft of U.S.


registry must undergo a complete inspection (annual) each twelve
calendar months. In addition to the required ANNUAL inspection, aircraft
operated commercially (for hire) must have a complete inspection every
100 hours of operation.
The FAA may require other inspections by the issuance of airworthi

11 September 1981

8-5

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

ness directives applicable to the airplane, engine, propeller and compo


nents. It is the responsibility of the owner/operator to ensure compliance
with all applicable airworthiness directives and, when the inspections are
repetitive, to take appropriate steps to prevent inadvertent noncompliance.
In lieu of the 100 HOUR and ANNUAL inspection requirements, an
airplane may be inspected in accordance with a progressive inspection
schedule, which allows the work load to be divided into smaller operations
that can be accomplished in shorter time periods.
The CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE PROGRAM has been developed
to provide a modern progressive inspection schedule that satisfies the
complete airplane inspection requirements of both the 100 HOUR and
ANNUAL inspections as applicable to Cessna airplanes. The program
assists the owner in his responsibility to comply with all FAA inspection
requirements, while ensuring timely replacement of life-limited parts and
adherence to factory-recommended inspection intervals and maintenance
procedures.

CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE


The Cessna Progressive Care Program has been designed to help you
realize maximum utilization of your airplane at a minimum cost and
downtime. Under this program, your airplane is inspected and maintained
in four operations at 50-hour intervals during a 200-hour period. The
operations are recycled each 200 hours and are recorded in a specially
provided Aircraft Inspection Log as each operation is conducted.
The Cessna Aircraft Company recommends Progressive Care for
airplanes that are being flown 200 hours or more per year, and the 100-hour
inspection for all other airplanes. The procedures for the Progressive Care
Program and the 100-hour inspection have been carefully worked out by
the factory and are followed by the Cessna Dealer Organization. The
complete familiarity of Cessna Dealers with Cessna equipment and
factory-approved procedures provides the highest level of service possi
ble at lower cost to Cessna owners.
Regardless of the inspection method selected by the owner, he should
keep in mind that FAR Part 43 and FAR Part 91 establishes the requirement
that properly certified agencies or personnel accomplish all required FAA
inspections and most of the manufacturer recommended inspections.

CESSNA CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM


Specific benefits and provisions of the CESSNA WARRANTY plus
other important benefits for you are contained in your CUSTOMER CARE
8-6

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

PROGRAM book supplied with your airplane. You will want to thoroughly
review your Customer Care Program book and keep it in your airplane at
all times.

Coupons attached to the Program book entitle you to an initial


inspection and either a Progressive Care Operation No. 1 or the first 100hour inspection within the first 6 months of ownership at no charge to you.
If you take delivery from your Dealer, the initial inspection will have been
performed before delivery of the airplane to you. If you pick up your
airplane at the factory, plan to take it to your Dealer reasonably soon after
you take delivery, so the initial inspection may be performed allowing the
Dealer to make any minor adjustments which may be necessary.
You will also want to return to your Dealer either at 50 hours for your
first Progressive Care Operation, or at 100 hours for your first 100-hour
inspection depending on which program you choose to establish for your
airplane. While these important inspections will be performed for you by
any Cessna Dealer, in most cases you will prefer to have tile Dealer from
whom you purchased the airplane accomplish this work.

PILOT CONDUCTED PREVENTIVE


MAINTENANCE
A certified pilot who owns or operates an airplane not used as an air
carrier is authorized by FAR Part 43 to perform limited maintenance on his
airplane. Refer to FAR Part 43 for a list of the specific maintenance
operations which are allowed.
NOTE
Pilots operating airplanes of other than U.S. registry
should refer to the regulations of the country of certifica
tion for information on preventive maintenance that may
be performed by pilots.
A Service Manual should be obtained prior to performing any preven
tive maintenance to ensure that proper procedures are followed. Your
Cessna Dealer should be contacted for further information or for required
maintenance which must be accomplished by appropriately licensed
personnel.

ALTERATIONS OR REPAIRS
It is essential that the FAA be contacted prior to any alterations on the
airplane to ensure that airworthiness of the airplane is not violated.
Alterations or repairs to the airplane must be accomplished by licensed
personnel.

11 September 1981

8-7

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

GROUND HANDLING

TOWING
The airplane is most easily and safely maneuvered by hand with the
tow-bar attached to the nose wheel. When towing with a vehicle, do not
exceed the nose gear turning angle of 35 either side of center, or damage to
the gear will result. If the airplane is towed or pushed over a rough surface
during hangaring, watch that the normal cushioning action of the nose
strut does not cause excessive vertical movement of the tail and the
resulting contact with low hangar doors or structure. A flat nose tire or
deflated strut will also increase tail height.

PARKING
When parking the airplane, head into the wind and set the parking
brakes. Do not set the parking brakes during cold weather when accumu
lated moisture may freeze the brakes, or when the brakes are overheated.
Close the cowl flaps, (except when engine is hot in hot weather), install the
control wheel lock and chock the wheels. When the airplane is parked on a
slope, place the fuel selector handle in the LEFT ON or RIGHT ON position,
whichever corresponds to the low wing. This action minimizes crossfeeding from the fuller tank and reduces fuel seepage from the wing tank
vents. In severe weather and high wind conditions, tie the airplane down as
outlined in the following paragraph.

TIE-DOWN
Proper tie-down procedure is the best precaution against damage to
the parked airplane by gusty or strong winds. To tie-down the airplane
securely, proceed as follows:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Set the parking brake and install the control wheel lock.
Install a surface control lock over the fin and rudder.
Tie sufficiently strong ropes or chains (700 pounds tensile
strength) to the wing and tail tie-down fittings and secure each
rope or chain to a ramp tie-down.
Tie a rope (no chains or cables) to the nose gear torque link and
secure to a ramp tie-down.
Install a pitot tube cover.

JACKING
When a requirement exists to jack the entire airplane off the ground, or
when wing jack points are used in the jacking operation, refer to the

11 September 1981

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

Service Manual for specific procedures and equipment required.

fl

A jack pad assembly is available to facilitate jacking individual main


gear. When using the individual gear strut jack pad, flexibility of the gear
strut will cause the main wheel to slide inboard as the wheel is raised,
tilting the jack. The jack must then be lowered for a second jacking
operation. Do not jack both main wheels simultaneously using the
individual main gear jack pads.
If nose gear maintenance is required, the nose wheel may be raised off
the ground by pressing down on a tailcone bulkhead, just forward of the
horizontal stabilizer, and allowing the tail to rest on the tail tie-down ring.
NOTE
Do not apply pressure on the elevator or outboard horizon
tal stabilizer surfaces. When pushing on the tailcone.
always apply pressure at a bulkhead to avoid buckling the
skin.
To assist in raising and holding the nose wheel off the ground, weight
down the tail by placing sand-bags, or suitable weights, on each side of the
horizontal stabilizer, next to the fuselage. If ground anchors are available,
the tail should be securely tied down.
NOTE
Ensure that the nose will be held off the ground under all
conditions by means of suitable stands or supports under
weight supporting bulkheads near the nose of the airplane.

LEVELING
Longitudinal leveling of the airplane is accomplished by placing a
level on the leveling screws located on the left side of the tailcone. Deflate
the nose tire and/or lower or raise the nose strut to properly center the
bubble in the level. Corresponding points on either the upper or lower main
door sills may be used to level the airplane laterally.

FLYABLE STORAGE
Airplanes placed in non-operational storage for a maximum of 30 days
or those which receive only intermittent operational use for the first 25
hours are considered in flyable storage status. Every seventh day during
these periods, the propeller should be rotated by hand through five

11 September 1981

8-9

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

revolutions. This action limbers the oil and prevents any accumulation
of corrosion on engine cylinder walls.

WARNING

For maximum safety, check that the ignition switch is


OFF, the throttle is closed, the mixture control is in the idle
cut-off position, and the airplane is secured before rotating
the propeller by hand. Do not stand within the arc of the
propeller blades while turning the propeller.
After 30 days, the airplane should be flown for 30 minutes or a ground
runup should be made just long enough to produce an oil temperature
within the lower green arc range. Excessive ground runup should be
avoided.
Engine runup also helps to eliminate excessive accumulations of
water in the fuel system and other air spaces in the engine. Keep fuel tanks
full to minimize condensation in the tanks. Keep the battery fully charged
to prevent the electrolyte from freezing in cold weather. If the airplane is to
be stored temporarily, or indefinitely, refer to the Service Manual for
proper storage procedures.

1Z)

SERVICING
In addition to the PREFLIGHT INSPECTION covered in Section 4.
COMPLETE servicing, inspection, and test requirements for your airplane
are detailed in the Service Manual. The Service Manual outlines all items
which require attention at 50, 100, and 200 hour intervals plus those items
which require servicing, inspection, and/or testing at special intervals.
Since Cessna Dealers conduct all service, inspection, and test proce
dures in accordance with applicable Service Manuals, it is recommended
that you contact your Cessna Dealer concerning these requirements and
begin scheduling your airplane for service at the recommended intervals.
Cessna Progressive Care ensures that these requirements are accomp
lished at the required intervals to comply with the 100-hour or ANNUAL
inspection as previously covered.
Depending on various flight operations, your local Government
Aviation Agency may require additional service, inspections, or tests. For

11 September 1981

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

these regulatory requirements, owners should check with local aviation


officials where the airplane is being operated.
For quick and ready reference, quantities, materials, and specifica
tions for frequently used service items are as follows:

ENGINE OIL
GRADE AND VISCOSITY FOR TEMPERATURE RANGE
All temperatures, use SAE 20W-SO or
Above 4C (40F), use SAE 50
Below 4C (40F), use SAE 30
Multi-viscosity oil with a range of SAE 20W-SO is recommended for
improved starting and turbocharger controller operation in cold
weather. Ashless dispersant oil, conforming to Continental Motors
Specification MHS-24 (and all revisions thereto), must be used.
--

NOTE
Your Cessna was delivered from the factory with a corro
sion preventive aircraft engine oil. If oil must be added
during the first 25 hours, use only aviation grade straight
mineral oil conforming to Specification No. MIL-L-6082.
10 Quarts.
CAPACITY OF ENGINE SUMP
Do not operate on less than 7 quarts. To minimize loss of oil through
breather, fill to 8 quart level for normal flights of less than 3 hours. For
extended flight, fill to 10 quarts. These quantities refer to oil dipstick
level readings. During oil and oil filter changes, one additional quart is
required.
--

OIL AND OIL FILTER CHANGE


After the first 25 hours of operation, drain engine oil sump and replace
filter. Refill sump with straight mineral oil and use until a total of SO
hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized; then change
to dispersant oil and replace the filter. Drain the engine oil sump and
replace the filter each SO hours thereafter. The oil change interval may
be extended to 100-hour intervals, providing the oil filter is changed at
SO-hour intervals. Change engine oil at least every 8 months even
though less than the recommended hours have accumulated. Reduce
intervals for prolonged operation in dusty areas, cold climates, or
when short flights and long idle periods result in sludging conditions.
--

NOTE
During the first 25-hour oil and filter change, a general
inspection of the overall engine compartment is required.
Items which are not normally checked during a preflight

11 September 1981

8-li

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

inspection should be given special attention. Hoses, metal


lines and fittings should be inspected for signs of oil and
fuel leaks, and checked for abrasions, chafing, security,
proper routing and support, and evidence of deterioration.
Inspect the intake and exhaust systems for cracks, evi
dence of leakage, and security of attachment. Engine
controls and linkages should be checked for freedom of
movement through their full range, security of attachment
and evidence of wear. Inspect wiring for security, chafing,
burning, defective insulation, loose or broken terminals,
heat deterioration, and corroded terminals. Check the
alternator belt(s) in accordance with Service Manual
instructions, and retighten if necessary. A periodic check
of these items during subsequent servicing operations is
recommended.

FUEL
APPROVED FUEL GRADES (AND COLORS)
100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
iOO (Formerly 100/ 130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).
--

NOTE
Isopropyl alcohol or ethylene glycol monomethyl ether
may be added to the fuel supply in quantities not to exceed
1% or .15% by volume, respectively, of the total. Refer to
Fuel Additives in later paragraphs for additional informa
tion.
CAPACITY EACH TANK
45 Gallons.
REDUCED CAPACITY EACH TANK (WHEN FILLED TO BOTTOM OF
FUEL FILLER NECK EXTENSION)
33.5 Gallons.
--

--

NOTE
Service the fuel system after each flight, and keep fuel
tanks full to minimize condensation in the tanks.
FUEL ADDITIVES
Strict adherence to recommended preflight draining instructions as
called for in Section 4 will eliminate any free water accumulations
from the tank sumps. While small amounts of water may still remain in
solution in the gasoline, it will normally be consumed and go unno
ticed in the operation of the engine.
--

11 September 1981

C)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
HANDLING. SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

One exception to this can be encountered when operating under the


combined effect of: (1) use of certain fuels, with (2) high humidity
conditions on the ground (3) followed by flight at high altitude and low
temperature. Under these unusual conditions, small amounts of water
in solution can precipitate from the fuel stream and freeze in sufficient
quantities to induce partial icing of the engine fuel system.
While these conditions are quite rare and will not normally pose a
problem to owners and operators, they do exist in certain areas of the
world and consequently must be dealt with, when encountered.
Therefore, to alleviate the possibility of fuel icing occurring under
these unusual conditions, it is permissible to add isopropyl alcohol or
ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) compound to the fuel
supply.

The introduction of alcohol or EGME compound into the fuel provides


two distinct effects: (1) it absorbs the dissolved water from the gasoline
and (2) alcohol has a freezing temperature depressant effect.
Alcohol, if used, is to be blended with the fuel in a concentration of 1%
by volume. Concentrations greater than 1% are not recommended
since they can be detrimental to fuel tank materials.
The manner in which the alcohol is added to the fuel is significant
because alcohol is most effective when it is completely dissolved in the
fuel. To ensure proper mixing, the following is recommended:

1.

For best results, the alcohol should be added during the fueling
operation by pouring the alcohol directly on the fuel stream
issuing from the fueling nozzle.

2.

An alternate method that may be used is to premix the


complete alcohol dosage with some fuel in a separate clean
container (approximately 2-3 gallon capacity) and then
transferring this mixture to the tank prior to the fuel operation.

Any high quality isopropyl alcohol may be used, such as Anti-Icing


Fluid (MIL-F-5566) or Isopropyl Alcohol (Federal Specification TT-I
735a). Figure 8-1 provides alcohol-fuel mixing ratio information.
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) compound, in compliance
with MIL-I-27686 or Phillips PFA-55MB, if used, must be carefully
mixed with the fuel in concentrations not to exceed .15% by volume.
Figure 8-1 provides EGME-fuel mixing ratio information.

11 September 1981

8-13

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

18

140t

LU4ttfiH o

120
4:
100
0

So

12

>30

>

10

2.5

.<

U,

08
D60-ci
0
D

-J

U_

c,,2.0
1
<

1.5
-

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

GALLONS OF GASOLINE

Figure 8-1. Additive Mixing Ratio

CAUTION
Mixing of the EGME compound with the fuel is extremely
important because a concentration in excess of that recom
mended (.15% by volume maximum) will result in detri
mental effects to the fuel tanks, such as deterioration of
protective primer and sealants and damage to 0-rings and
seals in the fuel system and engine components. Use only
blending equipment that is recommended by the manufac
turer to obtain proper proportioning.

CAUTION
Do not allow the concentrated EGME compound to come in
contact with the airplane finish as damage can result.
Prolonged storage of the airplane will result in a water buildup in the
fuel which leeches out the additive. An indication of this is when an
excessive amount of water accumulates in the fuel tank sumps. The
concentration can be checked using a differential refractometer. It is
imperative that the technical manual for the differential refractometer
be followed explicitly when checking the additive concentration.
8-14

11 September 1981

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

FUEL CONTAMINATION
Fuel contamination is usually the result of foreign material present in
the fuel system, and may consist of water, rust, sand, dirt, microbes or
bacterial growth. In addition, additives that are not compatible with
fuel or fuel system components can cause the fuel to become contami
nated.
- -

Before the first flight of the day and after each refueling, use a clear
sampler cup and drain a cupful of fuel from the wing tank sumps and
fuel strainer quick-drain valves to determine if contaminants are
present, and that the airplane has been fueled with the proper grade of
fuel.

If contamination is detected, continue draining from all fuel drain


points, including the vapor return line and reservoir quick-drain
valves, until all contamination has been removed. If the airplane has
been serviced with the improper fuel grade, defuel completely and
refuel with the correct grade. Do not fly the airplane with contaminated
or unapproved fuel.
In addition, Owners! Operators who are not acquainted with a particu
lar fixed base operator should be assured that the fuel supply has been
checked for contamination and is properly filtered before allowing the
airplane to be serviced. Also, fuel tanks should be kept full between
flights, provided weight and balance considerations will permit, to
reduce the possibility of water condensing on the walls of partially
filled tanks.
To further reduce the possibility of contaminated fuel, routine mainte
nance of the fuel system should be performed in accordance with the
airplane Service Manual. Only the proper fuel, as recommended in this
handbook, should be used, and fuel additives should not be used unless
approved by Cessna and the Federal Aviation Administration.

LANDING GEAR
NOSE WHEEL TIRE PRESSURE
88 PSI on 5.00-5, 10-Ply Rated Tire.
MAIN WHEEL TIRE PRESSURE
55 PSI on 6.00-6, 8-Ply Rated Tires.
NOSE GEAR SHOCK STRUT
Keep filled with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid per filling instructions
placard, and with no load on the strut, inflate with air to 90 PSI. Do not
over-inflate.
Check every 25 hours and service
HYDRAULIC FLUID RESERVOIR
with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid. At first 25 hours, first 50 hours, and
each 100 hours thereafter, clean the filter on the right side of the
reservoir.
BRAKES
Service as required with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid.
--

--

--

- -

- -

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

8-15

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

OXYGEN
AVIATORS BREATHING OXYGEN
Spec. No. MIL-O-27210.
MAXIMUM PRESSURE (cylinder temperature stabilized after filling)
1800 PSI (overhead cylinders) or 1850 PSI (aft cylinder) at 21C (70F).
Refer to Oxygen System Supplement (Section 9) for filling pressures.
--

- -

CLEANINGANDCARE
WINDSHIELD-WINDOWS
The plastic windshield and windows should be cleaned with an aircraft
windshield cleaner. Apply the cleaner sparingly with soft cloths, and rub
with moderate pressure until all dirt, oil scum and bug stains are removed.
Allow the cleaner to dry, then wipe it off with soft flannel cloths.
If a windshield cleaner is not available, the plastic can be cleaned with
soft cloths moistened with Stoddard solvent to remove oil and grease.
NOTE
Never use gasoline, benzine, alcohol, acetone, fire extin
gusher or anti-ice fluid, lacquer thinner or glass cleaner
to clean the plastic. These materials will attack the plastic
and may cause it to craze.
Follow by carefully washing with a mild detergent and plenty of water.
Rinse thoroughly, then dry with a clean moist chamois. Do not rub the
plastic with a dry cloth since this builds up an electrostatic charge which
attracts dust. Waxing with a good commercial wax will finish the cleaning
job. A thin, even coat of wax, polished out by hand with clean soft flannel
cloths, will fill in minor scratches and help prevent further scratching.
Do not use a canvas cover on the windshield unless freezing rain or
sleet is anticipated since the cover may scratch the plastic surface.

PAINTED SURFACES
The painted exterior surfaces of your new Cessna have a durable, long
lasting finish and, under normal conditions, require no polishing or
buffing. Approximately 10 days are required for the paint to cure corn
pletely; in most cases, the curing period will have been completed prior to
delivery of the airplane. In the event that polishing or buffing is required
within the curing period, it is recommended that the work be done by
someone experienced in handling uncured paint. Any Cessna Dealer can
8-16

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

accomplish this work.


Generally, the painted surfaces can be kept bright by washing with
water and mild soap, followed by a rinse with water and drying with cloths
or a chamois. Harsh or abrasive soaps or detergents which cause corrosion
or scratches should never be used. Remove stubborn oil and grease with a
cloth moistened with Stoddard solvent.

j,

Waxing is unnecessary to keep the painted surfaces bright. However, if


desired, the airplane may be waxed with a good automotive wax. A heavier
coating of wax on the leading edges of the wings and tail and on the engine
nose cap and propeller spinner will help reduce the abrasion encountered
in these areas.
When the airplane is parked outside in cold climates and it is necessary
to remove ice before flight, care should be taken to protect the painted
surfaces during ice removal with chemical liquids. Isopropyl alcohol will
satisfactorily remove ice accumulations without damaging the paint.
However, keep the isopropyl alcohol away from the windshield and cabin
windows since it will attack the plastic and may cause it to craze.

STABILIZER ABRASION BOOT CARE


If the airplane is equipped with stabilizer abrasion boots, keep them
clean and free from oil and grease which can swell the rubber. Wash them
with mild soap and water, using Form Tech AC cleaner or naphtha to
remove stubborn grease. Do not scrub the boots, and be sure to wipe off all
solvent before it dries. Boots with loosened edges or small tears should be
repaired. Your Cessna Dealer has the proper material and know-how to do
this correctly.

PROPELLER CARE
Preflight inspection of propeller blades for nicks, and wiping them
occasionally with an oily cloth to clean off grass and bug stains will assure
long blade life. Small nicks on the propeller, particularly near the tips and
on the leading edges, should be dressed out as soon as possible since these
nicks produce stress concentrations, and if ignored, may result in cracks.
Never use an alkaline cleaner on the blades; remove grease and dirt with
Stoddard solvent.

DE-ICE/ANTI-ICE BOOT CARE


The optional wing and stabilizer de-ice and propeller anti-ice boots
have a special electrically-conductive coating to bleed off static charges
which cause radio interference and may perforate the boots. Fueling and

ii September 1981

8-17

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

other servicing operations should be done carefully to avoid damaging


this conductive coating or tearing the boots.
To prolong the life of de-ice/ anti-ice boots, they should be washed and
serviced on a regular basis. Keep the boots clean and free from oil, grease
and other solvents which cause rubber to swell and deteriorate. Outlined
below are recommended cleaning and servicing procedures.

CAUTION
Use only the following instructions when cleaning boots.
Disregard instructions which recommend petroleum base
liquids (MEK, non-leaded gasoline, etc.) which can harm
the boot material.
1.

Clean boots with mild soap and water, then rinse thoroughly with
clean water.
NOTE
Isopropyl alcohol can be used to remove grime which
cannot be removed using soap. If isopropyl alcohol is used
for cleaning, wash area with mild soap and water, then
rinse thoroughly with clean water.

2.

Allow the boots to dry, then apply a coating of Age Master No. 1 to
the boots in accordance with application instructions on the
container.
NOTE
Age Master No. 1 is beneficial for its ozone and weather
resistance features.

3.

After the boots have been treated with Age Master No. 1, apply a
coating of ICEX to the boots in accordance with application
instructions on the ICEX container.
NOTE
ICEX may be beneficial as an ice adhesion depressant.
Both Age Master No. 1 and ICEX are distributed by the B.F.
Goodrich Company.

CAUTION
ICEX contains silicone, which lessens paint adhesion. Use
care when applying ICEX, and protect adjacent surfaces
8-18

Ii September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

from overspray, since overspray of ICEX will make touchup painting almost impossible.
Age Master No. 1 and ICEX coatings last approximately 150 hours on
the wing and stabilizer de-ice boots and 15 hours on propeller anti-ice
boots.

,-

Small tears and abrasions on de-ice boots can be repaired temporarily


without removing the boots and the conductive coating can be renewed.
Your Cessna Dealer has the proper materials and know-how to do this
correctly.

LANDING GEAR CARE

Cessna Dealers mechanics have been trained in the proper adjustment


and rigging procedures on the airplane hydraulic system. To assure
trouble-free operation, have your Cessna Dealer check the gear regularly
and make any necessary adjustments. Only properly trained mechanics
should attempt to repair or adjust the landing gear.

ENGINE CARE
An engine and accessories wash-down should be accomplished during
each 100-hour inspection to remove oil, grease, salt corrosion or other
residue that might conceal component defects during inspection. Also
periodic cleaning can be very effective in preventive maintenance.

Precautions should be taken when working with cleaning agents such


as wearing of rubber gloves, an apron or coveralls and a face shield or
goggles. Use the least toxic of available cleaning agents that will satisfac
torily accomplish the work. These cleaning agents include: (1) Stoddard
solvent (Specification P-D-680, Type II), (2) a water base alkaline detergent
cleaner (MIL-C-25769J) mixed 1 part cleaner, 2 to 3 parts water and 8 to 12
parts Stoddard solvent, or (3) a solvent base emulsion cleaner (MIL-C
43616B) mixed 1 part cleaner and 3 parts Stoddard solvent.

CAUTION
Do not use gasoline or other highly flammable substance
for wash-down.
Perform all cleaning operations in well ventilated work areas, and ensure
that adequate fire-fighting and safety equipment is available. Do not
smoke or expose a flame within 100 feet of the cleaning area. Compressed
air, used for cleaning agent application or drying, should be regulated to
the lowest practical pressure. Use of a stiff bristle fiber brush rather than a
steel brush is recommended if cleaning agents do not remove excess

11 September 1981

8-19

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
grease and grime during spraying.

A recommended procedure for cleaning an engine and accessories is


as follows:
1.

Remove engine cowling.

CAUTION
Do not attempt to wash an engine which is still hot or
running. Allow the engine to cool before cleaning.
2.

Use fresh water for wash-down when the engine is contaminated


with salt or corrosive chemicals. A cleaning agent such as des
cribed previously may then be used to remove oil and grime.

CAUTION
Care should be exercised to not direct cleaning agents or
water streams at openings on the starter, magnetos,
alternator(s), vacuum pump(s) and turbocharger pressure
relief valve.
3.

Thoroughly rinse with clean, warm water to remove all traces of


cleaning agents.

CAUTION
Cleaning agents should never be left on engine compo
nents for an extended period of time. Failure to remove
them may cause damage to components such as neoprene
seals and silicone fire sleeves, and could cause additional
corrosion.
4.
5.
8.
7.

Completely dry the engine and accessories using clean, dry


compressed air.
If desired, the engine cowling may be washed with the same
cleaning agents, then rinsed thoroughly and wiped dry.
Reinstall engine cowling.
Before starting the engine, rotate the propeller by hand no less
than four complete revolutions.

WARNING

For maximum safety, check that the ignition switch is


OFF, the throttle is closed, the mixture control is in the idle

8-20

11 September 1981

C)

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

cut-off position, and the airplane is secured before rotating


the propeller by hand. Do not stand within the arc of the
propeller blades while turning the propeller.

INTERIOR CARE
To remove dust and loose dirt from the upholstery and carpet, clean the
interior regularly with a vacuum cleaner.
Blot up any spilled liquid promptly with cleansing tissue or rags.
Dont pat the spot; press the blotting material firmly and hold it for several
seconds. Continue blotting until no more liquid is taken up. Scrape off
sticky materials with a dull knife, then spot-clean the area.

Oily spots may be cleaned with household spot removers, used


sparingly. Before using any solvent, read the instructions on the container
and test it on an obscure place on the fabric to be cleaned. Never saturate
the fabric with a volatile solvent; it may damage the padding and backing
materials.
Soiled upholstery and carpet may be cleaned with foam-type deter
gent, used according to the manufacturers instructions. To minimize
wetting the fabric, keep the foam as dry as possible and remove it with a
vacuum cleaner.
If your airplane is equipped with leather seating, cleaning of the seats
is accomplished using a soft cloth or sponge dipped in mild soap suds. The
soap suds, used sparingly, will remove traces of dirt and grease. The soap
should be removed with a clean damp cloth.
The plastic trim, headliner, instrument panel and control knobs need
only be wiped off with a damp cloth. Oil and grease on the control wheel and
control knobs can be removed with a cloth moistened with Stoddard
solvent. Volatile solvents, such as mentioned in paragraphs on care of the
windshield, must never be used since they soften and craze the plastic.

11 September 1981

8-21

SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

BULB REPLACEMENT DURING FLIGHT


Figure 8-2 provides instructions to aid the pilot in the replacement of
defective light bulbs during flight without tools. It is suggested that spare
bulbs be stored in the map compartment. However, if a spare bulb is not
available, an identical bulb which is found to be available from other lights
listed herein can be substituted for the defective bulb. For a listing of other
bulb requirements and specific tools needed, refer to the Service Manual
for this airplane.
POST LIGHTS
Grasp lens cap and pull straight out from socket.
Pull bulb from cap and replace with MS25237-327
bulb. Replace cap in socket and rotate cap to
direcs light in desired direction.

LANDING GEAR LIGHTS, DE-ICE PRESSURE LIGHT,


LOW VOLTAGE LIGHT, ALTERNATOR OFF LIGHTS AND
RADAR ALTIMETER LIGHT.
Remove lens cap by turning counterclockwise until
it separates from housing. Pull bulb from back
side of lens cap and replace with MS25237-327
bulb. Replace lens cap by turning it clockwise
until hand-tight. After replacing lens cap, check
that dimming shutter is not closed. Replacement
procedure is identical for gear up and gear
down lights, and either bulb may be used to
replace the other, if a spare bulb is not available.

CONTROL WHEEL MAP LIGHT


Grasp rim of bulb, push straight up and turn
counterclockwise as far as possible, then pull
bulb straight down and out of socket. Replace
with 24RB bulb. To install new bulb in socket,
align pins on bulb with slots in socket, then
push straight up and rotate bulb clockwise as
far as possible.

Figure 8-2. Bulb Replacement


8-22

ii September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T210N

SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS

SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS
(Optional Systems Description
& Operating Procedures)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
General:
1 Air Conditioning System
(6 pages)
2 Convenience Table
(2 pages)
3 Digital Clock
(4 pages)
-4 Dual Alternator System
(6 pages)
-S/Electric Elevator Trim System
(2 pages)
6 Engine Combustion Analyzer
(2 pages)
7 Fuel Computer/Digital Clock
(8 pages)
(\
7 8 Ground Service Plug Receptacle
(4 pages)
9.-Known Icing Equipment
(10 pages) I
10 Oxygen System
(6 pages)
1 VPropeller Anti-Ice System
(4 pages)
12 Strobe Light System
(2 pages)
13 Windshield Anti-Ice System
(2 pages)
14 Wing And Stabilizer De-Ice System
(6 pages)
Avionics:
15 Audio Control Panels
(8 pages)
16 Cassette Stereo AM/FM Entertainment Center
(8 pages)
(Type EC-100)
17,DME (Type 450C)
(4 pages)
18 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
(4 pages)
(4 pages)
19 Radar Altimeter (Bonzer Impatt)
20 RNAV (Type ANS-351C)
(14 pages)
21 Slaved Horizontal Situation Indicator (Type IG-832A)
(4 pages)
22 SSB HF Transceiver (Type ASB-125)
(4 pages)
23 Unslaved Horizontal Situation Indicator (Type IG-832C)
(4 pages)
24 Weather Radar (Type RDR-160)
(10 pages)
5 Weather Radar (Type RDR-160 Color)
(12 pages)
(12 pages)
.) !6 Weather Radar (Type RDR-160 XD)
27 Weather Radar (Type Weather Scout II)
(8 pages)
28 200A Navomatic Autopilot (Type AF-295B)
(6 pages)
29 300 ADE (Type R-546E)
(6 pages)

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

9-1

SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


30 300 Nay! Corn (Type RT-385A)
31 300 Nay! Corn (Type RT-385A) With 400 Area
Navigation System (Type RN-478A)
32 300A Navomatic Autopilot (Type AF-395A)
33 400 ADF (Type R-446A)
34 400 Area Navigation System (Type RN-478A)
35 400 DME (Type R-476A)
36 400 Glide Slope (Type R-443B)
37 400 Marker Beacon (Type R-402A)
38 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485A)
39 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485B)
40 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485A) With 400 Area
Navigation System (Type RN-478A)
41 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485B) With 400 Area
Navigation System (Type RN-478A)
42 400 Radio Magnetic Indicator (Type IN-404A)
43 400 Transponder (Type RT-459A) And Optional
Altitude Encoder (Blind) With Optional IDENT
Switch
44 400 Transponder (Type RT-459A) And Optional
Encoding Altimeter (Type EA-401A) With
Optional IDENT Switch
45 400B Integrated Flight Control System (Type IF-550A)
46 400B Navornatic Autopilot (Type AF-550A)
47 800 Encoding Altimeter (Type EA-801A) With Altitude
Alerter (Type AA-801A)
.

(8 pages)
(8
(8
(6
(6
(4
(4
(6
(10
(12

pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)

(10 pages)
(12 pages)
(4 pages)

(6 pages)

(6 pages)
(18 pages)
(14 pages)

(8 pages)

9-2

11 September 1981

CESSNA
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS

INTRODUCTION
This section consists of a series of supplements, each covering a single
optional system which may be installed in the airplane. Each supplement
contains a brief description, and when applicable, operating limitations,
emergency and normal procedures, and performance. As listed in the
Table of Contents, the supplements are classified under the headings of
General and Avionics, and have been provided with reference numbers.
Also, the supplements are arranged alphabetically and numerically to
make it easier to locate a particular supplement. Other routinely installed
items of optional equipment, whose function and operational procedures
do not require detailed instructions, are discussed in Section 7.
Limitations contained in the following supplements are FAA
approved. Observance of these operating limitations is required by
Federal Aviation Regulations.

11 September 1981

9-3/(9-4 blank)

0
0
000

1
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


MODEL T210N

SUPPLEMENT
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The air conditioning system provides comfortable cabin temperatures
during hot weather operations, both on the ground or in flight. Controls for
the air conditioning system are located in the overhead console above the
front seats. The controls consist of two rotary switches and a push-pull
lever, labeled OVERHEAD AIR SELECTOR. Rotating the switch, labeled
TEMP. to the ON position starts the system compressor.
NOTE
The compressor will not operate unless the AIR control
switch is in the LOW, MED or HI position.

With continued clockwise rotation from ON, progressively cooler cabin


temperature is obtained by longer cycles of compressor operation. When
the switch is rotated fully clockwise, the compressor runs continuously to
provide the coolest cabin temperature. Airflow is controlled by the switch,
labeled AIR, which rotates clockwise from OFF through three positions,
labeled LOW, MED and HI, to provide three blower speeds. Positioning the
overhead air selector lever to its forward position, labeled FRESH AIR,
supplies outside air from inlets located in both wings to the air condition
ing system. When moved to the aft position, labeled CABIN AIR, the
overhead air selector shuts off air from the wing inlets, and instead, only
allows air from inside the cabin to circulate through the air conditioning
system. System electrical protection is provided by a 10-amp circuit
breaker, labeled A/C FAN, and a 15-amp circuit breaker, labeled COND
FAN, located on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel.
In this system (see figure 1), a belt-driven compressor is located on the
right front side of the engine. Twin evaporator coils with blowers, located
above the headliner in the cabin top, direct cold air to eight adjustable
outlets in the overhead console. Refrigerant lines under the floorboards
and in the cabin top interconnect the compressor, evaporators and the
condenser and blower unit located behind the aft baggage compartment
wall in the aft fuselage. To provide outside cooling air to the condenser, an
inlet and an outlet are located on the left side and bottom, respectively, of
the aft fuselage. Protective covers are provided to replace the condenser

11 September 1981

1 of 6

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCHES


IN OVERHEAD CONSOLE)

0
-

EVAPORATOR AND BLOWER


IT VP ICA L I

T0 AIR CONTROL SWITCH


ITYPICAL)

0
0
CODE
OUTSIDE AIR

COLD AIR
RETURN AIR
LIQUID REFRIGERANT

I SCET

VAPOR REFRISERANT
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
DRAIN LINE

FOOM I
CONNECTION

Figure 1. Air Conditioning System

11 September 1981

1
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


MODEL T2ON

inlet louvers and outlet duct during off-season flight operations.


NOTE
Do not operate the air conditioner with the condenser
covers installed.
Access for servicing the system is provided through the aft baggage
compartment wall to the receiver/dryer sight glass, and through a
floorboard inspection cover beneath the pilots seat to the Schrader valves.
Refer to the Air Conditioner Service/Parts Manual for specific testing,
servicing procedures, and instructions for removing and replacing system
components.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The air conditioning system must not be operated during takeoff and
landing. When the system is installed, the airplane must be equipped with
a placard located on the instrument panel which reads as follows:
TURN OFF AIR CONDITIONER
FOR TAKEOFF AND LANDING

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the air
conditioning system is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
During the preflight (walk around) inspection, open cabin doors to aid
in cool-down of the cabin before flight. Air conditioning system compo
nents should be inspected as follows:
11 September 1981

1
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
MODEL T210N

1.
2.
3.
4.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Check compressor condition and drive belt for tightness.


Check hoses (where visibility permits) from compressor to the
condenser and evaporators for evidence of damage or leakage.
Check condenser inlet on left side of aft fuselage and outlet on the
bottom of the aft fuselage for condition and blockage.
Check condensate drain at left main landing gear cutout for
damage or blockage.

OPERATION ON GROUND
After preflight inspection and engine start, use the following procedures for quickest reduction of hot cabin temperatures prior to takeoff:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cabin Doors and Windows


CLOSED.
Cabin Air and Auxiliary Cabin Air Controls
PUSHED IN.
Overhead Air Selector
CABIN AIR.
Overhead Air Outlets
OPEN.
AIR Control Switch
HI.
TEMP Control Switch
ROTATED FULLY CLOCKWISE.
Throttle
1000 RPM.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
If the temperature of the air coming from the outlets does
not start to cool within a minute or two, the system may be
malfunctioning and should be turned off.
8.

After Initial Cool-Down


as desired.

--

REPOSITION AIR and TEMP controls

BEFORE TAKEOFF
1.
2.

TEMP Control Switch


OFF.
AIR Control Switch
AS DESIRED.
--

--

OPERATION IN FLIGHT
Initially, it may be desirable to operate the system at its coldest setting
and highest blower speed for fast cool-down. Later in the flight, adjustment
of the controls to reduced settings and selection of fresh air may be more
comfortable.
During extended flight when temperature and humidity are extremely
high, the evaporator coils may frost over. Normally, the compressor
cycles off when temperatures in the evaporators near 32F (0 C). However,
when the TEMP control is at its coldest setting, the compressor runs
continuously. Therefore, if fTost does form as evidenced by reduced cooling

11 September 1981

1
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

,--

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


MODEL T210N

slightly toward
airflow, move the temperature control counterclockwise
r) control.
(blowe
AIR
the
of
n
positio
HI
the
the OFF position and select
sufficiently to
ature
temper
rge
discha
ator
evapor
e
increas
should
This
clear the frost.
NOTE
A high pressure safety switch in the air conditioning
system disengages the compressor clutch and stops sys
tem operation in the event the system becomes overloaded.
The system will cycle on again when the pressure reduces.
However, if cooling ability cannot be restored within a
reasonable amount of time, the system may be malfunc
tioning and should be turned off.

When maximum cabin cooling is desired during cruise, opening the


cowl flaps 1/4 to 1/3(2 to 3 notches from full close) will help provide more
nal
comfortable front cabin temperatures with only a 1 to 2 knot additio
speed loss.
tion
The blower portion of the system may be used anytime air circula
TEMP
the
leaving
by
plished
accom
is
.
This
desired
air)
is
(outside or cabin
r) control
control switch in the OFF position and placing the AIR (blowe
.
desired
as
ns
positio
or
HI
MED
LOW,
switch in the
BEFORE LANDING
1.
2.

OFF.
TEMP Control Switch
AS DESIRED.
AIR Control Switch
--

--

AFTER LANDING
The TEMP control switch may be rotated from OFF to a position which
ng on
will maintain cabin temperature at a comfortable level while operati
the ground.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
FPM loss in
There is a 1 KTAS decrease in cruise performance and a 20
essor is
compr
the
When
d.
installe
rate of climb when the air conditioner is
nal 20 FPM
additio
an
and
loss
KTAS
to
2
nal
1
additio
an
is
there
d,
engage
climb loss.
11 September 1981

1
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

DEMONSTRATED OPERATING TEMPERATURE


Satisfactory engine cooling has been demonstrated for the airplane
with this equipment installed and operating with an outside air tempera
ture 23C above standard. This is not to be considered as an operating
limitation. Reference should be made to Section 2 of the basic handbook for
engine operating limitations.

11 September 1981

2
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CONVENIENCE TABLE
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
CONVENIENCE TABLE

SECTION 1
GENERAL
The convenience table and its stowage compartment are installed on
the back of the pilots or copilots seat for use by the second row pas
sengers. The table is equipped with guides which follow tracks inside the
stowage compartment.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following information must be presented in the form of a placard
located on the back of the convenience table.

STOW LEAF DURING


TAKEOFF AND LANDING

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the
convenience table is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 2

2
CONVENIENCE TABLE
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
To remove the table from the stowage compartment, grasp the handle
near the top edge of the leaf, slide it upward and aft until the leaf contacts
the stops at the top of the compartment. Stowing the table is accomplished
by rotating it upward and sliding it back down into the stowage compart
ment.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the convenience
table is installed.

C
0
0

11 September 1981

3
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
DIGITAL CLOCK
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Astro Tech LC-2 Quartz Chronometer (see figure 1) is a precision,
solid state time keeping device which will display to the pilot the time-ofday, the calendar date, and the elapsed time interval between a series of
selected events, such as in-flight check points or legs of a cross-country
flight, etc. These three modes of operation function independently and can
be alternately selected for viewing on the four digit liquid crystal display
(LCD) on the front face of the instrument. Three push button type switches
directly below the display control all time keeping functions. These
control functions are summarized in figures 2 and 3.
The digital display features an internal light (back light) to ensure
good visibility under low cabin lighting conditions or at night. The
intensity of the back light is controlled by the ENG-RADIO lights rheostat.
In addition, the display incorporates a test function (see figure 1) which
allows checking that all elements of the display are operating. To activate
the test function, press the LH and RH buttons at the same time.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the digital clock is
installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the
digital clock is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

3
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T210N

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Display

Indicator
(Colon)

Timer Mode
Indicator

Clock Mode Indicator


(12 Hour Format Only)

Button
Button

Center Push
Button

Pigure 1.

Digital Clock

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

CLOCK AND DATE OPERATION


When operating in the clock mode (see figure 2), the display shows the
time of day in hours and minutes while the activity indicator (colon) will
blink off for one second each ten seconds to indicate proper functioning. If
the RH push button is pressed momentarily, while in the clock mode, the
calendar date appears numerically on the display with month of year to the
left of the colon and day of the month shown to the right of the colon. The
display automatically returns to the clock mode after approximately 1.5
seconds. However, if the RH button is pressed continuously longer than
approximately two seconds, the display will return from the date to the
clock mode with the activity indicator (colon) blinking altered to show
continuously or be blanked completely from the display. Should this
occur, simply press the RH button again for two seconds or longer, and
correct colon blinking will be restored.

NOTE
The clock mode is set at the factory to operate in the 24hour format. However, 12-hour format operation may be
selected by changing the position of an internal slide
switch accessible through a small hole on the bottom of the
instrument case. Notice that in the 24-hour format, the
clock mode indicator does not appear.

11 September 1981

3
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T2ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Hours
Digits

Minutes
Digits

Resets timer to

LH Button: Sets date and


time of day (when used
with RH button).

LH Button:
zero.

Center Button: Alternately


displays clock or timer status

Center Button: Alternately


displays clock or timer status

Shows calendar
RH Button:
date momentarily; display
returns to clock mode after
1.5 seconds.

Alternately starts
RH Button:
and stops timer; timer starts
from any previously accumu
lated total.

Figure 2.

Clock Mode

Figure 3. Timer Mode

SETTING CORRECT DATE AND TIME


The correct date and time are set while in the clock mode using the LH
and RH push buttons as follows: press the LH button once to cause the date
to appear with the month flashing. Press the RH button to cause the month
to advance at one per second (holding button), or one per push until the
correct month appears. Push the LH button again to cause the day of month
to appear flashing, then advance as before using RH button until correct
day of month appears.
Once set correctly, the date advances automatically at midnight each
day. February 29 of each leap year is not programmed into the calendar
mode, and the date will advance to March 1. This may be corrected the
following day by resetting the mode back to March 1.
ii September 1981

3
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Pressing the LH button two additional times will cause the time to
appear with the hours digits flashing. Using the RH button as before.
advance the hour digits to the correct hour as referenced to a known
time
standard. Another push of the LH button will now cause the minutes digits
to flash. Advance the minutes digits to the next whole minute to be reached
by the time standard and hold the display by pressing the LH button once
more. At the exact instant the time standard reaches the value held by
the
display, press the RH button to restart normal clock timing, which will
now be synchronized to the time standard.
In some instances, however, it may not be necessary to advance the
minutes digits of the clock; for example when changing time zones. In such
a case, do not advance the minutes digits while they are flashing. Instead.
press the LH button again, and the clock returns to the normal time
keeping mode without altering the minutes timing.
TIMER OPERATION
The completely independent 24-hour elapsed timer (see figure 3) is
operated as follows: press the center (MODE) push button until the timer
mode indicator appears. Reset the display to zero by pressing the LH
button. Begin timing an event by pressing the RH button. The timer will
begin counting in minutes and seconds and the colon (activity indicator)
will blink off for 1/10 second each second. When 59 minutes 59 seconds
have accumulated, the timer changes to count in htiurs and minutes, up to
a
maximum of 23 hours, 59 minutes. During the qcant in hours and minutes,
the colon blinks off for one second each ten seconds. To stop timing the
event, press the RH button once again and the time shown by the display is
frozen. Successive pushes of the RHtutton will alternately restart the
count from the held total or stop the count at a new total. The hold status
of the timer can be recognized by l?ck of colon activity, either continuously
on or continuously off. The timer can be reset to zero at anytime using the
LH button.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the digital clock
is installed,

11 September 1981

4
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM


MODEL T210N

SUPPLEMENT
DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The dual 60-amp alternator system (see figure 1) modifies the existing
system (for details of the existing system, refer to Section 7 Electrical
System paragraphs in the basic handbook). The dual alternator system
front side of the
features a second 60-amp alternator, located on the left
engine, belt-driven by the propeller shaft. Each alternator is controlled by
a special ACU (alternator control unit) which includes circuits to operate a
line contactor and provide alternator load sharing (within 15 amps under
low-load conditions). A field switch for the second alternator is provided
by installing a triple-rocker master switch in place of the double-rocker
master switch. The switch is labeled MASTER ON, ALT 1, BAT, and ALT 2.
Additional field and output circuit breakers and a push button alternator
restart switch, labeled ALT RESTART PUSH ON, are located on the left
sidewall circuit breaker panel. The ALT RESTART switch is used in
conjunction with a drycell battery pack, located under the floor access
panel below the pilots seat, to provide alternator restart capability in the
event of a failure in the airplane battery system. Additional system
monitoring capability is provided by two warning lights, located below the
LOW VOLTAGE light on the upper left side of the instrument panel. The
lights, labeled ALT OFF, ALT 1, and ALT 2, are the press-to-test type and
contain dimming shutters for night operation. The bulbs are interchangea
ble with the landing gear indicator bulbs. A volt/ammeter replaces the
existing ammeter on the right side of the instrument panel. A rotary type
volt/amp selector switch, adjacent to the volt/ammeter, has three AMP
(amperage) and one VOLT (voltage) positions. The amperage positions are
labeled ALT 1, ALT 2, and BAT, and the voltage position is labeled VOLT,
and monitors bus voltage. The rocker type avionics power switch, on the
left sidewall circuit breaker panel, is replaced by two toggle type switches.
The switches furnish primary and standby (emergency) electrical power
to the avionics bus, and are labeled AVN PWR, STBY, and PRIM. They are
OFF in the down position, and ON in the up position.

