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Crude Oil Tanker Training (Special Cargo Work Course)

PREFACE
This text deals primarily with the booklet of [Standard in VLCC operation] which was
issued by NYK Line Petroleum Group. Some contents are touched on the general
practices, such as ISGOTT, Tanker Safety Guide (Petroleum), and others. However,
instructions are conformance with the contents of various reference documents issued
by NYK.

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1.

Gas free operation


1.1. General

Gas freeing is the name given to the operation of freeing an oil tanker's cargo tanks from any
dangerous vapor, which may contain in the cargo tank, to atmosphere condition.

Figure 10-01: Flow diagram of tank cleaning & gas free operation

The atmosphere in the cargo tank is the over rich condition unless the ship is equipped with an
inert gas system. Therefore it is necessary to replace the hydrocarbon in the cargo tank to the
inert gas and remove the oily content in the cargo tank before its gas freeing. The checking the
gas concentration should be undertaken at proper intervals. This action determines that the
tank atmosphere has fallen well below the lower explosive limit and has replace to air for
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personnel entry into the cargo tank safely. The cleaning in the cargo tank by seawater under
hydrocarbon condition in it because it produces the static charges. It will link to explosion if
the high oxygen concentration atmosphere is with hydrocarbon in cargo tank.
The above consideration should be followed during the tank cleaning and Gas freeing
operation.
The reasons why conducting gas free operation is
a.

Entering dry dock

b.

Inspection for cargo tanks

c.

Repair work in cargo tanks

Figure 10-02: Diagram of flammable range of HC and Oxygen


mixture

Above diagram is extracted from the ISGOTT : chapter 1. It shows that any point on the
diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture, specified in terms of its
hydrocarbon and oxygen content. Hydrocarbon/air mixtures, without inert gas, lie on the line
AB, the slope of which shows the reduction in oxygen content as the hydrocarbon content
increases.
After leaving a final discharging port for dry dock, cargo tanks atmosphere measurements
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show the point F. (11% hydrocarbon gas and 4% oxygen). When an inerted mixture of the
point F is diluted by air, its composition moves along the line FA and therefore enters the
shaded area of flammable mixtures CED, this means that it has possibility to make the
explosion. All inerted mixtures in the region above the line GA (critical dilution line) goes
through a flammable condition as they are mixed with air. Those below line GA, such as that
represented by point H, do not become flammable on dilution.
The inert gas has the average 2% oxygen and no hydrocarbon gas (the contact point between
FH slope and 0% oxygen line). The tank atmosphere will change along line FH as HC purge
progresses. Consequently it shows the estimation about the change of the tank atmosphere
while purging. The target level of hydrocarbon gas content to introduce air into the tank is
below 2% by volume. This diagram helps to estimate the timing to stop the purging when the
atmosphere is below the critical dilution line and then gas freeing can be started.
In example, if the purging was stopped at the point H (2% hydrocarbon gas by volume and
2.5% oxygen), the atmosphere will change along line HA to 21% oxygen and 0% hydrocarbon
gas and always be outside of the explosive range during gas freeing.
<The target of safety level for each gas concentration in tank atmosphere>
Oxygen

HC

H2S

Tank cleaning

less 8% by vol. -----

-----

HC purge

-----

less 2% by vol.

-----

Gas Free

21% by vol.

less 1% by LFL

less 5ppm

1.2. Testing for gas


After the tanks have been properly ventilated, the atmosphere inside each cargo tank must be
tested with a portable gas detector before men are allowed to enter it. It is the instrument for
testing the atmosphere in a tank. It will register whether the tank is fit for men to enter, or if
the atmosphere is dangerous or highly dangerous. The test with the portable gas detector
should be satisfactory if necessary. The personnel can be gone down into cargo tank to remove
scale and any water or oil remaining in the tank after this test.

2. Tank/Line Cleaning
2.1. General
The total amount of sludge is determined by the vessels COW plan. The key of sludge control
is the proper COW planning to transfer the sludge to the shore terminal a few voyage in
advance.
It has to consider that the tank cleaning work is started from the cargo handling work at the
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previous discharging terminal for meaning of sludge control. In other words, it is preferable to
formulate a plan such that crude oil washing of tanks to be cleaned is performed at the
previous discharging terminal whenever possible, and the sludge accumulated in the tank is
discharged to shore at the same time as the discharging of the cargo. Adequate discussions
should be held with the terminal for tank cleaning before dry-docking of the ship as possible
before, in regard to implementing crude oil washing such that no sludge remains in the tank. If
any sludge remains in the tank after tank cleaning, the ship-owner has to pay the charges for
removal of the said sludge from cargo tanks to shore.

2.2.

Effective tank cleaning

It is important that the officer on VLCC has to the thorough knowledge of crude
oil washing equipment, tank construction and piping, and he is adequately familiar with the

contents of the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.


Before conducting Tank Cleaning, cargo lines and pumps should be washed by using seawater.
First of all, the washing seawater fills up into the primary slop tank, which is normally
designated Slop Tank equipped the heating coils. There are two methods to fill up seawater to
the designated slop tank
a.

From ballast tank via cargo/ballast connection interface

b.

