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www.elsevier.com/locate/tws

arbitrary orthotropic materials

N. Silvestre, D. Camotim

Department of Civil Engineering, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001

Lisbon, Portugal

Received 26 November 2001; received in revised form 12 March 2002; accepted 15 March 2002

Abstract

The paper presents the formulation of a second-order Generalised Beam Theory (GBT)

developed to analyse the buckling behaviour of composite thin-walled members made of laminated plates and displaying arbitrary orthotropy. The derived second-order GBT equations are

compared with the Vlassov-type ones obtained by Bauld and Tzeng and a few remarks are

made concerning the cross-section mechanical properties appearing in the non-linear terms.

Next, a few ambiguous aspects related to the structural meaning of the results yielded by

member linear stability analyses are discussed and clarified. Finally, the application and capabilities of the formulated second-order GBT are illustrated by means of an investigation of

the buckling behaviour of thin-walled orthotropic columns and beams, which takes into account

both local and global deformation modes. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Thin-walled composite members; Second-order generalised beam theory (GBT); Asymmetric

orthotropy; Linear stability analysis; Local-plate modes; Distortional modes; Mixed modes

1. Introduction

As already mentioned in the companion paper [1], the mechanical properties exhibited by most composite (laminated plate) thin-walled members clearly indicate a

high susceptibility to instability (buckling) phenomena, which may be classified and

characterised as follows:

E-mail address: dcamotim@civil.ist.utl.pt (D. Camotim).

0263-8231/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 3 - 8 2 3 1 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 2 6 - 5

792

Nomenclature

ij], [Bij] membrane, bending, membranebending laminate stiffness

[Aij], [D

matrices

[Bik], [Cik], [Dik] GBT basic matrices

[Fik], [Hik] GBT coupling matrices

[Xkij] GBT non-linear stiffness matrix associated to Wk

b, t

plate element width and thickness

G, S cross-section centroid and shear centre

L

member length

M, P applied bending moment and axial compressive load

x, s, z plate coordinate axes

X, Y, Z cross-section centroidal principal coordinate axes

elementary warping functions

uk(s)

u, v, w displacement field components

U, V, W, cross-section rigid-body degrees of freedom

pre-buckling internal force or moment

Wk

f

displacement amplitude function

load parameter

components written in the eigenvector coordinate system

(~)

critical bifurcation loads and buckling mode shapes

()cr

limit applied load (stress) values and deformed configurations

()lim

(i) Global buckling phenomena, which involve the deformation of the member

axis and are associated to cross-section in-plane rigid-body motions. Examples

of such phenomena are (i1) flexural or flexuraltorsional buckling of compressed members (columns) and (i2) lateraltorsional buckling of members

under bending (beams)see Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 1. Instability phenomena: (a) beam (global) lateraltorsional buckling, (b) column local-plate buckling and (c) beam distortional buckling.

793

while the member axis remains undeformed. It is still possible to distinguish

between (ii1) local-plate buckling (plate bending without fold line displacementssee Fig. 1(b)) and (ii2) distortional buckling (fold line membrane displacementssee Fig. 1(c))1.

Therefore, in order to adequately assess the structural efficiency of thin-walled

laminated plate members, it is essential to know their buckling behaviour, namely

to identify the relevant buckling modes and to determine the corresponding bifurcation stress values. This requires the performance of accurate linear stability analyses, which must account, simultaneously, for the possible occurrence of both local

(local-plate and distortional) and global buckling.

Although there exists a considerable amount of research work, both analytical and

experimental, concerning the global buckling behaviour of thin-walled composite

members (e.g., [38]), only relatively few studies have been devoted to the local

buckling behaviour of such members. However, the numerical and experimental

investigations carried out, for instance, by Barbero et al. [9], Tomblin and Barbero

[10], Bank et al. [11] and Pecce and Cosenza [12] have provided clear evidence that

local buckling phenomena2 play a fundamental role in the structural behaviour of

composite thin-walled members, namely on their load-carrying capacity. Moreover,

the numerical results reported in these studies were invariably obtained by means

of the finite element method and it has been shown that the adequate modelling of

both local and global buckling effects, indispensable to obtain accurate estimates of

the member overall behaviour, requires the performance of rather sophisticated and

time-consuming analyses.

Quite recently and in the context of isotropic thin-walled members (e.g., coldformed steel members), the Generalised Beam Theory (GBT) was shown to be a

general and very elegant approach to accurately solve a wide range of structural

problems involving prismatic members and, moreover, to be a valid and often advantageous alternative to fully numerical analyses [13,14]. In the case of linear stability

analyses, Davies et al. (e.g., [2,15,16]) and Schardt [17] applied a second-order GBT

to investigate the (local and global) buckling behaviour of thin-walled cold-formed

steel members. In particular, Davies and his co-workers studied extensively the distortional buckling behaviour and their investigations, combined with the ones carried

out by Hancock et al. (e.g., [1820]), significantly contributed to (i) a better understanding of this phenomenon and also (ii) the development of efficient design formulae accounting for it.

The objective of this paper is to present the formulation and illustrate the application of a second-order orthotropic GBT, thus completing the task defined and

initiated in [1]. The issues addressed here are specifically related to geometrically

1

Some authors classify the instability phenomena as global, distortional and local (plate), i.e., they

do not group together local-plate and distortional buckling under the common designation local buckling

(e.g., [2]).

2

The aforementioned investigations deal exclusively with local-plate buckling.

794

non-linear aspects and their incorporation in the previously reported (first-order) GBT

makes it possible to perform linear stability analyses of prismatic composite

(laminated plate) thin-walled members displaying arbitrary orthotropy. In order to

fully understand the concepts and procedures involved in this work, the reader should

become acquainted with the fundamentals of the orthotropic GBT, which are

described and discussed in the companion paper [1].

Initially, the principle of virtual work is employed to derive the additional equilibrium equation and boundary condition terms required to perform buckling (linear

stability) analyses of laminated plate thin-walled members, i.e., the terms accounting

for the geometrically non-linear effects associated to the deformed configuration

adjacent to the member fundamental equilibrium path. These additional terms are

also physically interpreted, i.e., related to the interaction between the applied loads

(stresses) and the deformations characterising the bifurcated path. Next, the secondorder GBT equations are compared with the ones obtained by Bauld and Tzeng [21],

who developed, in 1984, a Vlassov-type beam theory (including warping effects) to

analyse fibre-reinforced members displaying thin-walled open cross-sections. Since

this theory only deals with global deformations (extension, bending and torsion), the

comparison can only involve the GBT rigid-body deformation modes. Besides

showing that there exists a perfect agreement between the two sets of equilibrium

equations, the paper also includes a few remarks regarding the cross-section mechanical properties.

Then, before addressing aspects directly related to the application and numerical

implementation of the second-order GBT equations, some attention is devoted to

identifying and characterising the different types of member second-order analyses

that can be performed by means of such equations, an issue that has often been a

source of ambiguity or misunderstanding (e.g., [21]). In particular, a systematic way

to unveil the nature of the primary equilibrium path (pre-buckling or non-linear) is

outlined and illustrated, which provides a methodology to investigate whether the

results yielded by linear stability analyses constitute true bifurcation loads or simply limit load values. In addition, the main steps involved in performing a GBT

linear stability analysis are also briefly described.

