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IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) vol.11 issue.1 version.3

IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) vol.11 issue.1 version.3

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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 1 Ver. III (Jan - Feb. 2015), PP 80-85

www.iosrjournals.org

Labelings

S. K. Vaidya1, C. M. Barasara2

1

2

(Atmiya Institute of Technology and Science, Rajkot - 360 005, Gujarat, INDIA)

Abstract: The embedding and NP-complete problems in the context of various graph labeling schemes were

remained in the focus of many researchers. Here we have explored embedding and NP-Complete problems for

some variants of cordial labeling.

Keywords: Graph labeling, equitable labeling, embedding of graphs, NP-complete problems.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 05C78, 05C60.

I.

Introduction

A graph labeling is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges, or both, subject to certain

condition or conditions.

Labeling of discrete structures is a potential area of research and a comprehensive survey on graph

labeling can be found in Gallian [1].

Definition 1.1: For a graph G , a vertex labeling function f : V (G) {0,1} induces an edge labeling function

f * : E(G) {0,1} defined as f * (e uv) f (u) f (v) . Then f is called cordial labeling of graph G if

absolute difference of number of vertices with label 1 and label 0 is at most 1 and absolute difference of number

of edges with label 1 and label 0 is at most 1.

A graph G is called cordial if it admits a cordial labeling.

The concept of cordial labeling was introduced by Cahit [2] in 1987 and in the same paper he presented

several results on this newly introduced concept.

After this some labelings like prime cordial labeling, A - cordial labeling, product cordial labeling,

edge product cordial labeling etc. were also introduced with minor variations in cordial theme. Such labelings

are classified as equitable labelings.

Definition 1.2: For a graph G , an edge labeling function f : E(G) {0,1} induces a vertex labeling function

f * : V (G) {0,1} defined as f * (u) { f (uv) / uv E(G)} . Then f is called an edge product cordial labeling

of graph G if the absolute difference of number of vertices with label 1 and label 0 is at most 1 and the absolute

difference of number of edges with label 1 and label 0 is also at most 1.

A graph G is called edge product cordial graph if it admits an edge product cordial labeling.

In 2012, the concept of edge product cordial labeling was introduced by Vaidya and Barasara [3]. In

the same paper they have investigated edge product cordial labeling for some standard graphs.

For any graph G , we introduce following notations:

1. v f (1) = the number of vertices having label 1;

2.

3.

4.

Throughout this discussion we consider simple, finite and undirected graph G (V (G), E(G)) with

V (G) p and E (G) q . For all other standard terminology and notation we refer to Chartrand and

Lesniak[4].

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II.

Definition 2.1: For a graph G , an edge labeling function f : E(G) {0,1} induces a vertex labeling function

f * : V (G) {0,1} defined as f * (u) { f (uv) / uv E(G)} . Then f is called a total edge product cordial

labeling of graph G if

(1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) 1 . A graph G is called total edge product cordial

The concept of total edge product cordial labeling was introduced by Vaidya and Barasara [5].

Theorem 2.2: Any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total edge product cordial graph.

Proof. Label the edges of G in such a way that edges with label 1 and edges with label 0 differ by at most 1.

Let Vi be the set of vertices with label i and Ei be the set of edges with label i while n Vi and

n Ei be the cardinality of set Vi and Ei respectively.

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 0 to these new edges. Consequently vertices will receive label 0.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 2 1 .

2

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 1 to these new edges. Consequently vertices will receive label 1.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 2 n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 .

2

Thus in all the possibilities, the constructed supergraph H satisfies the conditions for total edge

product cordial graph. That is, any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total edge product

cordial graph.

Definition 2.3: Let f : V (G) {1, 2,..., p} be a bijection. For each edge uv , assign the label f (u) f (v) .

Function f is called a difference cordial labeling if e f (1) e f (0) 1 . where e f (1) and e f (0) denote the

number of edges labeled with 1 and not labeled with 1 respectively. A graph with a difference cordial labeling is

called a difference cordial graph.

The concept of difference cordial labeling was introduced by Ponraj et al. [6] in 2003.

Theorem 2.4: Any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a difference cordial graph.

