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Sikolohiyang bunga ng karanasan, kaisipan, at oryentasyon ng Pilipino, batay

sa kabuuang paggamit ng kultura at wikang Pilipino

1. set up the standards for determining whether something is an academic field or not or
simply, how does something become an academic discipline?

In order to frame the efforts in sikolohiyang Pilipino to formalize indigenize

psychology in the Philippines, it is important to look into the attempts to:
(1) develop indigenous concepts and frameworks; and
Some considerable progress has been noted in the identification and
elaboration of indigenous concepts, particularly in the area of personality and
values (Church & Katigbak, 1999).
For example, Enriquez (1978) presented what is considered to be a core
concept in Filipino psychology: kapwa
He defined kapwa as a recognition of shared identity or an inner self shared
with others.

(2) adapt, develop and use culturally-appropriate instruments and

- Utilizing indigenous research methods:
- Many sikolohiyang Pilipino advocates have pushed for the development and
use of indigenous research approaches and methods derived from Filipinos
cultural ways of gathering information.
- A number of these methods have been explicated (e.g.,pakapa-kapa,
suppositionless approach; Torres, 1982) but three methods are worth
elucidating because of their more frequent use:
- (1)pagtatanung-tanong (asking around);
- (2)pakikipagkuwentuhan (exchanging stories); and
- (3) ginabayang talakayan (indigenous facilitated discussion)
2. differentiate a movement from a discipline
- A discipline is focused study in one academic field or profession.
- A discipline incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities,
challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated
with a given discipline.
- An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is
taught and researched as part of higher education.
- ( )

a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or

artistic ideas.

3. differentiate SP from other types of psychology

4. proofs on the significance of SP as an academic discipline

The establishment of research institutes and college courses in SP were

further moves to institutionalize and professionalize SP.
Enriquez put up a research institution for SP, in 1971, the Philippine
Psychology Research House (PPRH) which was later renamed Philippine
Psychology Research and Training House (PPRTH).
The research institute which was meant to develop the capacity of original
research and theorizing among young scholars includes a library, bookstore,
a small museum collection, and residences for visiting researchers (Pe-Pua &
Protacio- Marcelino, 2000).
SP courses, especially Filipino child, social, cultural, and/or community
psychology were not only introduced at the U.P. but also in other universities
de la Salle University, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, University of
Santo Tomas, and Centro Escolar University was another significant step to
its institutionalization.
Looking back, we can assert that SP started out as a polemic against
and starting as it did in the 1960s and going stronger in the 1970s,
it coincided with critiques voiced in European and American academia.
But while the latter were triggered by social, political, and cultural movements
such as those for peace, feminist, and ecological causes, in the case of SP, it
was a bit different.
The site of emergence of SP was the academe in the 1960s the Community
Development Research Council of the University of the Philippines started to
question the applicability of Western concepts, theories and research tools to
Philippine context.
Filipino psychologist Virgilio G. Enriquez started around this time to initiate the
double movements of critique-reconstruction and decolonizationindigenization in his psychology classes,
and started using Filipino as medium of instruction.
SP gradually gained following as it became a multidisciplinary and
interdisciplinary approach with support from the historian-ethnologist Zeus
Salazar and the anthropologist Prospero Covar.
Psychology is an academic discipline that seeks to develop frameworks,
perspectives, and methodologies that are appropriate to the understanding of

differences in individuals and groups, their relationships and interactions, their

self-definitions, their capabilities and potentials, their coping and adjustment
Sikolohiyang Pilipino believes that there should not be one, uniform
psychology to be taught in the classroom (the Western positivist one),
and to be used for social research and services.
Each cultural setting has developed psychological knowledge endemic to its
contexts, experiences, and challenges, before, and outside of academic
This psychological knowledge is embedded in the lifeworld, in worldviews, in
the way people view themselves in relation to others and the environment.
Academic psychology in different cultural settings should thus draw from thispre-academic, or outside-the-academy psychological knowledge, discourses
and practices.
Between 1970 and 1990, the peak time of SP, many political upheavals and
societal changes were taking place in the Philippines.
But it must be emphasized again that SP was the cultural- intellectualacademic segment of the long decolonization process that was first waged by
Filipino reformists and revolutionaries until the granting of Philippine
After Philippine independence, the educational, economic, and political
system remained to be colonial in structure and influence.
Academic neocolonialism was especially foundational to this general state of
continuing or new colonialism.
While the academe was the site of battle, the theories, concepts and
methodologies of Sikolohiyang Pilipino were readily put to use in the social
and political movements.
Zeus Salazar (1985), a historian, identified four traditions upon which Philippine
psychology is rooted:
1. Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya:
Western Tradition: This follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is
essentially the American-oriented Western psychology being studied in the
2. Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya:
Western Tradition: This was started by priest-professors at the University of
Santo Tomas. This tradition is mainly focused on what is called 'Rational
3. Ethnic Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya: This is the tradition on which Philippine
psychology is primarily based. This refers to the indigenous concepts that are
studied using indigenous psychological orientation and methodologies.

4. Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The

tradition that fuses native healing techniques and explains it in an indigenous
religious context. A social scientist[who?] suggested that many poor Filipinos are
considered superstitious as a result of Catholic dogmatism, characterized by a
vague combination of animism and Catholic beliefs. The majority of Filipinos are
poor and religion has become an important facet of life, to the extent that some
disbelieve in science. Many foreigners look down on Filipinos, going as far as
calling them slaves. That is why when working as domestic helpers, many
Filipinos report cases of work-related abuse.