11 September 1981

1 of 6

4
DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

C
C
0
C
C
CIRCUIT SPEAKER
IFS LL-S F F PUSH TORESETI

D.
If-4-

U SCSI I 11115K 55 IPUSH TO HESETI


CAIACI 1,1, 15151 FILTER
flUTE

SHUNT

FUSE

ALT RESTART
BATTERY PACK

NUMBER 2 ALT
LINE CONTACTOR

Figure 1. Dual Alternator System

11 September 1981

4
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM


MODEL T210N

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the dual alternator
system is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
ONE ALT OFF LIGHT ILLUMINATED
1.
2.

3.

Cycle affected alternator section of the master switch off and ON.
If ALT OFF light is still illuminated, turn off affected alternator
section and reduce electrical load to extinguish LOW VOLTAGE
light if illuminated.
If affected alternator ALT REG circuit breaker is tripped, reset and
repeat steps 1 and 2.

If affected alternator ALT circuit breaker is tripped:


4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

Select affected alternator on volt! ammeter switch and turn on


affected alternator section while monitoring output.
If significant output is indicated, turn off alternator and continue
or terminate flight with electrical load reduced to capacity of
single alternator.
If no output is indicated, turn off alternator, reset ALT circuit
breaker, and turn alternator on again.
If ALT circuit breaker trips again or output is excessive relative to
equipment load, turn off the affected alternator section of the
master switch and continue or terminate flight with electrical load
reduced to capacity of single alternator.
If output is not excessive relative to equipment load, disregard
ALT OFF light and have system checked prior to next flight.

LOSS OR SUDDEN REDUCTION OF ALL ELECTRICAL POWER


1.

If ALT circuit breakers are tripped, reset.

2.

Cycle both alternator sections of the master switch off and ON.

If electrical power is restored:


3.

Continue normal operation and have system checked prior to next


flight.

11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

4
DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

If electrical power is not restored:


3.
4.
5.

Turn BAT section of master switch off.


Turn PRIM avionics power switch and electrical equipm
ent off.
Depress and release ALT RESTART push button.

If electrical power is restored:


6.
7.
8.

Check that LOW VOLTAGE, ALT 1, and ALT 2 lights


are extin
guished.
Turn PRIM avionics power switch and electrical equipm
ent on as
desired.
Continue or terminate flight with BAT section of master
switch
turned off.

If electrical power is not restored:


6.
7.

8.

Pull both ALT circuit breakers off and turn off the
alternator
sections of the master switch.
Set volt/ammeter selector switch to BAT and observe
as the BAT
section of the master switch is turned ON. If the
volt! ammeter
shows a full scale discharge, turn BAT section of the master
switch
off and terminate the flight without electrical power.
With normal battery discharge, use essential avionics
and electri
cal equipment as required, and terminate the flight
as soon as
practical.

LOSS OF AVIONICS POWER


1.
2.

Turn PRIM avionics power switch OFF.


Turn STBY avionics power switch ON.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKEOFF
The following functional check of the dual alterna
tor system is
recommended prior to each flight:
1.

2.

Run the engine at a minimum speed of 1000 RPM with


some
electrical equipment turned on and both avionics power
switches
turned OFF.
Turn ALT 1 and ALT 2 sections of the master switch off.
Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

r)

4
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

3.

DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM


MODEL T21ON

Verify LOW VOLTAGE and both ALT OFF warning lights are
illuminated.
NOTE
There may be a short time delay required for the LOW
VOLTAGE light to illuminate depending on battery state
of charge and load.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.

Turn ALT 1 section ON and verify LOW VOLTAGE and ALT 1


lights extinguished.
Select ALT 1 on volt/ammeter switch and verify an indication that
the alternator is supplying power to the system.
Turn ALT 1 section off.
Turn ALT 2 section of the master switch ON and verify LOW
VOLTAGE and ALT 2 lights extinguished.
Select ALT 2 on volt/ammeter switch and verify an indication that
the alternator is supplying power to the system.
Turn ALT 1, and ALT 2 sections of the master switch ON for normal
operation.
Select BAT position on volt/ammeter switch and verify that the
battery is being charged.
Select VOLT position on volt/ammeter switch and verify that
voltage indication is normal (28.0 1 volts).

ALTERNATOR EMERGENCY RESTART SYSTEM


The following system check should be performed approximately every
25 hours:
i.

2.
3.
4.

Run the engine at a minimum speed of 1000 RPM with both


avionics power switches turned OFF and some electrical equip
ment turned on.
Turn all 3 sections of the master switch off.
Turn ALT 1, and ALT 2 sections ON, depress and release alternator
restart button.
Verify LOW VOLTAGE, ALT 1, and ALT 2 warning lights are
extinguished.
NOTE
It may be necessary to turn on additional equipment such
as landing and taxi lights for both ALT OFF lights to be
extinguished. Due to component tolerances and low signal
levels, it may be normal for either ALT 1 or ALT 2 light to
be illuminated when the total load on both alternators is
less than 15 amps.

11 September 1981

4
DUAL ALTERNATOR SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON
5.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Turn all 3 sections of the master switch ON for normal operation.


NOTE
The alternator restart drycell battery pack supplies suffi
cient electrical power for approximately 100 alternator
restarts. The battery pack should be replaced biannually
or sooner if the alternators cannot be restarted under a
heavy electrical load.

During flight, occasionally monitor the system by utilizing the


volt/amp selector switch to check the ALT 1, ALT 2, BAT, and VOLT
functions. Excessively uneven output (greater than 20-amps) between
the
alternators indicates the system should be checked and adjusted prior
to
the next flight.
Due to the component tolerance and low signal levels, it may be normal
for one ALT OFF light to be illuminated when the total load on
both
alternators is less than 15 amps. However, the ONE ALT OFF LIGHT
ILLUMINATED system check in Section 3 of this supplement should
be
made.
Since the avionics power standby switch is not used in normal
operation of the system, check it occasionally to verify its function
by
turning the AVN PWR PRIM switch OFF and the STBY switch ON.
This
action may help avoid a possible malfunction of this switch caused by
its
infrequent use.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the dual alterna
tor system is installed.

0
11 September 1981

5
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

ELECTRIC ELEVATOR
TRIM SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
ELECTRIC ELEVATOR
TRIM SYSTEM
SECTION 7
GENERAL

The electric elevator trim system provides a simple method of reliev


ing pitch control pressures without interrupting other control operations
to adjust the manual elevator trim wheel. The system is controlled by a
slide-type trim switch on the top of the left control wheel grip, a disengage
switch on the left side of the control wheel pad and a pull-off type circuit
breaker on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel. Pushing the trim switch
in the
to the forward position, labeled DN, moves the elevator trim tab
UP
the
aft
to
switch
the
pulling
conversely,
nose down direction;
is
position moves the tab in the nose up direction. When the switch
elevator
and
position,
off
center
to
the
returns
released, it automatically
trim tab motion stops. The disengage switch, labeled ELEC TRIM DISEN
GAGE, disables the system when placed in the DISENGAGE position. The
a
elevator trim circuit breaker, labeled TRIM PULL-OFF, is provided as
to
pulled
be
can
and
system
the
to
power
electrical
all
of
secondary control
the off position in case of a system malfunction.
A servo unit (which includes a motor and chain-driven, solenoidthe
operated clutch) actuates the trim tab to the selected position. When
trim
clutch is not energized (trim switch off) the electric portion of the
system freewhdels so that manual operation is not affected. The electric
the
trim system can be overridden at any time by manually rotating
tab.
trim
the
drives
that
servo
the
overriding
thus
wheel,
trim
elevator

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following limitation applies to the electric elevator trim system:
1.

The maximum altitude loss during an electric elevator trim


malfunction may be as much as 250 feet.

11 September 1981

1 of 2

ELECTRIC ELEVATOR
TRIM SYSTEM
MODEL T2iON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
1.
2.
3.

Elevator Trim Disengage Switch


DISENGAGE.
Elevator Trim Circuit Breaker
PULL-OFF for the remainder of
the flight.
Manual Trim
AS REQUIRED.
-

--

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

To operate the electric elevator trim system. proceed as follow


s:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Master Switch
ON.
Elevator Trim Circuit Breaker
PUSH-TO-RESET, if off.
Elevator Trim Disengage Switch
ON.
Trim Switch
ACTUATE as desired.
Elevator Trim Position Indicator
CHECK.
--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
To check the operation of the disengage switch, actuate the
elevator trim switch with the disengage switch in the
DISENGAGE position. Observe that the manual trim
wheel and indicator do not rotate when the elevator trim
switch is activated.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this trim
system
is installed.

C
11 September 1981

6
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

ENGINE COMBUSTION
ANALYZER
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
ENGINE COMBUSTION
ANALYZER
SECTION 1
GENERAL

An engine combustion analyzer system, useful as an aid for mixture


leaning in cruising flight at 80% power or less, and detection of possible
combustion problems, may be installed in the airplane. This system is
similar to the economy mixture indicator (EGT) but employs additional
components so that exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of the individual
engine cylinders can be monitored.
The combustion analyzer system consists of an instrument panelmounted indicator with selector switch (see figure 1), seven temperature
sensing probes installed in the engine exhaust system, and wiring con
necting the indicator to the probes. The system does not require airplane
electrical power for proper operation.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the engine
combustion analyzer system is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the
engine combustion analyzer system is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 2

6
ENGINE COMBUSTION
ANALYZER
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

AWLSTABLE
REFEREFCE
NEEDLE

SELECTOR SWTCH
INDEX DOT

SELECTOR
SWTCH
TENVERAThRE
INDICATOR NEEDLES

C
0

Figure 1. Engine Combustion Analyzer Indicator

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
The operation of the combustion analyzer system is similar to the
economy mixture indicator (see Section 4 of the basic handbook) with the
exception that the pilot can monitor individual cylinder exhaust gas
temperatures by selecting the desired cylinder using the indicator selector
switch (see figure 1). Aligning a number on the selector switch with the
white index dot on the indicator face selects the corresponding engine
cylinder for temperature sensing. For example, position 1 is engine
cylinder number 1. Position? selects the turbine inlet temperature indica
tion and is, thus, used as a single point system like the economy mixture
indicator. Normally, leaning of fuel-air mixtures is accomplished using
position 7. Position 7 temperature is normally 25F to 100F higher than
the other positions, except at low cruise powers. All performance data
shown in Section 5 of the basic handbook is based on use of the engine
combustion analyzer selector switch set on the number 7 position.

0
0

For combustion problem detection procedures, refer to the combustion


analyzer manufacturers information provided in the airplane when this
equipment is installed.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when the engine


combustion analyzer system is installed.

11 September 1981

7
FUEL COMPUTER/
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SUPPLEMENT
FUEL COMPUTER/DIGITAL CLOCK
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Astro Tech FT-2 Fuel Computer/Digital Clock (see figure 1) is a
dual function instrument providing a complete fuel management system
and a multi-purpose time keeping device in a single instrument with each
function sharing a common display panel. The instrument may be used as
a replacment for the digital or electric clock, and may be mounted in the
same location on the instrument panel.

The fuel computer portion of the instrument displays the following


selections: fuel flow as measured by an engine mounted transducer, total
fuel used, current fuel remaining and time remaining based on fuel
remaining at the current flow rate. Fuel quantities are displayed in pounds
with a gallon display available by utilizing a push button located below
and to the right of the display. When time remaining at the current flow rate
reaches 45 minutes or less, the display will be blanked from one-tenth to
three-tenths of a second per second in all of the selections.
The digital clock portion of the instrument displays the following
selections: current time of day in either local (LCL) or Greenwich Mean
Time (GMT) in hours and minutes, cumulative flight time in minutes and
SELECTOR SWITCH

FUEL COMPUTER
SELECTIONS

LB REM\7 FLT TIME


-TIME REM
LCL/GMT-.

DIGITAL CLOCK
SELECTIONS

LFUELJ 1TIMEi
w

.4

PROGRAMMING
BUTTON

o1b4

GMT SEC
FT-2
As,.
TECH

PROGRAMMING
BUTTON

Figure 1. Fuel Computer/Digital Clock

11 September 1981

1 of 8

7
FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

seconds (first hour) and hours and minutes (up to 100 hours) whenever fuel
flow is greater than 25 to 30 pounds per hour (PPH) and elapsed time in
minutes and seconds (first hour) and hours and minutes (up to 100 hours).
Fuel selections and time selections are made by utilizing a rotary-type
selector switch common to both functions. Two push-buttons, located
below the display, are used to program the fuel computer/digital clock.
If power is interrupted during programming sequences, such as the
reset sequence, it is possible for the instrument to enter a locked up
condition in which the display will not change with selector switch
selection. Should this occur, if will be necessary to remove both the display
power and the keep-alive power from the instrument to clear the condition.
Display power is removed by turning off the master switch. Keep alive
power is removed by removing the clock fuse from the fuseholder located
on the firewall near the battery. Replace the clock fuse and turn the master
switch on. The instrument should now operate normally, but will have to
be reprogrammed as outlined in the power interruption paragraph in
Section 4 of this supplement.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the fuel computer/
digital clock is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the fuel
computer/digital clock is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
FUEL COMPUTER OPERATION
The fuel computer contains five selections (see figure 2). They are
selected by rotating the selector switch to the positions labeled ADD,
FLOW, LB USD, LB REM, and TIME REM. These selections, when used in
11 September 1981

7
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON
SELECTOR SWITCH

FUEL COMPUTER
SELECTIONS

FUEL COMPUTER
DISPLAY PANEL
PROGRAMMING
BUTTON

Figure 2. Fuel Computer Controls and Display

proper sequence with the programming buttons, will correctly program


the computer.
The fuel quantity added during servicing of the airplane must be
entered in the computer so that the LB REM position accurately represents
the correct amount of usable fuel on board for each flight. The fuel quantity
added is entered in the computer as follows;
To enter fill-up;
1.
2.
3.

Rotate the selector switch to the ADD position.


Press left and right programming buttons together until display
panel reads FULL.
Rotate the selector switch to LB REM position to display the usable
fuel quantity in pounds on board.

NOTE
The usable fuel quantity for each airplane is programmed
into the instrument at the factory. A battery disconnect or
other power interruption will not alter this quantity.
To enter less than fill-up;
1.

Rotate the selector switch to the ADD position.

11 September 1981

7
FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON
2.
3.

4.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Press right programming button, labeled GAL, until the right digit
represents the correct units of gallons of fuel added.
Press left programming button, labeled RST, until the left two
digits represent the correct tens and hundreds of gallons of fuel
added.
Rotate the selector switch to LB REM position to display the
correct usable fuel quantity in pounds on board.

If an error has been made, resulting in an incorrect display of LB REM,


the correct amount may be entered as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Leave the selector switch in the ADD position.


Enter the corrected fuel quantity in gallons.
Rotate the selector switch to FLOW, then press and hold the left
programming button.
While holding the left button pressed, slowly rotate the selector
switch to the LB REM position. The set-in amount in gallons,
multiplied by six, will now appear as LB REM.

When the selector switch is placed in the FLOW position, the display
indicates the current fuel flow rate in pounds per hour (PPH). Press the
GAL programming button to display the flow rate in gallons per hour
(GPH).
Placing the selector switch in the LB USD position displays the current
fuel quantity used (in pounds) since the last addition of fuel to the airplane.
Press the GAL programming button to display the fuel used in gallons.
NOTE
Any entry of additional fuel to LB REM will reset the LB
USD to zero.
The LB REM position displays the current total remaining fuel (in
pounds) on board the airplane, based on the takeoff amount minus the fuel
used as computed using fuel flow rates. Press the GAL programming
button to display the remaining fuel in gallons.
NOTE
When the display is changed from pounds to gallons in the
FLOW, LB USD, and LB REM positions, the gallons shown
are computed on the ratio of 6 pounds per gallon and no
volumetric correction for temperature change is made.
Therefore maximum accuracy may be obtained by refer
ring to the gallons functions.

11 September 1981

7
FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The TIME REM position displays the flight time remaining in hours
and minutes as computed using the current fuel flow rate and fuel
remaining amounts. Since this displayed value is dependent upon flow
rate, a reduction in engine power will show an increase in time remaining.
NOTE
With the selector switch in the TIME REM position power
settings of less than 25 to 30 PPH flow rate will cause the
word OFF to be displayed.
If it is desired to test the display, rotate the selector switch to TIME
REM position, then press the right programming button. This will cause
all Ss to be shown, thereby testing each segment of each digit.

Any power interruption that might alter any memory value will cause
a line of dashes to be displayed in all selector switch positions. Pressing
the right programming button will clear the dashes from the display and
show the current selector switch position. All memory values will be
erased and must be re-entered. However, the usable fuel quantity will not
be altered, since it is permanently entered in the instrument.
DIGITAL CLOCK OPERATION

The digital clock contains four selections (see figure 3). They are
selected by rotating the selector switch to the positions labeled SET, EL
TIME, FLT TIME, and LCL!GMT. These selections, when used in proper
sequence with the programming buttons, will correctly program the
digital clock.
SELECTOR SWITCH

,AY:i

RST
PROGRAMMING
BUTTON

GMT SEC
P7-2

DIGITAL CLOCK
SELECTIONS

GAL/
PROGRAMMING
BUTTON

Figure 3. Digital Clock Controls and Display

11 September 1981

FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
NOTE

Some models may have an unmarked detent position


between the ADD and SET positions. This position performs the same function as the SET position.
The digital clock may be set the local (LCL) and Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Rotate the selector switch to the SET position.


Press the left programming button until local hours advance to the
correct value.
Press both programming buttons together until Greenwich Mean
Time hours advance to the correct value.
Press right programming button until minutes advance to correct
value. This action sets and holds seconds to zero.
Rotate selector switch from SET to start seconds from zero hold.

To display the local time-of-day in hours and minutes, rotate the


selector switch to LCL!GMT. If a minutes and seconds display is desired,
press the right programming button, labeled SEC. If Greenwich Mean
Time in hours and minutes is desired, press the left programming button,
labeled GMT.
NOTE
Local or Greenwich Mean Time hours may be changed
without resetting the minutes and seconds.
To display accumulated flight time, rotate the selector switch to FLT
TIME. After the first hour, if a minutes and seconds display is desired in
place of the hours and minutes display, press the right (SEC) program
ming button. Flight time may be reset to zero by pressing the left (RST)
programming button.
NOTE
Accumulated flight time may be zeroed only when the
instrument is not counting, (whenever fuel flow is less
than 25-30 PPH) to prevent accidently zeroing flight time
in the air.
Elapsed time (since pressing the RST button) is displayed by rotating
the selector switch to the EL TIME position. After the first hour, if a
minutes and seconds display is desired in place of the hours and minutes
display, press the right (SEC) programming button. Elapsed time may be
reset to zero by pressing the left (RST) programming button.

ii September 1981

7
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

FUEL COMPUTER!
DIGITAL CLOCK
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the fuel compu
ter/digital clock is installed.

ii September 1981

7/(8 blank)

30

0000

8
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPL IJENT

GROUND SERVICE PLUG


RECEPTACLE
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
GROUND SERVICE
PLUG RECEPTACLE
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The ground service plug receptacle permits the use of an external


power source for cold weather starting and during lengthy maintenance
work on electrical and avionics equipment. The receptacle is located
behind the engine oil dipstick access door on the left side of the upper
cowling.
NOTE
If no avionics equipment is to be used or worked on, the
avionics power switch should be turned off. If maintenance
is required on the avionics equipment, it is advisable to
utilize a battery cart external power source to prevent
damage to the avionics equipment by transient voltage. Do
not crank or start the engine with the avionics power
switch turned on.

,.

A special fused circuit is included with the ground service plug


receptacle which will close the battery contactor when external power is
applied with the master switch turned on. This circuit is intended as a
servicing aid when battery power is too low to close the contactor, and
should not be used to avoid performing proper maintenance procedures on
a low battery.
NOTE
Use of the ground service plug receptacle for starting an
airplane with a dead battery or charging a dead
battery in the airplane is not recommended. The battery
should be removed from the airplane and serviced in
accordance with Service Manual procedures. Failure to
observe this precaution could result in loss of electrical
power during flight.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

8
GROUND SERVICE PLUG
RECEPTACLE
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following information must be presented in the form of a placard
located on the inside of the engine oil dipstick access door:

CAUTION
24 VOLTS D.C.
This aircraft is equipped with alternator
and a negative ground system.
OBSERVE PROPER POLARITY
Reverse polarity will damage electrical
components.

0
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when the
ground service plug receptacle is installed.

0
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
Just before connecting an external power source (generator type or
battery cart), the avionics power switch should be turned off, and the
master switch turned on.

WARNING

When turning on the master switch, using an external


power source, or pulling the propeller through by hand,
treat the propeller as if the ignition switch were ON. Do not
stand, nor allow anyone else to stand, within the arc of the
propeller since a loose or broken wire or a component
malfunction could cause the propeller to rotate.

11 September 1981

8
GROUND SERVICE PLUG
RECEPTACLE
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The ground service plug receptacle circuit incorporates a polarity


reversal protection. Power from the external power source will flow only if
the ground service plug is correctly connected to the airplane. If the plug is
accidentally connected backwards, no power will flow to the electrical
system, thereby preventing any damage to electrical equipment.
The following check should be made after engine start and removal of
the external power source, if there is any question as to the condition of the
battery.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

OFF.
Master Switch
ON.
Taxi and Landing Light Switches
REDUCE to idle.
Engine RPM
ON (with taxi and landing lights turned on).
Master Switch
Engine RPM
INCREASE to approximately 1500 RPM.
CHECK.
Ammeter and Low-Voltage Warning Light
--

--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
If the ammeter does not show a charge or the low-voltage
warning light does not go out, the battery should be
removed from the airplane and properly serviced prior to
flight.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the ground
service plug receptacle is installed.

11 September 1981

31(4 blank)

9
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT


MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
SECTION 1
GENERAL

(
4

The flight into known icing equipment package allows flight penetra
tion of icing conditions as defined by the FAA. The package includes
extended coverage pneumatic de-icing boots on the wings and horizontal
and vertical stabilizer leading edges, electrically-heated propeller blade
anti-ice boots, a permanently installed electric windshield anti-ice panel, a
high power heated pitot tube, a high power heated stall warning trans
ducer, a high capacity (95-amp) alternator or dual 60-amp alternators, dual
vacuum pumps, an ice detector light, and control surface-mounted static
discharger wicks. The package is designed to provide adequate in-flight
protection during the normally encountered extremes of icing conditions
produced by moistrre laden clouds. It will not necessarily provide total
protection under abnormally severe conditions such as those which exist
in areas of freezing rain ur extremely widespread areas of heavy cloud
moisture content. During all operations, the pilot must exercise good
judgment and be prepared to alter his flight if conditions exceed the
capacity of the ice protection equipment or if any component of this
equipment fails.
The in-flight ice protection equipment was not designed to remove ice,
snow, or frost accumulations on a parked airplane sufficiently enough to
ensure a safe takeoff or subsequent flight. Other means (such as a heated
hangar or approved de-icing solutions) should be employed to ensure that
all wing, tail, control, propeller, windshield and static port surfaces are
free of ice, snow, and frost accumulations, and that there are no internal
accumulations of ice or debris in the control surfaces, engine intakes and
pitot-static system ports prior to takeoff.
WING AND STABILIZER DE-ICE BOOTS
The pneumatic de-ice boot system installed on the leading edges of the
wings and horizontal and vertical stabilizers is designed to remove ice
system
after accumulation in flight rather than prevent ice formation. The
consists of the pneumatically-operated boots, dual engine-driven vacuum
pumps, an annunciator light to monitor system operation, system con
trols, and the hardware necessary to complete the installation. In opera
tion, the boots expand and contract, using pressure or vacuum from the
right vacuum pump.
11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

1 of 10

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

NOTE
Although the airplane is equipped with a dual vacfl
system, the wing and stabilizer de-ice boots are ope
by the right vacuum pump only.
Normally, vacuum is applied to all boots to hold them against the
leading
edge surfaces. When a de-icing cycle is initiated, the vacuum is removed
and a pressure is applied to blow up the boots. The resulting
change in
contour will break the ice accumulation on the leading edges.
Ice on the
boots will then be removed by normal in-flight air forces.
Controls for the de-icing system consist of a two-position rocker-type
de-icing switch on the left switch and control panel, a pressure indicator
light on the upper left side of the instrument panel, and a 5-amp pull-off
type circuit breaker on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel. The de-icing
switch, labeled DE-ICE PRESS, is spring-loaded to the normal off (lower)
position. When pushed to the ON (upper) position and released, it will
activate one de-icing cycle. Each time a cycle is desired, the switch must be
pushed to the ON position and released. If necessary, the system can
be
stopped at any point in the cycle (deflating the boots) by pulling the circuit
breaker, labeled WING, DE-ICE PULL-OFF, to the off position.

During a normal de-icing cycle, the boots will inflate according to the
following sequence: first the tail section (horizontal and vertical stabil
izer) boots inflate for approximately six seconds, then the inboard wing
boots inflate for the next six seconds, followed by the outboard wing boots
for another six seconds. The total time required for one cycle is approxi
mately 18 seconds.
The pressure indicator light, labeled DE-ICE PRESSURE, should
illuminate when the tail section boots reach proper operating pressure. At
lower altitudes, it should come on within one to two seconds after the cycle
is initiated and remain on for approximately 17 seconds if the system is
operating properly. At higher altitudes, the light will come on initially
within three seconds and will go off for one to three seconds during
sequencing. The system may be recycled six seconds after the light goes
out. The absence of illumination during any one of the three sequences of a
cycle indicates insufficient pressure for proper system operation, and
icing conditions should be avoided.
PROPELLER ANTI-ICE BOOTS
The propeller anti-ice system provides a measure of protection for the
propeller blade surfaces if icing conditions are encountered. The system is
operated by a rocker-type switch on the left switch and control panel. When

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

(3

9
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT


MODEL T21ON

the switch, labeled PROP A/ICE, is placed in the ON position, current


flows to an anti-ice timer which cycles electric power every 20 seconds
between the inboard and outboard set of heating elements in the anti-icing
boots located on the propeller blades. Operation of the anti-ice system can
be checked by monitoring a propeller anti-ice ammeter near the upper left
corner of the instrument panel. The system is protected by a 20-amp pushto-reset type circuit breaker, labeled PROP A/ICE, located on the left
sidewall circuit breaker panel.
WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE PANEL

An electrically-heated panel is permanently installed on the pilots


side of the windshield to assure a clear view for landing during icing
conditions. The system is designed to prevent ice formation rather than
remove it once formed. Components of the system include a heating
element and temperature sensor within the windshield panel, a 15-amp
push-to-reset type circuit breaker, labeled W/S A/ICE, on the left
sidewall circuit breaker panel and a rocker-type switch, labeled W/S
A/ICE, on the left switch and control panel.
During operation, the windshield heat will cycle on and off as required
to maintain the proper heater element temperature. Operation can be
verified by feeling the inside of the windshield and noting the relatively
warmer surface behind the panel as compared to elsewhere on the
windshield. In addition, slight changes to the panel light transmissibility,
compass deviation, and airplane ammeter readings will provide an
indication as the element cycles on and off.
PITOT TUBE AND STALL WARNING HEATER

A special pitot tube with a larger inlet and higher capacity heating
element and a higher capacity heated stall warning transducer are
installed in the left wing to assure proper airspeed indications and stall
warning in the event icing conditions are encountered. These systems are
designed to prevent ice formation rather than remove it once formed.
Electrical components of these systems include a rocker-type switch,
labeled PITOT HEAT, on the left switch and control panel and a 15-amp
push-to-reset type circuit breaker, labeled PITOT HEAT, on the left
sidewall circuit breaker panel. When the airplane is on the ground, a
resistor is introduced into the stall warning heater circuit by the nose
wheel squat switch in order to prevent overheating.
ICE DETECTOR LIGHT
An ice detector light is flush-mounted on the left side of the cowl deck to
facilitate the detection of wing ice at night or during reduced visibility by
lighting the leading edge of the wing. Components of the system include
the ice detector light, a two-position rocker-type switch, labeled DE-ICE
11 September 1981

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

LIGHT, on the left switch and control panel and a 5-amp push-to-reset
type circuit breaker, labeled CABIN LIGHTS, on the left sidewall circuit
breaker panel. The rocker switch is spring-loaded to the off (lower)
position and must be held in the ON (upper) position to keep the ice detector
light illuminating.

C
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
This airplane is approved for flight into icing conditions as defined by
the FAA provided the following Cessna (drawing number 1200254) and
FAA approved equipment is installed and is operational:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Wing leading edge boots.


Horizontal stabilizer leading edge boots.
Vertical stabilizer leading edge boots.
Propeller anti-ice boots.
Windshield anti-ice panel.
Heated pitot tube (high capacity).
Heated stall warning transducer (high capacity).
Ice detector light.
95-amp alternator or dual 60-amp alternators.
Control surface static dischargers.

If the pilots windshield is covered with ice, do not leave the windshield
anti-ice switch on for more than one minute. Prolonged operation may
cause an overheat condition which can result in warpage and distortion of
the panel and possible damage to the windshield.
The following placard must be installed when a known icing equipment package is installed:
1.

In full view of the pilot in place of the similar type placard shown
in Section 2 of the basic handbook:

Revision 1

11 September 1981
16 December 1981

(3

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The markings and placards installed in this airplane contain


operating limitations which must be complied with when operat
ing this airplane in the Normal Category. Other operating limita
tions which must be complied with when operating this airplane
in this category are contained in the Pilots Operating Handbook
and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual.
No acrobatic maneuvers, including spins, approved.
This airplane is approved for flight into icing conditions if the
proper optional equipment is installed and operational.
This airplane is certified for the following flight operations as of date
of original airworthiness certificate:
DAYNIGHTVFRIFR

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PROPELLER ANTI-ICE SYSTEM MALFUNCTION
If uneven de-icing of propeller blades is indicated by excessive vibra
tion:
1.
2.
3.

EXERCISE to MAX RPM.


Propeller
CHECK for proper operation by
Propeller Anti-Ice Ammeter
periodic fluctuations within the green arc.
If reading is below the green arc indicating that the propeller
blades may not be de-iced uniformly:
OFF.
a. Propeller Anti-Ice Switch
- -

--

--

WARNING

When uneven anti-icing of the propeller blades is indi


cated, it is imperative that the anti-ice system be turned
OFF. Uneven anti-icing of the blades can result in pro
peller unbalance and engine failure.
4.

Icing Conditions
ance of ATC.

11 September 1981

- -

DIVERT to non-icing conditions with assist

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

CAUTION
If after leaving icing conditions, roughness or vibration
develops or persists that is not traceable to icing or
another cause, reduce engine RPM to smoothest condition
and plan a landing at the nearest airport to check the
security of the anti-ice boots as a possible cause.
WING AND STABILIZER DE-ICE SYSTEM MALFUNCTION
If the wing and stabilizer de-ice boots fail to inflate sufficiently during
any or all of the three sequences of one cycle, verify that the right vacuum
pump is operating (red button is not visible), the circuit breaker is pushed
full in and the pressure indicator light is operative (press to test); then
attempt another cycle. If the system is still deficient, avoid or divert from
the existing icing conditions. If there are unshed ice accumulations along
the wing and stabilizer leading edges during an approach and landing,
follow the procedures listed under Inadvertent Icing Encounters in Section
3 of the basic handbook.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

De-Ice Boots
CHECK for tears, abrasions and cleanliness.
Propeller Anti-Ice Boots
CHECK condition of boots and wires.
Pitot Heat Switch
ON for 30 seconds, then OFF (ensure pitot
cover is removed).
Pitot Tube
CLEAR and VERY WARM.
Stall Warning Transducer
PERCEPTIBLY WARM.
Ice Detector Light Switch
ON.
Ice Detector Light
ILLUMINATED.
Wing, Tail, Control, Propeller, Windshield and Static Port Surfaces
CHECK free of ice, snow and frost accumulations. Also, check
that control surfaces, engine intakes and static ports contain no
internal accumulations of ice or debris.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

DURING ENGINE RUNUP


I.
2.
3.

Dc-Icing Switch
ON and release. Check inflation and deflation
cycle of tail and wing boots.
Pressure Indicator Light
CHECK ON within three seconds and
OFF after 18 seconds.
Boots CHECK VISUALLY FOR COMPLETE DEFLATION to the
--

--

--

11 September 1981

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

4.
5.

vacuum hold-down condition.


ON.
Propeller Anti-Ice Switch
CHECK in green arc range and for
Propeller Anti-Ice Ammeter
periodic cycling.
-

--

NOTE
To check the heating elements and anti-ice timer for one
complete cycle, the system must be left on for approxi
mately one minute. Ammeter readings must remain in the
green arc except during momentary change when cycling.
6.
7.

ON and observe momentary flicker


Windshield Anti-Ice Switch
of airplane ammeter and/or slight change in compass indication.
WARM to touch behind panel after 5 min
Windshield Surface
utes.
--

--

CAUTION
Do not operate the windshield anti-ice system if the
windshield is covered with ice. Refer to Section 2, Limita
tions.
8.

Pitot Heat, Propeller Anti-Ice and Windshield Anti-Ice Switches


AS REQUIRED for takeoff and climbout conditions.

--

CAUTION
Do not operate the pitot heat and propeller anti-ice heaters
for prolonged periods on the ground.
INFLIGHT
1.

Before Visible Moisture is Encountered Below Approximately


40F (4 C):
ON.
a. Propeller Anti-Ice Switch
MONITOR.
b. Propeller Anti-Ice Ammeter
-

- -

CAUTION
If the ammeter indicates unusually high or low amperage
during the 20-second cycle of operation, a malfunction has
occurred and it is imperative that the system be turned off.
Uneven anti-icing may result, causing propeller unbal
ance and engine roughness.
c.

Windshield Anti-Ice Switch

11 September 1981

- -

ON.
7

9
KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
NOTE

Under non-icing conditions (especially at night), turn the


windshield anti-ice switch OFF to avoid a mild impair
ment (distortion) of vision through the panel that occurs
when the heating elements in the panel are activated
during the on cycle.
NOTE
For accurate magnetic compass readings, turn the pitot
heat, propeller anti-ice and windshield anti-ice switches
OFF momentarily.
d.

Pitot Heat Switch

- -

ON.
NOTE

While using the anti-ice systems, monitor the airplane


ammeter to ensure that the electrical system does not
become overloaded. If the total electrical load is high,
resulting in a discharge indication, limit the use of other
electrical equipment so that the airplane ammeter main
tains a slight charge.
2.

During Icing Encounters:


a.
b.

Ice Detector Light


ON as required.
Ice Build-up
MONITOR until approximately 1/4 to 1/2 inch
thick on the leading edges.
- -

--

NOTE
De-icing boots are intended for removal of ice after it has
accumulated rather than prevent its formation. If ice
accumulation is slow, best results can be obtained by not
using the de-ice system until approximately 1/4 to 1/2 inch
of ice has accumulated. Clear the accumulation with one or
two cycles of operation. Do not repeat de-icing procedure
until ice has again accumulated.
c.

De-Icing Switch
ON and release. The switch must be actu
ated after each complete boot cycle if additional cycles are
required.
--

NOTE
Cycling the de-icing boots produces no adverse aerody

ii September 1981

9
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT


MODEL T210N

namic effects in any attitude within the allowable flight


limitations. Continual cycling of the de-ice system, how
ever, is not recommended as this may cause ice to form
outside the contour of the inflated boots, preventing its
removal. The de-ice system will operate effectively up to a
maximum altitude of 22,000 feet; however, at or near this
altitude, engine RPM must be a minimum of 2500 RPM.
d.

Power INCREASE as required to maintain a safe airspeed or


to climb out of icing conditions, if feasible.
--

NOTE
An accumulation of 1/2 inch of ice on the leading edges can
cause a large (up to 500 FPM) loss in rate of climb, a cruise
speed reduction of up to 30 KIAS, as well as a significant
buffet and stall speed increase (up to 15 knots). Even after
cycling the de-icing boots, the ice accumulation remaining
on the unprotected areas of the airplane can cause large
performance losses. With residual ice from the initial 1/2
inch accumulation, losses up to 300 PPM in climb, 15 KIAS
in cruise, and a stall speed increase of 7 knots can result.
With one inch of residual accumulation, these losses can
double.
e.

MAINTAIN BETWEEN 90 KIAS AND 165 KIAS


Airspeed
with 1/2 inch or more of ice accumulation.
--

NOTE
Prior to a landing approach, cycle the wing and stabilizer
de-ice boots to shed any accumulated ice. Maintain extra
airspeed on approach to compensate for the increased
prestall buffet associated with ice on unprotected areas. Do
not cycle the boots during an approach or landing since
boot inflation increases stall speeds by 3 knots, decreases
stall warning by the same amount, and may cause or
increase any rolling tendency during stall.
Refer to Section 8 of the basic handbook for care and maintenance of the
wing and stabilizer de-ice and propeller anti-ice boots.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
The following approximate performance changes from those shown in
11 September 1981

KNOWN ICING EQUIPMENT


MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Section 5 of the basic handbook occur in clear air (no ice accumulation) as
a
result of the installation of the flight into known icing package:
Climb Rate: 30 FPM decrease.
Cruise Speed: 2 to 3 KTAS decrease.
As noted in Section 4 of this supplement, much greater changes
in
performance occur with ice accumulation. Make appropriate allowances
for the possibility of these losses occurring when planning a flight
into or
through forecast or reported icing conditions.

0
0
0
0
0
11 September 1981

10
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

OXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
OXYGEN SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL

A six-place oxygen system provides the supplementary oxygen


necessary for continuous high altitude flight. If the airplane is not
equipped with air conditioning, this system contains four oxygen cylin
ders located in the fuselage cabin top. In airplanes equipped with air
conditioning, the system contains one oxygen cylinder located above the
main gear wheel wells aft of the baggage compartment. Cylinder pressure
is reduced to an operating pressure of 70 PSI by pressure regulator! shutoff
valve assemblies. An oxygen cylinder filler valve is located under a cover
plate on the bottom of the right wing just outboard of the rear door post.
Cylinder pressure is indicated by a pressure gage located in the overhead
console above the pilot and front passengers seats.
Six oxygen outlets are provided; two each in consoles above the front
seats and center passenger seats, and one each in two separate consoles
near the aft passenger seats. One permanent, microphone equipped mask
is provided for the pilot, and five disposable type masks are provided for
the passengers. All masks are the partial rebreathing type, equipped with
vinyl plastic hoses and flow indicators.
NOTE
The hose provided for the pilot is of a higher flow rate than
those for the passengers; it is color-coded with a red band
adjacent to the plug-in fitting. The passenger hoses are
color-coded with an orange band. If the airplane owner
prefers, he may provide higher flow hoses for all pas
sengers. In any case, it is recommended that the pilot use
the larger capacity hose. The pilots mask is equipped with
a microphone to facilitate use of the radio while using
oxygen. An adapter cord is furnished with the
microphone-equipped mask to mate the mask microphone
lead to the auxiliary microphone jack located on the left
side of the instrument panel. To connect the oxygen mask
microphone, connect the mask lead to the adapter cord and
plug the cord into the auxiliary microphone jack. (If an
optional microphone-headset combination has been in
use, the microphone lead from this equipment is already

11 September 1981

1 of 6

10
OXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

plugged into the auxiliary microphone jack. It will be


necessary to disconnect this lead from the auxiliary
microphone jack so that the adapter cord from the oxygen
mask microphone can be plugged into the jack.) A switch
is incorporated on the left hand control wheel to operate
the microphone.
A remote shutoff valve control in the overhead console above the
pilots and front passengers seats is used to shut off the supply of oxygen
to the system when not in use. The control is mechanically connected to the
shutoff valve at the cylinder. With the exception of the shutoff function, the
system is completely automatic and requires no manual regulation for
change of altitude.
The oxygen cylinders, when fully charged, contain a total of approxi
mately 74 cubic feet at 1800 PSI (overhead cylinders) or 76 cubic feet at 1850
PSI (aft cylinder) of aviators breathing oxygen (Spec. No. MIL-O-27210), at
21C (70 F). Filling pressures will vary with ambient temperature in the
filling area, and the temperature rise resulting from compression of the
oxygen. Because of these factors, merely filling the overhead cylinders to
1800 PSI or the aft cylinder to 1850 PSI, will not result in properly filled
cylinders. Fill to pressures indicated in the Oxygen Filling Pressures
tables, figures 1 and 2.

WARNING

Oil, grease or other lubricants in contact with oxygen


create a serious fire hazard, and such contact must be
avoided when handling oxygen equipment.

74 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY AT 1800 PSI


AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
F

FILLING
PRESSURE
PSIG

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
F

FILLING
PRESSURE
PSIG

0
10
20
30
40

1600
1650
1675
1725
1775

50
60
70
80
90

1825
1875
1925
1950
2000

Figure 1. Oxygen Filling Pressures (Without Air Conditioning)


11 September 1981

0
0

Jo

OXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T2ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

76 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY AT 1850 PSI

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
F

FILLING
PRESSURE
PSIG

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
F

FILLING
PRESSURE
PSIG

0
10
20
30
40

1650
1700
1725
1775
1825

50
60
70
80
90

1875
1925
1975
2000
2050

Figure 2. Oxygen Filling Pressures (With Air Conditioning)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
equipment
There is no change to the airplane limitations when oxygen
is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
when oxygen
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures
equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
to FAR
For FAA requirements concerning supplemental oxygen, refer
g
cruisin
when
nts
occupa
all
by
be
used
should
oxygen
91.32. Supplemental
it
e,
Altitud
At
t
Man
bookle
above 12,500 feet. As described in the Cessna
feet under
is often advisable to use oxygen at altitudes lower than 12,500
or emo
logical
physio
of
s
conditions of night flying, fatigue, or period
tobacco or
of
use
ive
excess
and
l
habitua
the
Also,
ances.
tional disturb
than 10,000 feet.
alcohol will usually necessitate the use of oxygen at less
11 September 1981

Jo
OXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Prior to flight, check to be sure that there is an adequa


te oxygen supply
for the trip, by noting the oxygen pressure gage reading
, and referring to
the Oxygen Duration Chart (figure 3). Also, check
that the face masks and
hoses are accessible and in good condition.

()

OXYGEN DURATION CHART


*(74
1800

CUBIC FEET CAPACITY)

:;

1600

1400
1200

w
D 1000

U)
U)

Iii

U
CD

800

:::

:1

U)

Hi H
H

-1.1.4-.

14-4.

EH1HHHt
HHH*[I1HtIIH

600

CD
400

*NOTE

200
0

WHEN AFT CYLINDER 76 CUBIC


FEET CAPACITY) IS INSTALLED,
DURATIONS SHOWN ON THIS
CHARTAREINCREASEDAPPROXIMATELY 2 7 PERCENT

OXYGEN DURATION

IWIWIHL

6
-

HOURS

NOTE:
This chart is based on a pilot with a red color-c
oded oxygen
line fitting and passengers with orange color-c
oded line fittings.
Figure 3.

Oxygen Duration Chart

11 September 1981

10
OXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The Oxygen Duration Chart (figure 3) should be used in determining


the usable duration (in hours) of the oxygen supply in your airplane. The
following procedure outlines the method of finding the duration from the
chart.
1.
2.

3.

Note the available oxygen pressure shown on the pressure gage.


Locate this pressure on the scale on the left side of the chart, then
go across the chart horizontally to the right until you intersect the
line representing the number of persons making the flight. After
intersecting the line, drop down vertically to the bottom of the
chart and read the duration in hours given on the scale.
As an example of the above procedure, 1400 PSI of pressure will
safely sustain the pilot only for 6 hours and 20 minutes. The same
pressure will sustain the pilot and three passengers for approxi
mately 2 hours and 10 minutes.
NOTE
The Oxygen Duration Chart is based on a standard config
uration oxygen system having one red color-coded hose
assembly for the pilot and orange color-coded hoses for the
passengers. If red color-coded hoses are provided for pilot
and passengers, it will be necessary to compute new
oxygen duration figures due to the greater consumption of
oxygen with these hoses. This is accomplished by comput
ing the total duration available to the pilot only (from
PILOT ONLY line on chart), then dividing this duration by
the number of persons (pilot and passengers) using oxy
gen.