From sea via sea chest line

After filling up the washing seawater, it is warmed up by the heating system in slop(P) tank
and the cleaning operation of pipelines and cargo tanks is started concurrently.
During tank washing operations, large amounts of electrostatic energy are generated by
spraying seawater. Also, the tank washing operation stirs up oily residues in the cargo tank
thus explosion hazards caused by hydrocarbon gas can to be easily produced.
Effective cleaning of cargo tank requires that they be continuously stripped while washing.
The ship's eductor or stripping pump is used to strip the tank washing water throughout the
tank washing process.
The ship must be proper trimmed and listed. The best tank washing trim is considered with
ship speed, hull bending and shear forces and effective tank stripping. The ballast arrangement
must not exceed maximum acceptable seagoing stress. Excessive trim will reduce the ships
speed more than required. The trim must be enough so that the washing water can flow to the
stripping suction inlet for maintaining the enough suction power to remove the sediment in the
cargo tank.
The ship should be listed so that the washing water will drain toward the stripping suction
inlet. Modern double hull tankers have the stripping suction well in cargo tanks, except slop
tanks. If stripping suctions are located in the port aft corners of the tank, a port list of three or
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four degrees is needed for effective stripping. Poor draining will result if the ship is rolling and
the additional list may be required so that the tank bottom is always inclined toward the
suction inlet while rolling.
The closed cycle tank washing by seawater has the potential for producing static electricity. It
should not be carried out unless the tanks are properly inerted to less than 8% oxygen
concentration.
The slop tank must be filled with the washing water to cover the slop inlet pipe for driving
water of eductor before washing starts and the slop tank level must be regularly checked
during tank washing operation, since the quantity of washing water in slop tank will increase
slowly because the oil residues will be gathered into slop tank by washing operation.
Two interconnected slop tanks are used for effective washing with utilizing the gravity
separation process. The driving water and washing water with oily residues from cargo tank
comes into the primary slop tank. The oil in the primary slop tank floats onto the surface of
water in it and it will be separated by the gravity separation process. The water with low oil
content can move to the secondary slop tank through the free flow line. It can be used as
washing water for the effective washing operation.

Figure 10-03: Outline of tank cleaning

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3.

Hydrocarbon Gas purge


3.1. General

Purging is the introduction of inert gas into a tank and replaces the HC in the cargo tank to
inert gas until the atmosphere in the cargo tank reaches to outside of flammable range.
When the gas freeing in the tank is necessary after tank cleaning operation, it should first be
purged with inert gas to reduce the hydrocarbon content to 2% or less by volume so that to
prevent the explosion during gas freeing which is next stage after HC purge.
If the dilution method of purging is used, it should be carried out with the inert gas system set
for maximum capacity to give maximum turbulence within the tank. If the displacement
method is used, the gas inlet velocity should be lower to prevent undue turbulence.

3.2. Dilution method


Dilution takes place when the incoming inert gas mixes with the original tank atmosphere to
form a homogenous mixture throughout the tank. As the process continues, the concentration
of the original gas decreases progressively. It is necessary that the incoming inert gas have
sufficient entry velocity to penetrate to the bottom of the tank. To ensure this operation, a limit
must be placed on the number of tanks to be carried out HC purge, which can be inerted
simultaneously

3.3. Displacement method


Displacement depends on the fact that inert gas is slightly lighter than petroleum gas, so that
while the inert gas enters at the top of the tank, the heavier hydrocarbon gas can move from
the bottom of that tank to another tank through the cargo piping. When using this method, it is
important that the inert gas has to be introduced with a very low entry velocity to enable a
stable horizontal interface to be developed between the incoming and escaping gas.
However, if planning to purge HC gas/inert gas mixtures directly into atmosphere from cargo
tanks, the outlets of individual cargo tanks needs to fit purge pipes, which should be extended
not less than 2 meter height above deck level for well dispersion. After the concentration of
HC gas in the cargo tanks has been reduced to less than 2% by volume, thereafter, venting
may be at the cargo tank deck level. It means that the next step, the venting method of gas
freeing can be from the deck level.
Several methods can be used for gas purging. One feature that should be common to all is that
the inlet and outlet points should be so located that efficient gas replacement can take place
throughout the tank.

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3.3.1.

Gas replacement with using cargo and IG line

After fitted the cargo/IG connection on deck, IG is installed from the tank main valve
through the direct filing line. The HC gas/ IG mixture in the tank is led to the vent riser
through the IG line.
The incoming IG can achieve maximum penetration and thorough mixing in the tank.
Gases can be vented vent riser on IG main line.
Also gases can be installed into multiple tanks at a time. This is not required to transfer
the purge pipe on purging tanks. The amount of deck crew work can be less.

3.3.2.

Figure 10-05: Gas replacement with using cargo and IG line

Mother Tank Method

This method is effective in introducing multiple tanks at a time. Assign one tank as
mother tank, gases coming from the top of the cargo tank. Install into 4-5 cargo tanks
through the bottom cargo line. All valve operation of changing cargo tank supplied the
inert gas can be controlled at the COC console. However, the completed tank stripping is
required for clear the main suction bellmouth due to using bottom cargo line for gas
replacement.

Figure 10-04: Mother Tank Method


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3.3.3.