Finally, the paper concludes with an illustration of the use of the second-order

GBT to determine the buckling (linear stability) behaviour of fibre-reinforced plastic

(FRP) members, taking into account both local (local-plate and distortional) and

global modes. Lipped channel members displaying several laminated plate material

behaviours are considered and the analyses performed lead to (i) the identification

and characterisation (classification) of the relevant buckling modes and (ii) the evaluation of the corresponding bifurcation stress values. In particular, it is investigated

how these results are influenced by (i) the applied stress distribution (e.g., uniform

compression or pure bending) and (ii) the member orthotropy (laminated plate layer

configuration and fibre orientation).

795

2.1. Determination of the geometrically non-linear (second-order) terms

First of all, it should be mentioned that the GBT simplifying assumptions,

described in [1], remain valid, which implies that the only first-order kinematic

relation that needs to be changed is the one concerning the membrane longitudinal

extension (eM

xx). In fact, it now must incorporate the relevant non-linear terms, i.e.,

those associated to the mid-plane transverse displacement components (v and w),

thus leading to

2

2

M

M

eM

xx u,x (v,x w,x) / 2 (exx)L (exx)NL

(1)

Since the linear term was already accounted for in the first-order theory [1], only

the determination of the equilibrium equation and boundary condition terms originating from the non-linear term are dealt with from here on.

By taking into consideration the displacement representation defined in [1] (see

Eq. (4)) , the first variation of exx must now include the additional terms

(dexx)NL (vivj wiwj)fj,xdfi,x

(2)

which affect the member strain energy variation related to the work done by the

longitudinal normal stresses (sxx), i.e.,

dU

sxxdexxdzdsdx

(3)

L b t

Incorporating (2) into (3), recalling the expression of sxx (Eq. (7) of [1]) and

performing the cross-section integration (coordinates s and z), one is led to

(dUxx)NL

L b t

3

kij

2

k j,x ,x

(4)

1

kij

2

kij

where (i) the first-order tensors (vectors) W1k (x) ( W1k ) and W2k(x) ( W2k ) are associated to the pre-buckling internal forces and moments due to the applied loads

(stresses) and (ii) the third-order tensors appearing in the right-hand side of this

expression stem from the cross-section integration of products involving the displacement functions uk(s) (elementary warping functions), vk(s), wk(s) and derivatives of

wk(s).

2.2. Member equilibrium equations and boundary conditions

Following the usual application of the principle of virtual work (dfi are kinematically admissible and otherwise arbitrary functions) and taking into account the firstorder terms already derived in the companion paper [1], one can establish the member

796

formed by n 1 orthogonal and normalised warping functions u k(s)3, determined

in the context of the first-order theory, such equilibrium equations and boundary

conditions are expressed respectively as

ikf k,xxxD

ikf k,xx F ikf k,x B ikf k (X 1kijX 2kij)(W

1kf j,x),x

(5)

C ikf k,xxxx H

X3kij(W2k fj,x),x q i

,

which are designated as GBT second-order equation(s), and

ikf k,xx(D

1ikD

2ik D

3ik)f k,xF 1kif k ((X 1kijX 2kij)W

1k

{C ikf k,xxx H

2k )f j,x q uu i}df i|L0 0,

X 3kijW

(6)

1

2

2

3

L

ikH

ik)f k,x (D

ikD

ik)f k}df i,x|0 0

{C ikf k,xx (H

.

Matrices Cik, Hik, Dik, Fik and Bik correspond to first-order terms of the GBT equations and, as seen in [1], their components are the cross-section mechanical properties associated to the different deformation modes. As for the pre-buckling internal

k, they are assumed to depend linearly on a single load (stress)

forces and moments W

k0, with W

k0 standing for the internal forces and

k lW

parameter l, i.e., one has W

moments associated to the member reference loading profile. Moreover, they are

given by

1k W

2k ; W

1k C klf l,xx; W

2k H

klf l,x

kW

(7)

W

1

2

k are normal stress (sxx) resultants, arising respectively from

k and W

where both W

F

(i) the longitudinal strains (eM

xx exx) and from (ii) the bendingtwisting curvature

F

(gxs) due to coupling effects (the latter is absent in either isotropic, special orthotropic

ik is a null tensorsee Table 1 of [1]). Since

or cross-ply orthotropic materials, as H

1k may be

C ik are components of a diagonalised tensor (see Eq. (21) of [1]), vector W

also expressed as [13,15]

1k C kkf k,xx

.

(8)

W

1

2

3

Finally, matrices Xkij, Xkij and Xkij provide the second-order terms of the GBT

equation, i.e., stand for the geometrically non-linear effects associated to the equilibrium in the member (adjacent) deformed configuration. They read

1

X 1kij

Ckk

b t

1

X 2kij

Ckk

b t

1

X 3kij

Hkl

1

11w k(v iv j w iw j)dzds

zQ

Ckk B11w k(v iv j w iw j)ds,

b

1

13w l,s(v iv j w iw j)dzds

2zQ

2B 13w l,s(v iv j w iw j)ds

Hkl

b t

Q

Ckk A11u k(v iv j w iw j)ds,

If there are intermediate nodes, the set of orthogonal functions also includes w k(s).

(9)

797

and it is important to recall, at this point, that, following the GBT simplifying

assumptions, v k(s) and w k(s) are expressed in terms of u k(s)4. Moreover, it should be

noticed that, for the sake of consistency with the classical thin-walled beam theory,

kl were incorporated in the definition of the tensors X 1kij,

the components C kk and H

k.

X 2kij, X 3kij and W

Concerning the physical interpretation and characterisation of the components of

k0 and matrices X 1kij, X 2kij and X 3kij, it is worth mentioning that:

vector W

k0 is a reference modal internal force and moment vector (W

k0 W

1k0

(i) W

2k0), obtained from the applied loads (stresses) by means of a linear preW

k0 is associated to a specific

buckling analysis5. Since each component of W

deformation mode, the corresponding physical meaning can be identified

accordingly. Therefore, one has that:

10 is associated to deformation mode

(axial extensionu 1 0 and

(i.1) W

w 1 0), i.e., it represents the (compressive) axial force.

20 is associated to deformation mode

(major axis bendingu 2 0

(i.2) W

and w 2 0), i.e., it represents the major axis bending moment.

30 is associated to deformation mode

(minor axis bendingu 3 0

(i.3) W

and w 3 0), i.e., it represents the minor axis bending moment.

40 is associated to deformation mode

(torsionu 4 0 and w 4 0

(i.4) W

), i.e., it represents the bi-moment.

k0 (k5) are associated to distortional modes (u k 0, w k 0) or

(i.5) W

local-plate modes (u k 0, w k 0), which means that they correspond

to less usual stress resultants, with no straightforward physical meaning.

k0, which,

(ii) [X 1k ], [X 2k ] and [X 3k ] are non-linear (stiffness) matrices associated to W

in general (arbitrary orthotropy), depend on (ii1) the cross-section material

geometrical properties and (ii2) the applied load (stress) nature. However, it

should be pointed out that:

(ii.1) For members made of symmetric laminated plates, matrices [X 2k ] and

[X 3k ] are null, due to the linear dependence on the thickness coordinate

z6, and, therefore, [X 1k ] is the sole non-linear matrix involved.

