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# Assignment #2 Hydrogeology (EPSC 549)

## Due Feb 6, 2015

Questions from Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology, 4th Edition.
Chapter 3, Analysis B, (page 109).
Figure 3.32 (Attached) is a map showing the groundwater elevations in well screened in an
unconfined aquifer in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The aquifer is in good hydraulic connection with
Lake Michigan, which has a surface elevation of 580 ft above sea level. Lakes and streams are
also shown on the map. To do:
1) Make a water-table map with a contour interval of 50 ft, starting at 550 ft.
2) Why do you suppose that groundwater levels are below the Lake Michigan surface
elevation in part of the area?
Chapter 4, Question 10. A confined aquifer is 18.5 m thick. The poteniometric surface drops by
1.99 m between two wells that are 823 m apart. If the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is
4.35 m/d, how many cubic meters of flow are moving through the aquifer per unit width?
Questions from Fitts (2nd Edition), Chapter 5
14. The Dakota sandstone aquifer in the Dakotas is a nearly horizontal aquifer bounded by shale
aquitards. Explain why it originally had high artesian heads before irrigation pumping began in
the late 1800s. Describe the general ow direction in the aquifer and the ow direction in the
overlying aquitard. (See Figure 5.39 and associated text in the textbook for more information.)
15. An early artesian well in the Dakota sandstone aquifer, when capped, had a water pressure of
180 lb/in.2 (1.24106 N/m2) at the ground surface (Schoon, 1971). Calculate the head in the
aquifer, assuming that the elevation datum is the ground surface; water would stabilize at this
height above ground level if the well casing extended high enough.

A) The intrinsic permeability of a coarse sand is found to be 9.5 x 10-8 cm2 at 25 C. Calculate
the hydraulic conductivity. Appendix 14 from Fetter (attached to this homework) provides values
for density and viscosity.
B) The following four questions (7A-D) deal with the cross section figure on the last page of this
assignment. Use the figure to draw in the answers for questions 7a-c. [For reference, this
question was part of a previous years midterm exam.]

On the cross section, draw equipotential lines at 10 m intervals (i.e. 180, 190, 200, 210,
etc.) contoured to the hydraulic head data of the piezometers. Additionally draw the 225

meter equipotential line. Assume that there is a hydraulic no-flow boundary on the right
and left sides and a geologic no-flow boundary on the bottom of the diagram.
On the cross section, draw 4 flow paths, assuming isotropic conditions, starting from the
four stars.
On the cross section, draw the potentiometric surface (POTS) of the sand unit defined by
the piezometer data between piezometer B and piezometer D.
What is the total hydraulic head at the smiley-face?