SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN MARINE AND FISHERIES RESOURCES Balancing Economic Growth, Social Equity, and Environmental Carrying

Capacity
Symposium on Indonesian Environmental Monitoring 2004 (Strategic Development of Fisheries and Marine Affairs in Indonesia : Hopes and Their Challenges), Rakusui Hall, Campus Shinagawa, Tokyo University of Marine Science of Technology
Prof. Dr. Rokhmin Dahuri Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Paper Presented at

By:

Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia Jakarta, July 8, 2004

INDONESIAN’S PHYSICAL DIMENSION
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world with more than 17,500 islands and 81,000 km of coastline (the second longest in the world, after Canada) Total land area Total sea area : 1.9 million km2 (25%) : 5.8 million km2 (75%)

• Territorial waters : 0.8 million km2 • Archipelagic & internal water : 2.3 million km2 • EEZ : 2.7 million km2 Freshwater ecosystems (lakes, rivers, swamp areas, reservoirs, etc.) : 54 million ha.

Map of Indonesia

INDONESIAN’S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
Total population GNP per capita : 220 million : US $ 700

60% of Indonesian people live within 50 km of the coastline. 2/3 of Indonesian cities located within the coastal zone Indonesian is endowed with varied and abundant natural resources, especially coastal and marine resources. Since the birth of “Reform Era” (1998) Indonesia has been acknowledged as the third largest democratic country in the world after USA and India. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MoMAF) has been established since September 1999

POTENTIALS OF COASTAL AND MARINE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCES
A. RENEWABLE RESOURCES - fish and other living aquatic resources - mangrove - etc B. NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES - oil and gas - mine and minerals C. MARINE ENERGY - wave - tide - OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) - wind D. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES - communications and transportations - recreation and tourism - climate regulator - waste absorption - coral reefs - small island

POTENTIALS OF MARINE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCES
1. Aquaculture (MoMAF) 2. Capture fisheries (MoMAF) 3. Fisheries Processing Industries (MoMAF) 4. Biotechnology Industries (MoMAF) 5. Marine Tourisms 6. Mining and Energy 7. Sea Transportation 8. Maritime industries, Coastal engineering 9. Mangrove (MoMAF/Ministry of Forestry) 10. Small islands (MoMAF) 11. Archeological heritages (MoMAF)

ECONOMIC DOMAIN OF MoMAF
1. 2. 3. 4. Aquaculture Capture fisheries Fisheries Processing Industries Biotechnology Industries
- Natural products, bioactive substances) for pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, food and beverages - Bioremediation - Genetic engineering

5. Small islands 6. Archeological heritages (sunken treasures) 7. Sea sand mining 8. Non-conventional resources

Marine Capture Fisheries
• MSY • TAC • Total Catch • Opportunity for expansion = 0.8 – 2.0 million tons/year = 6.4 million tons/year = 5.2 million tons/year (80% MSY) = 4.4 million tons (2003)

Figure 1. Opportunity of Marine Fisheries Resources Development by Fisheries Management Zones
95oT 5oU 100o 105o 110o 115o 120o 125o 130o 135o 140oT

0o

5oS 10o
1% - 20% 20% - 40% 40% - 60% < 1%

15o

1. Selat Malaka; 2. Laut Cina Selatan; 3. Laut Jawa; 4. Selat Makasar dan Laut Flores; 5. Laut Banda; 6. Laut Seram sampai Teluk Tomini; 7. Laut Sulawesi dan Samudera Pasifik; 8. Laut Arafura; 9. Samudera Hindia

Kelompok Sumber Daya Ikan Pelagis Besar Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Ikan Pelagis Kecil Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Ikan Demersal Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Ikan Karang Konsumsi Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Udang Penaeid Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Lobster Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Cumi-cumi Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Potensi (103 ton/tahun) Produksi (103 ton/tahun) Pemanfaatan (%) Catatan:

1

2

3

Wilayah Pengelolaan Perikanan 4 5 6

7

8

9

Perairan Indonesia

27.67 35.27 >100 147.30 132.70 90.15 82.40 146.23 >100 5.00 21.60 >100 11.40 49.46 >100 0.40 0.87 >100 1.86 3.15 >100 276.03 389.28 >100

66.08 35.16 53.21 621.50 205.53 33.07 334.80 54.69 16.34 21.57 7.88 36.53 10.00 70.51 >100 0.40 1.24 >100 2.70 4.89 >100 1,057.05 379.90 35.94