Gas replacement with using cargo line and purge pipe

Same as above method for introducing the IG into tank, thereafter the gases is led to the
atmosphere through the purge pipe for releasing. Gases purging is required to release
from the purge pipes with 2 meters height above deck level.

4.

Figure 10-06: Gas replacement with using cargo line and purge pipe

Gas Free Work


4.1. General
Personnel cannot enter the tank, which has only been cleaned by a tank cleaning machine,
because the atmosphere is filled with hydrocarbon gas mixed with inert gas or inert gas mixed
with air. When the work in the tank is required, gases in the tank should be replaced to air.
This gas replacement operation is called gas freeing. Gas freeing is essential to ensure that
personnel are able to enter the tank safely for tank inspection, repairing and sludge removal at
sea or dry dock. In order to be gas free for entry without breathing apparatus, the tank must be
ventilated until confirming that the hydrocarbon gas concentration throughout the
compartment is not more than 1% of the LFL by the gas test, and the additional tests have
been made to check for oxygen content, the presence of hydrogen sulphide, and other toxic
gases, as appropriate.
The toxicity of petroleum gases is varied widely depending on the major hydrocarbon
constituents of the gases. Toxicity is greatly influenced by the presence of some minor
components such as aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulphide. A TLV-TWA of 300 ppm,
corresponding to about 2% LFL, is established for gasoline vapors. Such figure may be used
as a general guide for petroleum gases. But it should not be taken as applicable to gas mixtures
containing benzene or hydrogen sulphide.
Before starting gas freeing, the tank should be isolated from other tanks. When either portable
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fans or fixed fans connected to the cargo pipeline system are used to introduce air into the
tank, the inert gas inlet should be closed with fitting the blank flange. If the inert gas
fan(blower), drawing fresh air, is employed, both the pipeline back to the inert gas source and
the inert gas inlet into each tank being kept inerted should be isolated by the IG branch valves.

4.1.1. Using portable fans / duct


Portable fans are set on the tank cleaning holes on deck. There are two types of fans, one
is for supplying the air and another is to exhaust the inert gases from the tank. The
exhaust fan has a long duct, which reaches for the just above the tank bottom level for
taking the gases from the bottom where accumulating the heavy density gases and the
inert gases. Working load for deck crew on this method is slightly heavy to change over
tanks due to re-setting the multiple of portable fans. The portable fans are the water
driven type and have long fire hoses and long air ducts with the pick up davit fitted air
motor.
It is normally used until finishing all tanks of HC purge without slop tanks. After finished
HC purge without slop tanks, IGS can be changed the mode from [Inerting] to [Gas Free]
and the gas freeing can be done by portable fans and IGS. See next methods on 4.1.2..

Figure 10-07: Gas freeing with portable supply fan

4.1.2. Gas freeing with IG fan


Air is supplied by the inert gas blowers/fans. After all tanks of HC purge except slop
tanks, IGS mode will be changed to [Gas Free] with connecting pipeline from the fresh
air intake to IG blowers/fans.
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After gas freeing by IGS starts, 2 methods of gas freeing which are used portable fan and
IGS are done concurrently for saving the time of gas freeing.

5.
S
l
o
p
d
i
s
c
h
a

Figure 10-08: Gas freeing with IGS(Gas freeing mode)

rging operation
5.1. Sequence of procedures
General sequence of tank cleaning and gas free operation is as follows.
1)

1) Load the dirty ballast as washing medium of seawater into slop tanks.

2)

2) Flush cargo lines/pumps/valves before starting cargo tank washing.

3)

3) Wash in the cargo tanks and gather the oily washing water into the slop tank.

4)

4) Allow dirty ballast to settle.

5)

5) Discharge "clean" part of dirty ballast in both slop tanks with operating ODM..

6)

6) Transfer "dirty" part of dirty ballast into primary slop tank.

7)

7) Wash secondary slop tank.

8)

8) Final flushing of cargo lines/pumps with operating ODM.

9)

9) Settle and decant water from primary slop tank with operating ODM.

10)
10) At port for dry-docking, dispose of slop/Sludge from slop tank with cleaning primary slop
tank.
11)
11) All operations involving the handling of oil or ballast should be recorded in the Oil Record
Book.

5.2. Settling Slop


On settling of the washing water stage, the time required for oil and water to separate in the
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slop tank depends upon the motion of the ship as well as on the type of previous cargo. Under
favorable conditions a few hours may be enough, but in most circumstances 24 hours or more
should be allowed.
Before starting the discharging the washing water in the slop tanks, an accurate interface and
ullage reading must be measured with using an oil/water interface detector to determine the
depths of the oil/ mixture/water layer.
Although every effort should be made to discharge as much water as possible from the slop
tank, the prime objective is to prevent the discharging of oily water into the sea. Extreme care
is therefore necessary, and a closed check must be kept during the discharging operation even
the automatic control system in operation.
Agitation of the contents of the slop tank must be kept to a minimum to avoid drawing oil into
the suction by vortex or weir effects, particularly as the oil/water interface approaches the top
of the structural members in the tank bottom. Therefore the pumping rates must be strictly
controlled at the final stage of the discharging operation. The following detailed procedures
should be adhered to:

5.3. Slop tank discharge


5.3.1. Discharging criteria
Amended regulation 9 of Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78, which entered in force on 6th July
1993, states that any discharge into the sea of oil or oil mixtures from the cargo tank area
of an oil tanker is prohibited except when all the following conditions are satisfied:
1)

1) "The tanker is not within a special area."

