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AE6401

AERODYNAMICS-I
Program: B.E. Aeronautical Engineering

Semester: IV

Subject: Aerodynamics-I

Code: AE6401

Teaching Scheme

Evaluation Scheme
Theory

Lecture

Practical

Tutorials

Credits

(3 Hrs, 100
Marks)

Continuous
Assessment
As per Institution
norms

3
0
0
3
80
20
Pre-requisite: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (CE6451), Elements of Aeronautics (AE6302)

Minimum
Qualifying
Marks
50

Course Objectives:
i.
To introduce (i) the concepts of mass, momentum and energy conservation relating to aerodynamics (ii)
to make the student understand the concept of vorticity ( ), irrotationality, circulation ( ), stream
function ( ) & potential function ( ) (iii) thus using them ( , , , ) as tools to solve the potential flows
(uniform, source/sink, doublet, and vortex).
ii.

To introduce - the classical theoretical aerodynamic solutions like lift force estimation for flow over 2D
circular cylinder (Kutta Joukowskis theorem) and compare them with experimental (real, rough and
viscous) flow solutions.

iii.

To introduce (i) the basic K-J transformation techniques (line to circle, circle to ellipse, and circle to
symmetrical & cambered airfoils), (ii) Kutta condition and (iii) the Glaurets theory of airfoils and wing
sections.

iv.

To introduce (i) effect of span wise flow, (ii) concept of vortex filament, vortex sheet, the Prandtls
Classical Lifting line Theory, (iii) Induced drag estimation.

v.

To introduce the basics of viscous flow (i) the concept of boundary layer, its dependence on pressure
gradient, adverse effects of boundary layer, various thicknesses to predict the missing mass flow, missing
momentum flow, effective body shape and drag coefficient (ii) Prandtls boundary layer equations and the
solution procedure by Blassius, (iii) critical Reynolds number and turbulent flows.

Course Outcomes:
After successful completion of the course students will demonstrate the following outcomes:
1.

(i) Thorough understanding of the mathematical formulation of physical flows (ii) An exposure to the
fundamental tools in theoretical aerodynamics (iii) An exposure to formation and solution of elementary
theoretical potential flows.

2.

Able to calculate circulation about geometries like circle, airfoil and thus calculate the lift force acting on
them using K-J theorem.

3.

(i) Able to transform simple geometries like circle and ellipse to desired airfoil section shapes using K-J
transformations (ii) able to estimate/calculate the thin airfoil performance (lift and moment coefficients) for
using Glaurets airfoil theory.

4.

(i) Able to calculate lift force on a finite wing and the amount of induced drag it produced (ii) able to think
of new conceptual designs to increase overall L/D.

5.

(i) Able to demonstrate knowledge of sources for viscous drag and its estimation (ii) able to estimate the
effective contour shapes for geometries like missile nose cones (iii) able to use similarity parameters for
solution of boundary layer equations (iv) able to differentiate turbulent flows from laminar flows.

Detailed Syllabus:
Description

Unit

Duration

INTRODUCTION TO LOW SPEED FLOW


1

Euler equation, incompressible Bernoullis equation. Circulation and vorticity, Greens


Lemma and Stokes theorem, barotropic flow, Kelvins theorem, streamline, stream
function, irrotational flow, potential function, equipontential lines, elementary flows and
their combinations.

TWO DIMENSIONAL INVISCID INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS


2

Ideal Flow over a circular cylinder, DAlemberts paradox, Magnus effect, Kutta
Joukowskis theorem, Starting vortex, Kutta condition and real flow over smooth and
rough cylinder.
AIRFOIL THEORY
Cauchy-Riemann relations, complex potential, methodology of conformal
transformation, Kutta - Joukowskis transformation and its applications, thin airfoil
theory and its applications.

SUBSONIC WING THEORY


4

Vortex filament, Biot and Savart law, bound vortex and trailing vortex, horse shoe
vortex, lifting line theory and its limitations.

INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY


5

Boundary layer and boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, momentum


thickness, energy thickness, shape parameter, boundary layer equations for a steady,
two dimensional incompressible flow, boundary layer growth over a flat plate, critical
Reynolds number, Blasius solution, basics of turbulent flow.
Total

45

Text Books:
1. Houghton, E.L., and Caruthers, N.B., "Aerodynamics for Engineering students", Edward Arnold
Publishers Ltd., London, 1989.
2. Anderson, J.D., "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics", McGraw Hill Book Co., 1993
Reference Books:
1. Milne Thomson, L.H., "Theoretical Aerodynamics", Macmillan, 1985
2. John J Bertin., "Aerodynamics for Engineers", Pearson Education Inc, 2002
3. Clancey, L J.," Aerodynamics", Pitman, 1986
4. Kuethe, A.M and Chow, C.Y, Foundations of Aerodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons
5. E. Rathakrishnan, Theoretical Aerodynamics, First Edition, John Wiley & Sons
Detailed Lesson Plan:
S. No.

Planed
Duration in
Period/Hrs

Actual
Period/Hrs

Topic(s)

Book No.

Teaching
Method

UNIT 1 : INTRODUCTION TO LOW SPEED FLOW

1, 2

Continuum flow, Continuity, Momentum and


Energy Equations

T2

PPT

3, 4

Euler equation, incompr. Bernoullis equation.

T2

BB

5, 6

Circulation & vorticity, Greens Lemma & Stokes


theorem

R4, T2

BB

7, 8

Barotropic flow, Kelvins theorem, streamline,


stream function, irrotational flow, potential
function, equipontential lines

R4, T2

BB

9, 10

Elementary flows and their combinations.

T2

BB

UNIT 2 : TWO DIMENSIONAL INVISCID INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

11, 12

Non lifting flow over a circular cylinder

T2

BB

13, 14

DAlemberts paradox, Magnus effect

T2

PPT

15, 16

Kutta Joukowskis theorem

T2

BB

17, 18

Starting vortex, Kutta condition

T2

BB

10

19, 20

Real flow over smooth and rough cylinder.

T2

PPT

UNIT 3 : AIRFOIL THEORY

11

21, 22

Cauchy-Riemann relations, complex potential,


methodology of conformal transformation

R5, T1

PPT

12

23, 24

Kutta - Joukowskis transformation and its


applications

R5, T1

BB

13

25, 26

Thin airfoil theory assumptions, fundamental


equation

T2

BB

14

27, 28

TAT application to symmetric and cambered


airfoils

T2

BB

15

29, 30

TAT numerical problems

T2

BB

UNIT 4 : SUBSONIC WING THEORY

16

31, 32

Vortex filament, Biot and Savart law,

T2

BB

17

33, 34

Bound vortex and trailing vortex, horse shoe


vortex,

T2

BB

18

35, 36

Lifting line theory assumptions, fundamental


equation, limitations

T2

BB

19

37, 38

Elliptical lift distribution, induced drag

T2

BB

UNIT 5 : INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY

20

39, 40

Boundary layer and boundary layer thickness

T2

BB

21

41, 42

Displacement thickness, momentum thickness,


energy thickness, shape parameter

T2

BB

22

43, 44

Boundary layer equations for a steady, two


dimensional incompressible flow

T2

BB

23

45, 46

Boundary layer growth over a flat plate, critical


Reynolds number, Blasius solution

T2

BB

24

47, 48

Basics of turbulent flow.

T2

BB