When ready to use the oxygen system, proceed as follows:


1.

Mask and Hose-- SELECT. Adjust mask to face and adjust metallic
nose strap for snug mask fit.

j WARNING

Permit no smoking when using oxygen. Oil, grease, soap,


lipstick, lip balm, and other fatty materials constitute a
serious fire hazard when in contact with oxygen. Be sure
hands and clothing are oil-free before handling oxygen
equipment.
2.

Delivery Hose
occupying.

11 September 1981

--

PLUG INTO OUTLET nearest to the seat you are

.1
JXYGEN SYSTEM
MODEL T210N

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
NOTE

When the oxygen system is turned on, oxygen will flow


continuously at the proper rate of flow for any altitude
without any manual adjustments.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Oxygen Supply Control Knob


ON.
Face Mask Hose Flow Indicator --CHECK. Oxygen is flowing if
the
indicator is being forced toward the mask.
Delivery Hose
UNPLUG from outlet when discontinuing use of
oxygen. This automatically stops the flow of oxygen.
Oxygen Supply Control Knob
OFF when oxygen is no longer
required.
- -

--

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when oxygen


equip
ment is installed.

0
0

11 September 1981

J1\
PROPELLER ANTI-ICE
SYSTEM
MODEL T2YON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SUPPLEMENT
PROPELLER ANTI-ICE SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL

for the
The propeller anti-ice system provides a measure of protection
tered.
encoun
are
ions
condit
icing
cted
unexpe
if
s
propeller blade surface
on the left
The system is operated by a rocker switch, labeled PROP A/ICE,
n,
switch and control panel. When the switch is placed in the ON positio
t every 20
electric current flows to an anti-ice timer which cycles the curren
ts in the
seconds between the inboard and outboard set of heating elemen
ing
anti-ic
the
of
ion
Operat
.
anti-icing boots located on the propeller blades
ANTI
PROP
labeled
er,
an
ammet
ring
monito
d
by
checke
be
can
system
system
ICE AMPS, near the upper left corner of the instrument panel. The
r, labeled
breake
circuit
type
t
to-rese
pushp
20-am
a
ed
by
is protect
PROP A/ICE, located on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the propeller antions is
ice system is installed; intentional flight into known icing conditi
prohibited, regardless of installed ice protection equipment.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited. If unexpected icing
ist in
conditions are encountered, the Inadvertent Icing Encounter checkl
the
n
additio
In
ed.
follow
be
Section 3 of the basic handbook should
following procedure is recommended:
1.
2.
3.

ON.
Master Switch
ON.
Propeller Anti-Ice Switch
Propeller Anti-Ice Ammeter CHECK in green arc range (14 to 18

11 September 1981

--

- -

- -

1 of 4

ROPELLER ANTI-ICE
SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

amps) and ammeter pointer for periodic cycling (approximate


ly
every 20 seconds).
NOTE
To check the heating elements and anti-ice timer for
one
complete cycle, the system must be left on for approx
i
mately 1 minute. Ammeter readings must remain in the
green arc except during momentary change.
NOTE
While using the anti-ice system, monitor the airplan
e
ammeter to ensure that the electrical system does not
become overloaded. H the total electrical load is high,
resulting in a discharge indication, limit the use of other
electrical equipment so that the airplane ammeter main
tains a slight charge.

CAUTION
If the anti-ice ammeter indicates unusually high or low
amperage (out of the green arc range limits) anytim
e
during system operation, or if the ammeter pointer
does
not flick approximately every 20 seconds, a malfunction
has occurred. It is imperative that the system be turned off,
since uneven anti-icing may result, causing propel
ler
unbalance and engine roughness. If, after leaving icing
conditions, roughness or vibration develops or persist
s
that is not traceable to icing or another cause, reduce
engine RPM to smoothest condition and plan a landing
at
the nearest airport to check the security of the anti-ic
e
boots as a possible cause.
4.

Propeller Anti-Ice Switch


required.

--

OFF when anti-icing is no longer

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane normal procedures when
the
propeller anti-ice system is installed.
Refer to SectionS of the basic handbook for care and mainte
nance of the
propeller anti-ice boots.

11 September 1981

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

PROPELLER ANTI-ICE
SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the propeller
anti-ice system is installed.

11 September 1981

3/(4 blank)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

STROBE LIGHT SYSTEM


MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
STROBE LIGHT SYSTEM

SECTION 1
GENERAL

The high intensity strobe light system enhances anti-collision protec


tion for the airplane. The system consists of two wing tip-mounted strobe
lights (with integral power supplies), a two-position rocker switch labeled
STROBE LIGHTS, on the left switch and control panel, and a 5-amp push
to-reset type circuit breaker, labeled STROBE LIGHTS, on the left
sidewall circuit breaker panel.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
Strobe lights must be turned off when taxiing in the vicinity of other
airplanes, or during night flight through clouds, fog or haze.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when strobe
lights are installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 2

12
STROBE LIGHT SYSTEM
MODEL T210N

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
To operate the strobe light system, proceed as follows:
1.
2.

Master Switch
ON,
Strobe Light Switch
--

--

ON.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
The installation of strobe lights will result in a minor (less than 1 knot)
reduction in cruise performance.

11 September 1981

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

WINDSHIELD
ANTI-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T210N

SUPPLEMENT
WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The windshield anti-ice system assures adequate visibility for a


landing during flight conditions where ice may form on the windshield. A
detachable electrically-heated glass panel, 11.0 inches high by 5.5 inches
wide, mounts to the base of the windshield in front of the pilot. Quick
disconnects are provided to facilitate ease of installation and removal.
When not in use, a padded cover is provided for protection against
scratches, breakage, and wiring damage, and the panel may be stowed in
the seat pocket on the aft side of the pilots or front passengers seat back.
Windshield anti-icing is controlled by a rocker-type switch, labeled WI S
A/ICE, located on the left switch and control panel. The system is protected
by a 5-ampere, push-to-reset type circuit breaker, labeled W/S A/ICE,
located on the left sidewall circuit breaker panel.
The heated glass panel should be installed whenever icing conditions
are a possibility on a proposed flight, especially if the freezing level is near
or at the surface.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the windshield
anti-ice system is installed; intentional flight into known icing conditions
is prohibited regardless of installed ice protection equipment. Prolonged
operation of the system without the engine running should be avoided.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited. If unexpected icing
conditions are encountered, the Inadvertent Icing Encounter checklist in
Section 3 of the basic handbook should be followed. In addition, the
following procedure is recommended:

11 September 1981

1 of 2

13
WINDSHIELD
ANTI-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON
1.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Windshield Anti-Ice Switch


ON 5 to 10 minutes in advance of its
need. The anti-ice system may become ineffective if a large
accumulation of ice is allowed to form.
--

NOTE
For accurate magnetic compass readings, turn the pitot
heat, propeller anti-ice and windshield anti-ice switches
OFF momentarily.
2.

Windshield Anti-Ice Switch


longer exists.

- -

OFF when the possibility of icing no

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

The anti-ice system should be checked, prior to engine start, as follows:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Anti-Ice Panel
INSTALL.
Master Switch
ON.
Windshield Anti-Ice Switch
ON for one minute.
Anti-Ice Panel CHECK FOR WARMTH (step outside the airplane
to feel for warmth in the panel).
Windshield Anti-Ice and Master Switches
OFF.
--

--

--

- -

CAUTION
Inadvertent prolonged operation of the heated anti-icing
panel without the engine running may cause damage to the
panel and crazing of the windshield.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when the windshield
anti-ice system is installed.

11 September 1981

14
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WING AND STABILIZER


DE-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

SUPPLEMENT
WING AND STABILIZER
DE-ICE SYSTEM
SECTION 1
GENERAL
Pneumatic de-icing boots, installed on the leading edges of the wings,
and the horizontal stabilizer provide a measure of protection if unexpected
icing conditions are encountered. The system is designed to remove ice
after accumulation in flight, rather than prevent ice formation.
NOTE
This system was not designed to remove ice, snow, or frost
accumulations on a parked airplane sufficiently enough to
ensure a safe takeoff or subsequent flight. Other means
(such as a heated hangar or approved de-icing solutions)
should be employed to ensure that all wing, tail, control,
propeller, windshield and static port surfaces are free of
ice, snow, and frost accumulations, and that there are no
the control
internal accumulations of ice or debris in
surfaces, engine intakes and pitot-static system ports
prior to takeoff.

The de-ice boot system consists of pneumatically operated boots, dual


engine-driven vacuum pumps, an annunciator light to monitor system
operation, system controls and the hardware necessary to complete the
system. In operation, the boots expand and contract, using pressure or
vacuum from the right vacuum pump.
NOTE
Although the airplane is equipped with a dual vacuum
system, the wing and stabilizer de-ice boots are operated
by the right vacuum pump only.
Normally, vacuum is applied to all boots to hold them against the leading
edge surfaces. When a de-icing cycle is initiated, the vacuum is removed
and a pressure is applied to blow up the boots. Ice on the boots will then
be removed by normal in-flight air forces.
11 September 1981
Revision 1 16 December 1981
-

1 of 6

14
WING AND STABILIZER
DE-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Controls for the de-icing system consist of a rocker-type switch on the


left switch and control panel, a pressure indicator light on the upper left
side of the instrument panel, and a 5-amp pull-off type circuit breaker on
the left sidewall circuit breaker panel. The two-position de-icing switch,
labeled DE-ICE PRESS, is spring-loaded to the normal off (lower) position.
When pushed to the ON (upper) position and released, it will activate one
de-icing cycle. Each time a cycle is desired, the switch must be pushed to
the ON position and released. If necessary, the system can be stopped at
any point in the cycle (deflating the boots) by pulling the circuit breaker
labeled WING, DE-ICE PULL-OFF, to the off position.

During a normal de-icing cycle, the boots will inflate according to the
following sequence: first the horizontal stabilizer boots will inflate for
approximately six seconds, then the inboard wing boots inflate for the next
six seconds, followed by the outboard wing boots for another six seconds.
The total time required for one cycle is approximately 18 seconds.
The pressure indicator light, labeled DE-ICE PRESSURE, should
illuminate when the horizontal stabilizer boots reach proper operating
pressure. At lower altitudes, it should come on within one to two seconds
after the cycle is initiated and remain on for approximately 17 seconds if
the system is operating properly. At higher altitudes, the light will come
on initially within three seconds and will go off for one to three seconds
during sequencing. The system may be recycled six seconds after the light
goes out. The absence of illumination during any one of the three sequen
ces of a cycle indicates insufficient pressure for proper boot inflation and
effective de-icing ability.

(J)

An ice detector light is flush-mounted on the left side of the cowl deck to
facilitate the detection of wing ice at night or during reduced visibility by
lighting the leading edge of the wing. Components of the system include
the ice detector light, a two-position rocker-type switch, labeled DE-ICE
LIGHT, on the left switch and control panel and a 5-amp push-to-reset
type circuit breaker, labeled CABIN LIGHTS, on the left sidewall circuit
breaker panel. The rocker switch is spring-loaded to the off (lower)
position and must be held in the ON (upper) position to keep the ice detector
light illuminating.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when the wthg and
stabilizer de-ice system is installed; intentional flight into known icing
conditions is prohibited.

11 September 1981

14
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WING AND STABILIZER


DE-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited. If unexpected icing
conditions are encountered, the Inadvertent Icing Encounter checklist in
Section 3 of the basic handbook should be followed. In addition, the
following procedure is recommended.
1.

Icing Condition LEAVE as soon as possible. Divert to non-icing


conditions with assistance of ATC.
--

NOTE
Since wing and horizontal stabilizer de-icer boots alone do
not provide adequate protection for the entire airplane,
known icing conditions should be avoided. If icing is
inadvertently encountered, close attention should be given
to the pitot-static system, propeller, induction system and
other components subject to icing.
2.
3.

ON as required.
Ice Detector Light
Ice Build-up MONITOR until approximately 1 / 4 to 1/2 inch thick
on the leading edges.
--

NOTE
De-icing boots are intended for removal of ice after it has
accumulated rather than prevent its formation. If ice
accumulation is slow, best results can be obtained by not
using the de-ice system until approximately 1/4 to 1/2 inch
of ice has accumulated. Clear the accumulation with one or
two cycles of operation. Do not repeat de-icing procedure
until ice has again accumulated.

4.

ON and release. The switch must be actuated


De-Icing Switch
after each complete boot cycle if additional cycles are required.
-

NOTE
Cycling the de-icing boots produces no adverse aerody
namic effects in any attitude within the allowable flight
limitations. Continual cycling of the de-ice system, how
ever, is not recommended as this may cause ice to form
outside the contour of the inflated boots, preventing its
removal. The de-ice system will operate effectively up to a
maximum altitude of 22,000 feet; however, at or near this

11 September 1981

14
WING AND STABILIZER
DE-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

altitude, engine RPM must be a minimum of 2500 RPM.


5.

Power
INCREASE as required to maintain a safe airspeed or, if
feasible, to climb out of icing conditions.
--

NOTE
An accumulation of 1/2 inch of ice on the leading edges can
cause a large (up to 500 FPM) loss in rate of climb, a cruise
speed reduction of up to 30 KIAS, as well as a significant
buffet and stall speed increase (up to 15 knots). Even after
cycling the de-icing boots, the ice accumulation remaining
on the unprotected areas of the airplane can cause large
performance losses. With residual ice from the initial 1/2
inch accumulation, losses up to 300 FPM in climb, 15 KIAS
in cruise, and a stall speed increase of 7 knots can result.
With one inch of residual accumulation, these losses can
double.
6.

Airspeed
MAINTAIN BETWEEN 90 KIAS AND 165 KIAS with
1/2 inch or more ice accumulation.
-

NOTE
Prior to a landing approach, cycle the wing and stabilizer
de-ice boots to shed any accumulated ice. Maintain extra
airspeed on approach to compensate for the increased
prestall buffet associated with ice on unprotected areas. Do
not cycle the boots during an approach or landing since
boot inflation increases stall speeds by 3 knots, decreases
stall warning by the same amount, and may cause or
increase any rolling tendency during stall. If there are
unshed ice accumulations along the wing and stabilizer
leading edges during an approach and landing, follow the
procedures listed under Inadvertent Icing Encounters in
Section 3 of the basic handbook.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
Prior to flight, make an exterior inspection to check the de-icing boots
for tears, abrasions, and cleanliness. Any damage must be repaired prior
to flight.

11 September 1981

()

14
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WING AND STABILIZER


DE-ICE SYSTEM
MODEL T21ON

DURING ENGINE RUNUP


The system should be checked through several cycles as follows:
1.

ON and release. Check inflation and deflation


De-Icing Switch
cycle of all boots.
--

NOTE
If the wing and stabilizer de-ice boots fail to inflate
sufficiently during any or all of the three sequences of one
cycle, verify that the right vacuum pump is operating (red
button is not visible), the circuit breaker is pushed full in
and the pressure indicator light is operative (press to test);
then attempt another cycle. If the system is still deficient,
maintenance is required.
2.
3.

CHECK ON within three seconds and


Pressure Indicator Light
OFF after 18 seconds.
Boots CHECK VISUALLY FOR COMPLETE DEFLATION to the
vacuum hold-down condition.
--

Refer to Section 8 of the basic handbook for care and maintenance of the
wing and stabilizer de-ice boots.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
The following approximate performance changes from those shown in
Section 5 of the basic handbook occur as a result of the installation of the
wing and stabilizer de-ice system:
Climb Rate: 30 FPM decrease.
Cruise Speed: 2 to 3 KTAS decrease.

11 September 1981

51(6 blank)

1
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

SUPPLEMENT
AUDIO CONTROL PANELS
SECTION 1
GENERAL

Two types of audio control panels (see figure 1) are available for this
airplane, depending upon how many transmitters are included. The
operational features of both audio control panels are similar and are
discussed in the following paragraphs.
TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH

When the avionics package includes a maximum of two transmitters, a


two-position toggle-type switch, labeled XMTR, is provided to switch the
microphone to the transmitter the pilot desires to use. If the airplane
avionics package includes a third transmitter, the transmitter selector
switch is a three-position rotary-type switch, labeled XMTR SEL. To select
a transmitter, place the transmitter selector switch in the position number
corresponding to the desired transmitter.
The action of selecting a particular transmitter using the transmitter
selector switch simultaneously selects the audio amplifier associated with
that transmitter to provide speaker audio. For example, if the number one
transmitter is selected, the audio amplifier in the number one NAV/COM
is also selected and is used for ALL speaker audio. Headset audio is not
affected by audio amplifier operation.
AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCHES
Both audio control panels (see figure 1) incorporate three-position
toggle-type audio selector switches for individual control of the audio
systems installed in the airplane. These switches allow receiver audio to
be directed to the airplane speaker or to a headset, and heard singly or in
combination with other receivers. To hear a particular receiver on the
airplane speaker, place that receivers audio selector switch in the up
(SPEAKER) position. To listen to a receiver over a headset, place that
receivers audio selector switch in the down (PHONE) position. The center
(OFF) position turns off all audio from the associated receiver.
NOTE
Volume level is adjusted using the individual receiver
volume controls on each radio.
11 September 1981
I.

1 of 8

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

A special feature of the audio control panel used when one or two
transmitters are installed is separate control of NAV and COM audio from
the NAV/COM radios. With this installation, the audio selector switches
labeled NAy, 1 and 2 select audio only from the navigation receivers of the
NAV/COM radios. Communication receiver audio is selected by the
switches labeled COM, AUTO and BOTH. Description and operation of
these switches is described in figure 1.
When the audio control panel for three transmitters is installed, audio
from both NAV and COM frequencies is combined, and is selected by the
audio selector switches labeled NAV/COM, 1, 2 and 3.
COM AUTO AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH
The audio control panel used with either one or two transmitters
incorporates a three-position toggle switch, labeled COM AUTO, which is
provided to automatically match the audio of the appropriate NAV/ COM
communications receiver to the radio selected by the transmitter selector
switch.
COM BOTH AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH
The audio control panel used with either one or two transmitters
incorporates a three-position toggle switch, labeled COM BOTH, which is
provided to allow both COM receivers to be monitored at the same time.
AUTO AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH
The audio control panel used with three transmitters incorporates a
three-position toggle switch, labeled AUTO, which is provided to automatically match the audio of the appropriate NAV/COM receiver to the
selected transmitter.
ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS BRIGHTNESS AND TEST SWITCH
The audio control panel used with either one or two transmitters
incorporates a three-position toggle switch with NITE (up) and DAY
(middle) positions to control the brightness level of the marker beacon
indicator lights, and the BC and RN Nay indicator lights (when installed).
In the TEST (down) position, all annunciator lights (Mkr Bcn, BC and RN)
will illuminate full bright to verify lighting test.
NOTE
A potentiometer is installed inside the audio control panel
to provide further minimum light dimming capabilities.
Refer to the appropriate Avionics Service/Parts manual
for adjustment procedures.

11 September 1981

()

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

SIDETONE OPERATION
Cessna radios are equipped with sidetone capability (monitoring of
the operators own voice transmission). While adjusting speaker sidetone,
be aware that if the sidetone volume level is set too high, audio feedback
(squeal) may result when transmitting.
When the airplane has one or two transmitters, sidetone is provided in
either the speaker or headset anytime the COM AUTO selector switch is
utilized. Placing the COM AUTO selector switch in the OFF position will
eliminate sidetone.Sidetone internal adjustments are available to the pilot
through the front of the audio control panel (see figure 1).

,r.

When the airplane has three transmitters, sidetone will be heard on


either the speaker or a headset as selected with the AUTO selector switch.
Sidetone may be eliminated by placing the AUTO selector switch in the
OFF position, and utilizing the individual audio selector switches. Adjust
ment of speaker and headset sidetone volume can only be accomplished by
adjusting the sidetone potentiometers located inside the audio control
panel.
NOTE
Sidetone is not available on HF Transceiver (Type ASB
125), when installed.
OPTIONAL INTERCOM SYSTEM
The optional intercom system is a pilot and copilot intercom phone
system which is only offered with the one and two transmitter type audio
control panel. The system incorporates its own audio amplifier with a
volume control (labeled INT) and a hot mike feature. The intercom
system is used with the headphones only.
The hot mike feature allows the pilot and copilot to communicate at
anytime through their microphone/headsets without having to key the
mike. However, they must key the mike button on their control wheel to
transmit over the aircrafts transceiver. Sidetone is present on the inter
com system when the COM AUTO switch is in the PHONE position.
NOTE
Any ambient noise attenuating type padded headset and
boom mike combination may not be compatible with this
system.

11 September 1981

15
AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The intercom audio volume is controlled by the TNT knob located on the
front of the audio control panel. Clockwise rotation of the knob increases
the volume of the intercom audio and counterclockwise rotation decreases
it. The TNT knob controls the audio volume for the intercom system only.
Receiver audio volume is adjusted using the individual receiver volume
controls. When the intercom system is not being used, the TNT volume
control should be turned full counterclockwise to eliminate any noise over
the headphones.

NOTE
When the intercom volume is turned up and an auxiliary
mike is plugged in, there will be a loud squeal over the
speaker if the COM BOTH and COM AUTO switches are
inadvertently placed in the opposite positions (one in the
SPEAKER position and the other in the PHONE position).
To eliminate this squeal turn the volume down or place
both switches in the same position.
When the optional intercom system is not installed, a plug button will
be installed in place of the TNT volume control knob.

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11 September 1981

15
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

USED WITH ONE OR TWO TRANSMITTERS

USED WITH THREE TRANSMITTERS OR DUAL ADFS

TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH (XMTR) A two-position toggle switch


used to aptivate the audio amplifier and switch the microphone to the desired
transmitter. The number 1 (up position) and 2 (down position) corresponds to the
first and second (from top to bottom) transmitters, respectively.
-

Figure 1. Audio Control Panel Operating Controls


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

15
AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

2.

INTERCOM VOLUME CONTROL (INT) Controls the intercom audio volume.


Clockwise rotation of the knob increases the intercom audio volume and counter
clockwise rotation decreases it.

3.

HEADSET SIDETONE INTERNAL ADJUSTMENT ACCESS To adjust headset


sidetono, remove the plug button, place COM AUTO selector switch in the PHONE
position, insert a small screwdriver into the adjustment potentiometer and rotate
it clockwise to increase the sidetone volume or counterclockwise to decrease
sidotone.

4.

SPEAKER SIDETONE INTERNAL ADJUSTMENT ACCESS To adjust speaker


sidetone, remove the plug button, place COM AUTO selector switch in the
SPEAKER position, insert a small screwdriver into the adjustment potentiome
ter and rotate it clockwise to increase the sidetone volume or counterclockwise to
decrease sidetone. While adjusting sidetone, be aware that if the sidetone volume
level is set too high, audio feedback (squeal) may result when transmitting.

5.

ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS BRIGHTNESS SELECTOR AND TEST SWITCH


(ANN LTS-NITE/DAY/TEST) Three-position toggle switch; in the up (NITE)
position, snnunciator lights (Mkr Bcn, BC and RN) will show at a reduced light
level for typical night operations. In the center (DAY) position, annunciator
lights (Mkr Bcn, BC and RN) will show full bright to verify lamp operation. In the
NITE position, annunciator light (Mkr Bcn. BC and RN) level can be further
adjusted down to a preset minimum using the RAOIO LT dimming rheostat knob.

6.

AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCHES Three-position selector switches used to select


either SPEAKER or PHONE operation for audio outputs. Enables the operator to
select any one or more, audio signals on either SPEAKER or PHONE at the same
time or to silence audio when placed in the OFF position.

7.

COM BOTH AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH (COM BOTH) A three-position toggle


switch used to allow both COM receivers to be monitored at the same time. Placing
the COM BOTH switch in the up (SPEAKER) position will enable the pilot to
monitor both the number 1 and number 2 COM receivers over the SPEAKER at the
same time. Placing the switch in the down (PHONE) position allows the pilot to
monitor both the number land number 2 COM receivers through the headset at the
same time. Center (OFF) position, removes the non-selected COM receiver (or
both COM receivers if COM AUTO switch is OFF) from the audio system.

S.

COM AUTO AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH (COM AUTO OR AUTO) A threeposition toggle switch provided to automatically match the audio of the approp
riate NAV/COM communications receiver to the transmitter selected by the
transmitter selector switch. In the up (SPEAKER) position, audio from the
selected receiver will be heard on the airplane speaker. In the down (PHONE)
position, audio from the selected receiver will be heard through the headset.
Center (OFF) position, removes the automatic SPEAKER/PHONE selection
feature and will also disable the sidetone feature.
-

9.

TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH (XMTR SEL) A three-position rotary


switch used to activate the audio amplifier and switch the microphone to the
desired transmitter. The numbers 1, 2 and 3 positions correspond to the first,
second and third (from top to bottom) transmitters, respectively.
-

Figure 1. Audio Control Panel Operating Controls


(Sheet 2 of 2)
11 September 1981

15
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when either of these
audio control panels is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
In the event the audio amplifier in use fails, as evidenced by loss of all
speaker audio, selecting an alternate transmitter will reestablish speaker
audio using the alternate transmitter audio amplifier.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
AUDIO CONTROL PANEL OPERATIONS:
1.
2.

SELECT
Transmitter Selector (XMTR or XMTR SEL) Switch
desired transmitter for transceiver operation.
SELECT SPEAKER or
COM AUTO or AUTO Selector Switch
PHONE position to automatically select SPEAKER or PHONE
audio.
--

--

NOTE
If the NAV/COM audio selector switch corresponding to
the selected transmitter is in the PHONE position with the
AUTO selector switch in the SPEAKER position, all audio
selector switches placed in the PHONE position will
automatically be connected to both the airplane speaker
and any headsets in use.

ii September 1981

AUDIO CONTROL PANELS

3.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COM BOTH Selector Switch


SELECT the same SPEAKER or
PHONE position which was set on the COM AUTO selector switch
to allow both COM receivers to be monitored at the same time.
--

NOTE
The combination of placing the COM AUTO switch in the
SPEAKER position and the COM BOTH switch in the
FITONE position (or vice versa) is not normally recom
mended as it will cause audio from both communications
receivers (and any other navigation receiver with its audio
selector switch in the PHONE position) to be heard on both
the airplane speaker and the headset simultaneously.
4.

5.
6.

Audio SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches


SELECT desired
SPEAKER or PHONE audio position only if COM AUTO switch is
not used.
TNT Control Knob
ROTATE as desired to increase or decrease
intercom audio volume.
ANN LTS Switch:
a. TEST Position
SELECT to verify operation of marker
beacon, BC and RN annunciator lights (when installed).
b. DAY Position
SELECT for typical daytime lighting.
c. NITE Position
SELECT for typical night lighting.
--

--

--

--

NOTE
In the NITE position, further lighting adjustment for the
Mkr Ben, BC and RN (when installed)annunciator lights
can be obtained using the RADIO LT dimming rheostat
knob.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when either of these
audio control panels is installed.

0
ii September 1981

16
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM


(TYPE EC-W0)

SUPPLEMENT
AM/FM CASSETTE STEREO
ENTERTAINMENT CENTER
(Type EC-100)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The EC-100 Cassette Stereo Player and AM/FM Radio is a compact,
fully automatic AM/ FM Mpx radio and stereo cassette player mounted in
the instrument panel above the glove box, or in the alternate location
utilizing the glove box. In addition to the player/radio, the system consists
of stereo headphones and an externally mounted, fixed-wire antenna. All
operating controls for the player/radio and headphones are shown and
described in figure 1.

The AM/FM Mpx Radio will receive AM frequencies between 525 and
1650 kHz or FM frequencies between 88 and 108 MHz. AM or FM reception is
selected by an AM/FM pushbutton located on the front of the set and with
strong FM stations, at altitude, the radio can receive FM stations for over
200 miles.
The cassette stereo player is equipped with four-track, two-channel
stereo cassette type playback with a tape speed of 4.76 cm/sec. Any
standard-size monaural or stereo cassette may be used in the player.
Cassettes are automatically activated when inserted in cassette receptacle
(with tape play side to the right) with radio ON and AM/ FM switch in either
AM or FM position. When cassette is removed, radio play will automati
cally resume. Annunciator lights will illuminate monitoring the STEREO,
TAPE, or COM Interrupt modes.
A COM Interrupt mode in this system, when activated, will interrupt
stereo and cassette audio to provide selected aircraft radio audio to the
stereo headphones. After a short delay, preselected stereo or cassette play
will return following the completion of the aircraft communications.
A COM ONLY mode in the EC-100, allows the pilot to eliminate all
entertainment modes and activate uninterrupted navigation and commun
ications audio.

11 September 1981

1 of 8

16
CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM
(TYPE EC-100)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Headphones are equipped with individual earphone volume controls


and a phone plug which must be attached to one of the phone jacks mounted
overhead. Stereo phone jacks are placarded either STEREO or STE
REO HEADPHONE.

NOTICE
Sound from the player/radio is only available through
stereo headphones.

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12

13

Figure 1. Cassette Stereo AM/FM Entertainment Center, Operating


Control (Sheet 1 of 3)
11 September 1981

16
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
1.

CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM


(TYPE EC-lOD)

OFF/VOLUME AND PULL-COM ONLY CONTROL KNOB:


OFF-VOLUME CONROL Turning knob fully counterclockwise to detent turns
off entire system. Advancing the knob clockwise past the detent, applies
power to the unit. Advancing it further clockwise increases tbe volume of
audio level.
NOTE
-

This control affects tbe audio level of both the radio! tape system as
well as the communications audio.
PULL-COM ONLY Pull out on this knob to eliminate all entertainment modes
and enable the NAV!COM input only.
-

2.

RADIO/PLAYER AND COM TONE CONTROL (TONE) Normal position of this


control is fully clockwise for flat audio response. If excessive high frequency hiss
is evident in the headphones, the control may be rotated counterclockwise to
reduce the high frequency response.

3.

AM! FM PUSHBUTTON SELECTOR SWITCH (AM! FM) Selects AM or FM radio


reception; IN for FM and OUT for AM.

4.

Indicates
AM and FM RADIO FREQUENCY INDICATOR DIAL (AM!FM)
selected operating radio frequencies for AM between 525 and 1650 kHz and FM
between 88 and i08 MHz.

5.

COM INTERRUPT PUSHBUTTON SELECTOR SWITCH (OFF! COM) To acti


vate the communications override feature, pushbutton is pushed in. Communica
tions override is eliminated by pushing button completely in and releasing
(button out).

6.

TUNING SELECTOR CONTROL KNOB (TUNING) Rotate to tune in desired AM


or FM operating frequencies.

7.

RADIO/PLAYER AND COM SPEAKER BALANCE CONTROL KNOB (BAL


ANCE) Left and right speaker balance is controlled by counterclockwise and
clockwise rotation of control knob.

8.

MODE ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS:


MPX (GREEN) Illuminates green to indicate that a stereo FM station has been
tuned-in.
TAPE (AMBER):
Dim Position Illuminates dim amber to indicate tape mode of operation.
Bright Position Illuminates bright amber to indicate cassette has reached end
of tape and requires changing.
COM (RED) Illuminates red to indicate com mode has been activated and a com
transmission is being received.
-

Figure 1. Cassette Stereo AM/FM Entertainment Center, Operating


Control (Sheet 2 of 3)

11 September 1981

16
CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM
(TYPE EC-100)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

9.

CASSETTE RECEPTACLE Insert cassette cartridge, turned sideways, with tape


play side to the right. When the cartridge is inserted far enough, the mechanism
will snap it into place and the EJECT pushhutton will move to the extended
position (button out). Top numbered side will play. Either monural or standard
stereo cassettes may be used.

10.

TAPE EJECT AND FAST FORWARD PUSHBUTTON (EJECT/F. FWD) This


pushbutton has two modes of control. For fast forward (rewind), pushbutton is
pushed io slightly. Cassette is ejected when button is pushed completely in.

11.

HEADPHONE EXTENSION-ADJUSTMENT ARMS Located on both sides of the


headphones. Earphone extension is adjusted by sliding the adjustment arms in, or
out, of the head pad to a comfortable listening position.

12.

EARPHONE VOLUME CONTROL LEVERS


Regulates volume of audio to
individual earphones. Volume iocreases as levers are moved to higher settiogs.

13. HEADPHONE PLUO Inserts into one of the phonc jacks located overhead and
placarded STEREO or STEREO HEADPHONE. Jacks are for 1/4-inch stereo
plugs only.
-

CAUTION
To prevent damage to the entertainment center, use only 8-ohm
headphones with 1/4-inch stereo type plugs.

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Figure 1. Cassette Stereo AM/FM Entertainment Center, Operating
Control (Sheet 3 of 3)

11 September 1981

16
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM


(TYPE EC-100)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionics
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionics equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
AM/FM RADIO OPERATIONS:
1.

2.

3.
4.

Headphones
INSERT headphone plug(s) into jack(s) mounted
overhead and placarded either STEREO or STEREO HEAD
PHONE..
SELECT a position slightly
Earphone Volume Control Levers
lower than medium volume for both volume control levers on the
headphones.
Headphone Extension-Adjustment Arms ADJUST to comforta
ble listening position.
OFF/VOLUME AND PULL-CaM ONLY CONTROL KNOB
ROTATE control knob clockwise past detent to activate unit.
Continue to rotate knob clockwise to desired volume setting.
--

--

--

--

NOTE
Audio can only be heard through stereo headphones.

CAUTION
The stall and gear warning horn may not be heard with the
stereo headphones in use.
With headphones plugged in, extended play at full volume
should be avoided in order to prevent damage to head
phones and hearing.

11 September 1981

16
CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM
(TYPE EC-100)

5.
6.
7.
8.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SELECT as desired; IN for


AM/FM Pushbutton Selector Switch
FM, OUT for AM.
TUNING Knob
SELECT desired frequency.
MPX Stereo Annunciator Light
CHECK ON (green light will
illuminate) if FM radio station reception is selected.
Earphone Volume Control Levers
ADJUST to desired audio
setting. Volume is increased by moving levers to HI settings, and
lowered by moving levers to LO settings.
--

- -

- -

--

NOTE
Improper tuning will result in poor tone and excessive
noise.
9.

TONE Control
operation.

- -

ROTATE to a fully clockwise position for normal

NOTE
If excessive high frequency hiss is evident in the head
phones, the control may be rotated counterclockwise to
reduce the high frequency response.
10.

BALANCE Control

- -

ADJUST to desired audio setting.

CASSETTE PLAYER OPERATIONS:


1.

Tape Receptacle
INSERT CASSETTE with tape play side to
right and adjust listening controls on unit and headphones. Player
will play top numbered side.
--

NOTE
When tape is ejected, radio play will automatically
resume.
2.

TAPE Annunciator Light-- CHECK ON; Light will illuminate dim


amber when cassette is installed and will illuminate bright amber
when cassette has reached end of tape play and requires changing.

CAUTION
To insure the best performance and operation of your
cassette player, follow these simple rules:
a.

Loose cassette tape should not be played. If your tape is loose,

11 September 1981

16
CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM
(TYPE EC-100)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

rewind it before playing.


Do not keep cassette tape in your player long after cassette
play is finished.
c. Do not use non-standard cassette tapes. Damage to your player
will result.
Tape EJECT/Fast Forward Pushbutton:
a. To Eject Tape PUSH IN button all the way to eject cassette at
end of play or at any point desired.
PUSH SLIGHTLY in for
b. To Select Fast Forward (Rewind)
fast forward position (push button in approximately halfway).
RELEASE BUTTON.
c. To Cancel Fast Forward
b.

3.

--

- -

--

COM INTERRUPT OPERATIONS:


NOTE
Aircraft radio(s) must be turned on and the desired audio,
to be monitored by COM Interrupt, must have the asso
ciated receivers SPEAKER/ PHONE selector switch(es)
placed in the PHONE position on the audio control panel in
order for the COM Interrupt feature to be operational.
Audio signals that the pilot does not want to monitor, by
the COM Interrupt feature, must have their associated
receivers SPEAKER/PHONE selector switch(es) on the
audio control panel placed in the OFF position.
1.
2.

SELECT and TURN ON desired


AM/FM Radio/Cassette Player
system to be operated.
SET to desired listening level.
VOL Control
NOTES
--

--

This control affects the stereo headphone audio level of the


radio/tape system and other aircraft radios selected.
If the audio level from the Nav/Com Radio is too weak
getting to the entertainment center, the COM Interrupt
circuit will not be activated. If the audio level is too strong,
distortion will be produced in the audio signal.
3.
4.

PUSH
Com Interrupt Pushbutton Selector Switch (on EC-iDO)
button in halfway and release to activate COM Interrupt circuit.
ROTATE clockwise until
Aircrafts COM Radio SQ Control
background noise is notic able and note that the red (COM) annun
ciator illuminates on the EC-100 to verify COM Interrupt opera
tion, and then, backoff slightly on the SQ Control until background
noise disappears. Repeat this operation periodically in normal
flight.

11 September 1981

--

- -

16
CASSETTE STEREO AM/FM
(TYPE EC-100)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COM ONLY OPERATIONS:


1.

2.

PULL-COM ONLY Selector Knob


PULL knob out to override all
audio modes in the EC-100 and activate audio signals as selected by
the PHONE switches on the audio control panel.
COM Annunciator Light
CHECK ON (Red) when selected audio
is being received.
--

()

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplanes performance when this avionic
s
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mount
ed
antenna or several related external antennas will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

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11 September 1981

17
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

OME
(TYPE 450C)

SUPPLEMENT
DME
(TYPE 450C WITH IND-450C INDICATOR)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The DME-450C system consists of a panel-mounted IND-450C Indica
tor, a remotely-mounted TCR-451 Transceiver and an externally-mounted
antenna.

(
(

Except for selection of the operating channel, which is selected by the


VHF navigation receiver frequency selector switches, the DME-450C
system is capable of independent operation. The DME-450C transmits
interrogating pulse pairs on 200 channels between 1041 MHz and 1150 MHz;
it receives associated ground-to-air replies between 978 MHz and 1213
MHz. The IND-450C digitally displays distances to or from the selected
station up to 200 nautical miles, aircraft ground speed from 30 to 399 knots,
or time-to-station with a maximum time of 120 minutes. A Nay mode
selector switch provides selection of ON! OFF, Nay 1, Nay 2, Hold and
RNAV operation. A DME display selector switch provides selection of
distance to or from station (NM), aircraft ground speed (KTS) or time-tostation (MIN). An ambient light sensor automatically controls brightness
of digital display and annunciators.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

17
DME
(TYPE 450C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.

AMBIENT LIGHT SENSOR Senses ambient cockpit light and controls bright
ness of digital display and WPT and HLD annunciators.

2.

DIGITAL DISPLAY Displays distance tn or frnm statinn (NM), aircraft ground


speed (KTS), or time-to-station (MIN), depending on the position of the display
selector (3).

NOTE
Dashes will be observed on the display until station lock-on occurs
in the NM mode or until a velocity of at least 30 knots is established
with lock-on in the KTS or MIN mode.
NOTE
In all DME modes except RNAV, aircraft ground speed and time-tostation are meaningful only when the aircraft track is directly to or
from the ground station. The ETS and MIN indications require
approximately 1.5 minutes after station acquisition for final accu
racy.
3.

DME DISPLAY SELECTOR SWITCH Selects desired mode readouts as follows:


NM Position: Displays distance to or from the selected station in nautical
miles up to 199.9 nmi.
KTS Position: Displays aircraft ground speed up to 399 knots.
MIN Position: Displays time-to-station with a maximum time of 120 minutes.
-

Brightness of this switch is controlled by the radio light dimming rheostat.

Figure 1. IND-4500 Indicator


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

17
DME
(TYPE 450C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

4.

NAV MODE SELECTOR SWITCH Applies power to the DME and selects DME
operating modes as follows:
OFF: Turns the DME OFF.
NAV 1: Selects DME operation with No. 1 VHF navigation set; enables
channel selection by Nay 1 frequency selector switches.
HOLD: Selects DME memory circuit; DME remains channeled to station to
which it was last channeled when HOLD was selected and will continue to
display information relative to this channel. Allows both the Nay 1 and
Nay 2 navigation receivers to be set to new operational frequencies
without affecting the previously selected DME operation.
-

CAUTION
In the Hold mode there is no annunciation of the VOR/DME station
frequency. However, an annunciator labeled HLD will illuminate
on the DME to flag the pilot that the DME is in the Hold mode.
NAV 2: Selects DME operation with No. 2 VHF navigation set; enables
channel selection by Nay 2 frequency selector switches.
RNAV: Selects area navigation operation.
Brightness of this switch is controlled by the radio light dimming rheostat.
Illuminates amber to indicate HOLD mode is

5.

HOLD ANNUNCIATOR (HLO)


selected.

6.

WAYPOINT ANNUNCIATOR (WPT) Illuminates amber to indicate RNAV


mode is selected. (Annunciator will not illuminate when DME is installed without
RNAV.)

Figure 1. IND-450C Indicator


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

DME
(TYPE 450C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
DME OPERATION
1.

2.

NAV 1 and NAV 2 VHF Navigation Receivers


ON; SET fre
quency selector switches to VOR/DME station frequencies as
required.
NAV Mode Selector Switch
SET to NAV 1 or NAV 2.
--

NOTE
When the VOR frequency is selected, the appropriate DME
frequency is automatically channeled.
3.

DME SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch f on audio control panel)


SET to desired mode to identify station ident tone.
DME Display Selector Switch
SELECT desired readout.
--

4.

- -

DME HOLD FUNCTION:


The HOLD position is selected when the currently controlling Nay
receiver (1 or 2) frequency is about to be changed but the pilot wishes the
DME to remain operating on the current frequency after the navigation
frequency has been changed.
1.

NAV Mode Selector Switch

--

SELECT HOLD.

CAUTION

Inadvertent switching to any other DME Nay Mode posi


tion other than HOLD must be avoided, since this could
cause the DME to display erroneous information.
2.

NAV 1 or NAV 2 Receiver

SELECT new operating frequency.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally
mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a
minor reduction in cruise performance.

11 September 1981

18
PILOT S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)

SUPPLEMENT
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER fELT)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

(
(

The ELT consists of a self-contained dual-frequency radio transmitter


and battery power supply, and is activated by an impact of 5g or more as
may be experienced in a crash landing. The ELT emits an omni-directional
signal on the international distress frequencies of 121.5 and 243.0 MHz.
(Some ELT units in export aircraft transmit only on 121.5 MHz.) General
aviation and commercial aircraft, the FAA, and CAP monitor 121.5 MHz,
and 243.0 MHz is monitored by the military. Following a crash landing, the
ELT will provide line-of-sight transmission up to 100 miles at 10,000 feet.
The ELT supplied in domestic aircraft transmits on both distress frequen
cies simultaneously at 75 mw rated power output for 50 continuous hours
in the temperature range of -4F to +131F (-20 C to +55C). The ELT unit in
export aircraft transmits on 121.5 MHz at 25 mw rated power output for 50
continuous hours in the temperature range of -4F to 131F (-20C to
55C).
The ELT is readily identified as a bright orange unit mounted behind
the baggage compartment on the right-hand side of the tailcone. To gain
access to the unit, remove the rear baggage compartment decorative wall
panel, and untape and pull out the ELT access plug. The ELT is operated by
a control panel at the forward facing end of the unit (see figure 1).

11 September 1981

1 of 4

18
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.

FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH (3-position toggle switch):


ON

OFF

AUTO

Activates transmitter instantly. Used for test purposes sod ifg switch
is inoperative.
Deactivates transmitter. Used during shipping, storage and following
rescue.
Activates transmitter only when g switch receives 5g or more impact.

2.

COVER

3.

ANTENNA RECEPTACLE

Removable for access to battery pack.


-

Connects to antenna mounted oo top of tailcooe.

Figure 1. ELT Control Panel

11 September 1981

78
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following information is presented in the form of a placard located
on the rear baggage compartment decorative wall panel.
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER
INSTALLED AFT OF THIS PARTITION.
MUST BE SERVICED IN ACCORDANCE
WITH FAR PART 91.52
In addition, the following information must be presented in the form of
a placard located on the ELT access plug door in the baggage compartment
wall (behind the decorative panel).

E.L.I. ACCESS
PULL TO OPEN
E.L.T.

SWITCH

,AUTO
ON

OPERATION

ACCESS MUST BE TAPED


AROUND PERIPHERY
BEFORE FLIGHT
1Z05250-1

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Immediately after a forced landing where emergency assistance is
required, the ELT should be utilized as follows.
1.

ENSURE ELT ACTIVATION --Turn a radio transceiver ON and


select 121.5 MHz. If the ELT can be heard transmitting, it was
activated by the g switch and is functioning properly. If no
emergency tone is audible, gain access to the ELT and place the
function selector switch in the ON position.

2.

PRIOR TO SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT


battery. Do not activate radio transceiver.

11 September 1981

- -

Conserve airplane

18
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

3.

AFTER SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT


Place ELT function
selector switch in the OFF position, preventing radio interference.
Attempt contact with rescue aircraft with the radio transceiver set
to a frequency of 121.5 MHz. If no contact is established, return the
function selector switch to ON immediately.

4.

FOLLOWING RES CUE Place ELT function selector switch in the


OF F position, terminating emergency transmissions.

--

C
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
As long as the function selector switch remains in the AUTO position,
the ELT automatically activates following an impact of 5g or more over a
short period of time.
Following a lightning strike, or an exceptionally hard landing, the
ELT may activate although no emergency exists. To check your ELT for
inadvertent activation, select 121.5 MHz on your radio transceiver and
listen for an emergency tone transmission. If the ELT can be heard
transmitting, place the function selector switch in the OFF position and the
tone should cease. Immediately place the function selector switch in the
AUTO position to re-set the ELT for normal operation.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance data when this
equipment is installed.