2)

2) "The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land."

3)

3) "The tanker is proceeding en route."

(This eliminates the possible concentration of the permitted discharge from a stationary ship or
from a ship steaming in circles, and ensures that the discharge is well distributed.)

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4)

4) "The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 liters per
nautical

mile."

(The
"instantaneous
rate" means the
rate of discharge
of oil in liters per
hour

at

instant

any

divided

by the speed of
the ship in knots
at

the

same

instant.
Experiment has
shown that 30
liters per mile
discharged
this

in
way

disperses
rapidly)

Figure 10-09: Discharging criteria for oil under MARPOL

5)

5) "The total
quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for existing tankers" 1/15,000 of
the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part. and for new
tankers 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed
a part."
(This means a limit on the total amount of oil that can be discharged even at the reduced
rate set out)

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6)

6) "The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop
tank arrangement as required.

Segregated ballast or clean ballast may be discharged at any time even when ship is within 50
miles of the nearest land or within a special area.
When the settling is completed that water with an oil layer on its top is in slop tank, the bulk
of this water may be discharged into the sea with using the oil content monitor without the
ship is not rolling or pitching condition.
The following procedures should be adopted during the discharge of oil/water mixture in slop
tank in order to ensure optimum effectiveness of the oil content monitor. Their application will
also ensure that the oil content of any discharge is restricted within permitted limits in the
event of failure of the oil discharge monitoring and control system. If necessary, flushing in
overboard discharge lines has to be done by re-circulation of the water to be discharged from
slop tank to slop tank.
When the discharging of dirty ballast water is started, the slop tank should be pumped down
with using TCP (Tank Cleaning Pump) at slow speed until a water sounding level of just
before reaching an oil/water interface.
At that time, TCP should be stopped, then take an oil/water interface and ullage reading should

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Figure 10-10: Outline of ODM

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be measured for re-calculating the remaining water volume.


The slop tank should be re-pumped down with using the stripper pump until a predetermined
water depth is reach.
If oil should appear before the predetermined water depth is reached or the oil discharge
monitoring and control system automatically stops the discharge on exceeding the permitted
limits, the pumping must be stopped.

5.4.

Final line and pump flush

After these operations have been completed, the lines and pumps used will contain traces of
oil.
While the ship is still more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and outside a special
area, the lines and pumps which will be used to wash cargo tanks must be thoroughly flushed
to the sea with utilizing the oil discharge monitoring and control system to ensure that the
permitted instantaneous rate of discharge of oil is not exceeded.
The final line flushing process consists of drawing the sea water directly into each cargo pump
from the outboard sea chest valve for washing all lines.

5.5.

Final Slop discharge

Slop removal is the process of discharging the slop water remaining in the primary slop tank to
shore.
Measure the slop quantity and take oil samples to identify the API of slop oil. It should always
be done with the slop surveyor. Verify the slop quantity after discussion with the subconstructor.
The

content

in

the

primary slop tank is kept


oil/water mixture at this
stage. At first, therefore
it

is discharged from the


primary slop tank to the
barge alongside in order

to

washing water for the


primary slop tank later.

Figure 10-10: Outline of ODM

Figure 10-11: Final slop


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discharging to slop barge


The outline of procedure at this stage is as follows.
1)

1) Conduct discharging from primary slop tank to slop barge through MARPOL line at
manifold using by stripper pump.

2)

2) Start washing in the primary slop tank after making empty condition. Concurrently
implement the HC purge and gas free operation of the primary slop tank.

3)

3) Line flush of TCP / stripper pump suction/discharge lines and MARPOL line.

Figure : 10-11 Cleaning primary slop tank

Figure 10-12: Flushing final discharging line


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4)

4) Final line stripping

Sludge removal is the work of discharging to shore the sludge remaining in the tank after gas
freeing in the tanks at the designated anchorage or the berth before entry of dry-docking the
ship. The time requirement for sludge removal is decided according to the quantity of
accumulated sludge and the number of sludge gangs available.
Generally, about 100 to
200 MT of sludge are
generated.

The

ships

records of the past are


showing

that

such

quantities of sludge can be


removed in about 2 days.
Slop certificate has to be
received from the surveyor
and pasted in the oil record
book with the entry the
articles to be needed.
Oil Record Book

Figure 10-13: Final line stripping

5.6.

Gas Free Certificates

Vessels which have gas freed and tank cleaned for the purpose of effecting repairs are always
inspected by a chemist before repairs are allowed to commence, The chemist tests samples of
the atmosphere from all the tanks including ballast tanks, cargo manifold, cofferdams and
pump room before signing a Gas Free Certificate. The certificate gives a description of the
tanks and compartments tested and the results of the test. The tanks may be still dangerous, in
which case the certificate will be withheld, on the other hand they may be fit for men to enter
and for repairs, which require no burning or welding - cold work. If the tanks are fit for any
type of work, this is endorsed on the certificate, a copy of which must be displayed on deck.
Gas Fee Certificates are only valid for the time they are issued, and frequent checks are
required especially if work has been stopped over a period such as a weekend or public
holiday.
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6.