Provided that no intermediate nodes are involved (if this is the case, the corresponding wk(s) functions

are defined independentlysee [1]).

5

ik 0, one must evaluate both W

1k0 and W

2k0 by means of a pre-buckling (linear) analysis, since

If H

they are associated to distinct second-order effects, i.e., to different non-linear matrices (X 1kijX 2kij and

X 3kij, respectively).

6

When secondary warping effects are deemed relevant and taken into account (e.g., in angle, cruciform

or T sections) [22,23], [X 2k ] is no longer linear in z for the torsional deformation mode (the warping

displacements also vary across the wall thickness). In such case, one must adopt the first definition of

[X 2k] presented in (9), i.e., the one explicitly showing the integration over the wall thickness.

798

only on the cross-section geometrical characteristics and applied load

nature, which justifies the designation of geometric matrix, commonly

adopted in the context of isotropic member stability.

(iii) Concerning the effect of the applied load nature on matrices [X 1k ], [X 2k ] and

[X 3k ], it is worth mentioning that:

10) only influences matrix [X 1k ].

(iii.1) A compressive axial force (W

30) influences both matrix [X 1k ] and matrix

20 or W

(iii.2) A bending moment (W

[X 2k ].

k0 (k4) influences all matrices [X 1k ],

(iii.3) Any other modal component W

2

3

[X k ] and [X k].

3. GBT vs. theory of Bauld and Tzeng (1984)

Although several plate theory aspects are involved in its fundamentals, it is

important not to forget that GBT is aimed at analysing the structural behaviour of

prismatic members, in much the same way as Vlassovs classical thin-walled member

theory for isotropic members. In the context of thin-walled member linear stability

analyses, Bauld and Tzeng [21] extended Vlassovs theory to members formed by

arbitrary symmetric laminated plates and, moreover, included secondary warping

effects [22,23]. However, these authors did not take into account the in-plane crosssection deformation (i.e., distortional or local-plate modes).

In order to compare the developed GBT with the theory of Bauld and Tzeng, let

us consider a member with the arbitrary thin-walled open cross-section depicted in

Fig. 2(a). This figure also shows (i) the global coordinate system (X, Y, Z), with the

Fig. 2. (a) Coordinates, degrees of freedom and displacements of an arbitrary cross-section. (b) Coordinates of an arbitrary point P with respect to the cross-section shear centre S.

799

origin located at the cross-section centroid G and where Y and Z are principal axes7

and, for a given wall (plate) element, the corresponding (ii) local coordinate system

(x, s, z) and displacement field (u, v, w). Furthermore, it is assumed that (i) the crosssection shear centre S is the cross-section pole and that (ii) the origin of coordinate

s (cross-section mid-line) is located at point O (arbitrarily chosen). Then, the crosssection kinematics may be expressed in terms of the following quantities (degrees

of freedom), all of which depend exclusively on the longitudinal coordinate x [24]:

(i) Udisplacement of point O in the longitudinal direction X.

(ii) V and Wdisplacements of point S in the Y and Z directions, respectively.

(iii) rotation about the longitudinal axis (X) passing through S.

Each cross-section mid-line point Q (see Fig. 2(a)) is associated to three geometric

quantities, namely (i) its coordinates q and r, with respect to S and measured along

the mid-line tangent (q) and the wall thickness (r) directions and (ii) the mid-line

orientation, expressed by the angle a, which is the angle formed by the mid-line

tangent and the horizontal direction (Z axis). Obviously, q, r and a only depend on

the cross-section mid-line coordinate s.

Prior to the establishment of the GBT differential adjacent equilibrium equations

(deformed configuration in the immediate vicinity of the fundamental equilibrium

path), required to perform a linear stability analysis, it is necessary to express the

displacement field components u(x, s), v(x, s) and w(x, s) in terms of the cross-section

degrees of freedom U(x), V(x), W(x) and (x), each corresponding to a GBT rigid

body deformation mode [1,13]. From the observation of Fig. 2(a) and (b), it

becomes a straightforward matter to obtain the transversal displacement components

of any given cross-section point P in terms of the above degrees of freedom, by

means of the expressions

v(x,s,z) V(x)sina(s) W(x)cosa(s) (x)(r(s)z),

(10)

(i.e., measured along the wall thicknesssee Fig. 2(b)).

Concerning the determination of the axial displacement component of an arbitrary

cross-section mid-line point Q (u(x, s)), it is necessary to adopt the simplifying

assumption of null membrane shear strains, i.e., gxs 0 [1]. Then, taking into account

that gxs u,s v,x and using (10), one is led to

u(x,s)

V(x)sina(s)W(x)cosa(s)(x)r(s)

s

(11)

7

In principle, the location of the origin and the directions of the in-plane axes of the coordinate system

may be arbitrarily chosen. In this particular case, because it is intended to obtain a diagonalised system

of equilibrium equations, it is indispensable that (i) such coordinate system originates at the centroid G

and also that (ii) Y and Z are principal axes.

800

Integrating (11), with respect to s and between s 0 and s sQ, further yields

u(x,s) U(x)Y(s)V(x)Z(s)W(x)w(s)(x)

(12)

where V(x), W(x) and (x) are derivatives with respect to x and

sQ

Y(s)

sQ

sina(s)ds; Z(s)

sQ

cosa(s)ds; w(s)

r(s)ds

(13)

stand, respectively, for the differences between the values of (i) the coordinates Y,

Z and (ii) the sectorial coordinate w associated to points Q (s sQ) and O (s 0).

Moreover, it should be stressed that the terms on the right-hand side of (12) correspond to the individual contributions of each cross-section degree of freedom to the

axial displacement of point Q.

Fig. 3 shows the cross-section (rigid-body) motions associated to each degree of

freedom (classical deformation modes), as well as the corresponding axial displacement fields u k(s).

On the other hand, the representation of the displacement field components provided by GBT, for 1k4, reads [1]

u u 1f 1,x u 2f 2,x u 3f 3,x u 4f 4,x,

v v 1f 1 v 2f 2 v 3f 3 v 4f 4,

w w 1f 1 w 2f 2 w 3f 3 w 4f 4

(14)

.

A comparison between expressions (10), (12) and (14) leads to the following conclusions concerning the quantities involved in the application of GBT:

Fig. 3. Classical deformation modes and corresponding axial displacement fields u k(s): (a) extension,

(b) bending about Z, (c) bending about Y and (d) torsion.

801

f 1,x U; f 2 V; f 3 W; f 4

(15)

consistent with the theories of Vlassov (isotropic members) and of Bauld and

Tzeng (orthotropic members). In particular, notice that the axial displacements

u are obtained from the values of U and the derivatives of the remaining

degrees of freedom (V, W and ).