0
11 September 1981

19
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

RADAR ALTIMETER
BONZER IMPATT

SUPPLEMENT
RADAR ALTIMETER
(Bonzer Impatt)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The Bonzer Impatt Radar Altimeter System is a short pulse radar


altitude system designed for automatic continuous operation over wide
variations of terrain, target reflectivity, weather and aircraft altitude. The
Bonzer Impatt Radar Altimeter may be used inflight to monitor absolute
altitude at any altitude from 40 to 2500 feet, or the pilot may select a
warning absolute altitude with the DR SET control and be alerted automat
ically with aural and visual warnings whenever the aircraft descends
below that absolute altitude. The Bonzer Impatt Radar Altimeter may also
be used for displaying ground separation during night or instrument
climbouts, as well as indicating ground clearances during approaches.
The Bonzer Impatt Radar Altimeter is turned on by a panel mounted
toggle switch (labeled RADAR ALT) prior to takeoff and may be left on for
the duration of the flight. An initial warm-up period of approximately one
minute is required before indicator accuracy can be assured. At altitude
within the usable range of the indicator, proper system operation is
indicated by the red OFF flag being out of view and an accurate indication
of aircraft height above the nearest terrain. Once the aircraft has flown
above the usable range of the indicator the pointer remains in the high
altitude position. If an electrical failure occurs at anytime, the red OFF flag
will appear and the pointer will stop and remain in that position. Momen
tary signal loss within the usable range of the indicator will cause the
pointer to swing to the high altitude position.
The radar altimeter indicator provides an absolute altitude display
from 40 to 2500 feet, an integral TEST button and a decision height (DH)
selector knob. Internal indicator lighting is controlled by the radio light
dimming rheostat. Also included is a remote mounted DR warning light.
The indicator and controls for the Bonzer Impatt Radar Altimeter are
shown and described in figure 1.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

19
RADAR ALTIMETER
BONZER IMPATT

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

C
cJ

C
1.

DECISION HEIGHT (DH) WARNING LIGHT


A press-to-test light which
illuminates amber to indicate aircraft has descended below the selected decision
height, a warning horn will also sound. Light level may be dimmed by turning the
outside ring clockwise.

2.

ALTITUDE DISPLAY DIAL


From 40 to 500 feet, calibrated in numerical
graduations which represent increments of 100 feet; from 500 to 2500 numerical
graduations represent increments of 500 feet.

3.

ALTITUDE DISPLAY POINTER Indicates airplane altitude from 40 to 2500 feet.


If the aircraft is out of the systems range the pointer will remain in the high
altitude position. When descending through 40 feet, the pointer will pause
momentarily, then start back around toward the high altitude position indicating
that useful information is no longer provided. If the system is turned off or
becomes inoperative the pointer will stop and remain in that position.

4.

DECISION HEIGHT BUG

5.

SELF-TEST BUTTON Press the TEST button, the pointer will swing to the red
dot on the face of the dial located below the 40 feet marker. If the aircraft absolute
altitude is less than the preselected DH, the DH warning light will illuminate, and
the warning horn will sound.

6.

DECISION HEIGHT SET CONTROL KNOB Used to select a warning absolute


altitude. The pilot will he alerted automatically with a visual and audio alert
whenever the aircraft descends below the selected altitude.

7.

OFF FLAG

8.

RADAR ALTIMETER (RADAR ALT ONI OFF) POWER SWITCH Applies power
to radar altimeter.

Indicates selected warning altitude.

Red OFF flag indicates power is turned off or system is inoperative.


-

Figure 1. Radar Altimeter (Bonzer Impatt)


2

11 September 1981

19
RADAR ALTIMETER
BONZER IMPATT

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TEST FUNCTION:
Preflight Test:

1.

ON. Allow approximately one minute for


RADAR ALT Switch
warm up. Verify OFF flag is out of view. Pointer will travel to the
high altitude position.
- -

NOTE
Inside a hangar or near large reflective objects, an errone
ous reading may appear.
SELECT desired warning altitude.

2.

Decision Height Set Knob

3.

TEST Switch PRESS. The pointer will swing to the red dot on the
dial below the 40 ft. marker. DH warning light will illuminate and
warning horn will sound as the pointer descends through the DH
setting. After a 20 second pause and if no reflective objects are
nearby, the pointer will travel back to the high altitude position.

ii September 1981

--

--

19
RADAR ALTIMETER
BONZER IMPATT

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ALTIMETER OPERATION:
1.
2.

RADAR ALT Switch


ON. Allow approximately one minute for
warm-up. Verify OFF flag is out of view.
Decision Height Set Knob
SELECT desired warning altitude.
--

--

CAUTION
The radar altimeter must not be used to identify the MDA
(Minimum Descent Altitude) or DH (Decision Height)
while making an instrument approach.

OPERATIONAL NOTES:
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

System lag makes radar altimeter indications unreliable during


approximately the first 30 seconds or 300 feet altitude after takeoff,
and when initially descending through the 2500 foot level, until
absolute altitudes of 2200 feet, 1900 feet and 1600 feet are reached
with descent rates of 500, 1000 and 1500 FPM, respectively.
Accuracy in level flight or in descents at rates up to 500 FPM is
within 7% or 50 feet, whichever is greater.
The pointer will disappear from view below 2500 feet if the ground
return signal is lost. The pointer may also disappear from view
momentarily when the aircraft is in a bank in excess of 20.
Erroneous or spurious indications may occasionally occur at
altitudes above 2500 feet even though the OFF flag may not be
showing.
The press-to-test function should not be actuated on approach
since it may require up to 45 seconds to complete and reliable
altitude indications are again available.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic


equipment is installed.

0
11 September 1981

20
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

SUPPLEMENT
AREA NAVIGATION SYSTEM
(TYPE ANS-351C)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The Area Navigation System (Type ANS-351C) oonsists of an ANS


351C Area Navigation Computer, a compatible Cessna 300 or 400 Series
VHF navigation receiver with a course deviation indicator, and a DME
450C System with an IND-450C Indicator.
There are two types of Course Deviation Indicators which may be used
with this Area Navigation System. Either a type IN-442AR Indicator with
VOR/LOC capabilities, or a type IN-443AR Indicator with VOR/LOC/ILS
capabilities may be coupled with the No. 2 navigation receiver. These 400
Series Indicators are not equipped with a course datum synchro to provide
course datum information to the autopilot.
NOTE
This is the only installation in which a 400 Series Radio
and 400 Series Indicator, coupled with a slaved gyro
system, are installed without Course Datum.

(\

/ s

The ANS-351C Area Navigation Computer contains concentric rotary


switches for waypoint definition entry, an eight-waypoint number selec
tor, an enroute/approach sensitivity control, use and return pushbuttons
for waypoint management, a check pushbutton, electronic displays for
data readout, and an ambient light sensor to control brightness of digital
displays and annunciators. Primary power is applied to the ANS-351C by
the Number 2 VHF Navigation Receiver to which it is coupled.
The ANS-351C Area Navigation Computer calculates the following
parameters when activated: Crosstrack deviation of the aircraft from the
selected course and to/from information displayed on the associated CDI,
and (as selected on the DME) ground speed displayed in knots, time-to
waypoint displayed in minutes, or distance-to-waypoint displayed in
nautical miles.

ii September 1981

1 of 14

20
RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

The ANS-351C Area Navigation Computer has a built-in flag circuit


which causes the waypoint display number to blink anytime a non-active
waypoint is displayed. Another built-in flag circuit is built into the RNAV
Computer to alert the pilot that the system is not operating in the RNAV
mode and that the RNAV has electrically been eliminated from the system,
making the computer transparent to all incoming data. When the DME has
been switched to NAV 1, HOLD or NAV 2, the RADIAL readout will be
flagged with either the word Vor or Loc to alert the pilot that RNAV
mode is inactive. An additional flag circuit is provided in the CDI which
causes a red OFF flag to appear anytime a non-usable VOR! DME signal is
being received.

CAUTION
If RNAV set is removed from the airplane or becomes
inoperative, the associated VHF navigation indicator will
be inoperative.
The DME-450C system used in conjunction with this RNAV system
consists of a panel-mounted IND-450C Indicator, a remotely-mounted
TCR-451 Transceiver and an externally-mounted antenna.
Except for selection of the operating channel, which is selected by the
VHF navigation receiver frequency selector switches, the DME-450C
system is capable of independent operation. However, only the RNAV
mode is to be used with this RNAV system. The DME-450C transmits
interrogating pulse pairs on 200 channels between 1041 MHz and 1150 MHz;
it receives associated ground-to-air replies between 978 MHz and 1213
MHz. The IND-450C digitally displays distances to or from the selected
station up to 200 nautical miles, aircraft ground speed from 30 to 399 knots,
or time-to-station with a maximum time of 120 minutes. A Nay mode
selector switch provides selection of ON! OFF, Nay 1, Nay 2, Hold and
RNAV operation. A DME display selector switch provides selection of
distance to or from station (NM), aircraft ground speed (KTS) or time-tostation (MIN). An ambient light sensor automatically controls display
intensity.
All operating controls and displays which are part of the ANS-351C
Area Navigation Computer, IND-450C Indicator and Course Deviation
Indicators IN-442AR and IN-443AR are shown and described in Figure 1.
Other controls required for operation of the ANS-351C RNAV system with
DME-450C are included on the VHF Nay 2 receiver and are shown and
described in the 300 and 400 Nav!Com (Types RT-385A and RT-485A)
Supplements in this section.

11 September 1981

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

IN-442AR STANDARD VOR/LOC CDI

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

IN-443AR OPTIONAL VOR/LOC/ILS CDI

Figure 1. ANS-351C Computer, IND-450C Indicator


and Associated CDI Controls (Sheet 1 of 5)

11 September 1981

20

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

1.

AMBIENT LIGHT SENSOR Senses ambient cockpit light and controls bright
ness of digital displays (5, 6, 7) and ENR/APPR annunciators (3).

2.

MODE CONTROL KNOB Selects ENR (enroute) or APPR (approach) modes of


operation. In the enroute mode, CDI deviation is 1 nmi/dot, 5 nmi full scale. In
approach, deviation is 0.25 nmi/dot, 1 1/4 nmi full scale deflection out to 40 nmi
from the waypoint.

3.

ENROUTE AND APPROACH MODE ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS (ENR/APPR)


When the annunciator light illuminates amber under either ENR or APPR modes,
it indicates selection of ENR (enroute) sensitivity (1 nmi/dot) or APPR
(approach) sensitivity (0.25 nmi/ dot).

4.

WAYPOINT SELECTOR KNOB (WPT)


from 1 through 8.

5.

WAYPOINT NUMBER DISPLAY (WPT 1 thru 8) Digitally displays (from 1 thru


8) the selected waypoint defined by the displayed data. A blinking number
indicates a non-active waypoint; continuously ON number indicates the active
waypoint.

6.

RADIAL DISPLAY READOUT (RADIAL) When DME is set to RNAV mode, the
computer will digitally display the VOR RADIAL from the reference station on
which the waypoint is located. When the DME is set to Nay 1, Hold, or Nay 2, the
computer display will spell out Vor when a VOR frequency is selected on the
Nay receiver, or Loc will be spelled out if a localizer frequency is selected on the
Nay receiver.

Selects the desired display waypoints,

NOTE
Four zeros will be displayed until desired radial data is dialed in.
7.

DISTANCE DISPLAY READOUT (DISTANCE) Digitally displays DISTANCE


in nautical miles from the reference station to the waypoint.
-

NOTE
Three zeros will be displayed until desired distance data is dialed in.
8.

DISTANCE SELECTOR KNOBS Sets distance information in nautical miles


into the display. Two concentric knobs control information as follows:
-

Large outer knob: Changes display in 10 nmi increments.


Small inner knob : Pushed in, changes display in 1 nmi increments.
Pulled out, changes display in 0.1 nmi increments when less than 100 nmi.
Beyond 100 nmi, changes display in 1 nmi increments.

0
Figure 1. ANS-351C Computer, IND-450C Indicator
and Associated CDI Controls (Sheet 2 of 5)
11 September 1981

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

9.

CHECK BUTTON (CHK) When the CHK pushbutton is pressed and held, and the
DME display selector switch is in the NM position, the DME indicatorwill display
distance from the selected DME facility rather than the waypoint. As a signal that
raw data is being displayed on the DME, the waypoint annunciator on the DME
will be extinguished. Exercising the check feature does not disturb the RNAV
calculation, RNAV course deviation display on the CDI, to/from flag or RNAV
autopilot coupling. The CHK pushbutton is spring-loaded to ensure return to the
RNAV position when released. Brightness of this button is controlled by the radio
light dimming rheostat.

10.

RADIAL SELECTOR KNOBS Sets information into the display. Two concentric
knobs control information as follows:

Large outer knob: Changes display in 10 increments.


Small inner knob: Pushed in, changes display in 1 increments.
Pulled out, changes display in 0.10 increments.
11.

USE PUSHBUTTON Pressing the USE pushbutton converts the displayed


preview waypoint (indicated by a blinking WPT number) into the active waypoint.
Brightness of this button is controlled by the radio light dimming rheostat.

12.

RETURN PUSHBUTTON (RTN) Pressing the RTN pushbutton returns the


display to the previously selected active waypoint when a non-active waypoint is
currently being displsyed. Brightness of this button is controlled by thc radio
light dimming rheostat.

13.

AMBIENT LIGHT SENSOR Senses ambient cockpit light and controls bright
ness of digital display and WPT and HLD annunciators.

14.

DIGITAL DISPLAY Displays distance to or from station or waypoint (NM),


aircraft ground speed (KTS), or time-to-station or waypoint (MIN), depending on
the position of the display selector (15).

NOTE
Dashes will be observed on the display until station lock-on occurs
in the NM mode or until a velocity of at least 30 knots is established
with lock-on in the KTS or MIN mode.
NOTE
In all OME modes including RNAV, aircraft ground speed and timeto-station are meaningful only when the aircraft track is directly to
or from the ground station or waypoint. The KTS and MIN indica
tions require approximately 10-12 minutes in RNAV ENR mode or
4-5 minutes in the RNAV APPR mode to attain 90-95 percent final
(stabilized) calculated value.

Figure 1. ANS-351C Computer, IND-450C Indicator


and Associated CDI Controls (Sheet 3 of 5)
11 September 1981

20
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

RNAV
(TYPE AN5-351C)

15.

DME DISPLAY SELECTOR SWITCH Selects desired mode readouts as follows:


NM Position: Displays distance to or from the selected station or waypoint in
nautical miles up to 199.9 nmi.
KTS Position: Displays aircraft ground speed up to 399 knots.
MIN Position: Displays time-to-station or waypoint with a maximum time of
120 minutes.
-

Brightness of this switch is controlled by the radio light dimming rheostat.


16.

NAV MODE SELECTOR SWITCH Applies power to the DME and selects DME
operating modes as follows:
OFF: Turns the DME OFF.
NAV 1: Selects DME operation with No. 1 VHF navigation set; enables
channel selection by Nay 1 frequency selector switches.
HOLD: Selects DME memory circuit; DME remains channeled to station to
which it was last channeled when HOLD was selected and will continue to
display information relative to this channel. Allows both the Nay 1 and
Nay 2 navigation receivers to be set to new operational frequencies
without affecting the previously selected DME operation.
-

CAUTION
In the Hold mode there is no annunciation of the VOR/ DME station
frequency. However, an annunciator labeled HLD will illuminate
on the DME to flag the pilot that the DME is in the Hold mode.
NAV 2: Selects DME operation with No. 2 VHF navigation set; enables
channel selection by Nay 2 frequency selector switches.
RNAV: Selects area navigation operation with the No.2 VHF navigation set.
Brightness of this switch is controlled by the radio light dimmtng rheostat.
Illuminates amber to indicate HOLD mode is

17.

HOLD ANNUNCIATOR (HLD)


selected.

18.

WAYPOINT ANNUNCIATOR (WPT)


mode is selected.

19.

COURSE CARD

20.

Amber light illuminates when an autopilots


BACK-COURSE LAMP (BC)
back-course function is engaged and receiver is tuned to a localizer frequency;
indicates course deviation pointer is reversed. Light dimming is only available
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights
DAY/NITE selector switch.

21.

AREA NAV LAMP (RN) When green light is illuminated, indicates that RNAV
operation is selected. Light dimming is only available when installed with an
audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights DAY! NITE selector
switch.

Illuminates amber to indicate RNAV

Indicates selected VOR or RNAV course under course index.


-

Figure 1. ANS-351C Computer, IND-450C Indicator


and Associated CDI Controls (Sheet 4 of 5)

11 September 1981

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

22.

OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS) Rotates course card (19) to select desired
bearing to or from a VOR station or to or from a selected RNAV waypoint.

23.

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX


course.

24.

Operates only with VOR, localizer or RNAV


OFF/TO-FROM INDICATOR
signaL OFF position (red flag) indicates unusable signal. With usable VOR
signal, when OFF position disappears, tedicates whether selected course is TO or
FROM station or waypoint. With usable localizer signal, white TO flag is in view.

25.

Indicates course deviation from selected


COURSE DEVIATION POINTER
VOR or RNAV course or localizer centerline.

26.

COURSE INDEX

27.

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER


slope.

28.

When visible, red OFF flag indicates unreliable


GLIDE SLOPE OFF FLAG
glide slope signal or improperly operating equipment. Flag disappears when a
reliable glide slope signal is being received.

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR or RNAV

Indicates selected VOR or RNAV course (bearing)


-

Indicates deviation from ILS glide

Figure 1. ANS-351C Computer, IND-450C Indicator


and Associated CDI Controls (Sheet 5 of 5)

11 September 1981

20
RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following RNAV IFR approach limitation must be adhered to
during airplane operation.
1.

IFR Approaches
Follow approved published RNAV instrument
approach procedures.
--

0
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL OPERATION

300 & 400 NAV/COM VOR NAVIGATION CIRCUITS


VERIFICATION TEST:
1.

Since the TEST position on the 300 and 400 Nay/Corn radios is
inoperative when the Nay! Coms are coupled to this Area Naviga
tion System, the VOR SELF TEST OPERATION as outlined in
the 300 and 400 Nay! Corn (Types RT-385A and RT-485A) Supple
ments cannot he used. To check out the complete system, follow the
GROUND CHECK PROCEDURES as outlined later in this Sup
plement.

VOR/LOC NAVIGATION:
As a convenience to the pilot, a separate supplement (Avionic Opera
tion Guide) is supplied to explain the various procedures for using the
VHF Navigation Set for VOR a- U localizer navigation. Refer to the
Avionic Operation Guide for flight procedures.

0
11 September 1981

20
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

AREA NAVIGATION OPERATION NOTES


1.

Proper RNAV operation requires valid VOR and DME inputs to the
RNAV system. In certain areas, the ground station antenna
patterns and transmitter power may be inadequate to provide valid
signals to the RNAV. For this reason, intermittent RNAV signal
loss may be experienced enroute. Prolonged loss of RNAV signal
shall require the pilot to revert to other navigational procedures.

2.

As the flight progresses, sequence through waypoints in order,


always keep within range of VORTAC being used by maintaining
proper altitude and distance from the facility. If usable range is
exceeded, the OFF flag will appear on the CDI. Normally, switch
ing waypoints should be done long before flag appearances to
ensure the accurate distance, ground speed, time-to-waypoint and
minimum crosstrack deviation that will result if closest and
strongest signal is used.

3.

Selection of the Nay 1, Hold, or Nay 2 positions on the DME Nay


mode selector switch electrically eliminates the ANS-351C from
the RNAV system, making the computer non-receptive to all
incoming data. When operating in these conventional VOR/DME
modes, the ANS-351C RADIAL display will spell out Vor or
Loc to prevent being misled into believing that an RNAV
waypoint is being flown. Rotating the waypoint selector knob
allows preview and set up of waypoints even though operating in
the conventional DME modes. Attempting to activate a waypoint
in the conventional DME modes by pressing the USE pushbutton
will yield no results and the WPT number display will remain
blinking, indicating a preview waypoint. Pressing the RTN button
will restore the Vor or Loc annunciation on the RADIAL
display and the previously preset waypoints will remain in
memory.
NOTE
The ILS mode selection takes precedence over all other
mode selection and is automatic whenever an ILS fre
quency is selected on the No. 2 navigation receiver.

4.

If at anytime an ILS frequency is selected on the No. 2 set, with the


ANS-351C operating in the RNAV mode, operation will be restored
on the same waypoint when a VOR frequency is again selected.
This feature allows channeling through ILS frequencies without
changing the selected waypoint number.

11 September 1981

20
RNAV
(TYPE AN5-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

5.

Ground speed, time-to-waypoint, and distance-to-waypoint func


tions require stabilization time after initial function selection has
been made. Allowing 10 minutes for stabilization when operating
in the ENR mode will provide a display that is 90 percent of the
final calculated value; 12 minutes after initial selection, a display
that is 95 percent of the final calculated value will be provided.
Stabilization time can be greatly reduced if the APPR mode is
selected just prior to, or immediately after, the time that any one of
the subject functions is selected. The APPR mode switches in a
speed-up circuit that reduces the time for 90 percent of final value
display to 4 minutes, and the time for 95 percent of final value
display to 5 minutes. After stabilization is achieved, the
ENR/APPR control may be switched back to ENR for normal
enroute operation.

6.

Course changes in excess of 45 degrees will result in temporary


display changes for ground speed, time-to-waypoint, or distance
to-waypoint. Initially, ground speed will decrease and both time
to-waypoint and distance-to-waypoint will increase after the
course change is made. After the new course has been established
for several minutes, all functions will again stabilize and display
final calculated values. Course changes exceeding 120 degrees
require stabilization time greater than 12 minutes in ENR mode or
5 minutes in APPR mode.

7.

For accurate CDI sensitivity, approach mode is restricted to 50


nautical miles or less from the waypoint in use. Enroute mode is
restricted to distances no greater than 200 nautical miles from the
waypoint in use.

8.

VOR/DME facilities must be co-located.

9.

The display of time-to-station/waypoint on the DME display,


when in RNAV mode, is only valid if aircraft track is TO the
waypoint.

GROUND CHECK PROCEDURES:


Before each flight in which RNAV is to be used for primary guidance,
the following procedures should be used, when possible, to verify
RNAV system performance.
1.

Taxi the aircraft to position free and clear of metal structures and
within good reception distance of a local VOR/DME facility.

11 September 1981

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

2.
3.
4.

4Th
)
,

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)


SET NAV 2 to desired mode.
COM OFF/VOL Control --TURN ON; adjust NAV VOL control to
desired audio level.
SELECT the
NAV Frequency Selection (on No. 2 Nay Receiver)
local VOR/DME frequency.
SELECT RNAV mode.
DME NAV Mode Selector Switch
SET to NM.
DME DISPLAY Selector Switch
SELECT APPR (approach) mode.
RNAV Mode Control Knob
SELECT all zeros.
RADIAL and DISTANCE Selector Knobs
ROTATE to center the course
NAV 2 Indicator OBS Knob
deviation pointer.
NOTE DME distance display readout
DME DIGITAL DISPLAY
(after the CDI and Distance displays have stabilized).
PRESS to display raw VOR/DME data. The
RNAV CHK Button
DME distance-to-VOR readout should agree with the previous
(step 10) RNAV DME distance-to-waypoint readout within 0.5 NM.
DME NAV MODE Selector Switch - SELECT NAV 2 and observe
that the CDI remains within 2 dots of center and check that the DME
distance-to VOR display remains within 0.5 NM of the distance
displayed in step 10.

--

--

- -

--

- -

--

- -

--

--

PREVIEWING AND MODIFYING WAYPOINTS:


NOTES
Modifications to the active waypoint should not be made
while the RNAV system is coupled to the autopilot.
Any of the waypoints may be previewed at anytime in any
mode.
1.
2.

3.

WPT Selector Knob - ROTATE until the desired waypoint number


is displayed.
WPT Number Display -- OBSERVE that number is blinking,
indicating that the waypoint is a preview waypoint and not the
active waypoint.
RADIAL and DISTANCE Selector Knobs -- SET as desired if
preview waypoint is to be modified.
-

NOTE
Only the displayed waypoint, whether it is the active
waypoint or a preview waypoint, will be affected by the
data (Radial and Distance) selector switches.

11 September 1981

11

20
RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

4.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

RTN Pushbutton
PRESS to return the display to the active
waypoint number or operating mode (VOR or LOC).
- -

NOTE
In the RNAV mode of operation, the waypoint selector may
also be manually rotated until the active waypoint number
is again displayed in lieu of using the RTN pushbutton.
5.

WAYPOINT Number OBSERVE that number is continuously on,


indicating that active waypoint is now displayed.
- -

NOTE
Previewing waypoints, whether in the conventional
VOR/DME modes or RNAV mode, will not affect system
operation in any way.

WAYPOINT PROGRAMMING ON THE GROUND:


1.

Using a VFR sectional, enroute instrument chart, instrument


approach plate, or enroute RNAV chart DETERMINE distance
and radial for desired waypoints from appropriate VOR/DME
stations.
--

NOTE
Start engine prior to turning ON avionics equipment.
2.
3.
4.

VHF NAV 2 Receiver


ON to apply power to Nay receiver and
RNAV set.
DME Nay Mode Selector Switch
RNAV.
WPT Selector Knob
1.
--

--

--

NOTE
When power is first applied to the RNAV set, waypoint
number 1 will be displayed above the WPT legend as the
active waypoint with zero RADIAL and DISTANCE dis
played.
5.

RADIAL and DISTANCE Selector Knobs


ROTATE until the
desired data is displayed. The displayed data will be automatically
transferred into the number 1 waypoint memory.
- -

11 September 1981

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-351C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

6.

REPEAT Steps 4 and 5 to program remaining waypoints.


NOTE
The displayed waypoint data in the RADIAL and DIS
TANCE displays before modification is never retained
after new waypoint data has been entered. If the active
waypoint is revised, the new data will immediately be used
in the RNAV computation. Similarly, previewed waypoints, once modified, retain the new data until the waypoint definition is again modified, or the system is turned
off.

7.

RTN (Return) Pushbutton

--

PRESS to display active waypoint.

CHANGING WAYPOINTS IN FLIGHT:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

WPT Selector Knob ROTATE until the desired waypoint number


and coordinates are displayed.
SELECT the desired reference frequency
VHF Nay 2 Receiver
and identify station by listening to ident tone.
SET to desired course.
Nay Indicator OBS Knob
PRESS and observe that the waypoint identifi
USE Pushbutton
cation number stops blinking.
DME Display Selector Switch-- SELECT desired display readout.
(Distance-to-waypoint will be displayed when NM position is
selected.)
--

- -

--

- -

NOTE
In the KTS and MIN modes, allow 10-12 minutes to attain a
90-95 percent final (stabilized) calculated value in the ENR
mode or 4-5 minutes to attain a 90-95 percent final (stabil
ized) calculated value in the APPR mode. The NM display
is accurate immediately after lock on.

11 September 1981

13

20

RNAV
(TYPE ANS-3olC)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

CHECK FUNCTION:
The distance of the aircraft from the selected VOR/ DME station may be
checked at anytime while operating in the RNAV mode whenever the DME
display selector switch is in the NM position.
1.
2.
3.

4.

()

CHK Pushbutton
PRESS and HOLD.
DME Digital Display
OBSERVE distance from VOR/DME
station displayed.
DME WAYPOINT (WPT) Annunciator
OBSERVE WPT annun
ciator EXTINGUISHED as a signal that raw DME data is being
displayed on the DME.
CHK Pushbutton
RELEASE.
--

--

- -

--

0
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

0
-

There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic


equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

C
0
11 September 1981

27
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

HSI
(TYPE IG-832A)

SUPPLEMENT
OPTIONAL
SLAVED
HORIZONTAL SITUATION
INDICATOR (HSI)
(TYPE IG-832A)

(STANDARD EQUIPMENT
ON 400B IFC SYSTEM)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The IG-832A Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is an additional
navigation indicator option available with Cessna 300 or 400 Nay! Corn
radios. When dual Nay! Corns are installed, the HSI is coupled to the first
Nay/Corn and a standard 300 or 400 series VOR/LOC indicator is coupled
to the second Nay! Corn.
This system consists of a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), a SA
832A remote slaving accessory without course datum or an alternate SA
832B with a bootstrap syncro transmitter for RMI and Course Datum
operation, a remote magnetic flux detector and a remote VOR/LOC
converter which is only installed without a RNAV installation. The HSI
features the modified ARINC face presentation, providing a slaved gyro
heading display with a built-in slaving indicator and full ILS navigation
capability. When the HSI is installed with a 400B series Autopilot, a BC
light is installed on the instrument panel, adjacent to the HSI, to alert the
pilot of back-course operations. Each control and indicator function is
described in Figure 1.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this instrument is
installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

21
HSI
(TYPE IG-832A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ED
16
15

14
13
12

0
1.

HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)


Provides a pictorial presenta
tion of aircraft deviation relative to VOR radials and localizer beams. It also
displays glide slope deviations and gives heading reference with respect to
magnetic north.
-

2.

OMNI BEARING POINTER


Indicates selected VOR course or localizer course
on compass card (16). The selected VOR radial or localizer heading remains set on
the compass card when the compass card (16) is rotated.

3.

NAV FLAG
When flag is in view, indicates that the NAV receiver signal being
received is not reliable.

4.

HEADING REFERENCE (LUBBER LINE)


on compass card (16).

5.

HEADING WARNING FLAG (HDG)


When flag is in view the heading display
is invalid due to interruption of either electrical or vacuum power.

6.

GYRO SLAVING INDICATOR


Displays visual indication of heading indicator
and flux detector synchronization. When slaving needle is aligned with the HSI
45 right index, it shows that the heading indicator agrees with the aircraft
magnetic heading. Off-center pointer deflections show the direction of heading
indicator error relative to aircraft magnetic heading. The compass CARD SET
knob (9) may be used at any time to more rapidly accomplish synchronization of
the heading indicator reading with magnetic heading as indicated by the slaving
indicator.

Indicates aircraft magnetic heading

Figure 1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) (Type IG-832A)


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

21
HSI
(TYPE IG-832A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Indicates selected reference heading relative to the compass

7.

HEADING BUG
card (16).

8.

TO/FROM INDICATOR FLAG


selected course.

9.

HEADING SELECTOR AND CARD SET KNOB (PUSH 8 CARD SET) When
rotated in normal (out) position, positions heading bug (7) on compass card (16)
to indicate selected heading for reference or for autopilot tracking. When pushed
in and rotated, sets compass card (16) to agree with magnetic compass. The omni
bearing pointer (2), heading bug (7), and deviation bar (10) rotate with the compass
card (16).

10.

Bar is center portion of omni bearing


COURSE (OMNI) DEVIATION BAR
pointer and moves laterally to pictorially indicate relationship of aircraft to
selected course. It relates in degrees of angular displacement from VOR radials or
locaHzer beam center.

11.

Indicates aircraft displacement from VOR, or


COURSE DEVIATION DOTS
localizer beam center. A course deviation bar displacement of 2 dots represents
full scale (VOR = 100 or LOC = 21/20) deviation from beam centerline.

12.

When rotated, positions omni bearing pointer


COURSE SELECTOR ( $) KNOB
(2) on the compass card (16) to select desired VOR radial or localizer course.

13.

Indicates displacement from glide slope beam center. A


GLIDE SLOPE SCALE
glide slope deviation bar displacement of 2 dots, represents full scale (0.7)
deviation above or below glide slope beam centerline.

14.

GLIDE SLOPE POINTER Indicates on glide slope scale (13) aircraft displace
ment from glide slope beam center.

15.

GLIDE SLOPE FLAG


reliable.

16.

COMPASS CARD
lubber line (4).

17.

BACK-COURSE LIGHT (BC) (Installed in a remote position, as shown, with a


400B Autopilot only. The BC light is incorporated in the mode selector on the 400B
IFC system.) Remote amber BC light installed with a 400B Autopilot will
illuminate when back-course operation is selected by the REV SNS (Reverse
Sense) LOC 1 switch located in the autopilot accessory unit. With 400B IFC
system, when back-course operation is selected, the BC light incorporated in the
MODE SELECTOR will illuminate green.

Indicates direction of VOR station relative to

--

When in view, indicates glide slope receiver signal is not

Rotates to display heading of airplane with reference to

CAUTION
When back-course operation is selected, the course (omni) devia
tion bar on the HSI does not reverse. However, selection of backcourse operation will always cause the localizer signal to the
autopilot to reverse for back-course operation.

Figure 1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) (Type IG-832A)


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

21
HSI
(TYPE IG-832A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
instrument is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CAUTION

C
0

Both electrical and vacuum power must be supplied to this


instrument for proper functioning. Absence of either will
result in unreliable heading information.However, loss of
the vacuum power will not affect the omni bearing pointer
or glide slope pointer.
Normal procedures for operation of this system differ little from those
required for the more conventional Course Deviation Indicators. However,
several small differences are worth noting.
The rectilinear movement of the omni deviation bar in combination
with the rotation of the compass card in response to heading changes,
provides an intuitive picture of the navigation situation at a glance when
tuned to an omni station. When tuned to a localizer frequency, the omni
bearing pointer must be set to the inbound front course for pth front and
back-course approaches to retain this pictorial presentation.
When the HSI system is installed with a Cessna 40DB (Type IF-550A)
Autopilot, a back-course indicator light labeled BC, is mounted adjacent to
the HSI and will illuminate amber when the reverse sense (REV SNS)
switch (mounted in the autopilot accessory unit) is placed in the ON (LOC
1) position to alert the pilot that back-course operation is selected. The BC
light is incorporated in the MODE SELECTOR on the 40DB IFCS system.
The HSI needle will not be reversed but the LOC signals to the autopilot
will be. Light dimming for both types of BC lighting is provided for low
ambient light conditions.
For normal procedures with autopilots, refer to the 40DB and 40DB IFCS
Autopilot Supplements in this handbook if they are listed in this section as
options. A description of course datum and autopilot procedures for course
datum are incorporated in the appropriate autopilot supplements.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when this instrument


is installed.
11 September 1981

22
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)

SUPPLEMENT
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-J25)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The ASB- 125 HF transceiver is an airborne, 10-channel, single side
band (SSB) radio with a compatible amplitude modulated (AM)
transmitting-receiving system for long range voice communications in
the 2 to 18 MHz frequency range. The system consists of a panel mounted
receiver/exciter, a remote mounted power amplifier/power supply, an
antenna coupler and an externally mounted, fixed wire, medium! high
frequency antenna.
A channel selector knob determines the operating frequency of the

transceiver which has predetermined crystals installed to provide the


desired operating frequencies. A mode selector control is provided to
supply the type of emission required for the channel, either sideband, AM
or telephone for public correspondence. An audio knob, clarifier knob and
squelch knob are provided to assist in audio operation during receive. In
addition to the aforementioned controls, which are all located on the
receiver/exciter, a meter is incorporated to provide antenna loading
readouts.
The system utilizes the airplane microphone, headphone and speaker.
Operation and description of the audio control panels used in conjunction
with this radio are shown and described in another supplement in this
section.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

22
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.

CHANNEL WINDOW

2.

RELATIVE POWER METER


amplifier/anienna system.

3.

MODE SELECTOR CONTROL Selects one of the desired operating modes:


USB
Selects upper sideband operation for long range voice communica
tions.
AM
Selects compatible AM operation and full AM reception.
TEL
Selects upper sideband with reduced carrier, used for public corres
pondence telephone and ship-to-shore.
LSB
(Optional) Selects lower sideband operation (not legal in U.S.,
Canada and most other countries).

Displays selected channel.

Indicates relative radiated power of the power

4.

SQUELCH CONTROL Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activate


receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases
squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases background noise.

5.

CLARIFIER CONTROL Used to clarify single sideband speech during


receive while in USB mode only.

6.

CHANNEL SELECTOR CONTROL Selects desired channel. Also selects AM


mode if channel frequency is 2003 kHz, 2182 kHz or 2638 kHz.

7.

ON

AUDIO CONTROL

Figure 1.

Turns set ON and controls receiver audio gain.

SSB HF Transceiver Operating Controls

11 September 1981

22
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
COMMUNICATIONS TRANSCEIVER OPERATION:
NOTE
The pilot should be aware of the two following radio
operational restrictions:
a. For sideband operation in the United States, Canada and
various other countries, only the upper sideband may be
used. Use of lower sideband is prohibited.
b. Only AM transmissions are permitted on frequencies
2003 kHz, 2182 kHz and 2638 kHz. The selection of these
channels will automatically select the AM mode of trans
mission.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

SELECT trans
XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control panel)
ceiver.
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SELECT desired mode.
ON (allow equipment to warm up for 5
ON-AUDIO Control
minutes for sideband or one minute for AM operation and adjust
audio to comfortable listening level).
SELECT desired frequency.
Channel Selector Control
SELECT operating mode.
Mode Selector Control

11 September 1981

--

--

--

- -

--

22
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-l25)
6.
7.
8.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SQUELCH Control -- ADJUST clockwise for normal background


noise output, then slowly adjust counterclockwise until the
receiver is silent.
CLARIFIER Control
ADJUST when upper single sideband RF
signal is being received for maximum clarity.
Mike Button:
a. To Transmit
DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
NOTE
--

(\

--

Sidetone and interphone intercom are not available on this


radio.
b.

To Receive

--

RELEASE mike button.


NOTE

Voice communications are not available in the LSB mode.


NOTE
Lower sideband (LSB) mode is not legal in the U.S.,
Canada, and most other countries.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

Q
0
0

11 September 1981

23
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

HSI
(TYPE IG-832C)

SUPPLEMENT
OPTIONAL
UNSLAVED
HORIZONTAL SITUATION
INDICATOR (HSI)
(TYPE IG-832C)
SECTION 1
GENE RAL

(
1

The IG-832C Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is an additional


navigation indicator option which provides a heading reference with
respect to an unslaved directional gyro, a heading reference bug, VOR
course selection, and a pictorial presentation of the airplane position
relative to VOR and localizer courses and glide slopes. This indicator is
used with Cessna 300 and 400 Nay! Corn radios. When dual Nay! Corn radios
are installed, the HSI is coupled to the number 1 NAV/COM and a standard
300 or 400 series VOR/LOC course deviation indicator is coupled to the
number 2 NAV/ COM.
This system consists of a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI-Type
IG-832C) and a remote mounted VOR/LOC Converter (Type B-445A). The
course datum is not available. However, the
HSI indicator is unslaved and
HSI features the modified ARINC face presentation with full ILS naviga
tion capability. When the HSI is installed with a 300A or 400B Autopilot
HSI,
system, a BC light is installed on the instrument panel, adjacent to the
indicator
and
control
Each
operation.
back-course
of
pilot
to alert the
function is described in Figure 1.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this instrument is
installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
instrument is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

23
HSI
(TYPE IG-832C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

123
\

.j____

1514

1110-

0
1.

HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)


Provides a pictorial presenta
tion of aircraft deviation relative to VOR radials aod localizer beams.
It also
displays gtide slope deviations and gives heading reference with respect
to
magnetic north when compass card is set to agree with compass.
-

2.

OMNI BEARING POINTER


Indicates selected VOR course or localizer course
on compass card (6). The selected VOR radial or localizer heading remains
set on
the compass card when the compass card (6) is rotated.

3.

NAV FLAG When flag is in view, indicates that the NAV receiver signal
being
received is not reliable.

4.

HEADING REFERENCE (LUBBER LINE)


on compass card (6).

5.

Indicates aircraftmagnetic heading

HEADING WARNING FLAG (HDG)


When flag is in view the heading display
is invalid due to interruption of either electrical or vacuum power.
-

6.

COMPASS CARD Rotates to display heading of airplane with reference


to
lubber line (4). Must be set to agree wtth aircraftcompass using Card
Set Knob (9).

7.

COURSE DEVIATION DOTS


Indicates aircraft displacement from VOR, or
localizer beam center. A course deviation bar (15) displacement
of 2 dots
represents full scale (VOR = 100 or LOC = 21/20) deviation from beam centerline.

8.

TO/FROM INDICATOR FLAG


selected course.

Figure 1.

Indicates direction of VOR station relative to

Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) (Type IG-832C)


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

()

23
HSI
(TYPE IG-832C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

9.

HEADING SELECTOR AND CARD SET KNOB (PUSH CARD SET) When
rotated in normal (out) position, positions heading bug (14) on compass card (6)
to indicate selected heading for reference or for autopilot tracking. When pushed
in and rotated, sets compass card (6) to agree with magnetic compass. The omni
bearing pointer (2), heading bug (14), and deviation bar (15) rotate with the
compass card (6).
-

NOTE
The compass card (6) must be reset periodically to compensate for
precessional errors in the gyro.
10.

When rotated, positions omni bearing pointer


KNOB
COURSE SELECTOR (
(2) on the compass card (6) to select desired VOR radial or localizer course.

11.

Indicates displacement from glide slopebeamcenter.A


GLIDE SLOPE SCALE
glide slope deviation bar displacement of 2 dots, represents full scale (0.7)
deviation above or below glide slope beam centerline.

12.

Indicates on glide slope scale (11) aircraft displace


GLIDE SLOPE POINTER
ment from glide slope beam center.

13.

GLIDE SLOPE FLAG


reliable.

14.

HEADING BUG
(6).

15.

COURSE (OMNI) DEVIATION BAR Bar is center portion of omni bearing


pointer and moves laterally to pictorially indicate relationship of aircraft to
selected course. It relates in degrees of angular displacement from VOR radials or
localizer beam center (see Item 7).

16.

BACK-COURSE LIGHT (BC) (Installed in a remote position, as shown, with 300A


The remote BC light will illuminate amber when
and 400B Autopilots only.)
back-course operation is selected either by the REV SNS LOC 1 switch (17)
mounted in the 400B autopilots accessory unit or the BACK CRS pushbutton on
the 300A autopilot. Light dimming is only available when installed with an audio
control panel incorporating the annunciator lights DAY/NITE selector switch.

When in view, indicates glide slope receiver signal is not

Indicates selected reference heading relative to compass card

CAUTION
When back-course operation is selected, the course (omni) devia
tion bar (15) on the HSI does not reverse. However, selection of back
course operation will always cause the localizer signal to the
autopilot to reverse for back-course operation.

Figure 1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) (Type IG-832C)


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

23
HSI
(TYPE IG-832C)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

(N

CAUTION
Both electrical and vacuum power must be supplied to this
instrument for proper functioning. Absence of either will
result in unreliable heading information. However, loss of
the vacuum power will not affect the omni bearing pointer
or glide slope pointer.
Normal procedures for operation of this system differ little from those
required for the more conventional Course Deviation Indicators. However,
several small differences are worth noting.
The rectilinear movement of the omni deviation bar in combination
with the rotation of the compass card in response to heading changes,
provides an intuitive picture of the navigation situation at a glance when
tuned to an omni station. When tuned to a localizer frequency, the omni
bearing pointer must be set to the inboard front course for both front and
back-course approaches to retain this pictorial presentation.
When the HSI system is installed with a Cessna 300A (Type AF-395A)
or Cessna 400B (Type IF-550A) Autopilot, a back-course indicator light
labeled BC, is mounted adjacent to the HSI and will illuminate amber when
either the reverse sense (REV SNS) switch (mounted in the 400B autopi
lots accessory unit) is placed in the ON (LOC 1) position or the BACK CRS
pushbutton on the 300A Autopilot is activated to alert the pilot that backcourse operation is selected. With either autopilot, the HSI needle will not
be reversed but the LOC signals to the autopilot will be. Light dimming for
the BC light is only available when installed with an audio control panel
incorporating the annunciator lights DAY! NITE selector switch.
For normal procedures with autopilots, refer to the 300A or 400B
Autopilot Supplements in this handbook if they are listed in this section as
options.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when this instrument


is installed.

11 September 1981

24
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160)

SUPPLEMENT
WEATHER RADAR
(Type RDR-160)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The RDR-160 Weather Radar system consists of a wing pod mounted
receiver-transmitter and X-band radar antenna, and a panel mounted radar
indicator. All operating controls are mounted on the front panel of the
radar indicator and operating controls and functions are described in
Figure 1.

The RDR-i60 Weather Radar is designed to detect significant enroute


weather formations within a range of 160 nautical miles to preclude
undesirable penetration of heavy weather and its usually associated
turbulence. Internally generated range marks appear as evenly spaced
concentric circular arcs on the display to assist in determining distance
from weather targets. Reference marks on each side of the zero heading
assist in determining bearing of weather targets. A secondary objective of
the weather radar system is the gathering and presentation of terrain data.

WARNING

This system generates microwave radiation and improper


use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily injury. DO
NOT OPERATE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ AND CARE
FULLY FOLLOWED ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
INSTRUCTIONS CALLED OUT IN SECTION 4 (NORMAL
PROCEDURES) OF THIS SUPPLEMENT.
For expanded information and operational instructions, refer to the
RDR-160 Pilots Manual supplied with your aircraft. Users of this equip
ment are strongly urged to familiarize themselves with FAA Advisory
Circular AC No. 00-24A(6-23-78), subject: Thunderstorms.

ii September 1981

1 of 10

24
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ALPHANUMERIC
ON-SCREEN REA000T

SELECIEO MOOE

RANGE N M.

RANGE MARK
SPACING N.M.

0
0
1.

FUNCTION SWITCH
Controls application of power and selects mode of
operation for testing, warm-up and antenna scanning in the range of 5 nautical
miles to 160 nautical miles. Switch positions are as follows:
-

OFF
STBY

TEST
5
10

20
40
80
160

Turns set off.