Proof. Let G be the given graph with p vertices and q edges. As per definition of difference cordial labeling

assign labels {1, 2,..., p} to the vertices of G .

Let Ei be the set of edges with label i while n Ei be the cardinality of set Ei .

Case 1: When n( E1 ) n( E0 ) 1 (say r ).

The new graph H can be obtained by adding r vertices, say {v1 , v2 ,..., vr } to the graph G and join

them to the vertex with label 1. Assign label p i to the vertex vi for i 1, 2,..., r . Consequently r edges will

receive label 0.

Hence, e f (1) e f (0) = n( E1 ) n( E0 ) r 0 .

Case 2: When n( E0 ) n( E1 ) 1 (say r ).

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The new graph H can be obtained by adding a path of r vertices, say {v1 , v2 ,..., vr } to the graph G

and join the vertex v1 to the vertex with label p . Assign label p i to the vertex vi for i 1, 2,..., r .

Consequently r edges will receive label 1.

Hence, e f (1) e f (0) = n( E1 ) r n( E0 ) 0 .

Thus in all the possibilities, the constructed supergraph H satisfies the conditions for difference

cordial graph. That is, any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a difference cordial graph.

Definition 2.5: A graph G is called simply sequential if there is a bijection f : V (G) E(G) {1, 2,..., p q}

such that for each edge e {uv} E (G) one has f (e) f (u) f (v) .

In 1983, Bange et al. [7] have introduced the concept of sequential labeling.

Definition 2.6: If a mapping f : V (G) E(G) {0,1} is such that for each edge e uv , f (e) f (u) f (v)

and the condition v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) 1 holds then G is called total sequential cordial graph.

In 2002, Cahit [8] has introduced the concept of total sequential cordial labeling as a weaker version of

sequential labeling.

Theorem 2.7: Any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total sequential cordial graph.

Proof. Label the vertices of graph G in such a way that vertices with label 0 and vertices with label 1 differ by

at most 1.

Let Vi be the set of vertices with label i and Ei be the set of edges with label i while n Vi and

n Ei be the cardinality of set Vi and Ei respectively.

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 0 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 0.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 2 1 .

2

Case 2: When n(V0 ) n( E0 ) n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 1 (say r ).

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 1 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 1.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 2 n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 .

2

Thus in all the possibilities, the constructed supergraph H satisfies the conditions for total sequential

cordial graph. That is, any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total sequential cordial graph.

Definition 2.8: Let f : V (G) {1, 2,..., p} be a bijection. For each edge uv , assign the label 1 if either

f (u) | f (v) or f (v) | f (u) and the label 0 otherwise. f is called a divisor cordial labeling if e f (1) e f (0) 1 .

A graph with a divisor cordial labeling is called a divisor cordial graph.

In 2011, Varatharajan et al. [9] have introduced the concept of divisor cordial labeling.

Theorem 2.9: Any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a divisor cordial graph.

Proof. Let G be the given graph with p vertices and q edges. As per definition of divisor cordial labeling

assign labels {1, 2,..., p} to the vertices of G .

Let Ei be the set of edges with label i while n Ei be the cardinality of set Ei .

Case 1: When n E0 n E1 1 (say r ).

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The new graph H can be obtained by adding r vertices to the graph G , say v1 , v2 ,..., vr and join them

to vertex with label 1. Assign label p i to the vertex vi for i 1, 2,..., r . Consequently r edges will receive

label 1.

Hence, e f (1) e f (0) = n E0 n E1 r 0 .

Case 2: When n E1 n E0 1 (say r ).

The new graph H can be obtained by adding a path of r vertices, say v1 , v2 ,..., vr to the graph G and

join the vertex v1 to the vertex with label p . Assign label p i to the vertex vi for i 1, 2,..., r .

Consequently r edges will receive label 0.

Hence, e f (1) e f (0) = n E0 r n E1 0 .

Thus in all the possibilities, the constructed supergraph H satisfies the conditions for divisor cordial

graph. That is, any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a divisor cordial graph.

Definition 2.10: A graph G is said to have a magic labeling with constant C if there exists a bijection

f : V (G) E(G) {1, 2,..., p q} such that f (u) f (v) f (uv) C for all uv E (G) .