(ii) The displacement field components are given by

u 1 1; u 2 Y; u 3 Z; u 4 w

v 1 0; v 2 sina; v 3 cosa; v 4 rz

(16)

w 1 0; w 2 cosa; w 3 sina; w 4 q

where it should be observed that the torsion mode is the only one associated

to cross-section in-plane flexural rotations (w 1,s w 2,s w 3,s 0 and

w 4,s 1). Moreover, it should be noticed that the secondary warping effects

are accounted for in GBT by means of the plate flexural extension (eFxx

zw,xx) contribution to the member strain energy, which is responsible for the

presence of tensorial quantities depending on z and w k (e.g., C 2ik) [1].

The incorporation of expressions (15) into (7) leads to the GBT second-order

system of differential equilibrium equations

C 11 0 0 0

0 C 22 0 0

0 0 C 33 0

0 0 0 C 44

0 0 0 0

iv

iv

iv

0 0

0 0

0 0

43

0 H

43 0

H

24

0 H

0 0

0

V

0 X 122 0

W

0 0

X 133

0 X 124 X 134

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

44

0 0 0 D

0 0 0

0 0 0

0

X 234

0 0 0

0 0 X 234 X 244

2U

W

2V

W

2W

W

2

W

0 0

0 0

0

24

H

0

X 124

1U

W

1V

W

X 134

X 144

1W

W

1

W

0 0

0 X 324

0 0

0 0

0 X 324 0 X 344

3U

W

3V

W

3W

W

3

W

(17)

802

0 0 0 0

4U

W

4V

W

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 X 444

4W

W

4

W

0 0 0 0

where X kij X 1kijX 2kij. By further introducing (16) into the components of matrices

] and [D

] (see [1]) and (ii) [X 1] and [X 2] (see (9)), one obtains

(i) [C ], [H

11(cosa)2ds,

C 11 A 11ds, C 22 A 11Y2ds D

b

11(sina)2ds, C 44 A 11w2ds D

11q2ds,

C 33 A 11Z2ds D

b

(18)

43 2 D

24 2 D

13cosads, H

13sinads,

H

b

44 4 D

33ds,

D

b

and also the components X kij, which fully define system (17) and are given by

1

1

144

11)ds,

(A 11(r2 q2) D

X 122 X 133 A 11ds 1, X

C11

C 11

1

1

X 124 A 11Zds, X 134 A 11Yds,

C11

C11

b

1

11(cosa)2)ds 1,

X 234 (A 11Y2 D

C22

b

X 244

1

11(Y 2rcosa))ds,

(A 11Y(r2 q2) D

C22

1

11(sina)2)ds 1,

X 324 (A 11Z2 D

C33

b

1

11(Z2rsina))ds,

X 344 (A 11Z(r2 q2) D

C33

b

(19)

803

1

11(w 2rq))ds

X 444 (A 11w(r2 q2) D

C44

b

.

Assuming the member subjected to a combination of (i) a compressive axial force

N, (ii) major and minor axis bending moments MZ and MY and (iii) a bi-moment B,

let us look now at the system of differential equilibrium equations provided by the

theory developed by Bauld and Tzeng [21], which can be written, in matrix form, as

A 0 0 0

I 0 0

0 I 0

0 0

iv

0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 J

H 0

0 0

NU

0 1

ZS

N V

0 0

YS

N W

0 ZS YS r2

S

0 0 0

MZU

0 0 0

MZV

0 0 0

MZW

0 0 1 b

0 H

iv

0 0

iv

0 0 0 0

BU

0 0 0 0

B V

0 0 0 0

B W

0 0 0 bw

0 0 0 0

MYU

0 0 0 1

MYV

0 0 0 0

MYW

(20)

0 1 0 b

MZ

MY

0

0

This system can be directly (i.e., term by term) compared with system (17), yielded

by the application of GBT, thus providing the means to physically interpret its matrix

components. In fact, from such a comparison it is possible to draw the following conclusions:

(i) The GBT matrix components associated to the four deformation modes

depicted in Fig. 3 are related to the cross-section mechanical properties, namely:

(i.1) C 11 A is the axial stiffness.

804

C 33 IY is the bending stiffness about the Y axis.

44 J are, respectively, the (primary and secondary)

C 44 and D

warping and torsional (St. Venant) stiffness values.

43 HY are stiffness values concerning the coupling

24 HZ and H

(i.5) H

effects between major/minor axis bending and twisting (torsion).

(i.2)

(i.3)

(i.4)

(ii) The generalised internal forces associated to the four (rigid body) deformation

modes are:

1 N (mode

(ii.1) W

axial force).

2 MZ (mode

(ii.2) W

3 MY (mode

(ii.3) W

4 B (mode

(ii.4) W

bi-moment).

(iii) Matrices [X k] (see (19)) incorporate the material elastic properties and the

cross-section geometrical characteristics, two aspects that, in general, cannot

be separated, as happens for isotropic materials. In particular, it should be

mentioned that:

(iii.1) Matrix [X 1] corresponds to a uniform normal stress diagram (associated

to mode ), with non-null components X 122 X 133 1, X 144 rS2,

X 124 ZS and X 134 YS (YS and ZS are the shear centre S coordinates

and rS is the cross-section polar radius of gyration with respect to S).

(iii.2) Matrix [X 2] corresponds to a linear (in Y) normal stress diagram

(associated to mode ), with non-null components X244 bZ and

X234 1 (bZ is a parameter accounting for the lack of antisymmetry

of u2(s)8).

(iii.3) Matrix [X 3] corresponds to a linear (in Z) normal stress diagram

(associated to mode ), with non-null components X344 bY and

X324 1 (bY accounts for the lack of antisymmetry of u3(s)8).

(iii.4) Matrix [X 4] corresponds to a linear (in w) normal stress diagram

(associated to mode ), with a single non-null component X444

bw (bw accounts for the lack of antisymmetry of u4(s)).

(iv) In the expressions (19), the secondary warping effects are taken into account

11. However, in

by means of the terms involving the plate bending stiffness D

cross-sections exhibiting primary warping, such effects are (comparatively)

very small and, therefore, may be safely neglected.

8

Because they are also associated to the lack of (geometrical) symmetry of the cross-section, parameters by and bz are often designated as asymmetry parameters [23].

805

The GBT system of equilibrium equations developed earlier (see (5)) is used to

perform member (geometrically non-linear) second-order analyses which account

for the behaviour associated to rigid-body and/or in-plane cross-section deformation modes. Before addressing aspects directly concerning the implementation of

such analyses, some attention should be paid to their nature, an issue that has often

been a source of ambiguity or misunderstanding (e.g., [21]). In fact, the next few

paragraphs will be devoted to a further attempt to shed some light on this matter,

i.e., they deal with the identification, characterisation and significance of the different

member second-order analyses yielded by the solution of the above system of equilibrium equations.

First, it is convenient to recall and/or notice that:

(i) Given the (limited) geometrical non-linear effects taken into account, the

second-order GBT theory developed earlier is mostly intended to perform

member linear stability analyses, which are intrinsically related to bifurcation

phenomena, thus involving the determination of (i1) bifurcation load

(parameter) values and (i2) buckling mode shapes.

(ii) The proper analysis of a bifurcation phenomenon requires knowing the corresponding fundamental (equilibrium) path, which depends on the applied load

profile and material properties and describes the member (linear or non-linear)

pre-buckling behaviour.