55.00 137.82 >100 340.00 507.53 >100 375.20 334.92 89.26 9.50 48.24 >100 11.40 52.86 >100 0.50 0.93 >100 5.04 12.11 >100 796.64 1,094.41 >100

193.60 85.10 43.96 605.44 333.35 55.06 87.20 167.38 >100 34.10 24.11 70.70 4.80 36.91 >100 0.70 0.65 92.86 3.88 7.95 >100 929.72 655.45 70.50

104.12 29.10 27.95 132.00 146.47 >100 9.32 43.20 >100 32.10 6.22 19.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.01 2.50 0.05 3.48 >100 277.99 228.48 82.19

106.51 37.46 35.17 379.44 119.43 31.48 83.84 32.14 38.33 12.50 4.63 37.04 0.90 1.11 >100 0.30 0.02 6.67 7.13 2.85 39.97 590.62 197.64 33.46

175.26 153.43 87.54 384.75 62.45 16.23 54.86 15.31 27.91 14.50 2.21 15.24 2.50 2.18 87.20 0.40 0.04 10.00 0.45 1.49 >100 632.72 237.11 37.47

50.86 34.55 67.93 468.66 12.31 2.63 202.34 156.80 77.49 3.10 22.58 >100 43.10 36.67 85.08 0.10 0.16 >100 3.39 0.30 8.85 771.55 263.37 34.14

386.26 188.28 48.74 526.57 264.56 50.21 135.13 134.83 99.78 12.88 19.42 >100 10.70 10.24 95.70 1.60 0.16 10.00 3.75 6.29 >100 1,076.89 623.78 57.92

1,165.36 736.17 63.17 3,605.66 1,784.33 49.49 1,365.09 1,085.50 79.52 145.25 156.89 >100 94.80 259.94 >100 4.80 4.08 85.00 28.25 42.51 >100 6,409.21 4,069.42 63.49

1. Selat Malaka, 2. Laut Cina Selatan, 3. Laut Jawa, 4. Selat Makassar dan Laut Flores, 5. Laut Banda, 6. Laut Seram dan Teluk Tomini, 7. Laut Sulawesi dan Samudera Pasifik, 8. Laut Arafura, 9. Samudera Hindia

Brackish water Aquaculture Potential by Province
Potency No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 D.I Aceh Sumatera Utara Riau Jambi Sumatera Selatan Sumatera Barat Lampung Bengkulu Jawa Barat Jawa Tengah D.I Yogyakarta Jawa Timur Bali Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Timor Timur Kalimantan Barat Kalimantan Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Selatan Sulawesi Tenggara Sulawesi Tengah Sulawesi Utara Maluku Irian Jaya TOTAL Provinces Areas (ha) 34.800 71.500 Dta Dta 16.300 7.700 6.550 6.850 62.650 20.000 1.900 33.800 4.650 19.200 2.500 2.600 91.650 115.000 28.600 83.400 15.850 20.050 5.450 3.400 191.150 21.000 866.550 % 4,02 8,25 Dta Dta 1,88 0,89 0,76 0,79 7,23 2,31 0,22 3,90 0,54 2,22 0,29 0,30 10,58 13,27 3,30 9,62 1,83 2,31 0,63 0,39 22,06 2,42 100,00 Areas (ha) 42.847 6.950 286 100 100 3.613 16.620 143 54.308 27.955 Dta 60.173 678 7.051 346 26 557 Dta 2.363 15.428 84.832 13.686 5.850 689 45 213 344.759 % 123,12 9,72 Dta Dta 0,61 46,92 253,74 2,09 86,68 139,78 Dta 178,03 14,58 36,72 13,84 1,00 0,61 Dta 8,26 18,50 535,22 68,26 107,34 20,26 0,02 1,01 40,00 Utilization level

Sumber : diolah dari Ditjen Perikanan (1999)

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF SHRIMP BRACKISHWATER POND • If 500.000 ha can be developed, with the productivity on average of 2 tons/ha/year • Then, shrimp production • With price Total export values
Notes : 1. Thailand, with coast-line of 2.600 km, shrimp production = 340.000 ton/year 2. Total production of shrimp production in Indonesia = 80.000 ton (2000)

= 1,000,000 tons/year = US$ 10/kg = US $ 10 Billion/year.