Kotzig and Rosa [10] have introduced the concept of magic labeling in 1970 and investigated magic

labeling for some standard graphs.

Definition 2.11: A graph G is said to have a totally magic cordial labeling with constant C if there exists a

mapping f : V (G) E(G) {0,1} such that f (u) f (v) f (uv) C (mod 2) for all uv E (G) provided the

condition v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) 1 holds.

In 2002, Cahit [8] has introduced the concept of total magic cordial labeling as a weaker version of

magic labeling.

Theorem 2.12: Any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total magic cordial graph.

Proof. Label the vertices of graph G in such a way that v f (1) v f (0) 1 and as per definition of total magic

cordial labeling assign edge labels such that f (u) f (v) f (uv) C (mod 2).

Let Vi be the set of vertices with label i and Ei be the set of edges with label i while n Vi and

n Ei be the cardinality of set Vi and Ei respectively.

Case 1: If C 0 .

Subcase 1: When n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 (say r ).

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 0 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 0.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 2 1 .

2

Subcase 2: When n(V0 ) n( E0 ) n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 1 (say r ).

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V0 . Assign label 1 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 1.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 2 n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 .

2

Case 2: If C 1 .

Subcase 1: When n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 (say r ).

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11138085

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83 |Page

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V1 . Assign label 0 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 0.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 2 1 .

2

Subcase 2: When n(V0 ) n( E0 ) n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 1 (say r ).

r

The new graph H can be obtained by adding vertices to the graph G and join them to arbitrary

2

r

member of V1 . Assign label 1 to these new vertices. Consequently edges will receive label 1.

2

r

Thus, v f (1) e f (1) v f (0) e f (0) = n(V1 ) n( E1 ) 2 n(V0 ) n( E0 ) 1 .

2

Thus in all the possibilities, the constructed supergraph H satisfies the conditions for total magic

cordial graph. That is, any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a total magic cordial graph.

III.

NP-Complete Problems

Theorem 3.1: Any planar graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a planar total edge product

cordial (difference cordial, total sequential cordial, divisor cordial, total magic cordial) graph.

Proof. If G is planar graph. Then the supergraph H constructed in Theorem 2.2 (corresponding theorems 2.4,

2.7, 2.9 and 2.12) is a planar graph. Hence the result.

Theorem 3.2: Any connected graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a connected total edge

product cordial (difference cordial, total sequential cordial, divisor cordial, total magic cordial) graph.

Proof. If G is connected graph. Then the supergraph H constructed in Theorem 2.2 (corresponding theorems

2.4, 2.7, 2.9 and 2.12) is a connected graph. Hence the result.

Theorem 3.3: The problem of deciding whether the chromatic number (G) k , where k 3 , is NP-complete

even for total edge product cordial (difference cordial, total sequential cordial, divisor cordial, total magic

cordial) graph.

Proof. Let G be a graph with chromatic number (G) 3 . Let supergraph H constructed in Theorem 2.2 is

total edge product cordial (corresponding theorems 2.4, 2.7, 2.9 and 2.12), which contains G as an induced

subgraph. Then obviously we have ( H ) ( H ) . Since the problem of deciding whether the chromatic

number (G) k , where k 3 , is NP-complete by [11]. It follows that deciding whether the chromatic

number (G) k , where k 3 , is NP-complete even for prime cordial graphs.

Theorem 3.4: The problem of deciding whether the clique number (G) k is NP-complete even when

restricted to total edge product cordial (difference cordial, total sequential cordial, divisor cordial, total magic

cordial) graph.

Proof. Since the problem of deciding whether the clique number of a graph (G) k is NP-complete by [11]

and ( H ) (G) for the supergraph H constructed in Theorem 2.2 is total edge product cordial

(corresponding theorems 2.4, 2.7, 2.9 and 2.12). Hence the result.

Theorem 3.5: The problem of deciding whether the domination number (total domination number) is less than

or equal to k is NP-complete even when restricted to total edge product cordial (difference cordial, total

sequential cordial, divisor cordial, total magic cordial) graph.