(iii) In order to detect the occurrence of a bifurcation point along the fundamental

path, it is necessary to investigate the nature of the member adjacent deformed

configurations, i.e., configurations located in the immediate vicinity of the

fundamental path, at the same load level, and obtained by means of small

displacement (deformation mode amplitude) increments. In particular, one

must find out whether such deformed configurations are equilibrium ones,

which requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem.

(iv) A bifurcation point is associated to a bifurcation load (parameter value) and

a bifurcated equilibrium path, initially displaying deformed configurations in

the associated buckling mode shape. The lowest bifurcation load and corresponding buckling mode shape, often designated as critical, are of particular importance.

(v) The deformation modes participating in a fundamental path deformed configuration are never present in the member buckling mode shapes, i.e., a bifurcation point is always associated to a sudden and complete deformation

mode change.

(vi) This work deals only with critical bifurcations from linear pre-buckling equilibrium paths, a feature which is displayed by quite a large number of member

bifurcation phenomena with practical interest. However, one should mention

that, in some problems, the accurate evaluation of bifurcation load values

requires the consideration of non-linear pre-buckling effects (bifurcation from

a non-linear pre-buckling equilibrium paths).

806

systematic way, the identification and characterisation of the member second-order

analyses obtained by means of the developed GBT theory. The following tasks must

be sequentially undertaken:

(i) Once the member applied loads and material behaviour are known, the first

step consists of determining the first-order (linear) equilibrium path generated

by those loads, designated here as primary equilibrium path, involving a number of deformation modes. Depending on the particular problem, the primary

equilibrium path may either be (i1) a pre-buckling (fundamental) path, from

which a critical bifurcated path emerges, or (i2) the linear approximation of

a non-linear equilibrium path without a critical bifurcation point. In the latter

case, one should remember that the second-order GBT, as developed up to

now, only accounts for limited geometrical non-linear effects, which means

that it does not remain valid in the presence of large displacements.

(ii) Next, it is necessary to investigate whether a critical bifurcation is possible or

not, i.e., to find out the nature of the primary equilibrium path (pre-buckling

or not). In order to perform this task, one must recall that the presence of a

particular deformation mode in the pre-buckling path automatically precludes

its participation in the critical buckling mode. This implies that the adjacent

configurations to be considered in the linear stability analysis (eigenvalue

problem) should only involve the deformation modes absent from the member

fundamental path. However, the fact that it is always possible to define and

solve eigenvalue problems involving an arbitrary number of deformation

modes (whether they appear in the pre-buckling path or not) has often been

a source of misinterpretations. Therefore, the procedure outlined next has the

twofold purpose of (ii1) clarifying this issue and (ii2) providing a systematic

way to unveil the character of the primary equilibrium path:

(ii.1) To perform a linear stability analysis involving all the deformation

modes relevant for the member structural behaviour and to determine

the corresponding critical bifurcation load and associated buckling

mode shape.

(ii.2) To identify the deformation modes participating in the above buckling

mode shape and to check whether any of them also appears in the primary equilibrium path.

(ii.3) If the answer to the previous question is affirmative, the second-order

GBT analysis yields a non-linear equilibrium path tending asymptotically to the critical bifurcation load value determined in (ii.1), which

may then be viewed as a limit load (llim)9. This situation is depicted

9

Obviously, such non-linear equilibrium path can only be obtained through the (incremental-iterative)

numerical solution of the second-order GBT equations.

807

in Fig. 4(a), where it can be also observed that the primary path is just

the first-order approximation of the non-linear one.

(ii.4) If the answer to the previous question is negative, the primary equilibrium path is a pre-buckling (fundamental) path from which a bifurcation

takes place at the critical load value (lcr) and with the buckling mode

shape determined in (ii.1). This situation is illustrated in Fig. 4(b).

In order to provide a better grasp and illustrate the application of the procedure

just described, let us consider the geometrically non-linear behaviour of the isotropic

channel column depicted in Fig. 5, which is simply supported and subjected to an

eccentric compressive load P.

For the sake of simplicity, only the cross-section rigid-body deformation modes

are taken into account, namely axial extension (U), major and minor axis bending

(V and W) and torsion (). An exact (analytical) solution of the corresponding system

of second-order differential equations (20) (single half-wave sinusoidal buckling

mode) leads to the eigenvalue problem defined by

p2EIZ

P 0

L2

P(ZSeZ)

p2EIY

P PeY

L2

P(ZSeZ) PeY

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

p2E

GJP(r2SbYeZ)

L2

a

0

V

aW 0

a

0

Linear stability results: (a) limit loads; (b) critical bifurcation loads.

, (21)

808

where (i) eY (eZ) is the load eccentricity, with respect to the centroid G and measured

along the Y (Z) axis (Y and Z are the centroidal principal axes), (ii) IY (IZ) is the

minor (major) moment of inertia, (iii) and J are the warping and St. Venants

constants, (iv) ZS is the coordinate of the shear centre S, (v) rS is the polar radius

of gyration with respect to S and (vi) bY is the cross-section asymmetry parameter

related to minor axis bending. Four different load cases are dealt with and, for each

of them, one (i) determines the primary (equilibrium) path deformation mode participation and (ii) performs a linear stability analysis involving all the (four) deformation

modes taken into account. Next, the load cases considered are identified and the

corresponding results are presented and discussed:

(I) Concentrically loaded column (eY eZ 0). The primary path is associated

only to axial extension (U) and, depending on the column length, the critical

buckling mode may involve either minor axis bending (W), for the longer

columns, or major axis bending and torsion (V ), for the shorter columns.

Regardless of the column length, the primary path is always a pre-buckling

one. However, the critical buckling mode shape depends on which of the two

bifurcation load values (PIcr.W and PIcr.V ) is smaller.

(II) Z-eccentrically loaded column (eZ 0, eY 0). The primary path is associated

to axial extension and minor axis bending (U W). If the critical buckling

mode involves minor axis bending (W), the primary path is a non-linear one

and tends to Plim PIcr.W. If the critical buckling mode involves major axis

bending and torsion (V ), the primary path is a pre-buckling one and bifurcation occurs for PIIcr.V ( PIcr.V ).

(III) Y-eccentrically loaded column (eY 0, eZ 0). Since the primary path is

associated to axial extension, major axis bending and torsion (U V )

and the critical buckling mode involves major and minor axis bending and

torsion (V W ), no bifurcation occurs and one has Plim PIII

cr.V W

I

III

I

(notice that PIII

cr.V W Pcr.W and Pcr.V W Pcr.V ).

(IV) Z+Y-eccentrically loaded column (eZ 0, eY 0). The primary path is now

associated to all four deformation modes (U V W ), which means

that it is a non-linear equilibrium path tending to Plim

III

PIV

cr.V W ( Pcr.V W ).

It is still worth pointing out that a correct interpretation of the results provided

by a member linear stability analysis is even more important in the presence of either

local deformation modes and/or a more complex (orthotropic) material behaviour

(e.g., laminated plate members). For instance, members made of asymmetric laminated plates exhibit no bifurcations, even when subjected to uniform concentric compression. This fact, which is due to the occurrence of stretchingtwisting and bendingtwisting coupling effects [25,26], implies that the primary paths are always nonlinear equilibrium paths tending to limit load values obtained by means of linear

stability analyses.