Turns set on to standby for warmup but transmitter, antenna scan
and indicator display are inhibited. (Warmup time is
approximately 2 minutes.)
Applies drive to antenna and activates test circuit and indicator
display to determine operability of system.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 5 nautical mile range presentation
with 1 mile range marks.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 10 nautical mile range presentation
with 2 mile range marks.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 20 nautical mile range presentation
with 4 mile range marks.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 40 nautical mile range presentation
with 10 mile range marks.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 80 nautical mile range presentation
with 20 mile range marks.
Energizes Transmitter. Selects 160 nautical mile range presentation
with 40 mile range marks.
NOTE

Each time the function switch position is changed, the indicator


presentation is automatically erased so that information on the
newly selected function may be presented without confusion.

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR- 160) (Sheet 1 of 3)


11 September 1981

24
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

2.

Selects weather radar and ground


MODE SELECTOR AND GAIN CONTROL
mapping modes of operation with manual gain selection for ground mapping.
Switch positions are as follows:
-

MAP! GAIN (Ground Mapping) Places indicator in MAP mode and disables
contour feature. In the MAP mode, 6 levels of GAIN maybe manually
selected from MAP (maximum gain) to MIN (minimum gain) during
ground mapping mode. All targets will be presented on the indicator
in up to 3 different shades, depending on the radar echo strength and
the particular click-gain setting used.
-

Places weather indicator image gain in a preadjusted level.


Wx (Weather)
Contour operation is automatic and constant. Contoured storm cells
will appear as dark holes which will be outlined by lighter shades
automatically.
-

WxA (Weather Alert) When the Mode Selector is in the WxA position,
verification of storm cloud contouring is provided. If a dark hole seen
in the Wx mode is a contour or storm cell, its presentation will
alternate from darkest shade to brightest shade approximately 1 time
per second. If a dark hole remains the same intensity while in the WxA
mode, then this area of the display does not represent a contour or
storm cell.
-

3.

ANTENNA TILT CONTROL Electronically adjusts the radar beam to iS


degrees up, or down, with respect to the airplane axis to compensate for
differences in airplane attitude.

4.

BRT CONTROL

5.

BEARING MARKS To assist in determining relative bearing of return echos,


marks are provided 30 either side of the 0 or forward mark.

6.

HOLD SWITCH The HOLD switch is a push-pushbutton. Pushing the HOLD


button in places the indicator in the hold mode; pushing the button in again places
the indicator in the scan mode.

Controls the three brightness levels of the indicator display.


-

HOLD (Pushbutton Engaged) Weather or ground mapping image last


presented is retained (frozen) on the indicator display in order to
evaluate the significance of storm cell movement. Switching back to
scan from Hold mode reveals relative direction and distance of target
movement during hold period if airplane heading and speed were not
changed. The word HOLD will be flashing on the display screen
when in the HOLD mode.
-

When the HOLD pushbutton is disen


SCAN (Pushbutton Disengaged)
gaged, presentation is unfrozen and normal scanning updates the
picture with each sweep.
-

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160) (Sheet 2 of 3)

11 September 1981

24
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160)

7.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ALPHANUMERIC ON-SCREEN READOUTS


The indicator features alphanu
meric readouts of full scale range, range mark spacing, and mode selection. The
following Table lists the readouts as a function of switch positions:
-

Function Switch Position


TEST
5
10
20
40
SO
160

Range-Range Mks Spacing


40-10
5-1
10-2
20-4
40-10
80-20
160-40

Mode Selector Switch Position


MAP/GAIN
Wx
WxA

Mode Readout*
MAP
Wx
WxA

*Footnote

When the HOLD switch is energized, the mode readout displays


HOLD which flashes at the rate of once per second. Also when
TEST is selected on the function switch the word TEST appears at
the mode readout location.

0
C
C
0
Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160) (Sheet 3 of 3)
4

11 September 1981

24
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PRIOR TO FLIGHT:

WARNING

The radar system generates microwave radiation and


improper use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily
injury. DO NOT OPERATE THIS EQUIPMENT UNTIL
YOU HAVE READ AND CAREFULLY FOLLOWED THE
FOLLOWING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUC
TIONS:

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS TO BE FOLLOWED


PRIOR TO RADAR OPERATION:
1.
2.

Do not turn on, or operate radar within 15 feet of ground personnel


or containers holding flammable or explosive material.
Do not turn on, or operate radar during refueling operations.

PREFLIGHT CHECKS PRIOR TO ENERGIZING RADAR:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE SERIOUS BODILY


INJURY TO GROUND PERSONNEL OR IGNITION OF

11 September 1981

24
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

FLAMMABLE OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, THE FOL


LOWING TESTS MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE
FUNCTION SWITCH ALWAYS IN THE TEST MODE OF
OPERATION.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Function Switch STBY position and after 30 seconds select TEST


position.
HOLD Selector Switch
DISENGAGED (scan mode).
Mode Selector Control
Wx position.
BRT Control
ADJUST to desired brightness.
Indicator Display
CHECK TEST PATTERN with the following:
a. Four equally spaced range marks should be visible, the word
TEST and numerals 40-10 should appear in the alphanu
meric area of display.
b. No video noise distortion should appear on the display.
c. There are two distinct brightness levels appearing on the
indicator.
d. Starting at the lower center of the display, there will either be
four or five bands extending outward. The variance in the
number of bands is due to the design of the display unit which
causes the nearest light shading band (small) to appear on
units with a five band display and not appear on units with a
four band display. The four and five band displays are as
follows:
--

--

- -

Nearest is light shading (appears on five band display only).


Next (or nearest) is intermediate shading (intermediate shad
ing appears as the nearest band on four band displays).
Next is dark or contour area.
Next is intermediate shading.
Next is light shading.
6.

7.

8.

Mode Selector Control WxA position and observe that the word
TEST and numbers 40-10 appear in the alphanumeric area of
display. Ensure that the pattern center band alternates between the
darkest shade and the brightest shade at about 1 time per second.
Mode Selector Control
MAP (maximum gain) position and
observe that the word TEST and numbers 40-10 appear in the
alphanumeric area display. Note that stroke line (antenna posi
tion) moves across the indicator screen through the range marks
for the full 90 degrees without jumping.
HOLD Selector Switch ENGAGE HOLD pushbutton and observe
that the word HOLD replaces TEST and flashes at the rate of once
per second in the alphanumeric area of display. Note that the
strobe line disappears.
-

- -

11 September 1981

24
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR- 160)

PREFLIGHT CHECKS WITH RADAR ENERGIZED:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE BODILY INJURY


TO GROUND PERSONNEL OR IGNITION OF FLAMMA
BLE OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, THE AIRPLANE
MUST BE TAXIED WITH THE FUNCTION SWITCH IN
THE OFF, STBY, OR TEST POSITIONS ONLY TO A
CLEAR-AHEAD AREA WHERE METAL BUILDINGS,
AIRCRAFT, GROUND PERSONNEL, ETC., ARE NOT IN
THE LINE-OF-SIGHT OF THE RADAR UNIT. OBSERVE
THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS AT
THE START OF SECTION 4 PRIOR TO PERFORMING
THE FOLLOWING CHECKS WITH THE RADAR UNIT
ENERGIZED.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Ensure safety precautions have been observed.


40 position. Observe that the numbers 40-10
Function Switch
are present in the alphanumeric area of the display.
DISENGAGED (scan position).
HOLD Selector Switch
Wx position. Observe that letters Wx are
Mode Selector
present in the alphanumeric area of the display.
TILT Control +4 to minimize ground return.
ADJUST as required.
BRT Control
Antenna Tilt Control TILT UP (+ degrees) and DOWN (- degrees)
in small increments. Close-in ground targets should appear on the
display at low tilt angles and any local moisture laden weather
should appear at higher angles.
--

--

--

--

OPERATIONAL NOTES:
ALTITUDE RING DISPLAY:
1.

Some energy is radiated peripherally from the radar antenna


which, under some atmospheric conditions, will create a false
return on the radar screen when the display is set on the 5, 10, or 20
mile ranges. The false return will usually be most prominently
displayed at approximately 2 miles from the origin when flying at
altitudes near 12,000 ft. However, under certain atmospheric
conditions, the false return can still be observed at a distance from
the origin approximately equivalent to the airplanes altitude.
Care must be taken not to confuse this normal interference return
with a weather return. This is best accomplished by using the
longer distance displays (40 or more) for early detection of signifi
cant weather.

11 September 1981

24
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

FALSE RETURN DISPLAY:


1.

Ground radar stations may occasionally cause interference with


the presentation of the return. The effect of this interference is to
create one or more radial bands of false signal or noise extending
from the bottom center outward to the outer range scale. These
effects are usually of short duration and are dependent on the
airplanes position and range from the ground station, the signal
strength, and other factors.

EXTENDING LIFE OF THE MAGNETRON TRANSMITTING TUBE:


1.

The RDR-160 weather radar system is designed so that full


operation is possible approximately two minutes after turn on.
Therefore, the pilot may choose to leave the function switch in OFF
rather than STBY if no significant weather is in the immediate area
of the aircraft. The life of the magnetron transmitting tube will be
extended by leaving the system OFF when possible. This in turn
will reduce the cost of maintenance.

EFFECT OF SOME SUNGLASSES ON THE RADAR DISPLAY SCREEN:


1.

The RDR- 160 Indicator utilizes a special filter to assure optimum


video contrast to the pilot in the presence of high cockpit ambient
light. Some sunglasses may interfere with the effectiveness of this
filter. To check for this, cock your head to one side while viewing
the display and note any dramatic change in brilliance. If the
brilliance decreases sharply, some compromise such as removing
or changing sunglasses should be effected.

NORMAL OPERATION:
WEATHER DETECTION:
1.
2.

Function Switch
80 position (allow 2 minutes warm-up).
Mode Selector Switch
SELECT as desired.
Wx
Weather.
WxA
Weather Alert.
BRT Switch
ADJUST as required for ambient light conditions.
Antenna Tilt Control
+4 to +6 (approximate minimum angle
relative to horizon without ground return).
--

--

3.
4.

--

--

NOTE
If airplane is climbing or descending, tilt angles must be
reduced or increased by approximately the pitch angle
indicated on the attitude gyro.

11 September 1981

24
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

5.
6.
7.
8.

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160)

SELECT desired range.


Function Switch
HOLD Switch ENGAGE if desired to freeze display on indica
tor to track storm movements.
MAINTAIN SPEED and HEADING to assure an accu
Aircraft
rate picture of relative motion of storm in next step.
DISENGAGE HOLD switch to compute storm
HOLD Switch
movement and return antenna to scan mode.
--

--

- -

GROUND MAPPING:
NOTE
Ground mapping is a secondary feature of this radar which
is only useful after the operator is very familiar with this
equipment. More complete discussion of this feature is
included in the RDR- 160 Pilots Manual.
1.
2.
3.
4.

SELECT DESIRED RANGE (allow 2 minutes


Function Switch
warmup).
Mode Selector Switch MAP. Set GAIN as desired for clearest
display.
ADJUST as required.
BRT Switch
ADJUST for clearest display.
Antenna Tilt Control
--

- -

--

--

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is a slight reduction in cruise speed performance with the radar
pod installed which varies from approximately 1 knot at high cruise power
at lower altitudes to 3 knots at low cruise power or at very high altitudes.
All other performance data is unchanged.

11 September 1981

91(10 blank)

25
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

SUPPLEMENT
WEATHER RADAR
(Type RDR-160 COLOR)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The RDR-160 Color Weather Radar system consists of a wing pod
mounted receiver-transmitter and X-band radar antenna, and a panel
mounted radar indicator. All operating controls are mounted on the front
panel of the radar indicator and operating controls and functions are
described in Figure 1.

\.

The RDR-160 Color Weather Radar system is designed to detect


significant enroute weather formations within a range of 160 nautical
miles to preclude undesirable penetration of heavy weather and its usually
associated turbulence. The indicator provides a three-color map display,
showing three separate levels of rainfall intensity in green, yellow, and
red. Blue segmented range circles, blue alphanumerics, a zero-degree
azimuth line, and a yellow track cursor are also provided. In addition to
its primary purpose of weather mapping, a ground mapping mode permits
displaying prominent topographical features such as lakes, bays, islands,
shore lines and urban areas.

WARNING

This system generates microwave radiation and improper


use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily injury. DO
NOT OPERATE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ AND CARE
FULLY FOLLOWED ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
INSTRUCTIONS CALLED OUT IN SECTION 4 (NORMAL
PROCEDURES) OF THIS SUPPLEMENT.
For expanded information and operational instructions, refer to the
RDR-160 Pilots Manual supplied with your aircraft. Users of this equip
ment are strongly urged to familiarize themselves with FAA Advisory
Circular AC No. 00-24A(6-23-78), subject: Thunderstorms.

ii September 1981

i of 12

25
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

10
11

12

0
3

14

2
15

17

18

1.

16

0
0

FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH Controls application of power and selects


mode of operation for transmitting, testing and warm up. Switch positions are as
follows:
-

OFF- Primary power is removed from the system.


STBY- Places system in operational ready status. Use during warm-up
and in-flight periods when the system is not in use.
TEST- Displays a test pattern having 5 colored bands. Starting with the
closest hand to the origin, the hands will be green, yellow, red,
yellow and green. The red band represents the most intense
level. All range marks will be visible and displayed in blue
numerals. The update action may be observed as a small
ripple moving along the outer green band, indicating that the
antenna is scanning the full 900. No radar energy is transmitted
in the TEST position.
ONPrimary power is applied to the system. Radar energy is trans
mitted.
2.

NO NAV DISPLAY Indicates NAV button is pressed, but NAV option is not
connected to the system.
-

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160 Color)


(Sheet 1 of 4)

11 September 1981

j)

25
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

3.

MODE SELECTOR PUSHBUTTONS Press and hold either button to display an


information list of operational data including available modes; range, rangemarks and a weather chart color/signal level reference. Pressing either button
again, while information display is still present, advances the display to the next
adjacent mode on the information list, above or below the displayed mode,
depending upon the button pressed. The information list display automatically
reverts to the selected operating mode after approximately two seconds. When
either the top or bottom mode is reached, the opposite button must be pressed in
order to further change the operational mode. The active mode is displayed in blue
while the remaining modes are yellow. The modes are as follows:
-

MAP (Ground Mapping) In the ground mapping mode, prominent terrain


features are presented in up to three colors, depending upon the
amount of reflected energy being received. The levels are:
DARK No significant ground return.
GREEN Light ground return.
YELLOW Medium ground return.
RED Heavy ground return.
-

WX (Weather) In the weather mode, storm cells are presented in up to three


colors, depending upon the level of intensity. The levels are:
1 MM/HR (.039 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate or Less Dark Screen
Green Screen
1-4 MM/HR (.039 .157 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate
Yellow Screen
4-12 MM/HR (.157 .472 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate
12 MM/HR (.472 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate or More Red Screen
-

WXA (Weather Alert) Operation is same as the Weather (WX) mode, except
12 MM/HR (.472 IN/HR) cells cause a flashing, rather than constant,
red screen.
-

4.

NAV PUSHBUTTON Non-operational on this installation. Pressing the NAV


button displays the words NO NAy in the lower left corner of the screen below
the active mode display.

5.

BRIGHTNESS CONTROL
varying cockpit lighting.

0.

TRACK CURSOR BEARING DIFFERENTIAL DISPLAY Displays track cursor


differential bearing readout, in yellow numerals, in degrees from centerline of
aircraft when track buttons are pressed. (Disappears approximately 15 seconds
after track button is released.)

7.

HOLD DISPLAY

8.

MODE DISPLAY Displays selected mode of operation for ground mapping


(MAP), weather (WX) or weather alert (WXA).

9.

RANGE DISPLAY

10.

Adjusts brightness of the display to accommodate

Flashing display indicates system is in HOLD condition.

Displays selected range in nautical miles.

TEST DISPLAY Displays the word TEST and a test pattern when the TEST
position is selected on the Function Selector Switch.
-

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160 Color)


(Sheet 2 of 4)

11 September 1981

25
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)
11.

GAIN CONTROL
mode only.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Permits adjusting the radar receiver gain in the terrain MAP


NOTE

In the TEST function as well as in all weather modes the receiver


gain is preset, thus no adjustment is required.
12.

A yellow azimuth track line which may be superimposed over the weather or
terrain mapping display to permit determination of heading to new course
intercepts when unexpected deviations arise. The movable line or radial may be
shifted up to SO either side of the aircraft centerline. The amount of deviation is
displayed in degrees by a yellow readout in the upper left corner of the screen.
After approximately 15 seconds (after the selected TRACK pushbutton is
released), the azimuth track line disappears from the display, but may be initiated
again, as required, by pressing one of the TRACK pushbuttons.
NOTE
The track cursor will appear at zero degrees azimuth the next time a
TRACK pushbutton is pressed.

i3.

RANGE MARKS Displays individual range readout in blue at the end of each
blue range arc. Displays are in nautical miles and will change to correspond to the
selected range setting.

14.

RANGE SELECTOR PUSHBUTTONS Top button


clears the screen and
advances the display to the next higher range, each time the button is pressed,
until the maximum range is reached. Subsequently, the bottom
RANGE
button must be pressed in order to select a lower range. The selected range is
displayed in blue in the upper right corner of the screen adjacent to the top range
mark. The distance from the apex of the display to each of the other range marks is
also displayed in the blue at the right end of each range mark. The range! range
marks are as follows:

160 Nautical mile range with 40 mile range marks


80 Nautical mile range with 20 mile range marks
40 Nautical mile range with 10 mile range marks
20 Nautical mile range with 5 mile range marks
10 Nautical mile range with 2.5 mile range marks
15.

ANTENNA TILT CONTROL Electronically adjusts the radar beam to 15 degrees


up or down, with respect to the airplane axis to compensate for differences in
airplane attitude.
-

0
Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160 Color)
(Sheet 3 of 4)

11 September 1981

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160XD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Nonoperational on this installation.

18.

FLIGHT LOG PUSHBUTTON

19.

TRACK SELECTOR PUSHBUTTONS When either the left or right TRACK


button is pressed, a yellow track cursor line extending from the apex of the
display through the top range mark appears and moves either right or left from
center, depending upon the button pressed. The cursor line moves from the
airplane centerline while the button is held depressed and stops when the button is
released. The differential bearing is indicated in yellow numerals in the upper left
corner of the screen. The track cursor line and relative bearing display disappear
approximately 20 seconds after the button is released, but may be initiated again,
as required, by pressing either the left or right TRACK pushbuttons.

20.

NAV PUSHBUTTON Non-operational on this installation. Pressing the NAV


button displays the words NO NAy in the lower left corner of the screen below
the active mode display.

21.

LOCKING PAWL

Secures display unit into instrument panel.

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160XD)


(Sheet 4 of 4)

11 September 1981

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PRIOR TO FLIGHT:

WARNING

The radar system generates microwave radiation and


improper use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily
injury. DO NOT OPERATE THIS EQUIPMENT UNTIL
YOU HAVE READ AND CAREFULLY FOLLOWED THE
FOLLOWING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUC
TIONS:

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONSTO BE FOLLOWED


PRIOR TO RADAR OPERATION:
1.
2.

Do not turn on, or operate radar within 15 feet of ground personnel


or containers holding flammable or explosive material.
Do not turn on, or operate radar during refueling operations.

0
11 September 1981

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

PREFLIGHT CHECKS PRIOR TO ENERGIZING RADAR:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE SERIOUS BODILY


INJURY TO GROUND PERSONNEL OR IGNITION OF
FLAMMABLE OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, THE FOL
LOWING TESTS MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE
FUNCTION SWITCH ALWAYS IN THE TESTMODE OF
OPERATION.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

STBY position and after 30 seconds


Function Selector Switch
select TEST position.
DISENGAGE pushbutton.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
Set to 00.
Antenna Tilt Control
ADJUST to mid-range.
BRT Control
Indicator Test Display CHECK TEST PATTERN with the follow
ing:
a. Within 15 seconds four equally spaced blue range marks
should be visible, the word TEST and the number 40 should
appear and be visible in blue displays in the upper right corner
of the display. The weather mode indication WX should
appear in blue in the lower left corner of the display.
b. No video noise distortion should appear on the display.
c. There are five colored bands appearing on the indicator.
d. Starting with the closest band to the origin, the bands will be
green, yellow, red, yellow and green.
--

- -

--

--

- -

NOTE
The width of the test pattern bands is not critical, nor is the
position of the bands relative to the range marks.
e.

6.

7.

8.
9.

The update action may be observed as a small ripple moving


along the outer green band, indicating that the antenna is
scanning.

SELECT WXA position and


MODE Selector Pushbuttons
observe that the red band alternates from red to black approxi
mately once per second.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton PUSH-IN to engage pushbutton and
observe that the update ripple disappears and the test pattern
should remain stable. The word HOLD should flash in blue in the
upper left corner.
PUSH-OFF to disengage and then
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
verify that update resumes.
STBY position.
Function Selector Switch

11 September 1981

--

- -

--

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

PREFLIGHT CHECKS WITH RADAR ENERGIZED:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE BODILY INJURY


TO GROUND PERSONNEL OR IGNITION OF FLAMMA
BLE OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, THE AIRPLANE
MUST BE TAXIED WITH THE FUNCTION SWITCH IN
THE OFF, STBY, OR TEST POSITIONS ONLY TO A
CLEAR-AHEAD AREA WHERE METAL BUILDINGS,
AIRCRAFT, GROUND PERSONNEL, ETC., ARE NOT IN
THE LINE-OF-SIGHT OF THE RADAR UNIT. OBSERVE
THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS AT
THE START OF SECTION 4 PRIOR TO PREFORMING
THE FOLLOWING CHECKS WITH THE RADAR UNIT
ENERGIZED.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Ensure safety precautions have been observed.


HOLD Selector Pushbutton PUSH-OFF to disengage (scan posi
tion).
Function Selector Switch
ON position. The indicator will
automatically be in the weather (WX) mode.
RANGE Selector Pushbuttons
40-10 range.
Antenna TILT Control - +40 to minimize ground return.
BRT Control
ADJUST as required.
Antenna TILT Control TILT UP (4- degrees) and DOWN degrees)
(in small increments. Close-in ground targets should appear on the
display at low tilt angles and any local moisture laden weather
should appear at higher angles.
Function Selector Switch
STBY position for taxi manuevers.
--

--

--

--

- -

- -

OPERATIONAL NOTES:
ALTITUDE RING DISPLAY:
1.

Some energy is radiated peripherally from the radar antenna


which, under some atmospheric conditions, will create a false
return on the radar screen when the display is set on the 10 or 20
mile ranges. The false return will usually be most prominently
displayed at approximately 2 miles from the origin when flying at
altitudes near 12,000 ft. However, under certain atmospheric
conditions, the false return can still be observed at a distance from
the origin approximately equivalent to the airplanes altitude.
Care must be taken not to confuse this normal interference return
with a weather return. This is best accomplished by using the
longer distance displays (40 or more) for early detection of signifi
cant weather.

11 September 1981

25

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

FALSE RETURN DISPLAY:


1.

Ground radar stations may occasionally cause interference with


the presentation of the return. The effect of this interference is to
create one or more radial bands of false signal or noise extending
from the bottom center outward to the outer range scale. These
effects are usually of short duration and are dependent on the
airplanes position and range from the ground station, the signal
strength, and other factors.

EXTENDING LIFE OF THE MAGNETRON TRANSMITTING TUBE:


1.

The RDR-160 Color weather radar system is designed so that full


operation is possible approximately two minutes after turn on.
Therefore, the pilot may choose to leave the function switch in OFF
rather than STBY if no significant weather is in the immediate area
of the aircraft. The life of the magnetron transmitting tube will be
extended by leaving the system OFF when possible. This in turn
will reduce the cost of maintenance.

EFFECT OF SOME SUNGLASSES ON THE RADAR DISPLAY SCREEN:


1.

The RDR-160 Color Indicator utilizes a special filter to assure


optimum video contrast to the pilot in the presence of high cockpit
ambient light. Some sunglasses may interfere with the effective
ness of this filter. To check for this, cock your head to one side
while viewing the display and note any dramatic change in
brilliance. If the brilliance decreases sharply, some compromise
such as removing or changing sunglasses should be effected.

HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION:


1.

The RDR-160 Color weather radar system has been approved to a


maximum cabin altitude of 25,000 feet. If flying at altitudes above
25,000 feet, it is recommended that the radar be turned off to protect
electrical circuitry in the indicator unit.

11 September 1981

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

NORMAL OPERATION:
WEATHER DETECTION:
1.
2.

Function Selector Switch


ON position (allow 2 minutes warm
up).
Mode Selector Pushbuttons
SELECT as desired.
Wx Weather.
WxA Weather Alert.
BRT Control
ADJUST as required for ambient light conditions.
Antenna Tilt Control
+4 to +6 (approximate minimum angle
relative to horizon without ground return).
--

--

3.
4.

- -

NOTE
If airplane is climbing or descending, tilt angles must be
reduced or increased by approximately the pitch angle
indicated on the attitude gyro.
5.
6.

RANGE Selector Pushbuttons


SELECT desired range.
HOLD Selector Pushbuttons
ENGAGE if desired to freeze
display on indicator to track storm movements.
-

--

WARNING

The existing display is the last image stored in the indica


tor memory and does not represent the true or changing
conditions relative to the moving aircraft.
7.
8.

Aircraft
MAINTAIN SPEED and HEADING to assure an accu
rate picture of relative motion of storm in next step.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
PUSH to disengage HOLD and
evaluate storm movement with updated information.
--

- -

C
C
11 September 1981

25

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

GROUND MAPPING:
NOTE
Ground mapping is a secondary feature of this radar which
is only useful after the operator is very familiar with this
equipment. More complete discussion of this feature is
included in the RDR-160 Pilots Manual.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ON position (allow 2 minutes warm


Function Selector Switch
up).
SELECT desired range.
RANGE Selector Pushbuttons
MAP. Set GAIN as desired for
Mode Selector Pushbuttons
clearest ground mapping interpretation.
ADJUST as required.
BRT Control
ADJUST for clearest display.
Antenna Tilt Control
--

- -

- -

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is a slight reduction in cruise speed performance with the radar
pod installed which varies from approximately 1 knot at high cruise power
at lower altitudes to 3 knots at low cruise power or at very high altitudes.
All other performance data is unchanged.

11 September 1981

11/(12 blank)

26

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-160XD)

SUPPLEMENT
COLOR WEATHER RADAR
(Type RDR-16OXD)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The RDR-16OXD Color Weather Radar system consists of a wing pod
mounted receiver-transmitter and X-band radar antenna, and a panel
mounted radar indicator. All operating controls are mounted on the front
panel of the radar indicator and operating controls and functions are
described in Figure 1.

The RDR-16OXD Color Weather Radar system is designed to detect


significant enroute weather formations within a range of 240 nautical
miles to preclude undesirable penetration of heavy weather and its usually
associated turbulence. The indicator provides a three-color map display,
showing three separate levels of rainfall intensity in green, yellow, and
red. Blue segmented range circles, blue alphanumerics, a zero-degree
azimuth line, and a yellow track cursor are also provided. In addition to
its primary purpose of weather mapping, a ground mapping mode permits
displaying prominent topographical features such as lakes, bays, islands,
shore lines and urban areas.

WARNING

This system generates microwave radiation and improper


use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily injury. DO
NOT OPERATE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ AND CARE
FULLY FOLLOWED ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
INSTRUCTIONS CALLED OUT IN SECTION 4 (NORMAL
PROCEDURES) OF THIS SUPPLEMENT.

(\

For expanded information and operational instructions, refer to the


RDR-16OXD Pilots Manual supplied with your aircraft. Users of this
equipment are strongly urged to familiarize themselves with FAA Advi
sory Circular AC No. 00-24A(6-23-78), subject: Thunderstorms.

11 September 1981

1 of 12

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160XD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

10

11

C
6

12

13
14

sC)

16
3
2
1

11

21
1.

20

19

C
C

18

FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH Controls application of power


and selects
mode of operation for transmitting, testing and warm up. Switch
positions are as
follows:
-

OFF- Primary power is removed from the system.


STBY- Places system in operational ready status. Use during warm-up
and in-flight periods when the system is not in use.
TEST- Displays a test pattern having 5 colored bands. Starting with the
closest band to the origin, the bands will be green, yellow, red,
yellow and green. The red band represents the most intense
level. All range marks will be visible and displayed in blue
numerals. The update action may be observed as a small
ripple moving along the outer green band, indicating that the
antenna is scanning the full 90. No radar energy is transmitted
in the TEST position.
ONPrimary power is applied to the system. Radar energy is
transmitted. The indicator will automatically be in the Wx
mode.
2.

NO NAV DISPLAY Indicates NAV button is pressed, but NAV


option is not
connected to the system.
-

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-16OXD)


(Sheet 1 of 4)

11 September 1981

C
0

26

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
3.

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

map
MAP MODE SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON Places indicator in the ground
colors,
three
to
up
in
presented
are
features
terrain
prominent
ping mode,
are:
depending upon the amount of reflected energy being received. The levels
return.
DARK No significant ground
GREEN Light ground return.
YELLOW Medium ground return.
RED Heavy ground return.
-

4.

WEATHER ALERT SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON Places indicator in the weather


alert mode. Operation is same as the Weather (WX) mode, except 12MM/HR (.472
be
IN/ HR) cells cause a flashing, rather than constant, red screen. The button may
pushed a second time to release and return to Wx mode.

5.

WEATHER MODE SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON Places indicator in the weather


of
mode, storm cells are presented in up to three colors, depending upon the level
intensity. The levels are:
1 MM/HR (.039 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate or Less Dark Screen
Green Screen
1-4 MM/HR (.039 .157 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate
Yellow Screen
4-12 MM/HR (.157 .472 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate
12 MM/HR (.472 IN/HR) Rainfall Rate or More Red Screen

6.

7.

BRIGHTNESS CONTROL
varying cockpit lighting.

Adjusts brightness of the display to accommodate

cursor
TRACK CURSOR BEARING DIFFERENTIAL DISPLAY Displays track
of
centerline
from
degrees
in
numerals,
yellow
in
readout,
bearing
differential
seconds
aircraft when track buttons are pressed. (Disappears approximately 20
after track button is released.)
-

Flashing display indicates system is in HOLD condition.

8.

HOLD DISPLAY

9.

mapping
MODE DISPLAY Displays selected mode of operation for ground
(MAP), weather (WX) or weather alert (WXA).

Displays selected range in nautical miles.

10.

RANGE DISPLAY

11.

the TEST
TEST DISPLAY Displays the word TEST and a test pattern when
position is selected on the Function Selector Switch.

12.

GAIN CONTROL
mode only.

Permits adjusting the radar receiver gain in the terrain MAP


NOTE

In the TEST function as well as in all weather modes the receiver


gain is preset, thus no adjustment is required.

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-16OXD)


(Sheet 2 of 4)
11 September 1981

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160XD)

13.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

A yellow azimuth track line which may be


superimposed over the weather or
terrain mapping display to permit determ
ination of heading to new course
intercepts when unexpected deviations arise.
The movable line or radial may be
shifted to either side of the aircraft centerl
ine. The amount of deviation is
displayed in degrees by a yellow readout in
the upper left corner of the screen.
After approximately 20 seconds (after the
selected TRACK pushbutton is
released), the azimuth track line disappears
from the display, but may be initiated
again, as required, by pressing one of the
TRACK pushbuttons.
NOTE
The track cursor will appear at zero degrees azimut
h the next time a
TRACK pushbutton is pressed.

14.

HOLD SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON The


HOLD switch is a push-to-engage
pushbutton. Pushing the HOLD button in
(engage) puts the image in the HOLD
mode; pushing the button in again releases
the HOLD mode. In the HOLD mode
weather or ground image last presented
is retained (frozen) on the indicator
display in order to evaluate the significance
of storm cell movement. In this mode
the word HOLD flashes on and off in
the upper left corner of the screen as a
reminder that no new data is being presented.
However, the antenna continues to
scan in order that an accurate and instant update
can occur the moment HOLD is
deactivated.
-

NOTE
A change in range selection during HOLD results
in a blank screen.
15.

RANGE MARKS Displays individual range


readout in blue at the end of each
blue range arc. Displays are in nautical miles
and will change to correspond to the
selected range setting.
-

16.

RANGE SELECTOR PUSHBUTTONS


Top button
clears the screen and
advances the display to the next higher
range, each time the button is pressed,
until the maximum range is reached.
Subsequently, the bottom
RANGE
button must be pressed in order to select
a lower range. The selected range is
displayed in blue in the upper right corner
of the screen adjacent to the top range
mark. The distance from the apex of the display
to each of the other range marks is
also displayed in the blue at the right end
of each range mark. The range/range
marks are as follows:
-

240 Nautical mile range with 60 mile range marks


160 Nautical mile range with 40 mile range marks
80 Nautical mile range with 20 mile range marks
40 Nautical mile range with 10 mile range marks
20 Nautical mile range with 5 mile range marks
10 Nautical mile range with 2.5 mile range
marks
17.

ANTENNA TILT CONTROL Electronically


adjusts the radar beam to 15 degrees
up or down, with respect to the airplane
axis to compensate for differences in
airplane attitude.
-

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160XD)


(Sheet 3 of 4)

11 September 1981

(J

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-160 COLOR)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

16.

TRACK SELECTOR PUSHBUTTONS When either the left or right TRACK


button is pressed, a yellow track cursor line extending from the apex of the
display through the top range mark appears and moves either right or left from
center, depending upon the button pressed. The cursor line moves in one degree
steps at a speed of 15 degrees per second up to a maximum of 30 degrees
differential from the airplane centerline while the button is held depressed and
stops when the button is released. The differential bearing is indicated in yellow
numerals in the upper left corner of the screen. The track cursor line and relative
bearing display disappear approximately 15 seconds after the button is released,
but maybe initiated again, as required, by pressing either the left or right TRACK
pushbuttons.

17.

HOLD SELECTOR PUSHBUTTON The HOLD switch is a push-to-engage


pushbutton. Pushing the HOLD button in (engage) puts the image in the HOLD
mode; pushing the button in again releases the HOLD mode. In the HOLD mode
weather or ground image last presented is retained (frozen) on the indicator
display in order to evaluate the significance of storm cell movement. In this mode
the word HOLD flashes on and off in the upper left corner of the screen as a
reminder that no new data is being presented. However, the antenna continues to
scan in order that an accurate and instant update can occur the moment HOLD is
deactivated.

NOTE
A change in range selection during HOLD results in a blank screen.
18.

LOCKING PAWL

Secures display unit into instrument panel.

Figure 1. Weather Radar (X-Band Type RDR-160 Color)


(Sheet 4 of 4)

11 September 1981

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when
this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Q
0

There is no change to the airplane emergency proced


ures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

PRIOR TO FLIGHT:

WARNING

The radar system generates microwave radiation


and
improper use, or exposure, may cause serious
bodily
injury. DO NOT OPERATE THIS EQUIP
MENT UNTIL
YOU HAVE READ AND CAREFULLY FOLLOWED
THE
FOLLOWING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTR
UC
TIONS:

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS TO BE FOLL


OWED
PRIOR TO RADAR OPERATION ON THE GROUND:
1.

2.
3.

Direct nose of aircraft such that antenna scan sector


is away from
large metallic objects (hangars, other aircraft), and tilt
antenna
fully upward.
Do not turn on or operate radar within 15 feet of ground
personnel
or containers holding flammable or explosive materi
al.
Do not turn on or operate radar during refueling operati
ons.

11 September 1981

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

PREFLIGHT CHECKS PRIOR TO ENERGIZING RADAR:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE SERIOUS BODILY


INJURY TO GROUND PERSONNEL, IGNITION OF
FLAMMABLE OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS OR DAM
AGE TO THE RADAR UNIT, THE FOLLOWING TESTS
MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE FUNCTION
SELECTOR SWITCH ALWAYS IN THE TEST MODE
OF OPERATION.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

STBY position and after 30 seconds


Function Selector Switch
position.
select TEST
DISENGAGE pushbutton.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
00.
to
Set
Control
Tilt
Antenna
ADJUST to mid-range.
BRT Control
Indicator Test Display CHECK TEST PATTERN with the follow
ing:
a. Within 15 seconds four equally spaced blue range marks
should be visible, the word TEST and the number 40 should
appear and be visible in blue displays in the upper right corner
of the display. The weather mode indication WX should
appear in blue in the lower left corner of the display.
b. No video noise distortion should appear on the display.
c. There are five colored bands appearing on the indicator.
be
d. Starting with the closest band to the origin, the bands will
green, yellow, red, yellow and green.
--

--

--

- -

NOTE
The width of the test pattern bands is not critical, nor is the
position of the bands relative to the range marks.
e.

6.

7.

The update action may be observed as a small ripple moving


along the outer green band, indicating that the antenna is
scanning.

t
WXA MODE Selector Pushbutton PUSH-IN to engage pushbu
ton and observe that the red band alternates from red to black
approximately once per second.
PUSH-IN to engage pushbutton and
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
disappears and the test pattern
ripple
the
update
that
observe
should remain stable. The word HOLD should flash in blue in the
upper left corner.

11 September 1981

- -

--

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-16OXD)
8.
9.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

HOLD Selector Pushbutton - - PUSH-OFF to diseng


age and then
verify that update resumes.
Function Selector Switch -- STBY position.

PREFLIGHT CHECKS WITH RADAR ENERGIZED:

WARNING

IN ORDER TO PREVENT POSSIBLE BODILY INJUR


Y
TO GROUND PERSONNEL, IGNITION OF FLAMMABL
E
OR EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS OR DAMAGE TO
THE
RADAR UNIT, THE AIRPLANE MUST BE TAXIED
WITH
THE FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH IN THE
OFF,
STBY, OR TEST POSITIONS ONLY TO A CLEA
R
AHEAD AREA WHERE METAL BUILDINGS,
AIR
CRAFT, GROUND PERSONNEL, ETC., ARE NOT IN
THE
LINE-OF-SIGHT OF THE RADAR UNIT. OBSERVE THE
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS AT
THE
START OF SECTION 4 PRIOR TO PREFORMING
THE
FOLLOWING CHECKS WITH THE RADAR UNIT ENER
GIZED.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Ensure safety precautions have been observed.


HOLD Selector Pushbutton - PUSH-OFF to disengage
(scan posi
tion).
Function Selector Switch -- ON position. The indicat
or will
automatically be in the weather (WX) mode.
RANGE Selector Pushbuttons -- 40-10 range.
Antenna TILT Control -- 4 to minimize ground return.
BRT Control -- ADJUST as required.
Antenna TILT Control - - TILT UP degrees) and DOWN
(+
(- degrees)
in small increments. Close-in ground targets should appear
on the
display at low tilt angles and any local moistu
re laden weather
should appear at higher angles.
Function Selector Switch - - STBY position for taxi
manuevers.
-

cZ

0
11 September 1981

26
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

OPERATIONAL NOTES:
ALTITUDE RING DISPLAY:
1.

Some energy is radiated peripherally from the radar antenna


which, under some atmospheric conditions, will create a false
return on the radar screen when the display is set on the 10 or 20
mile ranges. The false return will usually be most prominently
displayed at approximately 2 miles from the origin when flying at
altitudes near 12,000 ft. However, under certain atmospheric
conditions, the false return can still be observed at a distance from
the origin approximately equivalent to the airplanes altitude.
Care must be taken not to confuse this normal interference return
with a weather return. This is best accomplished by using the
longer distance displays (40 or more) for early detection of signifi
cant weather.

FALSE RETURN DISPLAY:


1.

Ground radar stations may occasionally cause interference with


the presentation of the return. The effect of this interference is to
create one or more radial bands of false signal or noise extending
from the bottom center outward to the outer range scale. These
effects are usually of short duration and are dependent on the
airplanes position and range from the ground station, the signal
strength, and other factors.

EXTENDING LIFE OF THE MAGNETRON TRANSMIUING TUBE:


1.

The RDR- 160 Color weather radar system is designed so that full
operation is possible approximately two minutes after turn on.
Therefore, the pilot may choose to leave the function switch in OFF
rather than STBY if no significant weather is in the immediate area
of the aircraft. The life of the magnetron transmitting tube will be
extended by leaving the system OFF when possible. This in turn
will reduce the cost of maintenance.

EFFECT OF SOME SUNGLASSES ON THE RADAR DISPLAY SCREEN:


1.

The RDR-160 Color Indicator utilizes a special filter to assure


optimum video contrast to the pilot in the presence of high cockpit
ambient light. Some sunglasses may interfere with the effective
ness of this filter. To check for this, cock your head to one side
while viewing the display and note any dramatic change in
brilliance. If the brilliance decreases sharply, some compromise
such as removing or changing sunglasses should be effected.

11 September 1981

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION:


1.

The RDR- 160 Color weather radar system has been approv
ed to a
maximum cabin altitude of 25,000 feet. If flying at altitud
es above
25,000 feet, it is recommended that the radar be turned off
to protect
electrical circuitry in the indicator unit.

NORMAL OPERATION:
WEATHER DETECTION:
1.
2.

Function Selector Switch


ON position (allow 2 minutes warm
up).
Mode Selector Pushbuttons
SELECT as desired.
Wx Weather.
WxA Weather Alert.
BRT Corrtrol
ADJUST as required for ambient light conditions.
+40 to
Antenna Tilt Control
+6 (approximate minimum angle
relative to horizon without ground return).
--

--

3.
4.

- -

--

NOTE
If airplane is climbing or descending, tilt angles must be
reduced or increased by approximately the pitch angle
indicated on the attitude gyro.
5.
6.

RANGE Selector Pushbuttons


SELECT desired range.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
ENGAGE if desired to freeze
display on indicator to track storm movements.
- -

- -

WARNING

The existing display is the last image stored in the indica


tor memory and does not represent the true or changing
conditions relative to the moving aircraft.
7.
8.

Aircraft
MAINTAIN SPEED and HEADING to assure an accu
rate picture of relative motion of storm in next step.
HOLD Selector Pushbutton
PUSH to disengage HOLD and
evaluate storm movement with updated information.
--

--

11 September 1981

26
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE RDR-16OXD)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

GROUND MAPPING:
NOTE
Ground mapping is a secondary feature of this radar which
is only useful after the operator is very familiar with this
equipment. More complete discussion of this feature is
included in the RDR-l6OXDPilots Manual.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ON position (allow 2 minutes warm


Function Selector Switch
up).
SELECT desired range.
RANGE Selector Pushbuttons
MAP Mode Selector Pushbutton --ENGAGE. Set GAIN as desired
for clearest ground mapping interpretation.
ADJUST as required.
BRT Control
ADJUST for clearest display.
Antenna Tilt Control
- -

- -

--

- -

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is a slight reduction in cruise speed performance with the radar
pod installed which varies from approximately 1 knot at high cruise power
at lower altitudes to 3 knots at low cruise power or at very high altitudes.
All other performance data is unchanged.

11 September 1981

1 11(12 blank)

00
OQO

27
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

SUPPLEMENT
WEATHER RADAR
(Type Weather Scout II)
SECTION I
GENERAL
The Weather Scout II, weather radar system consists of two units: A
wing mounted Receiver-Transmitter-Antenna Assembly and a panel
mounted Digital Indicator. All operating controls are mounted on the front
panel of the indicator and all operating controls and functions are
described in Figure 1.
The Weather Scout II is an alphanumeric digital weather radar system
with a maximum 120 nautical mile range which is designed to detect
significant enroute weather formations along the flight path and will
provide the pilot with a 4-level visual display of their intensity. Areas of
heaviest rainfall (level 3) will be brightest; areas of less severe and
moderate rainfall (levels 2 and 1) will be progressively less bright; and no
rainfall (level 0) will be black. The radar system performs only the function
of weather detection and should not be used, nor relied upon, for proximity
warning or anticollision protection.

(
4-

Range, mode alphanumerics and a test-bar pattern are always dis


played on the 5-inch rectangular cathode-ray tube to facilitate evaluation
of the weather display. The weather (WX) mode is normally selected for
weather detection. The cyclic (CYC) mode can be used to highlight intense
areas of rainfall after the weather target has been located. When CYC mode
is selected, the brightest areas will flash on and off to alert the pilot of the
most intense areas of rainfall. Internally generated range marks appear as
three evenly spaced concentric circular arcs on the display to assist in
determining distance from weather targets. Reference marks on each side
of zero-heading assist in determining bearing of weather targets.
---

(
S-

Experience will soon enable the pilot to detect and evaluate the various
types of storm displays. To avoid turbulent weather, the pilot should
evaluate the storm display and then determine the approximate heading
change required to bypass the storm, or to navigate between storm cells.
After the aircraft has been established on its new heading, the pilot should
monitor the radar display to see if further correction is needed.

11 September 1981

1 of 8

27
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

WARNING

This system generates microwave radiation and improper


use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily injury. DO
NOT OPERATE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ AND CARE
FULLY FOLLOWED ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
INSTRUCTIONS CALLED OUT IN SECTION 4 (NORMAL
PROCEDURES) OF THIS SUPPLEMENT.
For expanded information and operational instructions, refer to the
Weather Scout Digital Weather Radar System Pilots Handbook supplied
with your aircraft. Users of this equipment are strongly urged to familiar
ize themselves with FAA Advisory Circular AC No. OO-24A (6-23-78),
subject: Thunderstorms.

0
0

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

C)
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
2

11 September 1981

27
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.

Controls applica
ON/OFF AND INTENSITY CONTROL SWITCH (OFF/INT)
tion of power and regulates brightness. Switch positions are as follows:
-

OFF

INT
2.

Fully counterclockwise rotation of INT control (detented position)


places the system in the OFF condition.
Rotary control used to regulate brightness (INTensity) of display.