MARICULTURE
• Coastline = 81,000 km • Many of the bays and small islands have relatively calm and clean waters • Coral reef areas (85,000 km2) the largest in the world • Mariculture potential = 2,002,680 ha (20% of the total potential of marine areas are 5 km from coast line)
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Snapper Grouper Tiram & kerang darah Teripang Pearl & abalone Sea Weed Total = 598.120 ha = 461.600 ha = 591.800 ha = 66.660 ha = 62.040 ha = 222.460 ha = 2.002.680 ha

• Potential production: ± 46.73 mill. ton/year (Puslitbangkan, 1998) • Current production (in 2000) = 0.5 mill. ton (very low)

POTENTIAL OF FRESHWATER FISHERIES
1. Inland waters • Lake , Areas : 141,820 ha • Reservoir , Production : 356,020 ton/year • River Value : US $ 1bill. • Wetland. 2. Freshwater ponds • Irrigation : 3,755,904 ha Production : • ponds : 375,800 ha 805,700 ton/year value: 3. Rice field fisheries US $ 5.19 bill • Irrigation : 1,760,827 ha Production : • Land areas : 880,500 ha 233,400 ton/year
TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE : US $ 6.19 bill/year.

MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY a. Natural Products (Bioactive substances) for pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, food and beverage b. Genetic engineering c. Bioremediation • Total export value of seaweed from the Philippines = US$ 700 million in 1998 (Trubus, December 1999). Indonesia exported US$ 15 million. only in the same year • 60% seaweed raw materials of Philippines imported from Indonesia. • Export value of marine biotechnology in USA = US$ 4 bill in 1996 (World Bank and Sida, 1997) • Export value products of British bioremediation in 1996 = ± US$ 2 bill (ODA, 1997)

ESTIMATE OF ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF FISHERY RESOURCES
Sustainable Yield ( 1000 ton) 5.006 356 46.700 1.000 1.039 Estimated Value (US$ million) 15.101 1.068 46.700 10.000 5.195 4.000 82.064

Commodity Capture Fisheries (sea) Capture Fisheries (fresh water) Mariculture Brackish water Aquaculture Fresh water Aquaculture Potential Marine Biotechnology Total + Biotechnology

MARINE TOURISM Queensland (2100 km coastline) ~ US $ 2.5 BILLION MINING AND ENERGY TRANSPORTATION Devisa earning for foreign shipping lines ~ US $ 10 billion/year

Multiplier effects
MARITIME INDUSTRY: ship-yard, offshore

engineering and structures, fishing gears, and deep sea water.

Economic Value of Coastal and Marine Activities, 1988 (Rp. Billion)
No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Sector Oil and Gas Industry Transportation and Communication Shipping and Ports Agriculture Fisheries Tourism Forestry Aquaculture Coastal community activities Mining Total Econ. Value Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. Rp. 11,777 7,588 5,528 4,905 3,674 1,589 694 295 274 128 116 36,568

Source : CIDA/Bappenas (1988)

Contribution to GDP = 22% Direct employment opportunities = 13.6 millions (CIDA/Bappenas, 1988) Based on 1990 constant price, marine economic values (11 economic sectors) = Rp. 43,432 billions (24% GDB) Direct employment opportunities = 16 millions (Robertson Group and PT. Agriconsult, 1992)

Marine Economic Value of Various Countries: a Comparison
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Countries
South Korea Korea Selatan

Coast line (km) 2.713 32.000 81.000 34.386

Contribution to GDP (%) 37 48,4 22 54 Value (US $) 147 bill. (1992) 17.352,6 bill. (1999) 28 bill (1988) 21.400 bill. (1992)

RRC PRC Indonesia Jepang Japan

Sources : Dutton and Hotta, 1996 and Xin, 1999

TOTAL EMPLOYMENT GENERATED FROM MARINE AND FISHERIES SECTORS

No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Activities
Capture fisheries (fishermen) Aquaculture Industrial Bioteknology Marine Eco-tourism Mining and Energy Transportation Maritime Industry Marine Industry Services Sunken Treasures TOTAL

Employment
3,900,000 2,100,000 50,000 3,000,000 72,000 240,000 1,200,000 60,000 10,000