809

As mentioned earlier, the second-order GBT developed is used to perform member

linear stability analyses, i.e., to characterise the bifurcations occurring along (linear)

pre-buckling fundamental equilibrium paths. All types of deformation modes (global,

distortional and local-plate modes) are taken into account and a linear stability analysis comprises three distinct steps, namely:

(i) Evaluating all the matrices appearing in the GBT equilibrium equations (5)

and boundary conditions (6). This requires a quite lengthy sequence of procedures, the main steps of which were described in [1], in the context of the

first-order GBT.

(ii) Solving the eigenvalue problem defined by (5), subjected to the boundary conditions (6), in order to determine the eigenvalues li and the associated eigenfunction vectors {f k(x)}i, the components of which provide the longitudinal

variation of the deformation mode amplitudes. Depending on the primary path

nature, the smallest eigenvalue obtained (l1) stands for (ii1) a critical bifur k (bifurcation analysis) or (ii2) a limit load llimW

k (approximate

cation load lcrW

non-linear analysis). Then, the corresponding eigenvector {f k(x)}1 provides

the member (ii1) critical buckling mode shape {f k(x)}cr (bifurcation analysis)

or (ii2) limit deformed configuration {f k(x)}lim (approximate non-linear

analysis).

(iii) Evaluating the member buckling response, i.e., the buckling mode configurations and corresponding stress distributions. This step involves combining the

expressions previously obtained for u k(s), v k(s) and w k(s) (see [1]) with the

appropriate eigenfunction vector coefficients.

Finally, it should be noticed that, with a few exceptions (e.g., simply supported

members under uniform compression and not displaying material couplings effects),

step (ii) invariably requires resorting to approximate numerical methods, which

always involve discretisation procedures (e.g., finite differences, finite elements, etc.).

Then, the system of differential equilibrium equations is transformed into a system

of algebraic equations, meaning that each eigenvalue becomes associated with an

eigenvector vector (instead of an eigenfunction vector). Therefore, the eigenfunction

vector mentioned in step (iii) is replaced by a linear combination of the shape

functions adopted to implement the discretisation procedure, the coefficients of

which are the eigenvector components.

5. Illustrative examples

In order to provide a better grasp of the concepts and procedures just presented,

the GBT is employed to investigate the buckling behaviour of thin-walled channel

members, namely columns (concentrically compressed members) and beams

(members under uniform major axis bending). The column and beam material proper-

810

ties and cross-section mid-line dimensions are identical and were described in the

companion paper [1]. However, different plate thickness values are dealt with,

namely (i) t 0.3 cm (three 0.1 cm layers), for the columns (as in [1]), and (ii)

t 0.6 cm (three 0.2 cm layers), for the beams. Notice that, by choosing this new

(larger) thickness value, it becomes possible to illustrate the critical distortional buckling behaviour, a phenomenon which does not occur for the column cross-section

10 P (axial

geometry. As for the applied stress resultants, they read W

20 MZ (major axis bending), for the beams.

compression), for the columns, and W

The associated column and beam bifurcation/limit loads (recall Section 4) are given,

1.lim llimP Plim and by (ii) W

2.cr

1.cr lcrP or W

respectively, by (i) W

2.lim llimMZ MZ.lim (l is the stress or load parameter).

lcrMZ MZ.cr or W

5.1. Columns (concentrically compressed members)

The column first-order mechanical properties may be found in [1] (Tables 24)

and the non-linear (stiffness) matrices [X 1] are displayed in Tables 1 to 3. Such

matrices correspond to the different plate mechanical behaviours dealt with here,

namely (i) isotropy (Table 1), (ii) (symmetric) cross-ply orthotropy (Table 2) and

(iii) asymmetric orthotropy (Table 3)10.

Since the deformation modes display either symmetric or antisymmetric configurations (see Fig. 14 of [1]), the column non-linear matrices [X 1ij] have null offdiagonal even-to-odd-number components (see Tables 1 and 2), which means that,

in isotropic or cross-ply orthotropic columns, no coupling is liable to occur between

ik] and [F ik] are null).

symmetric and antisymmetric modes (recall that matrices [H

On the other hand, in asymmetric orthotropic columns, the off-diagonal even-to ik] and [F ik] are non-null (see Table 4 in

odd-number components of matrices [H

[1]), thus indicating that coupling may occur between all the modes. However, it

should be noticed that, in spite of the distinct mechanical behaviours, the three columns exhibit relatively similar non-linear (stiffness) matrices, which stems from the

kl

fact that their components are normalised by the mechanical quantities C kk and H

(see (9)).

By (i) incorporating the values displayed in Tables 1 to 3 in the GBT system of

equations (5) and (ii) discretising the member (f k(x) are approximated by third-order

Hermitian polynomials), one is led to a system of algebraic equations defining an

eigenvalue problem. The smallest root of the corresponding characteristic equation

provides the value of the column (i) critical bifurcation load Pcr (isotropy and symmetric cross-ply orthotropy) or (ii) limit load Plim (asymmetric orthotropy). Fig. 6(a)

depicts the variation with the length L of either Pcr (isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic columnssolid and dotted curves, respectively) or Plim (asymmetric orthotropic

columnsdashed curve). As for Figs. 6(b1), (b2) and (b3), they show the degree of

10

The buckling behaviour of specially orthotropic columns and beams was investigated, using GBT,

in [27,28].

mode k

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

9.868

0

1

0

9.868

0

157.6

0

0.0834

0

0.1195 0

1.232

0

0.1795

0

0.1287

0

1.727

0

0.1469

0

0.0965 0

0.0221

Table 1

Non-linear (stiffness) matrix componentsisotropic behaviour

0

0

0.0834

0

0.0475

0

0.0367

0

0.0036

0

0

0.1195

0

1.232

0

0.0586

0

0.0003

0

0.0371

X 1

0

0

0.1795

0

0.0367

0

0.2094

0

0

0

0

0.1287

0

1.727

0

0.0003

0

0.1066

0

0

0

0

0.1469

0

0.0036

0

0

0

0.0992

0

0

0.0965

0

0.0221

0

0.0371

0

0

0

0.1512

811

mode k

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

9.867

0

0.1197

0

0.1297

0

0.0975

0

0

0

9.867

1

0

0

157.6

0.0844

0

0

1.2317

0.1795 0

0

1.727

0.1470

0

0

0.0221

0

0

0.0844

0

0.0476

0

0.0367

0

0.0036

0

Table 2

Non-linear (stiffness) matrix componentssymmetric cross-ply orthotropic behaviour