ANTENNA TILT CONTROL (TILT) Rotary control used to electronically


adjust the radar beam to 12 degrees up, or down, with respect to the airplanc axis
to compensate for differences in airplane attitude. Control is indexed with
increments of tilt from 0 to 12 degrees up, and down.
-

Figure 1. Weather Scout II Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

27
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

3.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

RANGE SELECTOR SWITCH


Rotary switch used to select one of four display
ranges: 12, 30, 60 or 120 nautical mile ranges. Swiich positions and range mark
spacings are as follows:
-

12 N.M. Range (Bottom Dot Position)


Selects 12 nautical mile maximum
range with range marks displayed in 4 nautical mile increments (Range
Mark Identifiers will be displayed as 4, 8 and 12 nautical miles and Range
will display, 12).
-

30 N.M. Range (Next To Bottom Dot Position)


Selects 30 nautical mile
maximum range with range marks displayed in 10 nautical mile incre
ments (Range Mark Identifers will be displayed as 10, 20 and 30 nautical
miles and Range will display, 30).
-

SO N.M. Range (Top Dot Position)


Selects 60 nautical mile maximum range
with range marks displayed in 20 nautical mile increments (Range Mark
Identifiers will be displayed as 20,40 and SO nautical miles and Range will
display. 60).
-

120 N.M. Range (120 Position)


Selects 120 nautical mile maximum range
with range marks displayed in 40 nautical mile increments (Range Mark
Identifiers will be displayed as 40. 80 and 120 nautical miles and Range
will display, 120).
-

4.

CYCLICAL CONTOUR SELECTOR SWITCH (CYCI


Pushbutton switch used to
select cyclical contour mode. Data is presented alternately as normal for 0.5
seconds, then contoured for 0.5 seconds. Pressing the CYC pushbutton switch a
second time, restores normal or WX mode.

5.

RANGE FIELD
Selected range display. Selected range (in nautical miles) is
always displayed when the indicator is in the on-condition.

6.

BEARING MARKS
Bearing marks are provided on the outside of the indicator
in 15 increments up to 45 on either side of 0 (forward mark) to assist in
determining relative bearing of return.

7.

TEST FIELD
Test block displays in three light illumination levels to depict
rainfall intensities. Brightest illumination (level 3) displays heaviest rainfall;
illumination levels 2 and 1 will depict areas of less severe and moderate rainfall,
respectively. Near maximum intensity position, all three areas of the test bar will
be level 3 brightness.

8.

RANGE MARK IDRNTIFER


Displays individual range readout at end of each
range arc. Displays are in nautical miles and will change to correspond to the
selected range setting.

9.

MODE FIELD DISPLAY


CYC.

When set is on, operating mode is displayed as WX or


NOTE

When system is first turned on, WAIT is displayed until system


warms-up (30-40 seconds).

Figure 1.

Weather Scout II Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

27
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PRIOR TO FLIGHT:

WARNING

The radar system generates microwave radiation and


improper use, or exposure, may cause serious bodily
injury. DO NOT OPERATE THIS EQUIPMENT UNTIL
YOU HAVE READ AND CAREFULLY FOLLOWED THE
FOLLOWING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUC
TIONS:

(
..--

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS TO BE FOLLOWED


PRIOR TO RADAR OPERATION:
1.
2.

Do not turn on or operate radar within 15 feet of ground personnel


or containers holding flammable or explosive material.
Do not turn on or operate radar during refueling operations.

OPERATIONAL NOTES:
ALTITUDE RING DISPLAY:
1.

Some energy is radiated peripherally from the radar antenna


which, under some atmospheric conditions, will create a false
return on the radar screen when the display is set on the 12 or 30
mile ranges. The false return will usually be most prominently
displayed at approximately 2 miles from the origin when flying at
altitudes near 12,000 ft. However, under certain atmospheric
conditions, the false return can still be observed at a distance from
e.
the origin approximately equivalent to the airplanes altitud
Care must be taken not to confuse this normal interference return
with a weather return. This is best accomplished by using the
longer distance displays (60 or more) for early detection of signifi
cant weather.

FALSE RETURN DISPLAY:


1.

Ground radar stations and airborne radar equipment may occa


sionally cause interference with the presentation of the return. The
effect of this interference is to create one or more radial bands of
false signal or noise extending from the bottom center outward to
n
the outer range scale. These effects are usually of short duratio

11 September 1981

27
WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)
(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

and are dependent on the airplanes position and range from the
radar station, the signal strength, and other factors.
EXTENDING LIFE OF THE MAGNETRON TRANSMITTING TUBE:
1.

The Weather Scout II weather radar system is designed so that full


operation is possible approximately 30 to 40 seconds after turn on.
Therefore, the pilot should leave the intensity (INT) switch in the
OFF position if no significant weather is in the immediate area of
the aircraft. The life of the magnetron transmitting tube will be
extended by leaving the system OFF when possible. This in turn
will reduce the cost of maintenance.

HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION:


1.

It may be noted at altitudes above approximately 23,000 feet that


clarity of the radars visual display starts to deteriorate. Range
arcs may become wavy and contrast between the three test block
displays decreases. Although some deterioration in the radar
display may be noted at these high altitudes, the unit has been
approved and can be used to a cabin altitude of 30,000 feet.

NORMAL OPERATION:
WEATHER DETECTION:
1.

INT Control

--

ROTATE CLOCKWISE to turn system on.


NOTE

Observe that WAIT is displayed during the warm-up


period of 30-40 seconds. WX will display after the warm-up
period and the system will be operational.
2.

INT Control ROTATE control clockwise until brightness of the


Test Block Display is at the desired level for ambient light condi
tions.
- -

NOTE
To enhance viewing under high ambient light conditions,
the 3-areas of the test bar display become maximum
brightness when the INT control is positioned at a point
between 3 oclock and maximum CW rotation. At this
position, all weather returns are displayed at maximum
intensity.

11 September 1981

27
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

3.

WEATHER RADAR (X-BAND)


(TYPE WEATHER SCOUT II)

SET to desired operating range of either 12, 30,


RANGE Control
60 or 120 nautical miles.
--

NOTE
Observe that the maximum selected range for the operat
ing range selected is displayed in the upper, right-hand
portion of the display screen. Also observe that the three
range arcs display with the appropriate range is displayed
for each range arc.
4.

4 to 6 (approximate minimum angle


Antenna TILT Control
relative to horizon without ground return).
--

NOTE
If airplane is climbing or descending, tilt angles must be
reduced or increased by approximately the pitch angle
indicated on the attitude gyro.
5.

PRESS once to select CYC (the most


CYC Pushbutton Switch
intense areas of rainfall will flash on and off at 0.5-second inter
vals). Press the switch a second time to restore normal or WX mode
of operation.
-

NOTE
Use of CYC mode is highly recommended when INT
control is set near the maximum CW position. All returns
will be displayed at maximum intensity but only the
intense rainfall areas will be flashed.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is a slight reduction in cruise speed performance with the radar
pod installed which varies from approximately 1 knot at high cruise power
at lower altitudes to 3 knots at low cruise power or at very high altitudes.
All other performance data is unchanged.

11 September 1981

71(8 blank)

0
000

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

28

CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-295B)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA NAVOMATIC
200A AUTOPILOT
(Type AF-295B)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 200A Navomatic is an all electric, single-axis (aileron
control) autopilot system that provides added lateral and directional
stability. Components are a computer-amplifier, a turn coordinator, an
aileron actuator, and a course deviation indicator(s) incorporating a
localizer reversed (BC) indicator light

Roll and yaw motions of the airplane are sensed by the turn coordina
tor gyro. The computer-amplifier electronically computes the necessary
correction and signals the actuator to move the ailerons to maintain the
airplane in the commanded lateral attitude.
The actuator includes a thermostatic switch which monitors the
operating temperature of the motor. If the temperature becomes abnormal,
the thermostatic switch opens and disengages the autopilot to remove
power from the actuator. After approximately 10 minutes, the switch will
automatically close to reapply power to the actuator and autopilot system.
The 200A Navomatic will also capture and track a VOR or localizer
course using signals from a VHF navigation receiver.
The operating controls for the Cessna 200A Navomatic are located on
the front panel of the computer-amplifier, shown in Figure 1. The primary
function pushbuttons (DIR HOLD, NAV CAPT, and NAV TRK), are
interlocked so that only one function can be selected at a time. The HI SENS
and BACK CRS pushbuttons are not interlocked so that either or both of
these functions can be selected at any time.

11 September 1981

1 of 6

28
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)

NAVJ

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

NAV2

PILOT

/i
0

CDI INDICATORS

AILERON

ACTUATOR

3\4567_I89

TURN COORDINATOR

13

12

11

10

COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER

Figure 1. Cessna 200A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

28
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.

Provides VOR/LOC navigation inputs to


COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR
autopilot for intercept and tracking modes.

2.

Amber light, labeled BC, illum


LOCALIZER REVERSED INDICATOR LIGHT
inates when BACK CRS button is pushed in (engaged) and LOC frequency
selected. BC light indicates course indicator needle is reversed on selected
receiver (when turned to a localizer frequency). This light is located within the
CDI indicator.

3.

TURN COORDINATOR
turn functions.

4.

Selects direction hold mode. Airplane holds direc


DIR HOLD PUSHBUTTON
tion it is flying at time button is pushed.

5.

Selects NAV capture mode. When parallel to


NAV CAPT PUSHBUTTON
desired course, the airplane will turn to a pre-described intercept angle and
capture selected VOR or LOC course.

6.

NAV TRK PUSHBUTTON


VOR or LOC course.

7.

During NAV CAPT or NAV TRK operation, this high


HI SENS PUSHBUTTON
sensitivity setting increases autopilot response to NAV signal to provide more
precise operation during localizer approach. In low sensitivity position (push
button out), response to NAV signal is dampened for smoother tracking of enroute
VOR radials; it also smooths out effect of course scalloping during NAV opera
tion.

8.

Used with LOC operation only. With A/P switch


BACK CRS PUSHBUTTON
OFF or ON, and when navigation receiver selected by NAV switch is set to a
localizer frequency, it reverses normal localizer needle indication (CDI) and
causes localizer reversed (BC) light to illuminate. With A/P switch ON, reverses
localizer signal to autopilot.

9.

The torque motor in the actuator causes the ailerons to move in the
ACTUATOR
commanded direction.

Senses roll and yaw for wings leveling and command

Selects NAV track mode. Airplane tracks selected

10. NAV SWITCH

Selects NAV 1 or NAV 2 navigation receiver.

When pulled out and centered in detent, airplane will fly


11. PULL TURN KNOB
wings-level; when turned to the right (R), the airplane will execute a right.
standard rate turn; when turned to the left (L), the airplane will execute a left.
standard rate turn. When centered in detent and pushed in. the operating mode
selected by a pushbutton is engaged.
-

12. TRIM
Used to trim autopilot to compensate for minor variations in aircraft trim
or weight distribution. (For proper operation, the aircrafts rudder trim, if so
equipped. must be manually trimmed before the autopilot is engagedj
-

13. A/P SWITCH

Turns autopilot ON or OFF.

Figure 1. Cessna 200A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

28
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following autopilot limitation must be adhered to:
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
1.

A/P ON-OFF Switch

--

OFF.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO OVERRIDE THE AUTOPILOT:
1.

Airplane Control Wheel


lot.

- -

ROTATE as required to override autopi


NOTE

The servo may be overpowered at anytime without dam


age.

TO TURN OFF AUTOPILOT:


1.

A/P ON-OFF Switch

--

OFF.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:


1.
2.

A/P ON-OFF Switch


OFF.
BACK CRS Button
OFF (see Caution note under Nay Capture).
--

--

NOTE
Periodically verify operation of amber warning light(s).
labeled BC on CDI(s), by engaging BACK CRS button with
a LOC frequency selected, or use TEST function on the
audio control panel to verify BC light operation.
11 September 1981

28
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-295B)

INFLIGHT WINGS LEVELING:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Airplane Rudder Trim ADJUST for zero slip (Ball centered on


Turn Coordinator).
PULL-TURN Knob
PULL out and CENTER.
ON.
A/P ON-OFF Switch
Autopilot TRIM Control ADJUST for zero turn rate (wings level
indication on Turn Coordinator).
--

--

--

- -

NOTE
For optimum performance in airplanes equipped as floatplanes, use autopilot only in cruise flight or in approach
configuration with flaps down no more than 10 and
airspeed no lower than 75 KIAS on 172 and R172 Series
Models, 90 KIAS on 180, 185 Models and 95 KIAS on U206
and TU206 Series Models.
COMMAND TURNS:
1.

PULL-TURN Knob

--

PULL out and ROTATE.

DIRECTION HOLD:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

PULL-TURN Knob
PULL out and CENTER.
ADJUST for zero turn rate.
Autopilot TRIM Control
ADJUST for zero slip (Ball centered).
Airplane Rudder Trim
DIR HOLD Button
PUSH.
PULL-TURN Knob
PUSH in detent position when airplane is on
desired heading.
Autopilot TRIM Control
READJUST for zero turn rate.
--

--

--

--

--

- -

NAV CAPTURE (VOR/LOC):

fTh

1.
2.
3.

PULL-TURN Knob
PULL out and CENTER.
NAV 1-2 Selector Switch
SELECT desired VOR receiver.
SET desired VOR course (if
Nay Receiver OBS or ARC Knob
tracking omni).
--

--

NOTE
Optional ARC knob should be in center position and ARC
amber warning light should be off.
4.
5.

PUSH.
NAV CAPT Button
PUSH for localizer and close-in omni inter
HI SENS Button
cepts.

11 September 1981

--

--

28
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)
6.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

BACK CRS Button


PUSH only if intercepting localizer front
course outbound or back course inbound.
--

CAUTION
With BACK CRS button pushed in and localizer frequency
selected, the CDI on selected nay radio will be reversed
even when the autopilot switch is OFF.
7.

Turn airplane parallel to desired course.


NOTE
Airplane must be turned until heading is within 5 of
desired course.

8.

PULL TURN Knob


CENTER and PUSH in. The airplane should
tben turn toward desired course at 45 10 intercept angle (if the
CDI needle is in full deflection).

PULL-TURN Knob

--

--

NOTE
If more than 15 miles from the station or more than 3
minutes from intercept, use a manual intercept procedure.
NAV TRACKING (VOR/LOC):
1.
2.
3.

NAV TRK Button PUSH when CDI centers and airplane is within
5 of course heading.
HI 5EN5 BUTTON
DISENGAGE for enroute omni tracking
(leave ENGAGED for localizer).
Autopilot TRIM Control
READJUST as required to maintain
track.
-

--

--

NOTE
Optional ARC function, if installed, should not be used for
autopilot operation. If airplane should deviate off course,
pull out PULL TURN knob and readjust airplane rudder
trim for straight flight on the turn coordinator. Push in
PULL TURN knob to reintercept course. If deviation
persists, progressively make slight adjustments of auto
pilot TRIM control or heading bug on the directional gyro,
towards the course as required to maintain track.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

29

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300 ADF


(TYPE R-546E)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 ADF
(Type R-546E)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

k.

The Cessna 300 ADF is a panel-mounted, digitally tuned automatic


direction finder. It is designed to provide continuous 1 kHz digital tuning
in the frequency range of 200 kHz to 1,699 kHz and eliminates the need for
mechanical band switching. The system is comprised of a receiver, a
bearing indicator, a loop antenna, and a sense antenna. Operating controls
and displays for the Cessna 300 ADF are shown and described in Figure 1.
The audio systems used in conjunction with this radio for speaker-phone
selection are shown and described in another supplement in this section.
The Cessna 300 ADF can be used for position plotting and homing
procedures, and for aural reception of amplitude-modulated (AM) signals.
With the function selector knob at ADF, the Cessna 300 ADF provides a
visual indication, on the bearing indicator, of the bearing to the transmit
ting station relative to the nose of the airplane. This is done by combining
signals from the sense antenna with signals from the loop antenna.
With the function selector knob at REC, the Cessna 300 ADF uses only
the sense antenna and operates as a conventional low-frequency receiver.

The Cessna 300 ADF is designed to receive transmission from the


following radio facilities: commercial AM broadcast stations, low
frequency range stations, non-directional radio beacons, ILS compass
locators.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 6

29
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

uL

0
a

BC
2

C
0
0

1.

OFF! VOL CONTROL


Controls primary power and audio output level. Clock
wise rotation from OFF position applies primary power to receiver; further
clockwise rotation increases audio level.

2.

FREQUENCY SELECTORS
Knob (A) selects 100-kHz increments of receiver
frequency, knob (B) selects tO-kHz increments, and knob (C) selects 1 kHz
increments.

Figure 1. Cessna 300 ADF Operating Controls and Indicators (Sheet 1 of 2)


11 September 1981

29

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

3.

CESSNA 300 ADF


(TYPE R-546E)

FUNCTION SWITCH:
BFO: Selects operation as communication receiver using only seose antenna
and activates 1000-Hz tone beat frequency oscillator to permit coded
identifier of stations transmitting keyed CW signals (Morse Code) to
be heard.
REC: Selects operation as standard communication receiver using only sense
antenna.
ADF: Set operates as automatic direction finder using loop and sense anten
nas.
TEST: Momentary-on position used during ADF operation to test bearing
reliability. When held in TEST position, slews indicator pointer
clockwise: when released, if bearing is reliable, pointer returns to
original bearing position.

4.

INDEX (ROTATABLE CARD)


Indicates relative, magnetic, or true beading of
aircraft, as selected by HDG control.

5.

POINTER
Indicates station bearing in degrees of azimuth, relative to the nose
of the aircraft. When heading control is adjusted, indicates relative, magnetic, or
true bearing of radio signal.

6.

HEADING CARD CONTROL (HDG)


or true bearing information.

Rotates card to set in relative, magnetic,

Figure 1. Cessna 300 ADF Operating Controls and Indicators (Sheet 2 of 2)


11 September 1981

29
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

Q
0

SECTION 4

NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO OPERATE AS A COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER ONLY:
1.
2.
3.
4.

OFF! VOL Control


ON.
Function Selector Knob
REC.
Frequency Selector Knobs
SELECT operating frequency.
ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control panel)
SELECT speaker or phone position as desired.
VOL Control
ADJUST to desired listening level.
--

--

--

--

5.

--

TO OPERATE AS AN AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER:


1.
2.
3.

OFF! VOL Control


ON.
Frequency Selector Knobs
SELECT operating frequency.
ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control panel)
SELECT AS DESIRED.
Function Selector Knob
ADF position and note relative bearing
on indicator.
--

--

--

4.

--

TO TEST RELIABILITY OF AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER:


1.
2.
3.

Function Selector Knob


ADF position and note relative bearing
on indicator.
Function Selector Knob --TEST position and observe that pointer
moves away from relative bearing at least 10 to 20 degrees.
Function Selector Knob
ADF position and observe that pointer
returns to same relative bearing as in step (1).
--

--

11 September 1981

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

29

CESSNA 300 ADF


(TYPE R-546E)

TO OPERATE BFO:
1.
2.
3.
4.

ON.
OFF! VOL Control
BFO.
Function Selector Knob
SELECT operating frequency.
Frequency Selector Knobs
ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control panel)
SELECT speaker or phone position.
ADJUST to desired listening level.
VOL Control
--

--

--

5.

--

NOTE
A 1000-Hz tone is heard in the audio output when a CW
signal (Morse Code) is tuned in properly.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or related external antennas, will result in a minor reduction in
cruise performance.

11 September 1981

5/(6 blank)

occO

30
CESSNA 300 NAVJCOM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(720-Channel

Type RT-385A)

SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Nay! Corn (Type RT-385A), shown in figure 1, consists
of a panel-mounted receiver-transmitter and a single or dual-pointer
remote course deviation indicator.

The set includes a 720-channel VHF communications receivertransmitter and a 200-channel VHF navigation receiver, both of which may
be operated simultaneously. The communications receiver-transmitter
receives and transmits signals between 118.000 and 135.975 MHz in25-kHz
steps. The navigation receiver receives omni and localizer signals
between 108.00 and 117.95 MHz in 50-kHz steps. The circuits required to
interpret the omni and localizer signals are located in the course deviation
indicator. Both the communications and navigation operating frequencies
are digitally displayed by incandescent readouts on the front panel of the
Nay! Corn.
A DME receiver-transmitter or a glide slope receiver, or both, may be
interconnected with the Nay/Corn set for automatic selection of the
associated DME or glide slope frequency. When a VOR frequency is
selected on the Nay/Corn, associated VORTAC or VOR-DME station
frequency will also be selected automatically; likewise, if a localizer
frequency is selected, the associated glide slope will be selected automati
cally.
The course deviation indicator includes either a single-pointer and
related NAV flag for VOR/LOC indication only, or dual pointers and
related NAV and GS flags for both VOR/LOC and glide slope indications.
Both types of course deviation indicators incorporate a back-course lamp
(BC) which lights when optional back course (reversed sense) operation is
selected. Both types may be provided with Automatic Radial Centering
which, depending on how it is selected, will automatically indicate the
bearing TO or FROM the VOR station.

11 September 1981

1 of 8

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

22
\

12

13

14

1.

COMMUNICATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT (Third-decirnal


place is shown by the position of the 5-0 switch).

2.

5-0 SWITCH
Part of Corn Receiver-Transrnitter Fractional MHz Frequency
Selector. In 5 position, enables Corn frequency readout to display and Corn
Fractional MHz Selector to select frequency in .05-MHz steps between .025 and
.975 MHz. In 0 position, enables COM frequency readout to display and Corn
Fractional MHz Selector to select frequency in .05-MHz steps between .000 and
.950 MHz.
-

NOTE
The 5 or 0 rnay be read as the third decirnal digit, which is not
displayed in the Corn fractional frequency display.

Figure 1. Cessna 300 Nay/Corn (Type RT-385A), Operating Controls


and Indicators (Sheet 1 of 3)
11 September 1981

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

3.

NAVIGATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT.

4.

With VOR or LOC station selected, in ID position, station


ID-VOX-T SWITCH
identifier signal is audible; in VOX (Voice) position, identifier signal is sup
pressed; in T (Momentary On) position, the VOR navigational self-test function is
selected,

5.

Selects
NAVIGATION RECEIVER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR
Nay frequency in .05-MHz steps between .00 and .95 MHz; simultaneously solects
paired glide slope frequency and DME channel.

6.

NAV VOL CONTROL

7.

Selects NAV frequency


NAVIGATION RECEIVER MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR
in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz; simultaneously selects paired glide
slope frequency and DME channel.

8.

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ


Depending on position of 5-0 switch, selects COM frequency in .05SELECTOR
51Hz steps between .000 and .975 MHz. The 5-0 switch identifies the last digit as
either 5 or 0.

Adjusts volume of navigation receiver audio.

9.

Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activate


SQUELCH CONTROL
COM receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases
squelch action); counterctockwise rotation decreases background noiae.
-

10.

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR


Setects COM frequency in 1-MHz steps between 118 and 135 MHz.

it.

Combination on/off switch and volume control;


COM OFF-VOL CONTROL
turns on NAV/COM set and controls volume of communications receiver audio.

12.

BC LAMP Amber light illuminates when an autopilots back-course (reverse


sense) function is engaged; indicates course deviation pointer is reversed on
selected receiver when tuned to a localizer frequency. Light dimming is only
available when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annuncia
tor lights DAY/NITE selector switch.

13.

COURSE INDEX

14.

COURSE DEVIATION POINTER


Indicates course deviation from selected
omni course or localizer centerline.

15.

GLtDE SLOPE GS FLAG


Whenvisible,redG5flagindicatesi.tnreliahleglide
stope signal or improperly operating equipment. Ftag disappears when a reliable
glide slope signal is being received.

16.

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER


slope.

Indicates selected VOR course.


-

Indicates deviation from ILS glide

Figure 1. Cessna 300 Nay! Corn (Type RT-385A), Operating Controls


and Indicators (Sheet 2 of 3)

11 September 1981

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

17.

NAy/TO-FROM INDICATOR Operates only with a VOR or localizer signal.


Red NAV position (Flag) indicates unusable signal. With usable VOR signal,
indicates whether selected course is TO or FROM station. With usable localizer
signal, shows TO.

18.

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX

19.

OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS)


course.

20.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC-PUSH-TO/PULL-FR) SELECTOR


In center detent, functions as conventional OBS. Pushed to inner (Momentary On)
position, turns OBS course card to center course deviation pointer with a TO flag,
then returns to conventional OBS selection. Pulled to outer detent, continuously
drives OBS course card to indicate bearing from VOR station, keeping course
deviation pointer centered, with a FROM flag. ARC function will not operate on
localizer frequencies.

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR course.


-

Rotates OBS course card to select desired

21.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC) LAMP Amber light illuminates


when Automatic Radial Centering is in use.Light dimming is only available when
installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights
DAY/NITE selector switch.

22.

OBS COURSE CARD

\y

Indicates selected VOR course under course index.

0
0
0
0
Figure 1, Cessna 300 Nav/ Corn (Type RT-385A), Operating Controls
and Indicators (Sheet 3 of 3)
11 Septernber 1981

30
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300 NAVJCOM


(TYPE RT-385A)

The Cessna 300 Nay/Corn incorporates avariable threshold automatic


squelch. With this squelch system, you set the threshold level for auto
matic operation the further clockwise the lower the threshold or the
more sensitive the set. When the signal is above this level, it is heard even
if the noise is very close to the signal. Below this level, the squelch is fully
automatic so when the background noise is very low, very weak signals
(that are above the noise) are let through. For normal operation of the
squelch circuit, just turn the squelch clockwise until noise is heard then
back off slightly until it is quiet, and you will have automatic squelch with
the lowest practical threshold. This adjustment should be rechecked
periodically during each flight to assure optimum reception.
-

(
\.

1r

All controls for the Nav/Com, except the standard omni bearing
selector (OBS) knob or the optional automatic radial centering (ARC) knob
located on the course deviation indicator, are mounted on the front panel of
the receiver-transmitter. Operation and description of the audio control
panels used in conjunction with this radio are shown and described in
another supplement in this section.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
procedures when this
There is no change to the airplane emergency
avionic equipment is installed. However, if the frequency readouts fail, the
radio will remain operational on the last frequency selected. The fre
quency control should not be moved due to the difficulty of obtaining a
known frequency under this condition.

11 September 1981

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER OPERATION


:
1.
2.

COM OFF/VOL Control--TURN ON; adjust to desired audio level.


XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control panel)
SET to desired
Nay! Corn Radio.
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
5-0 Fractional MHz Selector Switch
SELECT desired operating
frequency (does not affect navigation frequencies).
COM Frequency Selector Switch
SELECT desired operating
frequency.
SQ Control
ROTATE counterclockwise to just eliminate back
ground noise. Adjustment should be checked periodically
to
assure optimum reception.
Mike Button:
a. To Transmit
DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
--

3.

--

4.

5.
6.

7.

--

- -

--

NOTE
Sidetone may be selected by placing the AUTO selector
switch (on audio control panel) in either the SPEAKER or
PHONE position. Sidetone may be eliminated by placing
the AUTO selector switch in the OFF position. Adjustment
of sidetone on audio control panels supplied with three
transmitters cannot be accomplished externally. How
ever, audio control panels supplied with one or two trans
mitters have sidetone adjustment pots that are accessible
through the front of the audio control panel with a small
screwdriver.
b.

To Receive

--

RELEASE mike button.

NAVIGATION OPERATION:
NOTE
The pilot should be aware that on Cessna airplanes
equipped with the vertical fin mounted combination glide
slope and omni antenna, pilots should avoid use of 2700
100 RPM on airplanes equipped with a two-bladed pro
peller or 1800 100 RPM on airplanes equipped with a
three-bladed propeller during ILS approaches to avoid
oscillations of the glide slope deviation pointer caused by
propeller interference.

11 September 1981

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

TURN ON.
COM OFF/VOL Control
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
SELECT desired operating
NAV Frequency Selector Knobs
frequency.
ADJUST to desired audio level.
NAV VOL
ID-VOX-T Switch:
SET to ID to hear navigation station
a. To Identify Station
identifier signal.
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal-- SET to VOX to include
filter in audio circuit.
ARC PUSH-TO/PULL-FROM Knob (If Applicable):
PLACE in center detent and
a. To Use As Conventional OBS
select desired course.
b. To Obtain Bearing TO VOR Station--PUSH (ARC/PUSH-TO)
knob to inner (momentary on) position.
--

--

--

--

--

6.

--

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber while the OBS course
card is moving to center with the course deviation pointer.
After alignment has been achieved to reflect bearing to
VOR, automatic radial centering will automatically shut
down, causing the ARC lamp to go out.
c.

To Obtain Continuous Bearing FROM VOR Station


(ARC/PULL-FR) knob to outer detent.

--

PULL

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber, OBS course card will
turn to center the course deviation pointer with a FROM
flag to indicate bearing from VOR station.
7.

OBS Knob (If Applicable)

11 September 1981

--

SELECT desired course.

30
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-385A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

VOR SELF-TEST OPERATION:


1.
2.

COM OFF/VOL Control


TURN ON.
NAV Frequency Selector Switches SELECT usable
VOR station
signal.
OBS Knob
SET for 0 course at course index; course deviation
pointer centers or deflects left or right, depending
on bearing of
signal; NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows TO or FROM
.
ID/VOX/T Switch
PRESS to T and HOLD at T; course deviation
pointer centers and NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows
FROM.
OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately
10 to either
side of 0 (while holding ID! VOX/T to T). Course
deviation pointer
deflects full scale in direction corresponding to
course displace
ment. NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows FROM.
--

--

3.

4.
5.

--

--

NOTE
When the 300 NAV/COM is coupled to the
ANS-351C
RNAV system the TEST operation is non-function
al. Refer
to the Ground Check Procedures in the Area Naviga
tion
System (Type ANS-351C) Supplement in this
section to
verify VOR operation of the CDI.
.

ID/VOX/T Switch

--

RELEASE for normal operation.

NOTE
This test does not fulfill the requirements of
FAR 91.25.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance
when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation
of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antenn
as, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

(3
C

11 September 1981

31
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300 NAV/COM


(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(Type RT-385A)

WITH
CESSNA 400 AREA
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
(Type RN-478A)

SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Nay/Corn (Type RT-385A) Set with Cessna 400 Area
Navigation (RNAV-Type RN-478A) consists of a RT-385A Nay! Corn, a R
476A DME system, a RN-478A Area Navigation Computer and a IN-442AR
Course Deviation Indicator. The RN-478A includes circuits which combine
the VOR navigation information with distance information from the R
476A DME system to provide data for area navigation. Operating informa
tion for the communication set and for VOR/localizer navigation is
presented in this supplement. Operating information for area navigation
and for DME is presented in separate supplements.
The RT-385A Receiver-Transmitter includes a 720-channel VHF com
munication receiver-transmitter which receives and transmits signals
between 118.000 MHz and 135.975 MHz in 25-kHz steps. It also includes a
200-channel VHF navigation receiver which receives VOR and localizer
signals between 108.00 MHz and 117.95 MHz in 50-kHz steps. The communi
cation receiver-transmitter and the navigation receiver can be operated
simultaneously.
The VOR or localizer signal from the No. 2 Navigation Receiver is
applied to the converter circuits in the RN-478A Area Navigation Compu

11 September 1981

1 of 8

31
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ter. The converter processes the received navigation


signal to provide
omni bearing or localizer information for display by the
course indicator.

CAUTION
If the RNAV set is removed from the airplane or becomes
inoperative, the associated VHF navigation indicator will
he inoperative.
The course indicator includes a Course Deviation Indicat
or (CDI), an
Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) and OFF/TO-FROM Indicator
Flags. It also
includes an RNAV lamp (RN) which lights when area naviga
tion opera
tion is selected, and a back-course lamp (BC) which lights
when backcourse operation is selected. The IN-442AR is offered as
the standard
Course Deviation Indicator.
All operating controls and indicators for the Cessna 300
Nav/ Com are
included on the front panel of the RT-385A Receiver-Transmitter
and the
associated Course Deviation Indicator. These controls and indicat
ors are
shown and described in Figure 1. Operating controls for the RN-47
8A Area
Navigation Computer, which are used for area navigation, and
operating
controls for the associated Type R-476A DME are shown in the approp
riate
supplements in this manual. Operating controls for the audio
control
panels used in conjunction with this radio are shown and describ
ed in
another supplement in this section.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avioni
c
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when
this
avionic equipment is installed. However, if the frequency readou
ts fall, the
radio will remain operational on the last frequency selecte
d. The fre
quency controls should not be moved due to the difficulty
of obtaining a
known frequency under this condition.

11 September 1981

31
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300 NAV/COM


(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

76

1.

COMMUNICATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT (Third-decimal


place is shown by the position of the 5-0 switch).

2.

Part of COM Receiver-Transmitter Fractional MHz Frequency


5-0 SWITCH
Selector. In 5 position, enables COM frequency readout to display and CON
Fractional MHz Selector to select frequency in .05 MHz steps between .025 and .971
MHz. In 0 position, enables COM frequency readout to display and COW
Fractional MHz Selector to select frequency in .05 MHz steps between .000 and .95(
MHz.
-

NOTE
The 5 or 0 may be read as the third decimal digit, which is not
displayed in the Corn fractional frequency display.

Figure 1. Cessna 300 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 1 of 3)

11 September 1981

31
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

3.

NAVIGATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READ


OUT.

4.

ID-VOX-T SWITCH With VOR or LOC station selecte


d, in ID position, station
identifier signal is audible; in center VOX (Voice
) position, identifier signal is
suppressed; in T (Momentary On) position, the
VOR navigational self-teat
function is selected.

5.

NAVIGATIONAL RECEIVER FRACTIONAL MEGA


HERTZ FREQUENCY
SELECTOR
Selects NAV frequency in .05 MHz steps between
.00 and .95 MHz;
simultaneously selects paired glide slope frequency and
DME channel.

6.

NAV VOLUME CONTROL(VOL) Adjusts volume


of navigation receiver audio.
Clockwise rotation increases audio level.
-

7.

NAVIGATION RECEIVER MEGAHERTZ FREQ


UENCY SELECTOR Selects
NAV frequency in 1-MHz steps hetween 108 and 117
MHz; simultaneously selects
paired glide slope frequency and DME channel.
-

8.

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER
FRACTIONAL MHz FRE
QUENCY SELECTOR
Depending on position of the 5-0 Switch, selects
COM
frequency in .05 MHz stops between .000 and .975 MHz.
The 5-0 switch identifies the
last digit as either 5 or 0.
-

9.

SQUELCH CONTROL
Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activat
e
COM recoiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases backgr
ound noise (decreases
squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decrea
ses background noise.

10.

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER
MHz FREQUENCY
SELECTOR Selects COM frequency in 1MHz steps
between 118 and 135 MHz.

11.

COM OFF-VOL CONTROL


Combination on/off switch and volume contro
l;
turns on NAV/COM Set and RNAV Computer circuit
s; controls volume of
communication receiver audio.
-

12.

OBS COURSE CARD

13.

BACK COURSE LAMP (BC) Amber light illuminates when


an autopilot with
reverse sense feature is installed and the reverse sense switch
or the autopilots
back-course function is engaged and receiver is tuned to
a localizer frequency;
indicates course deviation pointer is reversed. BC light dimmi
ng is only available
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the
annunciator lights
DAY/NITE selector switch.

14.

AREA NAV LAMP (RN) When green light is illuminated, indicat


es that RNAV
operation is selected. RN light dimming is only available when
installed with an
audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights
DAY/NITE selector
switch.

15.

OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS) Rotates OBS course


card (12) to select
desired bearing to or from a VOR station or to a selecte
d RNAV waypoint.

Indicatea selected VOR course under course index.


-

Figure 1.

Cessna 300 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 2 of 3)

11 September 1981

31
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300 NAV/COM


(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

Indicates selected VOR or RNAV course (bearing).

16.

COURSE INDEX

17.

Indicates deviation from selected VOR or


COURSE DEVIATION POINTER
RNAV course or localizer centerline.

18.

Operates only with VOR or localizer signal. OFF


OFF/ TO-FROM INDICATOR
position (flag) indicates unusable signal. With usable VOR signal, when OFF
position disappears, indicates whether selected course is TO or FROM station or
waypoint. With usable localizer signal, shows TO.

19.

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX


course.

Figure 1.

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR or RNAV

Cessna 300 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 3 of 3)

11 September 1981

31
CESSNA 300 NAVICOM
(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES

COMMUNICATIONS OPERATION:
1.
2.
3.

COM OFF/VOL Control-- TURN ON; adjust to desired audio level.


XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control panel)-- SET to desired 300
NAV/COM.
SPEAKER PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
5-0 Fractional MHz Selector Switch
SELECT desired operating
frequency (does not affect navigation frequencies).
COM Frequency Selector Knobs
SELECT desired operating
frequency.
SQ Control
ROTATE counterclockwise to just eliminate back
ground noise.
Mike Button:
a. To Transmit
DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
--

4.
5.
6.
7.

--

--

--

--

NOTE
Sidetone may be selected by placing the AUTO selector
switch (on audio control panel) in either the SPEAKER or
PHONE position, or may be eliminated by placing the
AUTO selector switch in the OFF position. Adjustment of
sidetone on audio control panels supplied with three
transmitters cannot be accomplished externally. How
ever, audio control panels supplied with one or two trans
mitters have sidetone adjustment pots that are accessible
through the front of the audio control panel with a small
screwdriver.
b.

To Receive

--

RELEASE mike button.

NAVIGATION OPERATION:
NOTE
The pilot should be aware that on Cessna airplanes
equipped with the vertical fin mounted combination glide
slope and omni antenna, pilots should avoid use of 2700
100 RPM on airplanes equipped with a two-bladed pro
peller or 1800 100 RPM on airplanes equipped with a
three-bladed propeller during ILS approaches to avoid
oscillations of the glide slope deviation pointer caused by
propeller interference.

11 September 1981

31
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(RT-385A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

TURN ON.
COM OFF/VOL Control
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
SELECT desired operating
NAV Frequency Selector Knobs
ncy.
freque
ADJUST to desired audio level.
NAy VOL Control
ID-VOX-T Switch:
SET to ID to hear navigation station
a. To Identify Station
identifier (Morse Code) signal.
SET to VOX (center)
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal
position to include filter in audio circuit.
SELECT desired course.
OBS Knob
--

--

--

--

--

6.

--

TO SELF TEST VOR NAVIGATION CIRCUITS:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

TURN ON.
COM OFF/VOL Control
es SELECT usable VOR station
Switch
r
Selecto
ncy
Freque
NAV
signal.
SET for 0 course at index; CDI pointer centers or
OBS Knob
OFF/TOdeflects left or right, depending on bearing of signal;
FROM indicator shows TO or FROM.
r should
ID-VOX-T Switch--PRESS to T and HOLD at T; CDI pointe
.
center and OFF/TO-FROM indicator should show FROM
10 to either
OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately
r should
side of 0 (while holding ID-VOX-T switch at T); CDI pointe
e
displac
course
to
onding
corresp
on
directi
in
scale
deflect full
.
FROM
show
still
ment. OFF/TO-FROM indicator should
--

--

--

NOTE
This test does not fulfill the requirements of FAR 91.25.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
ance when this avionic
There is no change to the airplane perform
an externally mounted
of
tion
installa
the
er,
equipment is installed. Howev
result in a minor
will
as,
antenna or several related external antenn
ance.
reduction in cruise perform

11 September 1981

71(8 blank)

0000

32
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-395A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA NAVOMATIC
300A AUTOPILOT
(Type AF-395A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

4
V

axis (aileron
The Cessna 300A Navomatic is an all electric, singledirectional
and
lateral
added
es
provid
that
system
lot
control) autopi
nator, a
coordi
turn
a
plifier,
ter-am
stability. Components are a compu
or(s)
indicat
on
deviati
course
and
a
r
actuato
aileron
an
directional gyro,
light.
or
indicat
incorporating a localizer reversed (BC)
coordina
Roll and yaw motions of the airplane are sensed by the turn
the direction
by
sensed
g
are
headin
d
selecte
the
from
ions
Deviat
tor gyro.
the necessary
al gyro. The computer-amplifier electronically computes
maintain the
s
to
aileron
the
move
r
to
actuato
the
signals
and
ion
correct
g.
headin
e
or
attitud
airplane in the commanded lateral
monitors the
The actuator includes a thermostatic switch which
es abnormal,
becom
ature
temper
motor. If the
operating temperature of the
to remove
ot
autopil
the
ages
diseng
and
opens
switch
static
the thermo
will
switch
the
s,
minute
10
imately
power from the actuator. After approx
ot system.
autopil
r
and
actuato
the
to
power
reapply
to
close
tically
automa
localizer
The 300A Navomatic will also intercept and track a VOR or
r.
tion
receive
naviga
VHF
a
course using signals from
located on
The operating controls for the Cessna 300A Navomatic are
onal gyro,
the front panel of the computer-amplifier and on the directi
SEL, NAV
shown in Figure 1. The primary function pushbuttons (HDG
function can be
INT, and NAV TRK), are interlocked so that only one
ttons are not
selected at a time. The HI SENS and BACK CRS pushbu
d at any
selecte
be
can
ns
interlocked so that either or both of these functio
time.

11 September 1981

1 of 8

32

CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-395A)

NAV1

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

NAV2

C
PILOT

I
CDI INDICATORS

AILERON

43

A
I

ACTUATOR

\
\4Ss\%\

DIRECTIONAL GYRO

10

11 12 13

I
Y

14
15

AMPLIFIER
TURN COORDINATOR

Figure 1. Cessna 300A Autopilot, Operating Contro


ls and Indicators
(Sheet 1 of 3)
11 September 1981

C)

32
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

,, ,

1.

Provides VOR/LOC navigation inputs to


COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR
auiopilot for intercept and tracking modes.

2.

LOCALIZER REVERSED INDICATOR LIGHT Amber light, labeled BC. illum


inates when BACK CRS button is pushed in (engaged) and LOC frequency
selected. BC light indicates course indicator needle is reversed on selected
receiver (when tuned to a localizer frequency). This light is located within the CDI
indicator.

3.

Provides a stable visual indication of


NON-SLAVED DIRECTIONAL GYRO
aircraft heading to the pilot and provides heading information to the autopilot for
heading intercept and bold.

4.

HEADING BUG

5.

LUBBER LINE

6.

COMPASS CARD
lubber line (5).

7.

When pushed in, the heading bug (4) may


HEADING SELECTOR KNOB (HDG)
be positioned to the desired magnetic heading by rotating the HDG selector knob.
Also used to select VOR or LOC course.

8.

GYRO ADJUSTMENT KNOB (PUSH) When pushed in, allows the pilot to
manually rotate the compass card (6) to correspond with the magnetic heading
indicated by the compass. The compass card must be manually reset periodically
to compensate for precessional errors in the gyro.

9.

TURN COORDINATOR
turn functions.

Moved by HDG knob to select desired heading.

Indicates aircraft heading on compass card (6).


-

Rotates to display heading of airplane with reference to

Senses roll and yaw for wings leveling and command

10.

HDG SEL PUSHBUTTON Aircraft will turn to and hold heading selected by the
heading bug on the directional gyro.

11.

NAV INT PUSHBUTTON When heading bug on DG is set to selected course,


aircraft will turn to and intercept selected VOR or LOC course.

12.

NAV TRK PUSHBUTTON When heading bug on DG is set to selected course,


aircraft will track selected VOR or LOC course.

13.

HI SENS PUSHBUTTON During NAV INT or NAV TRK operation, this high
sensitivity setting increases autopilot response to NAV signal to provide more
precise operation during localizer approach. In low-sensitivity position (push
button out). response to NAV signal is dampened for smoother tracking of enroute
VOR radials; it also smooths out effect of course scalloping during NAV opera
tion.

14.

Used with LOC operation only. With A/P switch


BACK CRS PUSHBUTTON
OFF or ON, and when navigation receiver selected by NAV switch is set to a
localizer frequency, it reverses normal localizer needle indication (CDI) and
causes localizer reversed (BC) light to illuminate. With A/P switch ON, reverses
localizer signal to autopilot.

Figure 1. Cessna 300A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 2 of 3)

11 September 1981

32

CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-395A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

15.

ACTUATOR The torque motor in the actuator causes the ailerons to move in the
commanded direction.

18.

NAV SWITCH

17.

PULL TURN KNOB


When pulled out and centered in detent, airplane will fly
wings-level; when turned to the right (H), the airplane will execute a right,
standard rate turn; when turned to the left (L), the airplane will execute a left,
standard rate turn. When centered in detent and pushed in, the operating mode
selected by a pushbutton is engaged.

18.

TRIM
Used to trim autopilot to compensate for minor variations in aircraft trim
or lateral weight distrtbution. (For proper operation, the aircrafts rudder trim, if
so equipped, must be manually trimmed before the autopilot is engaged.)

19.

A/P SWITCH

Selects NAV 1 or NAV 2 navigation receiver.


-

Turns autopilot ON or OFF.

0
C
0
0
C
Figure 1.

Cessna 300A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 3 of 3)

11 September 1981

32
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-395A)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following autopilot limitation must be adhered to:
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
1.

A/P ON-OFF Switch

--

OFF.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO OVERRIDE THE AUTOPILOT:
1.

Airplane Control Wheel--ROTATE as required to override autopi


lot.
NOTE
The servo may be overpowered at any time without dam
age.

TO TURN OFF AUTOPILOT:


1.

A/P ON-OFF Switch

--

OFF.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
1.
2.

OFF.
A/P ON-OFF Switch
OFF (see Caution note under Nay Intercept).
BACK CRS Button
--

--

NOTE
Periodically verify operation of amber warning light(s),
labeled BC 0nCDI(s), by engaging BACK CRS buttonwitli
a LOC frequency selected, or use TEST function on the
audio control panel to verify BC light operation.