One tank gas free operation

The one tank gas free operation is carried out in case that the necessity of inspection or
repairing in the cargo tank is occurred during the voyage.
Normally, this operation is carried out with the tank cleaning(washing) by seawater to
maintain the safety of personnel in the cargo tank. After finished the one tank gas freeing, the
slop oil is discharged to slop barge at suitable place likes bunkering port before arrival loading
port or is carried out L.O.T.(Load on top) during loading operation.
If the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.
The response officer on VLCC has to understand the details of this procedure with confirming
the SMS manual and ISGOTT.
In case the short time inspection work in the cargo tank is done, it can be carried out only HC
purge and gas freeing without washing by seawater.
However, it is depended on the loaded cargo on the previous voyage because the poisonous of
the cargo has to be considered such as H2S and so on.

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7.

Practical Planning

The main factor of the vessels performance for special work is determined by the personal
operating skill. To achieve the great result at the short working time, it is necessary that every
crew should know so well the operational details as each assigned. Normally, the past records
are reference to make plan. The mentioned items in this section are for helping to consider an
effective planning fore special work under the experienced each work.

7.1.

Preparation plan

The properly planning is important to conduct the efficient work.

7.1.1. A few voyage before entering dry dock


1)

The items to be prepared for tank cleaning / gas free operation

In dry dock, the vessel conducts a lot of repair works, referring to the dock indent.
Therefore it considers to order the spare pare / ships store for those in advance without
neglecting. The typical items for tank cleaning / gas free operation for tank cleaning / gas
freeing operation as follows:

2)

Gascket

Drossor joint rubber packing

Valve

Seat ring

Rubber packing for man-holes

Enough number of electrical batteries for illumination

Maintenance of Gas detectors / Oxygen analyzer

ODMA function test by the manufacture

The rotating programs of crude oil washing

In normal trade, as the sludge control in cargo tanks under the MARPOL criteria, the
vessel is required to wash just only minimum 1/4 of a total number of the cargo tanks at
one voyage. The tank cleanliness depends on the rotation of the crude oil washing history.
If the cargo tanks have not been washed for a long period, it means the high possibility of
exiting a large amount of sludge in those tanks. The amount of sludge on board is not
reduced unless transferring to shore by crude oil washing operation. However even if
carried out the tank cleaning by sea water a lot after final discharging port, the sludge in
cargo tanks is just moved from the original cargo tank to slop tank by washing on closed
cycle. Therefore the properly planning rotation of crude oil washing a few voyages before
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dry docking is essential to reduce the amount of sludge on board.


-

To plan COWing to all cargo tanks at least one time in a last few voyage before
dry dock

7.1.2. Preparation materials


The careful preparation leads an acceptable result due to an efficient operation
throughout. In advance, it is necessary to confirm the following items of conditions:
-

Cargo/ballast connection in pump room

Cargo/IG connection on deck

Blind flanges of sea-chest in pump room

Blind flanges of over-board line at the middle floor in pump room

Air intake of IGS

7.1.3.

Heating test in primary slop tank

At the discharging port in prior dry dock

The tank cleaning work begins at the final discharging port before dry dock. Crude oil
washing plan should be formulated as many number of cargo tanks as possible to transfer
accumulated sludge in cargo tank bottom to the shore. The expense of sludge disposal
before entering dry dock belongs to ships owner. It is preferable to make an effort of the
smallest possible amount of sludge.
-

To be obtained permission from the terminal to make all cargo tanks COWing.

If loaded high hydrogen sulfide content cargo on the voyage before dry dock,
those tanks should be planed to cowing by the other grade for elimination of
the toxic content as much as possible.

7.1.4.

Crew assignment

After leaving the final discharging port, crew has an intense fatigue due to engaging long
period of navigation time (channeling) / tensional cargo discharging work. To estimate
working load concentration and schedule crew assignment properly. The fatigue is caused
of an operational error, sometimes a fatal problem. It is one idea of sharing performance
as the skill and knowledge that an inexperienced deck crew teams with a boatswain or
pump-man.
The schedule of crew assignment refers to items as below:
-

Fatigue control: properly resting hours

Work load

: estimate the concentration of work volume and share

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Personal skill

7.2.

: make up for the lack of experience/skill/knowledge

Tank cleaning plan

In generally, the plan refers to COW manual or some tecqunical manual issued by the ships
builder. If the past record is on board, it helps for planning and improve

7.2.1. Washing water into slop tank


The methods of filling washing water into slop tanks are typically below three. The most
important thing is not to have oil pollution to the sea.
1)

2)

From the sea by gravity


-

Sea chest => no.5 center tank until planning quantity direct by gravity

Transfer to slop tank by using TCP

From the sea by cargo pump


-

3)

Sea chest => slop tank directly by cargo pumps

From ballast tanks by gravity


-

Ballast tanks => Cargo/Ballast connection =>slop tank by gravity

The method of 3) from ballast tanks by gravity, has the lowest possibility of oil pollution
due to the margin of water head between ballast tanks and slop tank. It takes 1.5 2.0
hours to complete shifting around 3,500 cub meters on this method.

7.2.2.

Quantity of washing water

The items to determine the quantity of washing waster as follows:


1)

Enough amount of quantity for efficient functioning free flow line from the primary
slop to secondary slop.
-

The key is the height of inlet / outlet for free flow line.