0

0.1197

0

1.2317

0

0.0589

0

0.0009

0

0.0371

X 1

0

0

0.1795

0

0.0367

0

0.2095

0

0

0

0

0.1297

0

1.727

0

0.0009

0

0.1067

0

0

0

0

0.1470

0

0.0036

0

0

0

0.0992

0

0

0.0975

0

0.0221

0

0.0371

0

0

0

0.1513

812

N. Silvestre, D. Camotim / Thin-Walled Structures 40 (2002) 791820

mode k

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

9.834

0

0.1185

0

0.1268

0

0.0720

0

0

1

0

0.0818

0

0.1771

0

0.1457

0

0

9.834

0

156.9

0

1.222

0

1.673

0

0.2943

0

0

0.0818

0

0.0467

0

0.0351

0

0.0042

0

Table 3

Non-linear (stiffness) matrix componentsasymmetric orthotropic behaviour

0

0.1185

0

1.222

0

0.0576

0

0.0007

0

0.0344

X 1

0

0

0.1771

0

0.0351

0

0.2082

0

0.0009

0

0

0.1268

0

1.673

0

0.0007

0

0.1084

0

0.0082

0

0

0.1457

0

0.0042

0

0.0009

0

0.0990

0

0

0.0720

0

0.2943

0

0.0344

0

0.0082

0

0.1417

813

814

Fig. 6. (a) Variation Pcr or Plim with L, (b) buckling mode participation: (b1) isotropy; (b2) cross-ply

orthotropy; (b3) asymmetric orthotropy and (c) buckling mode configuration: (c1) isotropy and cross-ply

orthotropy; (c2) asymmetric orthotropy.

column critical buckling mode, for each case. Finally, the buckling mode configurations are represented in Figs. 6(c1) (isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic columns)

and 6(c2) (asymmetric orthotropic columns).

From the observation of Figs. 6(a), (b1), (b2) and (c1), one concludes that the

buckling behaviours of isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic columns are qualitatively

similar. Notice, in particular, that:

11

The exact degree of participation of each mode k in the cross-section deformed configuration is

determined on the basis of f k and, obviously, varies along the longitudinal coordinate x. The results

reported in this work concern average degree of participation values, i.e., are determined on the basis of

0

815

takes place in a local-plate mode (LPM + ) with 116 half-waves

(isotropy) or 114 half-waves (cross-ply orthotropy). The minimum critical

LP

load values are PLP

cr 96.4 kN (isotropy) and Pcr 31.6 kN (cross-ply

orthotropy).

(ii) For 220 cm L 430 cm (isotropy) or 300 cm L 600 cm (cross-ply

orthotropy), the column buckles in a mixed (local+global) buckling mode,

designated as flexuraldistortional (FDM + + ).

(iii) For L 430 cm (isotropy) or L 600 cm (cross-ply orthotropy), buckling

takes place in a flexuraltorsional mode (FTM + ).

and

participate in either the FDM or the FTM,

(iv) Since the global modes

the value of Pcr continuously decreases for L 220 cm (isotropy) or L

300 cm (cross-ply orthotropy).

The buckling behaviour of asymmetric orthotropic columns differs from the previous ones, which is due to the simultaneous participation of some deformation

modes (e.g., axial extension) in the column primary path and buckling mode

deformed configurations, originated by membraneflexural coupling effects. Following the comments presented in Section 4, bifurcation does not take place and the

primary equilibrium path is a non-linear one, which tends to the limit load value

Plim yielded by the member linear stability analysis. Furthermore, by looking at Figs.

6(a), (b3) and (c2), one observes that:

(i) For L 250 cm, the column deformed configuration has a local plate mode

shape (LPM + + a bit of + + + ) with 117 half-waves and the

(minimum) primary path limit load value is PLP

lim 40.2 kN.

(ii) For L 250 cm, the column deforms in a flexuraldistortional mode shape:

(ii1) FDM1 ( + + + + a bit of ), if L 550 cm, or (ii2) FDM2

( + + + a bit of ), if L 550 cm (see Fig. 6(c2)).

(iii) A flexuraltorsional deformed configuration only occurs for longer columns

(L 1000 cm).

5.2. Beams (members under uniform major axis bending)

Next, let us apply GBT to perform linear stability analyses of beams, i.e., members

subjected to uniform major axis bending. After (i) determining again the cross-section first-order mechanical properties (recall that one has now t 0.6 cm), (ii)

incorporating them into the beam non-linear (stiffness) matrices [X 2], appearing in

the GBT system of equations (5), and (iii) discretising the member by means of

finite elements, one is led to a system of algebraic equations defining the eigenvalue

problem that must be solved. The smallest root of the corresponding characteristic

equation provides the value of the (i) critical bifurcation moment MZ.cr (isotropic

and symmetric cross-ply orthotropic beams) or (ii) limit moment MZ.lim (asymmetric

orthotropic beams).

Fig. 7(a) depicts the variation with the length L of either MZ.cr (isotropic and cross-

816

Fig. 7. (a) Variation MZ.cr or MZ.lim with L, (b) buckling mode participation: (b1) isotropy; (b2) crossply orthotropy; (b3) asymmetric orthotropy and (c) buckling mode configuration: (c1) isotropy and crossply orthotropy; (c2) asymmetric orthotropy.

orthotropic beamsdashed curve). As for Figs. 7(b1), (b2) and (b3), they correspond

to the degree of participation of each individual deformation mode (see Fig. 14

in [1]) in the beam critical buckling mode, for each case. At last, the buckling mode

configurations are represented in Figs. 7(c1) (isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic

beams) and 7(c2) (asymmetric orthotropic beams).

By looking at Figs. 7(a), (b1), (b2) and (c1), it is possible to conclude that the

isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic buckling behaviours are once again qualitatively

similar. In particular, one observes that:

(i) For L 40 cm (isotropy) or L 60 cm (cross-ply orthotropy), buckling takes

place in a local plate mode (LPM + + + ) with 13 half-waves (both

isotropy and cross-ply orthotropy). As for the minimum critical moment

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

817

LP

values, they read MLP

Z.cr 9720 kNcm (isotropy) and MZ.cr 3075 kN cm

(cross-ply orthotropy).

For 40 cm L 150 cm (isotropy) or 60 cm L 220 cm (cross-ply

orthotropy), the column buckles in a distortional buckling mode (DM + )

with 12 half-waves (isotropy and cross-ply orthotropy). The minimum critical

moment values read now MDZ.cr 5503 kNcm (isotropy) and MDZ.cr

1954 kNcm (cross-ply orthotropy).

For 150 cm L 450 cm (isotropy) or 220 cm L 700 cm (cross-ply

orthotropy), buckling takes place in a flexuraldistortional mode

(FDM + + ).

For L 450 cm (isotropy) or L 700 cm (cross-ply orthotropy), buckling

takes place in a flexuraltorsional mode (FTM + ), commonly designated

as lateral buckling [23].

and

participate in either the FDM or the FTM,

Since the global modes

the value of MZ.cr continuously decreases for L 150 cm (isotropy) or L

220 cm (cross-ply orthotropy).

from the isotropic and cross-ply orthotropic ones, once again due to the participation

of deformation modes (e.g., major axis bending) in both the primary path and

buckling mode deformed configurations, due to membraneflexural coupling

effects. This means that no bifurcation occurs and that the primary equilibrium path

is non-linear and tends to MZ,lim, the value which is obtained from the beam linear

stability analysis. In addition, the observation of Figs. 7(a), (b3) and (c2) shows that:

(i) For L 50 cm, the beam deformed configuration has a local-plate mode shape

(LPM + + + + a bit of + ) with 13 half-waves and the (minimum)

primary path limit moment value is MLP

Z.lim 3992 kNcm.