10,632,000

EXPORT POTENTIAL
Continue to grow : Increase of world population Consumer awareness - seafood for health and intellectual quotient Growth of food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries – demand for raw material increasing Anti dumping petition for shrimp by the US against Thailand, China, India, Vietnam, Ecuador and Brazil. Export Destination : Japan (40%) USA ( 15%) Europe (20%) China (10%) Hongkong (5%) Singapore (5%) Others (5%)

DOMESTIC MARKET
1. Fishery Products : Contribute 60% of total animal protein supply Raw material for fish meal 2. Total Population (2002): + 220 million 3. Per capita fish consumption (2003) : 24 kg/cap/year 4. Total fish consumption (2002) : 4.8 million tons

PORTRAY OF THE PAST MARINE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT
• Economic contribution relatively low • IUU fishing and illegal sea sand mining • Environmental degradation • Most of the fishermen and coastal community are living under poverty line (only 25% considered to be prosperous dualistic economy).

CONSTRAINT AND PROBLEMS
1. Lack of national appreciation on the strategic and economic role/value of fisheries and marine sector for economic development 2. Minimum attention (budget), vision and lack of technology application 3. Human resource development very limited, lack of infrastructure for development

DEVELOPMENT BUDGET 1999 – 2004 (MILLION RUPIAH)
Budget Development - Rupiah - Foreign Aid - Special Budget Routine Total
*)Plan

1999 70,000 70,000

2000 763,570 96,961 666,609 …… 16,390

2001 647,952 498,700 149,252 ……. 81,250 729,202

2002 984,961 700,000 284,961 …… 113,620 1,098,581

2003 1,496,812 1,310,000 186,812 …… 105,640 1,602,452

2004*) 1,901,297 1,360,000 235,827 305,470 119,692 2,020,989

Increase (% /year) 28.96 136.41 1,28

110.46 29.03

70,000

779,960

Note: during the 1st long-term development program until the middle of second long-term development program, total credit allocated for fisheries sector only 0,02% from the total allocated credit.

FISHING PORTS: JAPAN, THAILAND AND INDONESIA
1. JAPAN • Coastal line : 34,000 km • Number of fishing ports : 3,000 • Ratio : 1 fishing port/ 11 km costal line 2. Thailand • Costal line • Fishing ports • Ratio 3. Indonesia • Coastal line • Fishing port • Ratio : 2,600 km : 52 : 1 fishing port/ 50 km coastal line : 81,000 km : 18 (5 PPS and 13 PPN) : 1 fishing port/4,500 km coastal line

VISION OF MARINE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT
Marine and fisheries resources as prime mover of economic development and national welfare based on social equity and sustainability

MISSION
1. To improve welfare of fishermen, fish farmers, and other coastal communities 2. To increase the contribution of marine and fisheries sector to sustained economic growth 3. To ensure the sustainability of natural resources and ecosystems 4. To improve health and intellectual quotient of Indonesian people through increased fish consumption 5. To make seas and ocean as national unifying factor

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
1) IMPOWERING COASTAL COMMUNITY, FISHERMEN AND FISH FARMERS 2) IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH OF MARINE AND FISHERIES SECTOR 3) REHABILITATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARINE AND FISHERIES ECOSYSTEM 4) TO FOSTER ROLE OF OCEAN AS NATIONAL UNITY AND MARITIME CULTURE 5) DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION SYSTEM 6) HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 7) FACILITATION OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY DEVELOPMENT IN MARINE AND FISHERIES SECTOR 8) REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

ACHIEVEMENTS 2000-2003
1. GDP FISHERIES SECTOR 2. FISH PRODUCTION 3. EXPORT AND TRADE BALANCE 4. FISHERMEN AND FISH FARMERS 5. FISHING VESSELS/BOATS 6. AQUACULTURE AREA 7. FISH CONSUMPTION 8. NON TAX REVENUE 9. PREVENTION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES 10. INCOME OF FISHERMEN AND COASTAL COMMUNITIES

ACHIEVEMENTS ACHIEVEMENTS
1. CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL INCOME 1. CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL INCOME
BEFORE MMAF 1998 AFTER MMAF 2003