Proof. Since the problem of deciding whether the domination number (total domination number) of a graph G

is less than or equal to k is NP-complete as reported in [11] and the supergraph H constructed in Theorem 2.2

is total edge product cordial (corresponding theorems 2.4, 2.7, 2.9 and 2.12) has domination number greater than

or equal to domination number of G . Hence the result.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11138085

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84 |Page

IV.

Concluding Remarks

Acharya et al. [12] have proved that any graph G can be embedded as an induced subgraph of a

graceful graph. Thus showing the impossibility of obtaining any forbidden subgraph characterization for

graceful graphs on the same line Acharya et al. [13, 14], Anandavally et al. [15], Germina and Ajitha [16],

Vaidya and Vihol [17] and Vaidya and Barasara [18] have discussed embedding and NP-Complete problems in

the context of various graph labeling schemes. However here we have discussed embedding and NP-Complete

problems for total edge product cordial labeling, difference cordial labeling, total sequential cordial labeling,

divisor cordial labeling and total magic cordial labeling.

Acknowledgement

The authors are highly thankful to the anonymous referee for their kind suggestions and comments.

References

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[11]

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[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

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I. Cahit, Cordial Graphs: A weaker version of graceful and harmonious graphs, Ars Combinatoria, 23, 1987, 201 - 207.

S. K. Vaidya and C. M. Barasara, Edge Product Cordial Labeling of Graphs, Journal of Mathematical and Computational Science,

2(5), 2012, 1436 - 1450.

G. Chartrand and L. Lesniak, Graphs and Digraphs 4/e (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2005).

S. K. Vaidya and C. M. Barasara, Total edge product cordial labeling of graphs, Malaya Journal of Matematik, 3(1), 2013, 55 - 63.

R. Ponraj, S. Sathish Narayanan and R. Kala, Difference Cordial Labeling of Graphs, Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences:

Theory and Practical, 5(3), 2013, 185 - 196.

D. W. Bange, A. E. Barkauskas and P. J. Slater, Simply sequential and graceful graphs, Proceeding of Tenth Southeastern

Conference on Combinatorics, Graph Theory and Computing, Utilitas Mathematica Publishing Inc., Winnipeg, Canada, 1979.

I. Cahit, Some Totally Modular Cordial Graphs, Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory, 22, 2002, 247 - 258.

R. Varatharajan, S. Navanaeethakrishnan and K. Nagarajan, Divisor cordial graphs, International Journal of Mathematical

Combinatorics, 4, 2011, 15 - 25.

A. Kotzig and A. Rosa, Magic valuations of finite graphs, Canadian Mathematical Bulletin, 13(4), 1970, 451 - 461.

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson. Computers and Intractability- A guide to the theory of NP-Completeness (W. H. Freeman and

Company, 1979).

B. D. Acharya, S. B. Rao and S. Arumugam, Embeddings and NP-Complete problems for Graceful Graphs, Labeling of Discrete

Structures and Applications (B. D. Acharya, S. Arumugam and A. Rosa (eds.)), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 2008, 57 62.

B. D. Acharya, K. A. Germina, K. L. Princy and S. B. Rao, Graph Labelings, Embeddings and NP-Completeness theorems, Journal

of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computation, 67, 2008, 163 - 180.

B. D. Acharya, K. A. Germina, K. L. Princy and S. B. Rao, Embeddings and NP-Completeness theorems for set-graceful,

topologically set-graceful and set-sequential graphs, Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, 12(4), 2009, 481 - 487.

T. M. K. Anandavally, S. Arumugam, K. A. Germina and S. B. Rao, On Sum Composite Graphs and Embedding Problems, Journal

of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing, 69, 2009, 23 - 30.

K. A. Germina and V. Ajitha, Embedding Theorems and NP-Completeness, Proceedings of the National Conference on Operator

Theory and Applications, 2009, 97 - 103.

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Contemporary Advanced Mathematics, 2(1), 2011, 1 - 7.

S. K. Vaidya and C. M. Barasara, Embedding and NP-complete Problems for Some Equitable Labelings, Journal of Applied

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DOI: 10.9790/5728-11138085

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85 |Page

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