2)

As less as possible for avoiding discharging unnecessary dirty ballast to overboard.

3)

The washing water quantity is less than one slop tank capacity in order to be able to
transfer all washing water to one slop tank.

In past records, the double hull tanker installed 3,000 to 4,000 cub. meter, which depends
on the hull design.

7.2.3.

Heating washing water

Standard NYK crude oil tanker is not applied the tank cleaning heater nowadays. The
way to warm up the washing sea water is only by the heating coil in slop tank. To wash
with hot water enhances much cleaning effect than cold water. However even cold water
also has washing effect. A normal target temperature is between 50 50 degrees
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centigrade. It is determined with following items:


1)

Valve seat rings operational temperature limit


-

In generally 65 degrees centigrade (it should be confirmed the manufacture


instruction manual)

2)

Inside of pipe coating paint operational temperature limit


-

3)

80 100 degrees centigrade.


The original temperature of washing water

The temperature of Tokyo bay in winter is about 15 degrees centigrade. The


original water temperature work affecting heating duration / target temperature.
In past record of this operation, it takes 12 hours to heat 3,200 cub. meter of sea
water to 50 degrees centigrade from 25 degrees centigrade originally.

Heating should be started after covered over the heating coil in primary slop
tank by sea water.

7.2.4. Cargo lines / pumps washing pattern


The line diagram plan of washing sequence should be prepared without overlaps /
underlaps in. It leads the trouble_free operation. The items to be considered for making
plan of cargo lines / pumps / valves washing and flushing are below:
1)

For all cargo / stripping pumps, lines, including small diameters lines

2)

Washing should be planed the flow direction of washing water in pipe lines
involving reverse flow direction.

3)

To plan each washing step to maintain the liquid flow continuously without the dead
end lines.

4)

5)

In past record of this operation including line stripping hours,


-

Rough washing

: 3.0 3.5 hours

Hot water washing

: 4.0 5.0 hours including manifold drip lines washing

No.3 wing cargo tanks is considered to wash after manifold lines flushing is done,
because of properly draining.

7.2.5. Tank cleaning pattern


The most effective washing pattern depends on the each vessels hull structural
characteristic. The bottom floor of double hull tanker in cargo tanks is flat without
installation of bottom longitudinal members such like single hull tanker. It means that
sludge accumulation is less than single hull tanker, and washing pattern is reducible. The
general guidelines of washing pattern for double hull tankers are as follows:
1)

Top wash once, bottom wash 2-3 times => about 2-3 hours including stripping time

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2)

10 time washing (excluding slop P/S) x 3 hours = 30 hours


-

3)

5 center tanks / 5 wing tanks (P/S washing simultaneously) => 10 washing

The sufficient stripping is important factor. If not be obtained stripping effect


satisfactory, needs to consider the reduction of a number of washing machines.

7.2.6. Tank washing sequence


To plan the tank washing sequence should be consider the overall operational progress
more efficiently involving crew assignment.
1)
2)

The cargo tanks planned to be inspected should wash at an early stage.


Tank washing sequence strongly relates hydrocarbon purge and gas free operation. It
is important to plan the efficient sequence for afterward deck work such as
transferring water turbine fans for gas freeing.

7.2.7.

Draining cargo tanks / lines / pumps

Appropriate stripping result is required for smooth operation of next steps, hydrocarbon
purge and gas freeing. From the point of view for sludge removal form the original tanks
and keeping suitable washing effect, stripping is important factor. Even if slightly
remaining a small amount of washing water in cargo tanks, this would lead to delay of
hydrocarbon purge and gas free operation in later steps.
If the circumstance such as weather / sea state are allowed, the vessel should keep
suitable trim and list for making the great stripping effect.
-

Trim

: 6 meters

List

: 1.0 2.0 degrees to the side which installed stripping

bellmouth
(double hull tankers have the cargo stripping bellmouth and suction wells
which are located only one side : in case of TAKAMINE, all stripping suction
bellmouths are installed into port side except slop tanks)
-

In case of washing in cargo tanks, if not be obtained the sufficient stripping


effect, a number of tank washing machines should be reduced.

7.3. Hydrocarbon gas purge plan


The outlet of hydrocarbon gas purge should be extent more than 2meters above deck level.
Some appropriate devices should be installed during supplying inert gas. After the
concentration of hydrocarbon gas in cargo tanks is reduced, gas free operation which
introducing the air takes place at the cargo tank deck level. The purged cargo tanks should be
isolated from the lines existing inert gas with setting blind flange on inert gas main and shut
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IG branch valves due to preventing from contamination with inert gas and leakage during gas
free operation.

7.3.1.

Select the method of HC purge

The typical methods are mentioned at the foregoing section. In generally, it is necessary
to refer to the instruction manual issued by the ships builder. Other factors to be
considered as follows:
1)

Difference in specific gravity


-

2)

Air : Inert gas : Hydrocarbon gas = 1 : 1.044 : 1.5-2.0

Structural members in cargo tanks


-

In case of swash bulkhead exists in cargo tanks, which has the possibility to
accumulate the gas in the spots. The number of times for measuring cargo tank
atmosphere should be increased to control the purging.