4 MILLION TON US $ 1.6 BILLION. RP 0 RP 25 TRILLION US $ 4 BILLION

FISH PRODUCTION DEVISA NON TAX REVENUE PDB LOSS DUE TO IUU FISHING

5.95 MILLION TON US $ 2.0 BILLION RP 341 BILLION RP 47 TRILLION US $ 1 BILLION

GDP OF FISHERIES AND NATIONAL GDP, 1999 - 2002
UNIT : Rp billion
Sector 1999 2000 2001 2002 *) 2003 **)
1999-2002 1999-

Growth (%)

LIVESTOCK ESTATE CROPS FOOD CROPS FORESTY

FISHERIES

25.932,80
23.761,20 35.966,50 116.222.50 13.803,80

29.509,70
27.034,60 33.744,70 112.661,20 14.947,80

36.654,80
30.438,20 37.491,20 126.065,20 15.648,30

46.610,30
34.808,90 41.919,50 141.137,40 16.848,90

11.890,70
9.066,50 7,257,90 44.591,30 4.826,80

21,72
13,58 5,58 6,39 6,88

GDP

1.099.731,60

1.264.918,70

1.449.398,10

1.610.011,60

77.633,30

13,56

SOURCE : BPS **) UP TO 1ST QUATER

Contribution of primary fishery product to GDP = 2.9% (2002) = 2.1% (2001)

Percent (%) 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 1990

Comparison Between Output of Fisheries Sector Vs fish Processing Industries
Fisheries sector

Fish Processing Industries Total

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Year

2. POLICY/LEGISLATION 2. POLICY/LEGISLATION
BEFORE MMAF 1998 AFTER MMAF 2003

NOT AVAILABLE NOT COMPLETED

COASTAL LAW FISHERIES LAW SMALL ISLANDS
1.

IN PROGRESS ALMOST COMPLETED UTILIZATION GUIDELINES 2. INVENTORY 3. PROFIL UNDER CONTROL

NOT COMPILED

NOT CONTROLLED

SAND MINING SAND PRICE

US $ 1.5/M3

US $ 3.0/M3

3. GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT 3. GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT
BEFORE MMAF 1998 AFTER MMAF 2003

<RP 70 BILLION

BUDGET

- >RP 2 TRILIUN - DEKONS

DGF UNDER MOA -

GOVT. COMMITMENT

- DEP. SEA EXPLORATION MMAF-RI

LIMITED SCOPE

-

EMPOWERING FISHERMEN AND FISH FARMER

- PEMP - INBUDKAN

- SPBU 1.260 LOCATION

PROJECTED ACHIEVEMENTS
PRESENT CONDITION TARGET 2006

5.6 MILLION TON US $ 2,1 BILLION 3% GDP RP 300 BILLION

PRODUCTION DEVISA GDP NON TAX REVENUE

9,5 MILLION TON US $ 5 BILLION 10% GDP RP 600 BILLION

4,4 MILLION

EMPLOYMENT

7,4 MILLION

FISH CONSUMPTION, 2000-2003
2000 2001 2002 2003 GROWTH (%) 5,65

TOTAL (ton) PER CAPUT (kg / Cap / yr)

4.506,93

4.687,64

4.841,55

5.308,68

21,57

22,47

22,84

24,67

4,61

COMBATING ILLEGAL FISHING
FISHING LICENSE ISSUED 17/04/2003
Before Re-registration Number of Companies
T o t a l A llo c a t e d F

Registered

Not Registered 638 11,622 3,241 3,158 30 6 12 35

New Licence 733 1,578 2,830 1,983 164 19 48 52 564 5

Position 4/17/2003 1,895 9,000 6,958 5,750 383 81 92 88 564 5

1,800 19,000 7,369 6,925 249 68 56 71

1,162 7,378 4,128 3,767 219 62 44 36

Total fishing Vessel SPI SIKPII SIKPPII SIKPIA SPKPIA SIPI SIKPPIA

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF FISHERIES AND MARINE SECTOR 2004-2009

CAPTURE FISHERIES
1. Sustainable and Optimal utilization of fishery resources: a. Relocation of fishermen from “overfished” to “underfished” areas b. Modernization of traditional fishing fleets c. Revitalization of infrastructures

2. Fostering social welfare of fishermen through provision of productive economic assets including banking facilities, fishermen housing, training and extension.