11 September 1981

32
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

INFLIGHT WINGS LEVELING:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Airplane Rudder Trim ADJUST for zero slip (Ball centered on


Turn Coordinator).
PULL-TURN Knob
PULL out and CENTER.
A/P ON-OFF Switch
ON.
Autopilot TRIM Control ADJUST for zero turn rate (wings level
indication on Turn Coordinator).
-

--

--

- -

NOTE
For optimum performance in airplanes equipped as floatplanes, use autopilot only in cruise flight or in approach
configuration with flaps down no more than 100 and
airspeed no lower than 75 KIAS on 172 and R172 Series
Models or 90 KIAS on 180, 185, U206 and TU206 Series
Models.

COMMAND TURNS:
1.

PULL-TURN Knob

--

PULL out and ROTATE.

C))

HEADING SELECT:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Directional Gyro
SET to airplane magnetic heading.
Heading Selector Knob
ROTATE bug to desired heading.
Heading Select Button
PUSH.
PULL-TURN Knob
CENTER and PUSH.
-

--

--

NOTE
Airplane will turn automatically to selected heading. If
airplane fails to hold the precise heading, readjust autopi
lot TRIM control as required or disengage autopilot and
reset manual rudder trim (if installed).
NAV INTERCEPT (VOR/LOC):
1.
2.
3.

PULL-TURN Knob
PULL out and CENTER.
NAV 1-2 Selector Switch
SELECT desired receiver.
Nay Receiver OBS or ARC Knob
SET desired VOR course (if
tracking omni).
--

- -

--

NOTE
Optional ARC knob should be in center position and ARC
warning light should be off.

11 September 1981

32
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

4.

CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT


(TYPE AF-395A)

Heading Selector Knob ROTATE bug to selected course (VOR or


inbound or outbound as appropriate).
localizer
Directional Gyro --SET for magnetic heading.
PUSH.
NAV INT Button
PUSH for localizer and close-in omni inter
HI SENS Button
cepts.
PUSH only if intercepting localizer front
BACK CRS Button
course outbound or back course inbound.
--

5.
6.
7.
8.

--

--

CAUTION
With BACK CRS button pushed in and localizer frequency
selected, the CDI on selected nay radio will be reversed
even when the autopilot switch is OFF.
9.

PULL-TURN Knob

--

PUSH.
NOTE

Airplane will automatically turn to a 45 intercept angle.


NAV TRACKING (VOR/LOC):
1.
2.

PUSH when CDI centers (within one dot) and


NAV TRK Button
airplane is within 100 of course heading.
Disengage for enroute omni tracking (leave
HI SENS Button
engaged for localizer).
--

--

NOTE
Optional ARC function, if installed, should not be used for
autopilot operation. If airplane should deviate off course,
pull out PULL TURN knob and readjust airplane rudder
trim for straight flight on the turn coordinator. Push in
PULL TURN knob to reintercept course. If deviation
persists, progressively make slight adjustments of auto
pilot TRIM control or heading bug on the directional gyro,
towards the course as required to maintain track.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

71(8 blank)

0000

33
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 ADF


(TYPE R-446A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 ADF
(Type R-446A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The Cessna 400 ADF is an automatic direction finder set which


provides continuous, visual bearing indications of the direction from
which an RF signal is being received. It can be used for plotting position,
for homing, and for aural reception of AM signals between 200 kHz and
1699 kHz. In addition, a crystal-controlled, beat frequency oscillator (BFO)
permits coded identifier of stations transmitting keyed CW signals (Morse
Code) to be heard.
The basic units of the Cessna 400 ADF are a R-446A Receiver with dual
frequency selectors, a goniometer-indicator (IN-346A), a sense antenna
and a loop antenna. The receiver and goniometer-indicator are panelmounted units. The sense and loop antennas are mounted on the external
airplane surfaces. The goniometer-indicator presents station bearing in
degrees of azimuth. An automatic pointer-stow feature alerts the operator
to non-AD F operation by slewing the pointer to the 3:00 oclock position
when the REC mode is selected. Operating controls and displays for the
Cessna 400 ADF are shown and described in Figure 1. The audio control
panels used in conjunction with this radio for speaker-phone selection are
shown and described in another supplement in this section.
The operating frequency is selected by a four-section Minilever switch
which displays a digital readout of the frequency selected and supplies a
binary code to control the logic circuits within the set. A secondary
(standby) operating frequency is selected by another four-section Mini
lever switch. Frequency control of the ADF is switched to the primary or
the secondary operating frequency by a toggle switch. The operating
modes (ADF and REC) are selected by individual pushbutton switches.
Additional pushbutton switches are used to select the BFO and to test
signal reliability during ADF operation.

11 September 1981

1 of 6

33
CESSNA 400 ADF
(TYPE R-446A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

0
0

11
12

Figure 1.

Cessna 400 ADF Operating Controls and Indicator


(Sheet 1 of 2)

11 September 1981

33
CESSNA 400 ADF
(TYPE R-446A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

Selects and displays primary

1.

PRI (PRIMARY FREQUENCY SELECTOR)


frequency.

2.

The 1 position activates primary (PRI) frequency. The 2 position


1-2
activates secondary (SEC) frequency.

3.

SEC (SECONDARY FREQUENCY SELECTOR)


dary frequency.

4.

Lamp will flash only when secondary


SECONDARY RESELECT LAMP
(SEC) frequency selection is outside of operating range of the receiver and 1-2
switch is in the 2 position.

5.

TEST Momentary-on switch used only with ADF function to test bearing
reliability. When held depressed, slews indicator pointer; when released, if
bearing is realiable, pointer returns to original position.

6.

Pushed in: Activates beat frequency oscillator tone to permit coded


BFO
idenlifier of stations transmitting keyed CW signals (Morse Code) to be heard.

7.

Pushed in: Selects receive mode (set operates as a standard communica


REC
tions receiver using sense antenna only).

Selects and displays secon

NOTE
In this position an automatic pointer stow feature will alert the pilot
to non-ADF operation by positioning and retaining the pointer at
the 3:00 oclock position when the 400 ADF is in the REC function.
8.

ADF Pushed in: Selects ADF mode (set operates as automatic direction finder
using loop and sense antennas).

9.

Lamp will flash only when primary (PRI)


PRIMARY RESELECT LAMP
frequency selection is outside of operating range of the receiver and 1-2 switch is
in the 1 position.

Turns set on or off and adjusts receiver volume.

10.

OFF-VOL

11.

INDEX

12.

When HDG control is adjusted, indicates either relative, magnetic, or


POINTER
true bearings of a radio station.

13.

HDG

Fixed reference line for dial rotation adjustment.


-

Rotates dial to facilitate relative, magnetic, or true bearing information.

Figure 1,

Cessna 400 ADF Operating Controls and Indicator


(Sheet 2 of 2)

11 September 1981

33
CESSNA 400 ADF
(TYPE R-446A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

C
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO OPERATE AS A COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER ONLY:
1.
2.

OFF/VOL Control
ON.
REC Pushbutton
PUSH in.
--

--

NOTE
ADF indicator pointer will stow at a 90-degree position to
alert the pilot to non-ADF operation.
3.
4.
5.

PRI Frequency Selectors SELECT desired operating frequency.


SEC Frequency Selectors-- SELECT desired operatingfrequency.
1-2 Selector Switch
1 position.
- -

--

NOTE
1-2 selector switch can be placed in the 2 position for
operation on secondary frequency. The re-select lamp will
flash only when frequency selection is outside of operat
ing range of the receiver.
6.

ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control panel)


SELECT speaker or phone position.
VOL Control
ADJUST to desired listening level.
--

7.

--

11 September 1981

33
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 ADF


(TYPE R-446A)

TO OPERATE AS AN AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER:

1.
2.
3.
4.

ON.
OFF! VOL Control
PRI Frequency Selectors SELECT desired operating frequency.
SEC Frequency Selectors-- SELECT desired operatingfrequency.
1 position.
1-2 Selector Switch
--

--

--

NOTE
1-2 selector switch can be placed in the 2 position for
operation on secondary frequency. The re-select lamp will
flash only when frequency selection is outside of operat
ing range of the receiver.
5.

ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control panel)


SELECT speaker or phone position as desired.
PUSH in and note relative bearing on AD?
ADF Pushbutton
indicator.
SET goniometer-indicator dial so that index
HDG Control
indicates 0, magnetic, or true heading of airplane. Pointer then
indicates relative, magnetic, or true bearing to station.
ADJUST to desired listening level.
VOL Control
--

6.
7.

8.

--

--

NOTE
When switching stations, place function pushbutton in the
REC position. Then, after station has been selected, place
function pushbutton in the ADF position to resume auto
matic direction finder operation. (This practice prevents
the bearing indicator from swinging back and forth as
frequency dial is rotated.)
TO TEST RELIABILITY OF AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER:
1.
2.
3.

ADF Pushbutton PUSH in and note relative bearing on indicator.


TEST Pushbutton --PUSH in and hold TEST button until indicator
pointer slews off indicated bearing at least 10 to 20 degrees.
RELEASE and OBSERVE that indicator
TEST Pushbutton
pointer returns to the same relative bearing as in step (1).
--

--

TO OPERATE BFO:
1.
2.

ON.
OFF! VOL Control
Selector Switch (on audio control panel)
HONE
ADF SPEAKER/P
SELECT speaker or phone position as desired.
PUSH in.
BFO Pushbutton
1-2 Selector Switch SELECT 1 position to activate PHI frequency
--

--

3.
4.

11 September 1981

--

33
CESSNA 400 ADF
(TYPE R-446A)

5.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

or 2 to activate SEC frequency that is transmitting keyed


CW
signals (Morse Code).
VOL Control
ADJUST to desired listening level.
- -

NOTE

()

A 1000-Hz tone is heard in the audio output when CW signal


(Morse Code) is tuned in properly.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this
avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externa
lly mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result
in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

0
0
C
C)
11 September 1981

34
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 RNAV


(TYPE RN-478A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 AREA NAVIGATION
SYSTEM
(Type RN-478A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The Cessna 400 Area Navigation System (Type RN-478A) consists of


an RN-478A Area NAV Computer (RNAV), a compatible VHF navigation
receiver and course deviation indicator, and the Type R-476A distance
measuring equipment (DME). The RNAV includes converter circuits
which operate with the VHF navigation receiver and produce positional
information for display by the course deviation indicator. It also includes
computer circuits which combine the bearing information from the
navigation set with the distance information from the R-476A DME to
establish navigation data for selected waypoints. During RNAV opera
tion, a course scalloping suppressor circuit suppresses the spurious
navigation signal phases to provide stable waypoint information which
enhances autopilot operation. The 400 RNAV is coupled to the number 2
Nav/Com and includes storage for 3 waypoints.
Ground speed! time-to-station information to the selected VOR (not the
waypoint) is available on this system. This capability, along with the
course scalloping suppression (radial straightening), may be used to an
advantage while tracking inbound or outbound from the VOR station by
programming a waypoint directly over the associated VOR (000.0/000.0
nautical miles) and using RNAV for course smoothing while enroute.

CAUTION
If RNAV set is removed from the airplane or becomes
inoperative, the associated VHF navigation indicator will
be inoperative.
All operating controls and displays which are part of the RN-478A are
shown and described in Figure 1. Other controls required for operation of
the Cessna 400 Area Navigation System are included on the VHF naviga
tion receiver and on the R-476A DME control; these controls are shown and
described in the respective supplements included for this equipment.

11 September 1981

1 of 6

34
CESSNA 400 RNAV
(TYPE RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

C
0
S

1.

BEARING DISPLAY READOUTS Depending on positio


n of DSPL Switch,
displays bearing programmed for waypnint 1 or waypoint
2.

2.

DISPLAY 1-2 SWITCH (DSPL)


Determines information shown on DISTANCE
and BEARING displays: In pnsition 1, distance and bearing
programmed for
waypoint 1 are displayed; in position 2, distance and bearing
programmed for
waypoint 2 are displayed.
-

3.

FLY/DISPLAY LAMP
Flashes amber when FLY Switch and DSPL Switch are
not set to same nomber; indicates that waypoint inform
ation being displayed is
not waypoint information being flown.

4.

FLY SWITCH
Determines waypoint being osed for navigation. In positio
n 1,
waypoint 1 is in use; in position 2, waypoint 2 is in use.

5.

DISTANCE DISPLAY READOUTS Depending on positio


n of DSPL Switch,
displays distance programmed for waypoint 1 or waypo
int 2.

6.

BEARING MINILEVER SWITCHES (4)


Select bearing of desired waypoint
from VOR/DME station. May be used to store bearing
of 3rd waypoint.

7.

ENROUTE/APPROACH SWITCH (ENR/APPR)


Controls width of navigation
corridor. ENR position provides standard (5 NM) enrout
e sensitivity; APPR
position provides standard (1-1/4 NM) approach course sensiti
vity.
-

NOTE
Due to unreliable signals, do not operate in the APPR positio
n when
computed distance to waypoint exceeds 51 nautical miles.
8.

TRANSFER PUSHBUTTON SWITCH (XFER)


Transfers waypoint distance
and bearing from minilevers into either waypoint or
1
2 as selected by DSPL
switch position.
-

9.

DISTANCE MINILEVER SWITCHES (4)


Select distance of desired waypoint
from VOR/DME station. May be used to store distanc
e of 3rd waypoint.
-

Figure 1.

Cessna 400 Area Nay (Type RN-478A) Computer,


Operating Controls and Indicators
11 September 1981

34
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 RNAV


(TYPE RN-478A)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
The following RNAV IFR approach limitation must be adhered to
during airplane operation.
OPERATING LIMITATION:
1.

IFR Approaches
procedures.

--

Follow approved published RNAV instrument

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
VOR/LOC OPERATION
VOR NAVIGATION CIRCUITS VERIFICATION TESTS:
1.

See appropriate Nav/Com supplement.

VOR/LOC NAVIGATION:
As a convenience to the pilot, a separate supplement (Avionic Operation Guide) is supplied to explain the various procedures for using the
VHF Navigation Set for VOR and localizer navigation. Refer to the
Avionic Operations Guide for flight procedures.
AREA NAVIGATION OPERATION
NOTE
Proper RNAV operation requires valid VOR and DME
inputs to the RNAV system. In certain areas, the ground
station antenna patterns and transmitter power may he
inadequate to provide valid signals to the RNAV. For this

11 September 1981

34
CESSNA 400 RNAV
(TYPE RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

reason, intermittent RNAV signal loss may be expe


rienced enroute. Prolonged loss of RNAV signal shall
require the pilot to revert to other navigational proce
dures.
WAY1OINT PROGRAMMING:
1.

Using a VFR sectional, enroute instrument chart, instrument


approach plate, or enroute RNAV chart
DETERMINE distance
and bearing for desired waypoint(s) from appropriate VOR/D
ME
stations.
VHF Navigation Receiver
ON.
DME TEST/ON-OFF Switch
ON.
DME Mode Selector Switch
RNAV.
RNAV DSPL Switch
1.
--

2.
3.
4.
5.

--

--

--

--

NOTE
When DSPL and FLY switches are not set to the same
waypoint number, the display/fly light slowly blinks on
and off as a reminder to the pilot that values displayed are
not those being used for navigation. This does not affect
operation of the unit.
6.
7.
8.

BEARING Minilever Switches


SET to first waypoint bearing.
DISTANCE Minflever Switches
SET to first waypoint distance.
XFER Pushbutton Switch
PUSH in.
a. First waypoint bearing and distance are placed in memory as
waypoint 1.
b. BEARING Display Readout
DISPLAYS readout of first
waypoint bearing.
c. DISTANCE Display Readout
DISPLAYS readout of first
waypoint distance.
RNAV DSPL Switch
SET to 2.
BEARING Minilever Switches SET to second waypoint bearing
.
DISTANCE Minilever Switches
SET to second waypoint dis
tance.
XFER Pushbutton Switch
PUSH in.
a. Second Waypoint Readout
BEARING and DISTANCE are
placed in memory as waypoint 2.
b. BEARING Display Readout
DISPLAYS readout of second
waypoint bearing.
c. DISTANCE Display Readout
DISPLAYS readout of second
waypoint distance.
BEARING Minilever Switches
SET to standby waypoint bear
lug.
--

--

--

--

--

9.
10.
11.
12.

--

--

--

--

--

13.

--

11 September 1981

34
CESSNA 400 RNAV
(TYPE RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
14.

DISTANCE Minilever Switches


tance.

--

SET to standby waypoint dis

NOTE
the
As first waypoint is reached, it can be replaced with
third standby waypoint (already set) before placing the
RNAV DSPL switch to 2. Then a fourth waypoint, if
necessary, can be set with the minilever selectors.
DISPLAY RELIABILITY TESTS:
NOTE
This test must be conducted following the Waypoint
tion
Programming procedures with the VHF Naviga
ON
the
in
still
es
switch
F
ON-OF
DME
TEST!
Receiver and
position.
1.
2.

SET to
VHF Navigation Receiver Frequency Selector Switches
ncy.
VOR freque
DSPL set to 1, FLY set to 2.
RNAV DSPL and FLY Switches
int bearing and distance that
waypo
first
AYS
DISPL
ut
a. Reado
.
mming
was selected in Waypoint Progra
FLASHES.
Head)
l
Contro
RNAV
(On
Lamp
splay
b. Fly!Di
set to 1.
FLY
2,
to
set
DSPL
es
RNAV DSPL and FLY Switch
distance.
a. Readout DISPLAYS second waypoint bearing and
ES.
FLASH
Head)
l
Contro
RNAV
b. Fly!Display Lamp (On
BOTH SET to same number.
RNAV DSPL and FLY Switches
DISPLAYS waypoint bearing and distance as
a. Readout
selected by DSPL switch.
NOT
b. Fly! Display Lamp (On RNAV Control Head)
LIGHTED.
SET to RNAV.
DME Mode Selector Switch
LIGHTED.
a. Both RN and NM Annunciators on DME
LIGHTS.
or
Indicat
ion
Deviat
b. RN Lamp on Course
SET to
VHF Navigation Receiver Frequency Selector Switches
LOC frequency.
LIGHTED.
a. Both RN and NM Annunciators
LIGHTED.
or
Indicat
ion
Deviat
on
Course
b. RN Lamp
Indica
c. Course Deviation Indicator OFF(or NAV)/TO-FROM
view.
in
flag
NAV)
(or
OFF
tor
SET to NAV 1, NAV 2, or HOLD.
DME Mode Selector Switch
LIGHTED.
DME
on
ciator
a. NM Annun
NOT LIGHTED.
b. RN Annunciator on DME
NOT LIGHTED.
c. RN Lamp on Course Deviation Indicator
or --Shows
Indicat
OM

d. Course Indicator OFF(or NAV), TO-FR


TO if a usable signal is received.
- -

--

--

3.

--

--

4.

--

--

--

5.

--

--

--

6.

--

--

--

- -

7.

--

- -

--

11 September 1981

34
CESSNA 400 RNAV
(TYPE RN-478A)
8.
9.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

DME Mode Selector Switch


RNAV.
DME TEST/ON-OFF Switch
HOLD to TEST.
a. DME RN/NM Distance Display
READOUT is 888.8.
b. DME KTS/MIN Ground Speed/Time-to-Stati
on Display
READOUT is 888.
c. RNAV BEARING Display
READOUT is 888.8.
d. RNAV DISTANCE Display
READOUT is 188.8.
--

--

--

--

--

AREA NAVIGATION CIRCUITS SELF-TEST:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

VhF Navigation Receiver


ON.
VI IF Navigation Receiver Frequency Selector Switches --SET
to a
usable VOR/DME frequency.
DME TEST/ON-OFF Switch
ON.
DME Mode Selector Switch
RNAV.
a. RN Lamp on Course Deviation Indicator
LIGHTED.
RNAV Computer
PROGRAMMED to waypoint.
DSPL and FLY Switches
SET both to waypoint to be tested.
a. BEARING Display
READOUT is waypoint bearing.
b. DISTANCE Display
READOUT is waypoint distance.
c. Course Indicator
RN LAMP lights.
Course Indicator OBS (or ARC)
SET to waypoint bearing.
VHF Navigation Receiver ID/VOX/T Switch
HOLD in T posi
tion.
a. Course Deviation Pointer
CENTERS.
b. Course Deviation Indicator OFF(or NAV)/TO-FROM
Flag
Shows TO.
c. DME Distance Display READOUT is the same as the
RNAV
DISTANCE readout.
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

7.
8.

tD

--

--

--

--

--

NOTE
After releasing the navigation receiver test (T) switch,
the
return to accurate computed bearing and distance data can
take up to 60 seconds depending upon airplane positio
n
and waypoint.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane
performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the
installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external
antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

11 September 1981

35
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 DME


(TYPE R-476A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 DME
(TYPE R-476A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The Cessna 400 DME (Type R-476A) is the airborne interrogator


slant
te,
accura
uous,
contin
s
supplie
which
system
tion
naviga
a
of
portion
in
range distance information from a fixed ground station to an aircraft
flight.
Except for selection of the operating channel, which is selected by the
VHF navigation receiver frequency selector switches, the Cessna 400 DME
is capable of independent operation. The equipment consists of a panells
mounted C-476A Control Unit which contains all of the operating contro
.
and displays, and a remotely mounted RTA-476A Receiver-Transmitter
ls
channe
200
on
pairs
pulse
gating
interro
its
transm
The RTA-476A
between 1041 MHz and 1150 MHz; it receives associated ground-to-air
ly
replies between 978 MHz and 1213 MHz. The C-476A Control Unit digital
or
speed
ground
either
and
displays distances up to 200 nautical miles
dis
and
ls
contro
ng
operati
All
selected.
as
ation,
inform
-station
time-to
are
plays for the DME are shown in Figure 1, and the functions of each
described.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
this
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when
avionic equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

35
CESSNA 400 DME
(TYPE R-476A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

RNAV Annunciator
DME Annunciator

0
0
1.

DISTANCE DISPLAY
In NAV 1, NAV 2, or HOLD mode, displays distance to
selected VOR/ DME siation in naotical miles: only NM
(Naotical Miles) annuncia
tor lights. In RNAV mode, displays distance to
selected waypoint in nautical
miles; both RN (RNAV) and NM annoncistors light.

2.

GS / TTS SELECTOR SWITCH


In NAV 1, NAV 2, or HOLD mode, selects display
of ground speed (CS) or time-to-station (TTS). In RNAV
mode, display shows
ground speed component to or from the VOR (not to waypo
int) or the time to the
VOR station at tbat indicated groond speed.

3.

DME MODE SELECTOR SWITCH


Selects DME operating mode as follows:
RNAV: Selects area navigation operation; selects display
of nautical miles
(distance) to selected RNAV waypoint.
NAV 1: Selects DME operation with No. 1 VHF naviga
tion set; enables
channel selection hy NAV 1 frequency selector switch
es.
HOLD: Selects DME memory circuit; DME remain
s channeled to station to
whicb it was channeled when HOLD was selected; display
of distance
continues to be nautical miles to that station. Both the
NAV 1 and the
NAV 2 sets may be set to new operation frequencies.
-

CAUTION
In the HOLD mode, there is no annunciation of the VOR/DME
station freqoency.
NAV 2: Selects DME operation with No. 2 VHF naviga
tion set; enables
channel selection by NAV 2 frequency selector switch
es.

Figure 1. Cessna 400 DME (Type R-476A) (Sheet 1 of 2)


11 September 1981

35
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

4.

5.

CESSNA 400 DME


(TYPE R-476A)

(turns
TEST! ON-OFF SWITCH Controls application of power to DME circuits
equipment on or off): selects display lsmp test for DME and RNAV displays.
-

Displays ground speed in knots or time-toGROUND SPEED! TIME DISPLAY


station in minutes, as follows:
from
a. With OS! TTS Switch set to OS, displays ground speed component to or
station in knots (aircraft must be flying directly to or from the VOR!DME
station for true ground speed indication).
-

b.

in
With GS/TTS Switch set to TTS, displays time to VOR!DME station
minutes at the ground speed component indicated.

c.

With GS!TTS in RNAV mode will display ground speed component or time
to-station at that speed to the selected VOR (not the waypoint).

Figure 1.

11 September 1981

Cessna 400 DME (Type R-476A) (Sheet 2 of 2)


3

35
CESSNA 400 DME
(TYPE R-476A)

PTLOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
.1

DME OPERATION:
1.
2.
3.

TEST/ON-OFF Switch
SET to ON.
DME Mode Selector Switch
SET to NAV 1 or NAV 2.
NAV 1 and NAV 2 VHF Navigation Receivers
ON; SET FRE
QUENCY selector switches to VORIDME station frequencies, as
required.
--

--

--

NOTE
When the VOR frequency is selected, the appropriate DME
frequency is automatically channeled. Therefore, the sys
tem does not provide independent operation of the DME for
reception of the DME Morse Code identifier.
4.

DME SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switch (on audio control


panel)
SET to desired mode.
GS/TTS Switch
SET as desired.
TEST/ON-OFF Switch
HOLD to TEST:
a. Distance-to-Station Display readout is 188.8.
b. Knots/Minutes Display readout is 888.
TEST/ON-OFF Switch
RELEASE to ON; display readouts
return to normal.

tZ)

--

5.
6.

7.

--

--

--

0
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE

There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic


equipment is installed. However the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

C
11 September 1981

36
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE


(TYPE R-443B)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(Type R-443B)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Glide Slope is an airborne navigation receiver which
receives and interprets glide slope signals from a ground-based Instru
ment Landing System (ILS). It is used with the localizer function of a VHF
navigation system when making instrument approaches to an airport. The
glide slope provides vertical path guidance while the localizer provides
horizontal track guidance.
The Cessna 400 Glide Slope system consists of a remote-mounted
receiver coupled to an existing navigation system, a panel-mounted
indicator and an externally mounted antenna. The glide slope receiver is
designed to receive ILS glide slope signals on any of 40 channels. The
channels are spaced 150 kHz apart and cover a frequency range of 329.15
MHz through 335.0 MHz. When a localizer frequency is selected on the NAV
receiver, the associated glide slope frequency is selected automatically.
Operation of the Cessna 400 Glide Slope system is controlled by the
associated navigation system. The functions and indications of typical 300
series glide slope indicators are pictured and described in Figure 1. The 300
series glide slope indicators shown in Figure 1 depict typical indications
for Cessna-crafted glide slope indicators. However, refer to the 400
Nay! Corn or HSI write-ups if they are listed in this section as options for
additional glide slope indicators.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

1 of 4

36
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(TYPE R-443B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

TYPICAL 300 SERIES GLIDE SLOPE INDICATORS

1.

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER


slope.

2.

GLIDE SLOPE OFF OR GE FLAG When visible, indicates unreliable


glide
slope signal or improperly operating equipment. The flag disappears when
a
reliable glide slope signal is being received,

Indicates deviation from normal glide

CAUTION
Spurious glide slope signals may exist in the area of the localizer
back course approach which can cause the glide slope OFF or
GS flag to disappear and present unreliable glide slope informa
tion. Disregard all glide slope signal indications when making a
localizer back course approach unless a glide slope (ILS BC) is
specified on the approach and landing chart.

Figure 1. Typical 300 Series VOR/LOC/ILS Indicator

11 September 1981

36
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(TYPE R-443B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO RECEIVE GLIDE SLOPE SIGNALS:
NOTE
The pilot should be aware that on Cessna airplanes
equipped with the vertical fin mounted glide slope
antenna, pilots should avoid use of 2700 100 RPM on
airplanes equipped with a two-bladed propeller or 1800
100 RPM on airplanes equipped with a three-bladed
propeller during 115 approaches to avoid oscillations of
the glide slope deviation pointer caused by propeller
interference.
1.
2.
3.

SELECT desired localizer fre


NAV Frequency Select Knobs
quency (glide slope frequency is automatically selected).
NAV/COM VOX-ID-T Switch--SELECT ID position to disconnect
filter from audio circuit.
NAV VOL Control ADJUST to desired listening level to confirm
proper localizer station.
--

--

CAUTION
When glide slope OFF or GSflag is visible, glide slope
indications are unusable.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.

11 September 1981

31(4 blank)

37
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON


(TYPE R-402A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(Type R-402A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

The system consists of a remote mounted 75 MHz marker beacon


receiver, an antenna which is either flush mounted or externally mounted
on the under side of the aircraft and operating controls and annunciator
lights which are mounted on the front of the audio control panel.
Operating controls for the marker beacon system are supplied on the
front of the two types of audio control panels used in this Cessna aircraft.
The operating controls for the marker beacon are different on the two audio
control panels. One type of audio control panel is supplied with one or two
transmitters and the other is supplied with three transmitters.
The marker beacon operating controls and annunciator lights used on
the audio control panel supplied with two or less transmitters are shown
and described in Figure 1. The operating controls consist of three, threeposition toggle switches. One switch is labeled HIGH/LO/MUTE and
provides the pilot with HIGH-LO sensitivity selection and marker beacon
audio muting, for approximately 30 seconds, to enable voice communica
tion to be heard without interference of marker beacon signals. The marker
beacon audible tone is automatically restored at the end of the 30 second
muting period to continue marker audio for passage over the next marker.
OFF! PHN and is used to turn the set on
Another switch is labeled SPKR/
and select the desired speaker or phone position for marker beacon
signals. The third toggle switch labeled, ANN LT, is provided to enable
the pilot to select the desired DAY or NITE lighting position for annuncia
tor lights, and also a TEST position to verify operation of marker beacon
annunciator lights.
on
The marker beacon operating controls and annunciator lights used
the audio control panel supplied with three transmitters are shown and
described in Figure 2. The operating controls consist of two, three-position
toggle switches, and two concentric control knobs. One switch is labeled
SPKR/PHN and is used to select the desired speaker or phone position
for marker beacon signals. The other switch is labeled HI / LO / TEST and

11 September 1981

1 of 6

37
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE H-402A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

irovides the pilot with HI-LO sensitivity selection and a TEST position to
verify operation of all annunciator lights. The small, inner contro knob
l
labeled OFF/VOL. turns the set on or off and adjusts the audio listenin
g
level. The large, outer control knob labeled BRT, provides light dimmi
ng
for the marker beacon lights.

When the Cessna 400 Marker Beacon controls are incorporated in an


audio control panel incorporated with two or less transmitters a marker
Beacon audio level adjustment potentiometer and an annunciator lights
minimum dimming potentiometer are mounted on the audio control panel
circuit board. Potentiometer adjustments cannot be accomplished exter
nally. However, if readjustments are desired, adjustments can be made in
accordance with instructions found in the Avionics Installations
Ser
vice/Parts Manual for this aircraft.

MARKER FACILITIES
MARKER

IDENTIFYING TONE

LIGHT*

C
Inner & Fan

Continuous 6 dots/sec (3000 Hz)

White

Middle

Alternate dots and dashes (1300 Hz)

Amber

Outer

2 dashes/sec (400 Hz)

Blue

When the identifying tone is keyed, the respective indicat


ing
light will blink accordingly.

0
0
11 September 1981

37
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON


(TYPE R-402A)

3
/

1
_;;P

ANN LII
HIAH

10(17

s.

lilA

NIlE

::

S.

HIT

L_u icwJ

AUDIO CONTROL PANEL FOR USE WITH ONE OR TWO TRANSMITTERS

1.

MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS:


OUTER Light illuminates blue to indicate passage of outer marker beacon.
MIDDLE Light illuminates amber to indicate passage of middle marker beacon.
INNER and FAN Light illuminates white to indicate passage of inner and fan
marker beacon.
-

2.

SPEAKER/OFF/PHONE SELECTOR SWITCH:


SPEAKER POSITION Turns set on and selects speaker for aural reception.
OFF POSITION Turns set off.
PHONE POSITION Turns set on and selects phone for aural reception.
-

3.

ANNUNCIATOR LIGHTS SWITCH:


NITE POSITION Places the annunciator lights in a dim lighting mode for night
flying operations. Light intensity of the NITE position is controlled by the
RADIO LT dimming rheostat.
DAY POSITION Places tile annunciator lights in the full bright position for
daylight flying operations.
TEST POSITION Illuminates all marker beacon annunciator lights (and other
annunciators) in the full bright position to verify operation of annuncia
tor lights.
-

4.

HIGH/LO/ MUTE SELECTOR SWITCH:


HIGH POSITION Receiver sensitivity is positioned for airway flying.
LO POSITION Receiver sensitivity is positioned for ILS approaches.
MUTE POSITION The marker beacon audio signals are temporarily blanked out
(for approximately 30 seconds) and then automatically restored, over the
speaker or headset in order to provide voice communications without
interference of marker beacon signals.
-

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Marker Beacon Operating Controls and


Indicator Lights Supplied with Two or Less Transmitters

11 September 1981

37
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

C
C
AUDIO CONTROL PANEL FOR USE WITH THRE
E TRANSMITTERS
1.

OFF/VOLUME CONTROL:
OFF! VOL Turns the set on or off and adjusts
the audio listening level. Clockwise
roiation of the smaller knob turns the sei on and
tncreases the audio level.
-

2.

MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATOR


LIGHTS:
OUTER Light illuminates blue to indicat
e passage of outer marker beacon.
MIDDLE Light illuminates amber to indicat
e passage of middle marker beacon.
INNER and FAN Light illuminates
white to indicate passage of inner or fan
marker beacon.
-

3.

SPEAKER/PHONE SELECTOR SWITCH:


SPEAKER POSITION Selects speaker for
aural reception.
PHONE POSITION Selects headphone for
aural reception.

4.

HI/LO/ TEST SELECTOR SWITCH:


HI POSITION Receiver sensitivity is
positioned for airway Dying.
LO POSITION Receiver sensitivity is
positioned for ILS approaches.
TEST POSITION Illuminates all annunc
iator lights in the full bright position to
verify operation of annunciator lights.
-

5.

LIGHT DIMMING CONTROL:


BRT

Provides tight dimming for the annunciator


lights. Clockwise rotation of
the larger knob increases light intensity.

C
Figure 2.

Cessna 400 Marker Beacon Operating Controls and Indicator


Lights Supplied With Three Transmitters.

11 September 1981

37
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON


(TYPE R-402A)

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
this avionic
There is no change to the airplane limitations when
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
ures when this
There is no change to the airplane emergency proced
avionic equipment is installed.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
WITH
MARKER BEACON OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR USE
S
AUDIO CONTROL PANELS PROVIDED WITH ONE OR TWO TRAN
1)
FIG.
MITTERS (REF.
1.
2.

3.
4.

SELECT desired speaker or


SFKRIOFF/PHN Selector Switch
n
phone audio. Either selected positio will turn set on.
n
NITE/DAY/TEST Selector Switch--PRESS to TEST positio and
full
ate
illumin
lights
iator
annunc
verify that all marker beacon
bright to indicate lights are operational.
NITE/DAY/ TEST Selector Switch SELECT desired position for
NITE or DAY lighting.
SELECT HI position for
HIGH/LO/MUTE Selector Switch
airway flying or LO position for ILS approaches.
--

--

NOTE
30 seconds
Press MUTE switch to provide an approximate
tone. The
audio
Beacon
r
Marke
of
out
g
blankin
temporary
tically
automa
is
ier
identif
marker beacon audio tone
.
period
muting
the
of
end
the
at
d
restore

11 September 1981

37
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

NOTE
Due to the short distance typical betwee
n the middle
marker and inner marker, audio identification
of the inner
marker may not be possible if muting is activat
ed over the
middle marker.

MARKER BEACON OPERATING PROCEDUR


ES FOR USE WITH
AUJ)IO CONTROL PANELS PROVIDED WITH THRE
E TRANSMIT
TNRS. (REF. FIG. 2)
I.

OFF/VOL Control
TURN to VOL position and adjust to desired
listening level. Clockwise rotation increas
es audio level.
1 Il/LO Sen Switch
SELECT HI position for airway flying or LO
position for ILS approaches.
SPKH/PHN Switch
SELECT speaker or phone audio.
BRT Control
SELECT BRT (full clockwise). ADJUST as desired
when illuminated over marker beacon.
TEST Switch --PRESS to TEST position and
verify that all marker
beacon annunciator lights will illuminate
full bright to indicate
lights are operational.
--

2.

--

3.
4.
5.

--

--

1-::)

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane perform
ance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation
of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antenn
as, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

0
11 September 1981

38
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(TYPE RT-485A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(720-Channel Type RT-485A)
-

SECTION 1
GENERAL
ts
The Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485A), shown in Figure 1, consis
ointer
of a panel-mounted receiver-transmitter and a single or dual-p
remote 300 or 400 Series course deviation indicator.

rThe set includes a 720-channel VHF communications receive


may
transmitter and a 200-channel VHF navigation receiver, both of which
be operated simultaneously. The communications receiver-transmitter
receives and transmits signals between 118.000 and 135 .975 MHz in 25-kHz
steps. The navigation receiver receives omni and localizer signals
d to
between 108.00 and 117.95 MHz in 50 kHz steps. The circuits require
on
deviati
course
the
in
located
are
er
signals
localiz
and
omni
interpret the
for 3
indicator. Microprocessor frequency management provides storage
alive
preset NAV and 3 preset COM frequencies in MEMORY. A keepom is
Nav/C
the
when
ncies
freque
voltage prevents loss of the preset
n
freque
ng
operati
tion
naviga
ns
and
nicatio
commu
the
off.
Both
turned
of
panel
front
the
on
ts
readou
escent
cies are digitally displayed by incand
the Nay! Corn.
A DME receiver-transmitter or a glide slope receiver, or both, may be
interconnected with the Nay! Corn set for automatic selection of the
ncy is
associated DME or glide slope frequency. When a VOR freque
station
VOR-DME
or
VORTAC
ted
associa
the
selected on the Nay! Corn,
er
frequency will also be selected automatically; likewise, if a localiz
d
selecte
be
will
ncy
freque
slope
glide
ted
associa
frequency is selected, the
automatically.
The 400 Nav/Com is installed with either 300 or 400 Series course
orate
deviation indicators. The 400 Series Nay! Com indicators incorp
rd
Automatic Radial Centering and a Course Datum synchro as standa
a
orate
incorp
not
do
ors
indicat
on
deviati
course
Series
features. The 300
Radial
atic
t,
Autom
withou
Course Datum synchro but are offered with, or
Centering.
NOTE
The Course Datum synchro incorporated in 400 Series
course deviation indicators is only operational when

11 September 1981

1 of 10

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

coupled to a slaved directional gyro system which is


coupled to a 40DB Autopilot or Integrated Flight Contro
l
System (IFCS).
Both the 300 and 400 Series course deviation indicators include
either a
single-pointer and related NAV flag for VOR/ LOC indicat
ion only, or dual
pointers and related NAV and GS flags for both
VOR/ LOC and glide slope
indications. Both types of indicators incorporate a back-c
ourse lamp (BC)
which lights when back course (reversed sense) operati
on is selected.
Indicators with Automatic Radial Centering will, when
selected, automati
cally indicate the bearing TO or FROM the VOR station
.
The Cessna 400 Nay! Com incorporates a variable thresho
ld automatic
squelch. With this squelch system, you set the thresho
ld level for auto
matic operation the further clockwise the lower
the threshold or the
more sensitive the set. When the signal is above
this level, it is heard even
if the noise is very close to the signal. Below this
level, the squelch is fully
automatic so when the background noise is very low,
very weak signals
(that are above the noise) are let through. For norma
l operation of the
squelch circuit, just turn the squelch clockwise
until noise is heard then
back off slightly until it is quiet, and you will have autom
atic squelch with
the lowest practical threshold. This adjustment
should be rechecked
periodically during each flight to assure optimum
reception.
-

All controls for the Nav/Com, except the omni bearing


selector (OBS)
knob or automatic radial centering (ARC) knob,
which is located on the
course deviation indicator, are mounted on the front
panel of the receivertransmitter. The audio control panels used in conjun
ction with this radio
are shown and described in another supplement in
this section.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when
this avionic
equipment is installed.

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency proced
ures when this
avionic equipment is installed. However, if the freque
ncy readouts fail, the
frequency controls should not be moved due to the
difficulty of obtaining a
known frequency under this condition. The radio will
remain operational
on the last frequency selected, and the preset freque
ncies in MEMORY may
be selected by pressing the appropriate MEMORY pushbu
tton.
11 September 1981

(3

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

14

15

15

14

TYPICAL 300 SERIES INDICATORS

15

16

22

TYPICAL 400 SERIES INDICATORS

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay/Corn (Type RT-485A), Operating Controls and


Indicators (Sheet 1 of 4)

11 September 1981

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)
1.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COM MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS - When a COM MEMORY pushbutton is


pressed, the preset selected frequency will appear in the COM frequency window
for use as the selected operating frequency. Each pushbutton will illuminate
white when pressed and the light will go out on the previously selected pushbut
ton. Three preset frequencies may be stored in MEMORY and selected as desired,
by merely pressing the appropriate COM MEMORY pushbutton to recall the
desired operating frequency. If electrical power to the sets keep-alivecircuit
has not been interrupted, upon turn-on, the set will automatically recall the last
COM MEMORY frequency selected by the MEMORY pushbutton. If electrical
power is removed from the sets keep-alive circuit (such as radio removal or
battery replacement) for more than 15 seconds, upon turn-on, all COM MEMORY
circuits will display the lowest operating frequency (118.000 MHz) and will have
to be reset. COM 1 MEMORY will automatically be selected.

2.

COMMUNICATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT - Indicates COM


frequency in use. Third decimal place not shown.

3.

CYCLE BUTTON (C) - Selects last illuminated decimal place on COM frequency
in use. If last decimal place is 2 or 7, pressing C pushbutton changes number to 5 or
0. respectively. If last decimal place is 5 or 0, pressing C pushbutton changes
number to 7 or 2, respectively. When the last illuminated digit on the set is 2 or 7,
the third digit on the set (not shown) will always be 5. When the last illuminated
digit on the set is 0 or 5, the third digit on the set (not shown) will always be 0. Also
provides test function by holding C pushbutton pressed for more than 1.7 seconds.
This lights each COM and NAV MEMORY pushbutton in turn, and displays the
corresponding preset frequency in MEMORY.

4.

NAVIGATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT - Indicates NAV fre


quency in use.

5.

NAV MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS


When a NAV MEMORY pushbutton is
pressed, the preset selected frequency will appear in the NAV frequency window
for use as the selected operating frequency. Each pushbutton will illuminate
white when pressed and the light will go out on the previously selected pushbut
ton. Three preset frequencies maybe stored in MEMORY and selected as desired,
by merely pressing the appropriate NAV MEMORY pushbutton to recall the
desired operating frequency. If electrical power to the sets keep-alive circuit
has not been interrupted, upon turn-on, the set will automatically reoall the last
NAV MEMORY frequency selected by the MEMORY pushbutton. If electrical
power is removed from the sets keep-alive circuit (such as radio removal or
battery replacement) for more than 15 seconds, upon turn-on, all NAV MEMORY
circuits will display the lowest operating frequency (108.00 MHz) and will have to
be reset. NAV 1 MEMORY will automatically be selected.

6.

ID-VOX-T SWITCH - In ID position, station identifier signal is audible; in VOX


(Voice) position, identifier signal is suppressed; in T (Momentary On) position,
the self-test function is selected, and the AP/CPLD annunciator illuminates
amber and the XMIT annunciator illuminates green.

7.

NAVIGATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS - Outer knob changes


NAV frequency in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz; inner knob changes
NAV frequency in .05-MHz steps between .00 and .95 MHz; simultaneously selects
paired glide slope frequency and DME channel.

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay/Corn (Type RT-485A), Operating Controls and


Indicators (Sheet 2 of 4)
11 September 1981

\,.-

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

8.

9.
10.

11.

amber
AUTOPILOT COUPLED ANNUNCIATOR (API CPLD) Illuminates
converter
when a 400B or 400B IFCS autopilot is coupled to NAV VOR/LOC
output, (non-operational with 200A and 300A autopilots).
-

NAV VOLUME CONTROL (VOL)

Adjusts volume of navigation receiver audio.

to activate
SQUELCH CONTROL Used to adjust signal threshold necessary
(decreases
COM receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise
squelch action): counterclockwise rotation decreases background noise.
-

TRANSMIT ANNUNCIATOR (XMIT)


output is normal while mike is keyed.

Illuminates green when transmitter

NOTE
Due to limited antenna isolation and production tolerances, the
Transmit Annunciator on both Nay/Coma on dual installations
may be illuminated when one transmitter is keyed.
12.

13.

14.

Outer knob
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS
inner knob
changes COM frequency in 1-MHz steps between 118 and 135 MHz;
or between
changes COM frequency in .05 MHz steps between .025 and .975 MHz
.000 and .950 MHz depending on selection of C button.
-

OFF switch and


COM OFF-VOLUME CONTROL (OFF-VOL) Combination ONI
of
COM receiver
volume
controls
and
set
on
Nav/Com
turns
control;
volume
audio.
-

with
BACK-COURSE LAMP (BC) Amber light illuminates when an autopilot
backautopilots
or
switch
sense
reverse
and
the
installed
is
feature
sense
reverse
frequency;
course function is engaged and receiver is tuned to a localizer
available
indicates course deviation pointer is reversed. BC light dimming is only
lights
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciator
DAY/NITE selector switch.
-

Indicatea selected VOR COURSE.

15.

COURSE INDEX

16.

Indicates course deviation from selected


COURSE DEVIATION POINTER
omni course or localizer centerline.

17.

18.

19.

glide
GLIDE SLOPE GS FLAG When visible, red GS flag indicates unreliable
a reliable
slope signal or improperly operatingequipment. Flag disappears when
glide slope signal is being received.
-

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER


slope.