If a spotting gas is detected, it should be taken some countermeasures such as


to change the flow velocity or inlet / outlet.

Once being made a uniform of vapor fluid from inlet to outlet, outside of this
fluid provides the spotting gas place.

3)

Flow velocity
-

An exiting velocity of at least 20 meters / sec can be maintained when any three
tanks are being simultaneously supplied with inert gas.

4)

Dilution method is required a high velocity to mixing atmosphere effectively.

Location of inlet and outlet


-

By using any methods, the location of inlet and outlet are as far as possible for
effect to whole over the cargo tank space.

7.3.2. Estimate purging hours


Whatever methods the vessel is applied, the past records are the great helps for making
operational plan. However the plan should be involves with time to spare in case of
unexpected operational failure.
1)

IG fan
-

To supplying inert gas into cargo tanks by IG fan/blow parallel running is able
to shorten the operational hours due to a large amount of flow. This leads to
slightly high oxygen content in inert gas and increment of fuel consumption.
Even if those, this method is superior because that the main purpose is to purge
the hydrocarbon gas in cargo tank.

2)

Exchange rate

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Referring the past records of double hull tanker, the average of gas exchange
rate is 3-4 with the two methods as follows:

IGS cargo/IG connection cargo main lines direct filling tank


bottom lines tank main suction cargo tank fore butterworth hole
with purge pipe atmosphere

IGS IG main line IG branch cargo tank tank main suction


tank bottom lines direct filling cross over purge mouth

To refer to the past records of one single hull tanker, the average of gas
exchange rate is 9.0 with the methods as follow:

IGS IG main line IG branch cargo tank cargo tank oil tight
hatch

3)

Estimated hours
-

Considering above results, the difference of elevation between inlet and outlet
has effect on the gas exchange.

For instance of estimating the operational hours

1 center tank capacity : 27,100 cub.m

Estimated gas exchange rate : 4.0

IG fan capacity : 12,050 cub.m/h x 2 = 24,100 cub.m/h

27,100 cub.m x 4.0 / 24,100 cub.m/h = 4.5hours

For instance of total hydrocarbon gas purging hours

Total capacity (excluding slop tanks) : 342,000 cub.m

Estimated gas exchange rate : 4.0

IG fan capacity : 12,050 cub.m/h x 2 = 24,100 cub.m/h

342,000 cub.m x 4.0 / 24,100 cub.m/h = 56.8hours

However, this estimated 56.8 hours can be reduced by being installed inert gas
into several tanks simultaneously, such as using the mother tank method or
others.

7.4.

Gas freeing plan

The gas free operation is a huge factor to keep to a schedule due to a long period for
exchanging gas into fresh air in cargo tank. Therefore it should be conducted under sufficient
consideration to achieve maximum results in short period of time. Especially in similar
manner as hydrocarbon gas purging operation, when supplying the fresh air into cargo tanks
for long hours, it is possibility to form the pathway of fresh air fluid between inlet and outlet
and some parts in cargo tanks are hard to exchange an atmosphere due to spotting. In this case,
it should be considered various measures, such as varying the high of air duct, location of
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fresh air inlet, in order to change fluid flows. Releasing exchanged vapor directly from deck
level is allowed, which means not to be required to set the purge pipe of 2 meters height.

7.4.1.

Select the method

IG fans has been occupied for HC gas purging until Hydrocarbon gas concentration in all
cargo tanks (except slop tanks) drops less than 2% by volume. In initial stage of gas free
operation, the portable gas free fans were used with lowering air duct. And after HC
purge in all cargo tanks except slop tanks is finished, IGS is changed over to gas free
mode and it starts to supply fresh air by IG fans, also continue to use portable fans at the
same time:
1)

Portable gas free fans generally driven by sea water from hydrant on deck
-

2 ways : Supply fans / exhaust fans


The setting method example (1)
Fresh air is supplied from the tank cleaning hold on forward side. The gas at the
bottom layer is released from exhaust fans through the air duct at afterward to
the atmosphere. This arrangement is considered that the mixture of gases in the
tank (mainly inert gases) has a specific gravity greater than fresh air supplying.

The setting method example (2)


In the point of view on the dilution method, fresh air is supplied by supply fans
with air ducts lowering to bottom and releasing the mixed gas directly from the
on deck man-hole or using exhaust fans. To exchange the atmosphere in cargo
tanks as much as possible.

2)

IG fans : gas free mode


-

IGS has been free from HC gas purge. Fresh air intake lines should be ready
with set the blind from the boiler side.

Generally it uses the method as follow:

IGS cargo/IG connection cargo main lines direct filling tank


bottom lines tank main suction cargo tank fore butterworth hole
with purge pipe atmosphere

7.4.2. Estimate gas free hours


Fresh air supplying is occupied a considerable amount of tank cleaning / gas free operation for
pre-docking.
1)

Exchange rate
-

Referring the past records of double hull tanker, the average of gas exchange
rate is 14, whatever used the methods, the results are almost same rate.