3. Development of integrated business unit in fishing ports and other landing places 4. Combating IUU fishing practices 5. Combating destructive fishing practices through promotion of “public awareness”, provision of sustainable alternative

livelihood and law enforcement
6. Development of Outer Ring Fishing Ports

Distribution of Outer Ring Fishing Ports
AN OCE IC

OCEANIC
Outer Fishing Por t

SABANG

Ou t
BELAWAN

er F i

shin

g Po

rt

OC

NUNUKAN
PEMANGKAT

EA

BITUNG TERNATE BIAK

NI C

SIBOLGA

Ou ter Fis hin g
OC E

Por t

BUNGUS KENDARI AMBON JAKARTA
BAROMBONG

AN

IC

CILACAP

BRONDONG PENGAMBENGAN

Ou ter Fis hin g

TUAL KUPANG

TL.AWANG

MERAUKE

Por t
OCE A NIC

Outer Fishin g

Port
OCEANIC

AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
1. Revitalization of brackish water shrimp aquaculture 2. Extension program both for black tiger and vannamae.

3. Intensification Program, Integrated Aquaculture, Rural Aquaculture, FisheriesBased Aquaculture, and Green Aquaculture Production

4. Diversification of freshwater, brackish water and mariculture 5. Development of high quality low priced and environmentally friendly feeds 6. Selective Breeding for shrimp, grouper, seaweed, tilapia to produce SPF fries; 7. Biosecurity 8. Development of GIS

FISH PROCESSING AND MARKETING
1. Revitalization of canning industry, fish meal, cold storage, etc. to promote high efficiency and competitiveness

2. Product development and diversification .
3. Development of hygienic fish markets 4. Improvement of transportation and distribution system including development of cool-chain system

Conti……..

5. Promotion of fish consumption 6. Development of raiser for ornamental fishes 7. Board of commodities : shrimp, tuna, seaweed, pearl, etc. 8. Promote export of fish and fishery products

BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
1. Sleeping drugs from sea horse 2. Industrial salt (99% NaCl) 3. Tetrodotoxin from puffer fish 4. Chitosan from crab shell as anticholesterol 5. Chitin from shrimp waste 6. Etc.

SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS TO FACILITATE ECOLOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPMENT:

1. Bonds, colateral fee, and environmental insurance;
2. Enforcement of procedure for environmental analysis

SUNKEN TREASURES
Utilization of sunken treasures needs a thorough research and exploration with high cost Threats of illegal and irresponsible treasure hunters 1. Formulation of legal procedures for exploration and utilization of sunken treasures 2. Formulation of directives and guidelines for the exploration and utilization of sunken treasures 3. Environmental impacts

4. Exploration permit has to be very selective 5. Involvement of government 6. Profit sharing (win-win solution) 7. Bank guarantee 8. Involvement of local community

NON-CONVENTIONAL MARINE RESOURCES Current policy:
1. Development of deep sea and high sea

resources

2. Development of mineral resources in the coastal, territorial sea, EEZ and open seas 3. Development of OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) 4. Development of marine information system

NATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR MARINE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT (GERBANG MINA BAHARI)
1. THEME : “FOSTERING THE GROWTH OF MARINE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE NATIONAL WELFARE ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS” 2. GOAL : 1. To improve the welfare of fishermen, fish farmers and coastal communities 2. To improve foreign exchange earnings and PDB 3. Create more employment opportunities 4. To improve per capita fish consumption and provision of raw material for processing industry 5. Maintain sustainable ecosystem.

TARGET
SCENARIO WITHOUT GMB (BUSINESS AS USUAL) 2006 1. FISH PRODUCTION 2. DEVISA 3. CONTRIBUTION TO GDP 4. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTINY : 8 million ton : US $ 3 billion : 5% : 6.6 million

5. PER CAPITA FISH CONSUMPTION : 25 kg 6. SEA TRANSPORTATION 7. MARINE ECO-TOURISM : US $ 10 billion : US $ 1.5 billion
65

TARGET
SCENARIO WITH GMB (2006)
1. FISH PRODUCTION 2. DEVISA 3. CONTRIBUTION TO GDP 4. EMPLOYMENT 5. FISH CONSUMPTION 6. SEA TRANSPORTATION 7. MARINE ECO-TOURISM : 9.5 million ton : US $ 5 billion : 10 % : 7.4 million : 30 kg : US $ 10 billion : US $ 5 billion

PREREQUISITES
-INDONESIAN FISHERIES INCORPORATED
-FROM “SOFT STATE” TO “HARD STATE”

(Gunar Myrdal, 1968)

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