(ii) For 50 cm L 180 cm, the beam deforms in a distortional mode shape

(DM + + a bit of + + ) with 12 half-waves and the (minimum)

primary path limit moment value is MDZ.lim 2578 kNcm.

(iii) For 180 cm L 550 cm, the beam deforms in a flexuraldistortional

mode shape (FDM + + + a bit of + ).

(iv) For L 550 cm, the beam deforms in a flexuraltorsional mode shape

(FTM + + a bit of ).

and

participate in both the FDM and the

(v) Since the global modes ,

FT

and

M

continuously

decrease for 180 cm

FTM, the values of MFD

Z.lim

Z.lim

L 550 cm and L 550 cm, respectively.

6. Conclusion

Following the first-order Generalised Beam Theory (GBT) presented previously

[1], a second-order GBT was formulated in this paper, which makes it possible to

analyse the buckling (linear stability) behaviour of composite thin-walled members

818

made of laminated plates and displaying arbitrary orthotropy. The second-order GBT

(adjacent) equilibrium equations and corresponding boundary conditions were first

derived, by employing the principle of virtual work and accounting for the appropriate geometrically non-linear effects. Moreover, a physical interpretation was provided

for the second-order terms, i.e., the terms related to the interaction between the

applied stresses and the deformations characterising the bifurcated path. Next, the

second-order GBT equations developed were compared with the Vlassov-type ones

obtained by Bauld and Tzeng [21]. Although involving only rigid-body modes,

such a comparison revealed a quite perfect agreement between the two sets of equilibrium equations. A few remarks regarding the cross-section mechanical properties

were also included. On the basis of the formulated second-order orthotropic GBT,

the following distinctive traits were identified:

(i) Matrix [X kij], which describes the cross-section non-linear behaviour, combines both material properties and geometrical characteristics, a feature stemming directly from the orthotropy due to the laminated plate layer nature and/or

configuration. Recall that, in the isotropic GBT, the material quantities do not

appear in [X kij], which provides the justification for the commonly used designation geometric matrix.

(ii) In orthotropic members, the second-order equilibrium equations are generally

highly coupled, as there are four different coupling sources, namely the ones

ik], [F ik] and [X kij]. Recall that, in the case of

ik], [H

associated to matrices [D

isotropic members, [X kij] is the only matrix responsible for the occurrence of

coupling effects.

Then, a few paragraphs were devoted to clarifying a few aspects related to the

identification and characterisation of the different types of member second-order

analyses that can be performed by means of the developed GBT equations. In particular, a systematic methodology was proposed to investigate whether the results

yielded by linear stability analyses constitute genuine bifurcation loads or simply

limit load values. In addition, a brief description of the main steps involved in

performing a GBT linear stability analysis was presented.

Finally, in order to illustrate the application and potential of the formulated secondorder GBT, the buckling (linear stability) behaviour of thin-walled composite members was determined, taking into account both local and global deformation modes.

In particular, linear stability analyses were performed on lipped channel columns

and beams displaying three different material behaviours (laminated plate layer

configurations), namely isotropy, cross-ply orthotropy and asymmetric orthotropy.

The results obtained led to (i) the identification and characterisation of the relevant

buckling modes and to (ii) the evaluation of the corresponding bifurcation or limit

load values. In particular, it was shown that:

(i) Critical bifurcations take place for all the isotropic or cross-ply orthotropic

columns and beams considered in this work. However, asymmetric orthotropic

display no bifurcation, as their primary paths are always non-linear. They tend,

819

of a member linear stability analysis.

(ii) A mixed flexuraldistortional buckling mode may be critical in either isotropic

or (cross-ply or asymmetric) orthotropic members. However, it plays a much

more relevant role in the latter case.

References

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[2] Davies JM. Modelling, analysis and design of thin-wall steel structures. In: Light-weight steel and

aluminium structures. London: Elsevier Science; 1999. p. 318.

[3] Mottram JY. Lateraltorsional buckling of pultruded I-beams. Composites 1992;23(2):8192.

[4] Turvey GJ. Lateral buckling tests on rectangular cross-section pultruded GRP cantilever beams.

Composites: Part B 1995;27B(1):3542.

[5] Pandey M, Kabir M, Sherbourne A. Flexuraltorsional stability of thin-walled composite I-section

beams. Compos. Eng. 1995;5(3):32142.

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[9] Barbero E, Fu S, Raftoyiannis I. Local buckling of FRP beams and columns. J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

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[10] Tomblin J, Barbero E. Local buckling experiments on FRP columns. Thin-Walled Struct.

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[11] Bank L, Nadipelli M, Gentry T. Local buckling and failure of pultruded FRP beams. J. Eng. Mater.

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[13] Schardt R. Verallgemeinerte Technische Biegetheorie. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1989 [in German].

[14] Schardt R. The generalized beam theory, instability and plastic collapse of steel structures. In: Proceedings of the M.R. Horne Conference, University of Manchester, 1983. p. 469-75.

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1994;31(23):22141.

[16] Davies JM, Leach P. An experimental verification of the generalised beam theory applied to interactive buckling problems. Thin-Walled Struct. 1996;25(1):6179.

[17] Schardt R. Generalized beam theoryan adequate method for coupled stability problems. ThinWalled Struct. 1994;19:16180.

[18] Hancock GJ. Local, distortional and lateral buckling of I-beams. J. Struct. Div. (ASCE)

1978;104(11):178798.

[19] Hancock GJ. Finite strip buckling and nonlinear analyses and distortional buckling analysis of thinwalled structural members. In: Rondal J, editor. Coupled instabilities in metal structures: theoretical

and design aspects, CISM Course No. 379 (Part V). Wien: Springer-Verlag; 1998. p. 22589.

[20] Hancock GJ, Davids AJ, Key PW, Law SC, Rasmussen KJ. Recent developments in the buckling

and nonlinear analysis of thin-walled structural members. Thin-Walled Struct. 1990;9:30938.

[21] Bauld RB, Tzeng L. A Vlasov theory for fibre-reinforced beams with thin-walled open cross-sections.

Int. J. Solids Struct. 1984;20(3):27794.

[22] Loughlan J, Ata M. The behaviour of open and closed section carbon fibre composite beams subjected to constrained torsion. Compos. Struct. 1997;38(14):63147.

820

[23] Trahair NS. Flexuraltorsional buckling of structures. London: E & FN Spon, 1993.

[24] Vlassov BZ. Thin-walled elastic bars. (Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, for the

National Science Foundation, Washington, Trans.) 1961 (Original work published 1959).

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anisotropic plates. AIAA J. 1988;26(10):126977.

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1997;28(1):2141.

[27] Silvestre N, Camotim D, Batista E, Nagahama K. Buckling behaviour of thin-walled composite

columns using generalised beam theory. In: Zaras J, Kowal-Michalska K, Rodhes J, editors. Thinwalled structuresadvances and developments. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2001. p. 32937.

[28] Silvestre N, Camotim D. Buckling behaviour of FRP thin-walled lipped channel members. In: Topping BHV, editor. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Civil & Structural Engineering Computing. Civil-Comp Press; 2001. p. 778 (full paper in CD-ROM, #29).

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