Indicates deviation from ILS glide

signal. Red
NAV/ TO-FROM INDI CATOR Operates only with a VOR or localizer
signal. indi
VOR
usable
With
signal.
unusable
indicates
(Flag)
position
NAV
localizer
cates whether selected VOR course is TO or FROM station. With usable
signal, TO flag is in view.
-

Controls and
Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485A), Operating
4)
3
of
Indicators (Sheet

ii September 1981

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)
20.
21.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR course


.
AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC)
PUSH
-TO/PU
LL-FR SELECTOR
In center detent, functions as conventional
OBS. Pushed to inner (Momentary On)
position, rotates OBS course card to center
course deviation pointer with a TO
flag, then returns to conventional OBS
selection. Pulled to outer detent, continu
ously drives OBS course card to indicat
e bearing from VOR station, keeping
course deviation pointer centered, with
a FROM flag. ARC function will not
operate on localizer frequencies.
-

NOTE

22.

Engaging either Automatic Radial Center


ing (ARC) functions will
alter the airplanes course anytime the
autopilot is engaged and
coupled to the associated Nay when tuned
to a VOR frequency.
AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC)
LAMP Amber light illuminates
when Automatic Radial Centering is in use.
ARC light dimming is only available
when installed with an audio control panel
incorporating the annunciator lights,
DAY/NITE selecter switch.
-

23.

OBS COURSE CARD

24.

OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS)


radial.

25.

Indicates selected VOR course under course


index.
-

Rotates course card to select desired VOR

TO/FROM INDICATOR (TO/FR)


Operates onlywith ausableVORorlocalizer
signal. When white flag is in view, indicat
es whether selected course is TO or
FROM station. With usable localizer
signal, TO flag is in view.
-

26.

NAV INDICATOR FLAG When in vtew,


red NAV position (Flag) indicates the
selected VOR or localizer signal is unusab
le.
-

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type


RT-485A), Operating Controls and
Indicators (Sheet 4 of 4)

ii September 1981

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PRESETTING NAV/COM FREQUENCIES IN MEMORY:
1.
2.

3.

TURN ON; adjust to desired audio


COM OFF! VOL CONTROL
level.
PRESS desired NAV or COM pushbut
MEMORY 1 Pushbutton
the memory bank of a forthcoming
alert
to
1
momentarily
ton
frequency to be stored.
FREQUENCY SELECTORS MANUALLY ROTATE correspond
ing NAV or COM frequency selectors (press C pushbutton as
required to select the desired third fractional COM digit) until the
desired frequency is shown in the operating frequency readout
window. The frequency displayed will be automatically trans
ferred into MEMORY;.
--

--

- -

NOTE
Do not press the C pushbutton more than about 2 seconds
while selecting fractional frequencies or you will activate
the MEMORY test function.
4.

REPEAT STEPS 2 and 3 using


MEMORY 2 and 3 Pushbuttons
next desired NAV or COM MEMORY to be stored. Up to 3 NAV and
3 COM frequencies may be stored for automatic recall frequency
selection.
--

NOTE
The operating frequency set in the selected MEMORY
position will automatically be changed in the MEMORY
bank any time the operating frequency is manually
changed.
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER OPERATION:
TURN ON.
COM OFF/VOL Control
SET to desired 400
XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control panel)
Nav/ Corn.
3.SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
4. COM Frequency Selection SELECT desired operating frequency
by either pressing a COM MEMORY 1,2 or 3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by manually selecting the desired operating
frequency using the COM frequency selectors and C pushbutton.

1.
2.

--

--

--

--..

- -

11 September 1981

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-4$5A)
5.
6.
7.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

VOL Control
ADJUST to desired audio level.
SQ Control
ROTATE counterclockwise to just eliminate back
ground noise.
Mike Button:
a. To Transmit
DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
--

- -

NOTE
Sidetone may be selected by placing the AUTO selector
switch (on audio control panel) in either the SPEAKER or
PHONE position, or may be eliminated by placing the
AUTO selector switch in the OFF position. Adjustment of
sidetone on audio control panels supplied with three
transmitters cannot be accomplished externally. How
ever, audio control panels supplied with one or two trans
mitters have sidetone adjustment pots that are accessible
through the front of the audio control panel with a small,
nonconductive screwdriver.
b.
c.

XMIT Annunciator Light


CHECK ON (green light illumi
nated).
To Receive
RELEASE mike button.
--

0
0
NAVIGATION OPERATION:
1.
2.

COM OFF/VOL Control --TURN ON; adjust to desired audio level.


SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
NAV Frequency Selection-- SELECT desired operating frequency
by either pressing a NAV MEMORY 1, 2 or 3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by using NAV frequency selectors.
NAV VOL Control
ADJUST to desired audio level.
ID-VOX-T Switch:
a. To Identify Station
SET to ID to hear navigation station
identifier signal.
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal SET to VOX to include
filter in audio circuit.
--

3.

4.
5.

--

--

11 September 1981

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

6.

ARC PUSH-TO/PULL-FROM Knob (If Applicable):


PLACE in center detent and
a. To Use As Conventional OBS
select desired course.
b. To Obtain Bearing TO VOR Station PUSH (ARC/PUSH-TO)
knob to inner (Momentary On) position.
- -

--

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber while the OBS course
card is moving to center the course deviation pointer. After
alignment has been achieved to reflect bearing TO VOR,
automatic radial centering will automatically shut down,
causing the ARC lamp to go out and the ARC knob to return
to the center detent position and function as a normal OBS.
c.

To obtain Continuous Bearing FROM VOR Station


(ARC/PULL-FR) knob to outer detent.

- -

PULL

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber, OBS course card will
turn to center the course deviation pointer with a FROM
flag to indicate bearing from VOR station. This system
will continually drive to present the VOR radial the
aircraft is on until manually returned to the center detent
by the pilot.
7.

CHECK ON (light is only opera


AP/CPLD Annunciator Light
tional if a 400B Autpilot or 400B IFCS is engaged), amber light
illuminated.
--

VOR SELF-TEST OPERATION:


1.
2.
3.

4.

TURN ON.
COM OFF/VOL Control
NAV Frequency Selector Switches SELECT usable VOR station
signal.
SET for 0 course at course index; course deviation
OBS Knob
or deflects left or right, depending on bearing of
centers
pointer
signal; NAV/TO-FROM indicator shows TO or FROM.
deviation
ID/VOX/T Switch--PRESS toTand HOLD at T; course
and
FROM
shows
indicator
pointer centers, NAV/TO-FROM
light.
annunciators
XMIT
and
CPLD
API

11 September 1981

--

--

- -

38
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485A)
5.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately 100 to


either
side of 00 (while holding ID/VOX? T to T). Course deviation
pointer
deflects full scale in direction corresponding to course displac
e
ment. NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows FROM.
- -

NOTE
When the 400 NAV/COM is coupled to the ANS-351C
RNAV system the TEST operation is non-functional. Refer
to the Ground Check Procedures in the Area Navigation
System (Type ANS-351C) Supplement in this section to
verify VOR operation of the CDI.

6.

ID/VOXIT Switch--RELEASE for normal operation.


NOTE

This test does not fulfill the requirements of FAR 91.25.

C)

MEMORY TEST OPERATION:


1.

C Pushbutton
PUSH for about 2 seconds. Each COM and NAV
MEMORY pushbutton (1,2 & 3) will illuminate white,
in turn, with
the corresponding preset frequency displayed.
--

NOTE
If the keep-alive circuit has not been interrupted,
the
MEMORY test will always start with the last
COM
MEMORY selected and cycle through the remaining
COM
and NAV preset frequencies. The MEMORY
test will
always stop on the last selected COM and NAV
preset
frequencies.

C)
0

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance
when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation
of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas,
will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-4853)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(720-Channel

Type RT-485B)

SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485B), shown in Figure 1, consists
of a panel-mounted receiver-transmitter and a single or dual-pointer
remote 300 or 400 Series course deviation indicator.

The set includes a 720-channel VHF communications receivertransmitter and a 200-channel VHF navigation receiver, both of which may
be operated simultaneously. The communications receiver-transmitter
receives and transmits on frequencies between 118.000 and 135.975 MHz in
25-kHz steps. The navigation receiver receives omni and localizer signals
between 108.00 and 11795 MHz in 50 kHz steps. The circuits required to
interpret the omni and localizer signals are located in the course deviation
indicator. Microprocessor frequency management provides storage for 3
preset NAV and 3 preset COM frequencies in MEMORY. A keep-alive
voltage prevents loss of the preset frequencies when the Nay/Corn is
turned off. Both the communications and navigation operating frequen
cies are digitally displayed by LED readouts on the front panel of the
Nay! Corn.
A DME receiver-transmitter or a glide slope receiver, or both, may be
interconnected with the Nav/ Corn set for automatic selection of the
associated DME or glide slope frequency. When a VOR frequency is
selected on the Nay! Corn, the associated VORTAC or VOR-DME station
frequency will also be selected automatically; likewise, if a localizer
frequency is selected, the associated glide slope frequency will be selected
automatically.
The 400 Nay! Corn is installed with either 300 or 400 Series course
deviation indicators. The 400 Series Nay/Corn indicators incorporate
Automatic Radial Centering and a Course Datum synchro as standard
features. The 300 Series course deviation indicators do not incorporate a
Course Datum synchro but are offered with, or without, Automatic Radial
Centering.
NOTE
The Course Datum synchro incorporated in 400 Series

11 September 1981

1 of 12

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

course deviation indicators is only operational when


coupled to a slaved directional gyro system which is
coupled to a 400B Autopilot or Integrated Flight Control
System (IFCS).
Both the 300 and 400 Series course deviation indicators include either a
single-pointer and related NAV flag for VOR/ LOC indication only, or dual
pointers and related NAV and GS flags for both VOR/ LOC and glide slope
indications. Both types of indicators incorporate a hack-course lamp (BC)
which lights when back course (reversed sense) operation is selected.
Indicators with Automatic Radial Centering will, when selected, automati
cally indicate the bearing TO or FROM the VOR station.
The Cessna 400 Nay! Com incorporates a variable threshold automatic
squelch. With this squelch system, you set the threshold level for auto
matic operation the further clockwise the lower the threshold or the
more sensitive the set. When the signal is above this level, it is heard even
if the noise is very close to the signal. Below this level, the squelch is fully
automatic so when the background noise is very low, very weak signals
(that are above the noise) are let through. For normal operation of the
squelch circuit, just turn the squelch clockwise until noise is heard then
back off slightly until it is quiet, and you will have automatic squelch with
the lowest practical threshold. This adjustment should be rechecked
periodically during each flight to assure optimum reception.
-

All controls for the Nav/Com, except the omni bearing selector (OBS)
knob or automatic radial centering (ARC) knob, which is located on the
course deviation indicator, are mounted on the front panel of the receivertransmitter. The audio control panels used in conjunction with this radio
are shown and described in another supplement in this section.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.

C
C.

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

12

I
11

\
10

TYPICAL 300 SERIES INDICATORS

17

18

24

TYPICAL 400 SERIES INDICATORS

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-48B), Operating Controls and
Indicators (Sheet 1 of 4)

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

1.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COM MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS When


a COM MEMORY pushbutton is
pressed, the preset frequency will appear in the COM freque
ncy window for use as
the operating frequency. Three preset frequencies
may be stored in MEMORY and
selected as desired, by merely pressing the appropriate
COM MEMORY pushbutton to recall the desired operating frequency. If electric
al power to the sets keep
alivecircuit has not been interrupted, upon turn-on,
the set will automatically
recall the last COM MEMORY frequency selected by
a MEMORY pushbutton. If
electrical power is removed from the sets keep-alive
circuit (such as radio
removal or battery replacement) upon turn-on, all COM
MEMORY circuits will
display the lowest operating frequency (118.000 MHz) and
will have to be reset.
COM 1 MEMORY will automatically be selected. Pushbu
tton light dimming is
controlled by the RADIO light dimming rheostat knob.
-

2.

COM MEMORY BARS 1,2,3-When a COM MEMORY


pushbutton is pressed, the
corresponding memory bar is illuminated to indicate which
COM MEMORY is in
use.

3.

COMMUNICATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT


Steady display
indicates COM frequency in use. Blinking display indicat
es a frequency selected
prior to memory storing and not the frequency in use.
Third decimal place (either
0 or 5) is not shown on display.
-

4.

25/50 PUSHBUTTON Selects last illuminated decima


l place on COM frequency
in use. If last decimal place is 2 or 7, pressing 25/50 pushbu
tton changes number to
5 or 0, respectively. If last decimal place is 5 or 0, pressin
g 25/50 pushbutton
changes number to 7 or 2, respectively. When the last illumin
ated digit on the set is
2 or 7, the third digit on the set (not shown) will always
be 5. When the last
illuminated digit on the set is 0 or 5, the third digit on
the set (not shown) will
always be 0.

5.

NAV MEMORY BARS 1,2,3 When a NAV MEMORY pushbu


tton is pressed, the
corresponding memory bar is illuminated to indicate which
NAV MEMORY is in
use.

6.

NAVIGATION OPERATING FREQUENCY READOUT


Steady display indi
cates NAV frequency in use. Blinking display indicat
es a frequency selected
prior to memory storing and not the frequency in use.
-

7.

NAV MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS When a NAV


MEMORY pushbutton is
pressed, the preset frequency will appear in the NAV
frequency window for use as
the operating frequency. Three preset frequencies maybe
stored in MEMORY and
selected as desired, by merely pressing the approp
riate NAV MEMORY pushbut
ton to recall the desired operating frequency. If electric
al power to the sets keepalive circuit has not been interrupted, upon turn-on
, the set will automatically
recall the last NAV MEMORY frequency selected
by a MEMORY pushbutton. If
electrical power is removed from the sets keep-alive
circuit (such as radio
removal or battery replacement) upon turn-on, all NAV
MEMORY circuits will
display the lowest operating frequency (108.00
MHz) and will have to be reset.
NAV 1 MEMORY will automatically be selected. Pushbu
tton light dimming is
controlled by the RADIO light dimming rheostat knob.
-

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay/Corn (Type RT-485B),


Operating Controls and
Indicators (Sheet 2 of 4)

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
8.

In the ID position, both voice transmission and station


ID-VOX-T SWITCH
identifier signal are heard over the selected navigation frequency; in the VOX
(Voice) position, the identifier signal is suppressed and only the voice transmis
sion is heard; in the T (TEST, Momentary ON) position, a test signal is sent to the
CDI causing a 00 FROM bearing indication, the XMIT and API CPLD annunciators
are illuminated, and the COM and NAV frequency displays show 188.88 with all
memory bars illuminated.

9.

NAVIGATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS Outer knob changes


NAV frequency in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz; inner knob changes
NAV frequency in .05-MHz steps between .00 and .95 MHz; simultaneously selects
paired glide slope frequency and DME channel.

10.

AUTOPILOT COUPLED ANNUNCIATOR (API CPLD) Illuminates amber when


a 400B or 400B IFCS autopilot is coupled to NAV VOR/ LOC converter output (nonoperational with 200A and 300A autopilots).

11.

NAV VOLUME CONTROL (VOL)

12.

SQUELCH CONTROL Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activate


COM receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases
squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases background noise.

13.

TRANSMIT ANNUNCIATOR (XMIT)


output is normal while mike is keyed.

14.

Outer knob
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS
changes COM frequency in 1-MHz steps between 118 and 135 MHz; inner knob
changes COM frequency in .05 MHz steps between .025 and .975 MHz or between
.000 and .950 MHz depending on selection of 25/50 button.

15.

COM OFF-VOLUME CONTROL (OFF-VOL) Combination ON/OFF switch and


volume control; turns on NavI Com set and controls volume of COM receiver
audio.

16.

BACK-COURSE LAMP (BC) Amber light illuminates when an autopilot with


reverse sense feature is installed and the reverse sense switch or autopilots backcourse function is engaged and receiver is tuned to a localizer frequency;
indicates course deviation pointer is reversed. BC light dimming is only available
when installed with sn audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights
DAY/NITE selector switch.

17.

COURSE INDEX

18.

COURSE DEVIATION POINTER Indicates course deviation from selected omni


course or locali2er centerline.

19.

GLIDE SLOPE GS FLAG When visible, red GS flag indicates unreliable glide
slope signal or improperly operating equipment. Flag disappears when a reliable
glide slope signal is being received.

20.

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER Indicates deviation from ILS glide slope.

Adjusts volume of navigation receiver audio.

Illuminates green when trsnsmitter

Indicates selected VOR COURSE.


-

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485B), Operating Controls and
Indicators (Sheet 3 of 4)
11 Septernber 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

21.

NAy/TO-FROM INDICATOR - Operates onlywithaVORorlocalizersignal.Red


NAV position (Flag) indicates unusable signal. With usable VOR signal, mdi
cates whether selected VOR course is TO or FROM station. With usable localizer
signal, TO flag is in view.

22.

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX

23.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC) PUSH-TO/PULL-FR SELECTOR


In center detent, functions as conventional OBS. Pushed to inner (Momentary On)
position, rotates OBS course card to center course deviation pointer with a TO
flag, then returns to conventional OBS operation. Pulled to outer detent, continu
ously drives OBS course card to indicate bearing from VOR station, keeping
course deviation pointer centered, with a FROM flag. ARC function will not
operate on localtzer frequencies.

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR course.


-

NOTE
Engaging either Automatic Radial Centering (ARC) functions will
alter the airplanes course anytime the auteptlnt is engaged and
coupled to the associated Nay when tuned to a VOR frequency.
24.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC) LAMP Amber light illuminates


when Automatic Radial Centering is in use. ARC light dlinmingis only available
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciatnr lights,
DAY/NITE selector switch.

25.

OBS COURSE CARD

28.

OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS)


radial.

27.

TO/FROM INDICATOR (TO/FR) Operates only with ausableVORorlocaltzer


signal. When white flag is in view, indicates whether selected course is TO or
FROM station. With usable localizer signal, TO flag is in view.

28.

NAV INDICATOR FLAG When in view, red NAV position (Flag) indicates the
selected VOR or localizer signal is unusable.

Indicates selected VOR course under course index.


-

Rotates course card to select desired VOR

Figure 1. Cessna 400 Nay/Corn (Type RT-485B), Operating Controls and


Indicators (Sheet 4 of 4)

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
this
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when
fail, the
ts
readou
ncy
freque
the
er,
if
Howev
d.
installe
is
ent
avionic equipm
obtaining a
frequency controls should not be moved due to the difficulty of
onal
operati
remain
will
radio
The
ion.
condit
this
under
ncy
known freque
may
RY
MEMO
in
ncies
freque
preset
on the last frequency selected, and the
tton.
pushbu
RY
MEMO
riate
approp
the
g
pressin
d
by
be selecte

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
SELECTING A NEW NAV/COM ACTIVE FREQUENCY:
1.
2.

3.

TURN ON; adjust to desired audio


COM OFF/VOL CONTROL
level.
ond
FREQUENCY SELECTORS MANUALLY ROTATE corresp
as
ing NAV or COM frequency selectors (press 25/50 pushbutton
the
until
digit)
COM
nal
fractio
third
desired
the
required to select
. The
desired frequency is shown in the frequency readout window
the
that
ing
indicat
s,
second
8
imately
approx
display blinks for
selected frequency is ready for storage in memory.
PRESS the active frequency
MEMORY 1, 2, 3 Pushbuttons
y bar. The
memory button as indicated by the illuminated memor
the new
that
ing
indicat
g,
blinkin
stops
display immediately
s the new
frequency is stored in the active memory, and display
d.
active frequency. The original active frequency is replace
-

--

NOTE
If a memory button is not pressed, the display stops
the
blinking after approximately 8 seconds and returns to
ncy.
freque
active
l
origina

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

PRESELECTING AND STORING NAV/C


OM FREQUENCIES IN
MEMORY:
1.

COM OFF/VOL CONTROL


TURN ON; adjust to desired audio
level.
FREQUENCY SELECTORS --MANUALLY ROTA
TE correspond
ing NAV or COM frequency selectors (pres
s 25/50 pushbutton as
required to select the desired third fract
ional COM digit) until the
desired frequency is shown in the frequency
readout window. The
display blinks for approximately $ second
s, indicating that the
selected frequency is ready for storage
in memory.
MEMORY 1,2,3 Pushbuttons --PRESS the mem
ory pushbutton of
one of the NAV or COM memories not in
use. The display imme
diately stops blinking, and displays the new
frequency forl second
to indicate that it is now stored in the selecte
d memory. The display
then reverts to indicating the active frequ
ency.
MEMORY 1, 2, 3 Pushbuttons
REPEAT STEPS 2 and 3 to store
another frequency in the second NAV
or COM memory not in use.
--

2.

3.

4.

--

NOTE
This presetting sequence does not affect
communication
and/or navigation operation on the original
active fre
quency.
RECALLING A STORED FREQUENCY:
1.

MEMORY 1, 2, 3 Pushbuttons
SELECT and PRESS the desired
NAV or COM memory button, and observe
the following:
a. Frequency in selected memory becom
es the active frequency.
b. Frequency readout window indicates new
active frequency.
c. Corresponding memory bar indicates
selected memory.
--

COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITT
ER OPERATION:
1.
2.

4.

COM OFF/VOL Control


TURN ON.
XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control panel)
SET to desired 400
Nav/ Corn.
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on
audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
COM Frequency Selection --SELECT desir
ed operating frequency
by either pressing a COM MEMORY 1,2
or 3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by manually selec
ting the desired operating
frequency using the COM frequency selec
tors and 25/50 pushbut
ton.

5.

VOL Control

--

--

3.

--

--

ADJUST to desired audio level.

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

6.
7.

ROTATE counterclockwise to just eliminate back


SQ Control
ground noise.
Mike Button:
DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
a. To Transmit
NOTE
- -

- -

Sidetone may be selected by placing the AUTO selector


switch (on audio control panel) in either the SPEAKER or
PHONE position, or may be eliminated by placing the
AUTO selector switch in the OFF position. Adjustment of
sidetone on audio control panels supplied with three
transmitters cannot be accomplished externally. How
ever, audio control panels supplied with one or two trans
mitters have sidetone adjustment pots that are accessible
through the front of the audio control panel with a small,
nonconductive screwdriver.
CHECK ON (green light illumi
b. XMIT Annunciator Light
nated).
RELEASE mike button.
c. To Receive
--

--

NAVIGATION OPERATION:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

COM OFF/VOL Control TURN ON; adjust to desired audio level.


SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
NAV Frequency Selection SELECT desired operating frequency
by either pressing a NAV MEMORY 1,2 or 3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by using NAV frequency selectors.
ADJUST to desired audio level.
NAV VOL Control
ID-VOX-T Switch:
SET to ID to hear navigation station
a. To Identify Station
identifier signal.
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal SET to VOX to include
filter in audio circuit.
--

--

--

--

--

11 September 1981

39
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-485B)
6.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

ARC PUSH-TO/PULL-FROM Knob (If Applicable):


a. To Use As Conventional OBS
PLACE in center detent and
select desired course.
b. To Obtain Bearing TO VOR Station PUSH (ARC/PUSH
-TO)
knob to inner (Momentary On) position.
--

--

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber while the OBS course
card is moving to center the course deviation pointer. After
alignment has been achieved to reflect bearing TO VOR,
automatic radial centering will automatically shut down,
causing the ARC lamp to go out and the ARC knob to return
to the center detent position and function as a normal OBS.
c.

To obtain Continuous Bearing FROM VOR Station


(ARC/PULL-FR) knob to outer detent.

--

PULL

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber, OBS course card will
turn to center the course deviation pointer with a FROM
flag to indicate bearing from VOR station. This system
will continually drive to present the VOR radial the
aircraft is on until manually returned to the center detent
by the pilot.
7.

AP/CPLD Annunciator Light


CHECK ON (light is only opera
tional if a 400B Autopilot or 400B IFCS is engaged), amber light
illuminated.
--

VOR SELF-TEST OPERATION:


1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

COM OFF/VOL Control


TURN ON.
NAV Frequency Selector Switches SELECT usable VOR station
signal.
OBS Knob
SET for 00 course at course index; course deviation
pointer centers or deflects left or right, depending on bearing
of
signal; NAV/TO-FROM indicator shows TO or FROM.
ID/VOX/T Switch
PRESS to T and HOLD at T; course deviation
pointer centers, NAV/TO-FROM indicator shows
FROM,
AP/CPLD and XMIT annunciators are iiluminated and the COM
and NAV displays show 188.88 with all memory bars illumin
ated.
OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately 10 to either
side of 0 (while holding ID/ VOX/T to T). Course deviation
pointer
deflects full scale in direction corresponding to course displac
e
ment.
--

--

--

--

11 September 1981

39
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

6.

7.

8.

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(TYPE RT-485B)

OBS Knob SET for 1800 course at course index, course deviation
pointer centers or deflects left or right, depending on bearing of
signal. NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows FROM or TO.
on
ID! VOX/T Switch PRESS to T and HOLD at T; course deviati
pointer centers, NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows TO, AP/CPLD
and XMIT annunciators are illuminated and the COM and NAV
displays show 188.88 with all memory bars illuminated.
OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately 10 to either
side of 180 (while holding ID/VOX/T to T). Course deviation
pointer deflects full scale in direction corresponding to course
displacement.
- -

--

NOTE
When the 400 NAV/COM is coupled to the ANS-351C
RNAV system the TEST operation is non-functional. Refer
to the Ground Check Procedures in the Area Navigation
System (Type ANS-351C) Supplement in this section to
verify VOR operation of the CDI.
9.

ID/VOX/T Switch

--

RELEASE for normal operation.


NOTE

This test does not fulfill the requirements of FAR 91.25.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
ed
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mount
minor
a
in
result
will
as,
l
antenn
externa
related
l
severa
a
antenn or
reduction in cruise performance.

11 September 1981

11/(12 blank)

0000

40
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(Type RT-485A)

WITH
CESSNA 400 AREA
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
(Type RN-478A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Nay/Corn (Type RT-485A) Set with Cessna 400 Area
Navigation (RNAV-Type RN-478A) consists of a RT-485A Nay/Corn, a
476A DME system, a RN-478A Area Navigation Computer and a Course
Deviation Indicator, with or without, the optional Automatic Radial
Centering (ARC) feature. The RN-478A includes circuits which combine
the VOR navigation information with distance information from the R
476A DME system to provide data for area navigation. Operating informa
tion for the communication set and for VOR/localizer navigation is
presented in this supplement. Operating information for area navigation
and for DME is presented in separate supplements. Microprocessor
frequency management provides storage for 3 preset NAV and 3 preset
COM frequencies in MEMORY. A keep-alive voltage prevents loss of the
preset frequencies when the NAV/COM Switch, Avionics Power Switch,
or Master Switch is turned OFF.
The RT-485A Receiver-Transmitter includes a 720-channel VHF com
munication receiver-transmitter which receives and transmits signals
between 118.000 MHz and 135.975 MHz in 25-kHz steps. It also includes a
200-channel VHF navigation receiver which receives VOR and localizer
signals between 108.00 MHz and 117.95 MHz in 50-kHz steps. The communi
cation receiver-transmitter and the navigation receiver can be operated
simultaneously.
The VOR or localizer signal from the No. 2 Navigation Receiver is

11 September 1981

1 of 10

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

applied to the converter circuits in the RN-478A Area Navigation Compu


ter. The converter processes the received navigation signal to provide
omni bearing or localizer information for display by the course indicator.

()

CAUTION
If the RNAV set is removed from the airplane or becomes
inoperative, the associated VHF navigation indicator will
be inoperative.
The course indicator includes a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), an
Omni Bearing Selector (OBS) or Automatic Radial Centering (ARC) knob,
and OFF (or NAV)/To-From Indicator Flags. It also includes an RNAV
lamp (RN) which lights when area navigation operation is selected, and a
back-course lamp (BC) which lights when back-course operation is
selected. The IN-442AR is offered as the standard Course Deviation
Indicator and an optional IN-1048AC or IN-1049AC Course Deviation
Indicator is also offered when Automatic Radial Centering (ARC) is
desired. When the optional IN-1048AC Course Deviation Indicator is
installed, an Automatic Radial Centering lamp (ARC) is incorporated in
the CDI to alert the pilot that the Automatic Radial Centering feature has
been selected.
NOTE
The IN-442AR Course Deviation Indicator does not incor
porate synchro circuits for Course Datum. The IN-1048AC
and IN-1049AC optional Course Deviation Indicators
incorporate Course Datum synchro circuits as standard
equipment but Course Datum is only operational when
coupled to a slaved directional gyro system which is
coupled to a 400B Autopilot or Integrated Flight Control
System.

fD

All operating controls and indicators for the Cessna 400 Nay! Corn are
included on the front panel of the RT-485A Receiver-Transmitter and the
associated Course Deviation Indicator. These controls and indicators are
shown and described in Figure 1. Operating controls for the RN-478A Area
Navigation Computer, which are used for area navigation, and operating
controls for the associated Type R-476A DME are shown in the appropriate
supplements in this manual. Operating controls for the audio control
panels used in conjunction with this radio are shown and described
in
another supplement in this section.

SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS

There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic


equipment is installed.

ii September 1981

40
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

IN-442AR STANDARD VOR/LOC CDI


WITHOUT
AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING

IN-1048AC OPTIONAL VOR/LOC CDI


WITH
AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING

IN-1049AC OPTIONAL VOR/IOC/ILS CDI


WITH
AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING

Figure 1.

ors
Cessna 400 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicat
4)
(Sheet 1 of

11 September 1981

40

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)
1.

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COMM MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS When


a COM MEMORY pushbutton
is pressed, the preset selected frequency will
appear in the COM frequency
window for use as the selected operating
frequency. Each pushbutton will
illuminate white when pressed and the light will
go out on the previously selected
pushbutton. Three preset frequencies may be stored
in MEMORY and selected as
desired, by merely pressing the appropriate COM
MEMORY pushbutton to recall
the desired operating frequency. If electrical
power to the sets keep-alive
circuit has not been interrupted, upon turn-on,
the set will automatically recall
the last COM MEMORY frequency selected by
the MEMORY pushbutton. If
electrical power is removed from the sets keepalive circuit (such as radio
removal or battery replacement) for more than
15 seconds, upon turn-on, all COM
MEMORY circuits will display the lowest operati
ng frequency (118.000 MHz) and
will have to be reset. COM 1 MEMORY will
automatically be selected.
-

2,

COMMUNICATION OPERATING FREQUENC


Y READOUT
frequency in use. Third decimal place not shown
.

Indicates COM

3.

CYCLE BUTTON (C)


Selects last illuminated decimal place on COM freque
ncy
in use. If last decimal place is 2 or?, pressing C pushbu
tton changes number to 5 or
0, respectively. If last decimal place is 5 or
0. pressing C pushbutton changes
number to? or 2, respectively. When the last illumin
ated digit on the set is 2 or?,
the third digit on the set (not shown) will always
be 5. When the last illuminated
digit on the set isO or 5, the third digit on the set
(not shown) will always be 0. Also
provides test function by holding C pushbutton pressed
formore than 1.7 seconds.
This lights each COM and NAV MEMORY pushbu
tton in turn, and displays the
corresponding preset frequency in MEMORY.

4.

NAVIGATION OPERATING FREQUENC


Y READOUT
quency in use.

5.

Indicates NAV fre

NAV MEMORY 1,2 & 3 PUSHBUTTONS When


a NAV MEMORY pushbutton is
pressed, the preset selected frequency will appear
in the NAV frequency window
for use as the selected operating frequency.
Each pushbutton will illuminate
white when pressed and the light will go out
on the previously selected pushbut
ton. Three preset frequencies may be stored in MEMO
RY and selected as desired,
by merely pressing the appropriate NAV MEMO
RY pushbutton to recall the
desired operating frequency. If electrical power
to the sets keep-alive circuit
has not been interrupted, upon turn-on, the set
will automatically recall the last
NAV MEMORY frequency selected by the MEMO
RY pushbutton. If electrical
power is removed from the sets keep-alive
circuit (such as radio removal or
battery replacement) for more than 15 second
s, upon turn-on, all NAV MEMORY
circuits will display the lowest operating freque
ncy (108.00 MHz) and will have to
be reset. NAV 1 MEMORY will autematically be
selected.
-

6.

ID-VOX-T SWITCH
In ID position, station identifier signal is audibl
e; in VOX
(Voice) position, identifier signal is suppressed;
in T (Momentary On) position,
the self-test function is selected, and the AP/CP
LD annunciator illuminates
amber and the XMIT annunciator illuminates green.
-

C
Figure 1.

Cessna 400 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls


and Indicators
(Sheet 2 of 4)

11 September 1981

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

7.

Outer knob changes


NAVIGATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS
NAV frequency in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz: inner knob changes
NAV frequency in .05-MHz steps between .00 and .95 MHz: simultaneously selects
paired glide slope frequency and DME channel.

8.

Illuminates amber
AUTOPILOT COUPLED ANNUNCIATOR (API CPLD)
when a 40DB or 40DB IFCS autopilot is coupled to NAV VOR/LOC converter
output (non-operational with 200A and 300A autopilots).

9.

SlAV VOLUME CONTROL (VOL)

Adjusts volume of navigation receiver audio.

10.

Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activate


SQUELCH CONTROL
COM receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases
squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases background noise

11.

TRANSMIT ANNUNCIATOR (XMIT)


output is normal while mike is keyed.
NOTE

Illuminates green when transmitter

Due to limited antenna isolation and production tolerances, the


Transmit Annunciator on both NavlComs on dual installations
may be illuminated when one transmitter is keyed.
12.

Outer knob
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY SELECTORS
changes COM frequency in 1-MHz steps between 118 and 135 MHz; inner knob
changes COM frequency in .05 MHz steps between .025 and .975 MHz or between
.000 and .950 MHz depending en setting of C button.

13.

Combination ONI OFF switch and


COM OFF-VOLUME CONTROL (OFF-VOL)
volume control; turns on NavlCom set and controls volume of COM receiver
audio.

14.

OBS COURSE CARD

iS.

Amber light illuminates when an autopilot with


BACK-COURSE LAMP (BC)
reverse sense feature is installed and the reverse sense switch or autopilots backcourse function is engaged and receiver is tuned to a localizer frequency;
indicates course deviation pointer is reversed. BC light dimming is only available
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights
DAYINITE selector switch.

16.

AREA NAV LAMP (RN) When green light is illuminated, indicates that RNAV
operation is selected. RN light dimming is only available when installed with an
audio control panel incorporating the annunciator lights DAYINITE selector
switch.

17.

Rotates OBS course card (14) to select


OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS)
desired bearing to or from a VOR station or to a selected RNAV waypoint.

18.

RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX


course.

Indicates selected VOR course under course index.


-

Figure 1.

Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR orRNAV

Cessna 400 Nay/Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 3 of 4)

11 September 1981

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

19.

OFF/TO-FROM INDICATOR
Operates only with VOR, localizer or RNAV
signal. OFF position (flag) indicates unusable signal. With usable VOR
signal,
when OFF position disappears, indicates whether selected course TO
is
or FROM
station or waypoint. With usable localizer signal, TO flag is in view.

20.

COURSE DEVIATION POINTER Indicates course deviation from selected


VOR or RNAV course or localizer centerline.

21.

COURSE INDEX

22.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC PUSH-TO/PULL-FR) SELECTOR


In center detent, functions as conventional OBS. Pushed to inner (Momentary
On) position, turns OBS course card (14) to center course deviation pointer
(20)
with a TO flag (25), then returns to conventional OBS selection. Pulled
to outer
detent, continuously drives OBS course card (14) to indicate bearing
from VOR
station, keeping course deviation pointer (20) centered, with a FROM
flag (25).
ARC function will not operate on localizer frequencies.

Indicates selected VOR or RNAV course (bearing).


-

NOTE
Engaging either Automatic Radial Centering (ARC) functions will
alter the airplanes course anytime the autopilot is engaged and
coupled to the associated Nay when tuned to a VOR frequency.
23.

NAV INDICATOR FLAG When in view, red NAV position (Flag) indicates
the
setected VOR or localizer signal is unusable.

24.

AUTOMATIC RADIAL CENTERING (ARC) LAMP Amber light illuminates


when Automatic Radial Centering is in use. ARC light dimming is only available
when installed with an audio control panel incorporating the annunciator
lights.
DAY/NITE selector switch.

25.

INDICATOR (TO/FR)
Operates only with a usable VOR, localizer or RNAV
signal. When white flag is in view, indicates whether selected course is
TO or
FROM station. With usable localizer signal, TO flag is in view.

26.

GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER Indicates deviation from ILS glide


slope.

27.

GLIDE SLOPE GS FLAG When visible, red OS flag indicates unreliable glide
slope signal or improperly operating equipment. Flag disappears when a reliable
glide slope signal is being receiver.

0
Figure 1.

Cessna 400 Nay! Corn Set, Operating Controls and Indicators


(Sheet 4 of 4)

11 September 1981

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
this
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when
the
fail,
ts
readou
ncy
freque
the
if
er,
Howev
d.
avionic equipment is installe
lty of obtaining a
frequency controls should not be moved due to the difficu
operational
known frequency under this condition. The radio will remain
MEMORY may
on the last frequency selected, and the preset frequencies in
be selected by pressing the appropriate MEMORY pushbutton.

SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
RY:
PRESETTING NAV/COM FREQUENCIES IN MEMO
1.
2.

3.

TURN ON; adjust to desired audio


COM OFF/VOL CONTROL
level.
PRESS desired NAV or COM pushbut
MEMORY 1 Pushbutton
the memory bank of a forthcoming
alert
to
tarily
ton 1 momen
frequency to be stored.
TE correspond
FREQUENCY SELECTORS MANUALLY ROTA
pushbutton as
C
(press
rs
selecto
ing NAV or COM frequency
digit) until the
COM
nal
fractio
third
desired
the
select
to
d
require
ncy readout
freque
ng
operati
the
in
desired frequency is shown
tically trans
automa
be
will
ed
display
ncy
freque
The
.
window
ferred into MEMORY 1.
--

--

NOTE
s
Do not press the C pushbutton more than about 2 second
activate
while selecting fractional frequencies or you will
the MEMORY test function.
4.

and 3 using next


MEMORY 2 and 3 Pushbutton REPEAT STEPS 2
to 3 NAV and 3
Up
stored.
be
desired NAV or COM MEMORY to
frequency
recall
tic
automa
for
stored
be
may
ncies
COM freque
selection.
-

NOTE
MEMORY
The operating frequency set in the selected
memory
in
the
d
change
be
tically
automa
will
n
positio
lly
manua
is
ncy
freque
ng
bank anytime the operati
changed.

11 September 1981

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

COMMUNICATIONS OPERATION:
1.
2.

COM OFF/VOL Control


TURN ON.
XMTR SEL Switch (on audio control pane
l)
SET to No. 2 400
Nay! Corn.
SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on
audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
COM Frequency Selection SELECT desired
operating frequency
by either pressing a COM MEMORY 1, 2 or
3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by manually selecting
the desired operating
frequency using the COM frequency selec
tors and C pushbutton.
VOL Control
ADJUST to desired audio level.
SQ Control
ROTATE counterclockwise to just elim
inate back
ground noise.
Mike Button:
a. To Transmit
DEPRESS and SPEAK into micropho
ne.
--

(Th)

--

3.

--

4.

5.
6.
7.

--

--

--

--

NOTE
Sidetone may be selected by placing the AUTO
selector
switch (on audio control panel) in either the
SPEAKER or
PHONE position, or may be eliminate
d by placing the
AUTO selector switch in the OFF position.
Adjustment of
sidetone on audio control panels supp
lied with three
transmitters cannot be accomplished exter
nally. How
ever, audio control panels supplied with one
or two trans
mitters have sidetone adjustment pots that
are accessible
through the front of the audio control pane
l with a small,
nonconductive screwdriver.
b.
c.

C)

XMIT Annunciator Light


CHECK ON (green light illumi
nated).
To Receive
RELEASE mike button.
--

--

0
11 September 1981

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT
NAVIGATION OPERATION:

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

COM OFF/VOL Control--TURN ON; adjust to desired audio level.


SPEAKER/PHONE Selector Switches (on audio control panel)
SET to desired mode.
NAV Frequency Selection SELECT desired operating frequency
by either pressing a NAV MEMORY 1, 2 or 3 pushbutton to recall a
preset frequency, or by using NAV frequency selectors.
--

--

ADJUST to desired audio level.


NAV VOL Control
ID-VOX-T Switch:
SET to ID to hear navigation station
a. To Identify Station
identifier signal.
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal-- SET to VOX to include
filter in audio circuit.
ARC PUSH-TO/PULL-FROM Knob (If Applicable):
PLACE in center detent and
a. To Use As Conventional OBS
select desired course.
PUSH knob to inner
b. To Obtain Bearing TO VOR Station
(Momentary On) position.
--

--

6.

--

--

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber while the OBS course
card is moving to center the course deviation pointer. After
alignment has been achieved to reflect bearing TO VOR,
automatic radial centering will automatically shut down,
causing the ARC lamp to go out and the ARC knob to return
to center detent position and function as a normal OBS.
c.

To obtain Continuous Bearing FROM VOR Station


(ARC/PULL-FR) knob to outer detent.

--

PULL

NOTE
ARC lamp will illuminate amber, OBS course card will
turn to center the course deviation pointer with a FROM
flag to indicate bearing from VOR station. This system
will continually drive to present the VOR radial the
aircraft is on until manually returned to the center detent
by the pilot.
7.

CHECK ON (light is only opera


AP/CPLD Annunciator Light
tional if a 400B Autopilot or 400B IFCS is engaged), amber light
illuminated.

11 September 1981

--

40
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(RT-485A) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

VOR SELF-TEST OPERATION:


1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

COM OFF/VOL Control


TURN ON.
1
NAV Frequency Selector Switches SELECT usable VOR station
signal.
OBS Knob
SET for 00 course at course index; course deviation
pointer centers or deflects left or right, depending on bearing of
signal; NAy! TO-FROM indicator shows TO or FROM.
ID/VOX/T Switch
PRESS to T and HOLD at T; course deviation
pointer centers, NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows FROM and
AP/CPLD and XMIT annunciators light.
OBS Knob TURN to displace course approximately 10 to either
side of 0 (while holding ID! VOX/ T to T). Course deviation pointer
deflects full scale in direction corresponding to course displace
ment. NAy/TO-FROM indicator shows FROM.
ID/VOX/T Switch
RELEASE for normal operation.
--

--

--

--

--

CD

NOTE
This test does not fulfill the requirements of FAR 91.25.
MEMORY TEST OPERATION:
1.

C Pushbutton
PUSH for about 2 seconds. Each COM and NAV
MEMORY pushbutton (1,2 & 3) will illuminate white, in turn, with
the corresponding preset frequency displayed.
--

NOTE
If the keep-alive circuit has not been interrupted, the
MEMORY test will always start with the last COM
MEMORY selected and cycle through the remaining COM
and NAV preset frequencies. The MEMORY test will
always stop on the last selected COM and NAV preset
frequencies.

SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.

10

11 September 1981

41
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT

CESSNA 400 NAV/COM


(RT-485B) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 NAV/COM
(Type RT-485B)

WITH
CESSNA 400 AREA
NAVIGATION SYSTEM
(Type RN-478A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL

400 Area
The Cessna 400 Nay! Corn (Type RT-485B) Set with Cessna
aB
Com,
Nay!
5B
RT-48
a
of
ts
consis
8A)
RN-47
-Type
Navigation (RNAV
Course
a
and
ter
Compu
tion
476A DM1 system, a RN-478A Area Naviga
Automatic Radial
Deviation Indicator, with or without, the optional
s which combine
circuit
s
include
8A
Centering (ARC) feature. The RN-47
from the H
ation
inform
e
distanc
with
ation
inform
tion
naviga
the VOR
informa
ing
Operat
tion.
naviga
area
476A DME system to provide data for
navigation is
r
ocalize
VOR/l
for
and
set
n
nicatio
commu
the
for
tion
area navigation
presented in this supplement. Operating information for
Microprocessor
ments.
supple
te
separa
in
ted
presen
is
DM1
for
and
and 3 preset
frequency management provides storage for 3 preset NAV
ts loss of the
preven
voltage
alive
keepA
RY.
MEMO
in
ncies
freque
COM
Switch,
Power
cs
Avioni
,
Switch
OM
preset frequencies when the NAV/C
or Master Switch is turned OFF.
VHF com
The RT-485B Receiver-Transmitter includes a 720-channel
on fre
its
transm
and
s
receive
which
mitter
munication receiver-trans
It also
steps.
z
25-kH
in
quencies between 118.000 MHz and 135.975 MHz
and
VOR
s
receive
which
r
receive
tion
naviga
VHF
annel
includes a 200-ch
The
steps.
z
50-kH
in
MHz
localizer signals between 108.00 MHz and 117.95
receiver can be
communication receiver-transmitter and the navigation
operated simultaneously.
Receiver is
The VOR or localizer signal from the No. 2 Navigation
11 September 1981

1 of 12

CESSNA 400 NAVICOM


(RT-485B) WITH CESSNA
400 RNAV (RN-478A)

PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK


SUPPLEMENT

applied to the converter circuits in the RN-47


8A Area Navigation Compu
ter. The converter processes the recei
ved navigation signal to provide
omni bearing or localizer information for disp
lay by the course indicator.

CAUTION
If the RNAV set is removed from the airpl
ane or becomes
inoperative, the associated VHF navigatio
n indicator will
be inoperative.
The course indicator includes a Course
Deviation Indicator (CDI), an
Omni Bearing Selector COBS) or Automati
c Radial Centering (ARC) knob,
and OFF (or NAV)/To-From Indicator Flag
s. It also includes an RNAV
lamp (RN) which lights when area navi
gation operation is selected, and a
back-course lamp (BC) which lights
when back-course operation is
selected. The IN-442AR is offered as
the standard Course Deviation
Indicator and an optional IN-1048AC or
IN-1049AC Course Deviation
Indicator is also offered when Automati
c Radial Centering (ARC) is
desired. When the optional IN-1O4SAC
Course Deviation indicator is
installed, an Automatic Rad