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2)

Estimated hours
-

For instance of estimating the operational hours : portable fans

One portable fan capacity : 225 cub.m / min = 135,000 cub.m /h

1 center tank capacity : 27,100 cub.m

Estimated gas exchange rate : 14.0

Portable fan capacity : 13,500 cub.m/h x 4 = 54,000 cub.m/h

27,100 cub.m x 14.0 / 54,000 cub.m/h = 7.0 hours

For instance of estimating the operational hours : IG fans

1 center tank capacity : 27,100 cub.m

Estimated gas exchange rate : 14.0

IG fan capacity : 12,050 cub.m/h x 2 = 24,100 cub.m/h

27,100 cub.m x 14.0 / 24,100 cub.m/h = 15.7 hours

For instance of total hydrocarbon gas purging hours

Using above 2 ways (portable fans/IG fans), it takes around 50-60 hours.

The wind force of supplying fresh air is different between portable fans and IG
fans. Capacity of portable fan is 5Kpa (500mmAq), and IG fan is 1.9Kpa
(1900mmAq). Some areas in cargo tanks are not reached the air fluid, therefore
when using portable fans, to set a number of portable fans is recommended and
measure the atmosphere frequently.

After reaching for the target in cargo tanks atmosphere, it recommends that the
simple ventilation, which made by the half cut drum cans on man holes to catch
the wind into tank.

7.5.

Cargo tanks inspection

After gas free operation, cargo tank inspection is conducted in accordance with enclosed space
entry permit. During inspection, for the purpose of properly ventilating in cargo tank, it should
run two supply portable fans with lowering air duct is required by SMS manual. This
companys criteria is for human bodys safety, in case of emergency to evacuate for taking
fresh air just down below of air duct due to oxygen deficiency or exiting toxic gas at the
spotting vapor.

7.6.

Discharging washing water to the sea

After cargo lines / pumps flushing, the slop water should be discharged to the sea with
complying with MARPOL regulation strictly.

7.6.1. Settling time


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The settling time is required for being separated water from oil, depends on the last crude
oil grades and the ship movement. In general, more than 85% of the oil-water mix
separates into oil and water about one hour after the settling starts. However, at least 24
hours are required for the emulsion layer to form an oily mixture of less than 100 ppm.
The time duration should be considered the area where the settled slop water as which is
handling the dirty ballast.

7.6.2. Select the area to discharge slop water


When all cargo tanks except slop tank have been cleaned, settling can be started. After
confirmation of oil-water separation, discharging the slop water is started. However it is
allowed to discharge the slop water to overboard only in the areas where are more than 50
miles away from the nearest land. Moreover, this discharging work has to be
implemented during daytime hours so that sea surface can be monitored when
discharging the slop water into the sea.

7.6.3.

Estimate slop discharging hours

The typical procedures for slop discharging into the sea are as follows:
1)

1st discharging
-

After settling, it starts to discharge slop water in both slop tanks by using TCP.

To keep the limitation of discharging rate and unnecessary agitation, it


concentrates on the discharging flow with pump speed and the opening ratio of
pump delivery valve.

It takes 2-4 hours until the ODMA activates and starts recirculation from slop
to slop. This means the first discharging is finished.

2)

Transfer slop water from secondary slop tank to primary


-

After 1), the remaining slop water in secondary slop tank should be transferred
to primary slop tank.

When the secondary slop tank becomes empty, the tank cleaning should be
conducted both slop tanks (primary tank only top wash).

3)

After tank cleaning, the settling slop water in primary slop tank is started.

2nd discharging
-

After takes sufficient settling time for oil-water separation, the primary slop
water discharging should be started by the stripper pump until ODMA
activates.

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7.7. Slop / sludge discharging at anchorage


Slop removal is the process of discharging to shore the slop water remaining in the primary
slop tank.

7.7.1.

Estimate slop discharging hours

Measure the slop quantity and retrieve slop samples (oil samples) before slop removal.
These actions should always be witnessed by the ship supervisor. Decide the slop
quantity finally after discussion with the sub-contractor.
1)

Primary slop tank washing refers to the washing of primary slop tank that has not
been washed after the slop water has been discharged to shore.

2)

Perform gas-freeing, airing and sludge removal of the primary slop tank after
washing is completed, similar to the procedure implemented for other tanks. Final
line stripping refers to the washing and stripping of the line (MARPOL line) used
for discharging slop water in the primary slop tank and the stripping pump.

3)

To Cut wasting time by top washing method,

7.7.2. Estimate Sludge discharging hours


Sludge removal refers to the work of discharging to shore the sludge remaining in the
tank after gas-freeing the tank at the designated anchorage and before dry-docking the
ship. The time required for sludge removal is decided according to the quantity of
accumulated sludge and the number of sludge gangs available. Generally, about 100 to
200 MT of sludge are generated. Past records show that such quantities can be removed
in about 2 days.

7.8.

Inerting before arrival at the first loading port 08:00

f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

7.8.1.

Cargo tanks inspection

f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank
adjacent to the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work
according to ISGOTT.
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7.8.2.

Estimate inerting hours 21:30 23:00

f the hot work repairing is done


in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to the repairing tank may be
carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to ISGOTT.

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8.

Other Working Operation


8.1. Closed survey

f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.1.1.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.1.2.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.2.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.2.1.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.2.2.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.3.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.3.1.
f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

8.3.2.
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f the hot work repairing is done in the cargo tank after gas freeing, the cargo tank adjacent to
the repairing tank may be carried out HC purge or gas freeing for safe work according to
ISGOTT.

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