Sushila Devi Bansal College Of Technology, Indore

Session 2008-09

Seminar Report On:

Nanotechnology: Engendering an Era of Industrial Revolution

Submitted to: Submitted by: Mr. Dinesh Rajpoot Tanmay Baid t Tomar Rohi

Science year, III sem. Table of Contents:
1.

Computer II

Introduction.

2. Nanotechnology in Computers. 2.1. Ballistic Sensor Disks. 2.2. Spintronics. 2.3. Smart Dust.
3.

Nanotechnology in Medicine. 3.1 Cell Surgery, Cell Pharmacology. 3.2 Microvibore Artificial WBC. 3.3 Reciprocites: Mechanical Artificial RBC. 3.4 Ribosome. 3.5 Utility Fog.

4. Nanotechnology & International Security. 5. Nanotechnology and Environment. 6. Basis of Economy: A Strong possibility. 7. Conclusion.
8.

References.

Nanotechnology: Engendering an Era of Industrial Revolution
1. Introduction: A technology stepping into every aspect of our lines, powerful enough to make things easier and impossible which hitherto was unimaginable. These things include desktop manufacturing cellular repairs, artificial intelligence, inexpensive space travel, abundant energy and environmental restoration, ie radically changing the whole economic and political systems. This is the Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices and systems through manipulation of miniscule matter, manipulation of matter at the atomic or nonoscale (i.e one billionth of meter). The semiconductors industry is edging closer to the world of non technology where components are miniastured to the point of individual molecules and atones this world alone automatic contention of consumer goods with traditional labour like a Xerox ml/c produces unlimited retyping of the original information. The shotgun marriage of chemistry and engineering called is ushering in the era of selfreplicating machinery and self-assembling consolatory goods made from cheap raw atoms.

Fig1. Depicts an infrastructure been built by
convergent system.

In Nanotechnology by controlling molecular structure in material synthesis we have gained inevitable control over the basis material properties such as conductivity, strength, relativity, yielding innovative application ranging from batteries to automotive materials. By starting with cheap, abundant compared molecules and processing them with small high frequency, high productivity m/s it will make products inexpensive design computes will execute more instructors per sec than the entire semiconductor CPU’s in the world. Talking about applications Nanotechnology will enable us to do radical new things in virtually every technological and scientific areas.

2. The New Era of Nano Computers: Nanotechnology is all about building working mechanisms using components. Such as super computers (bacteria sized) with today’s MIPS (Million instructions per sec) capacity, or super computers in the size of sugar cube possessing the power of a billion laptops regular sized desktop model with power of billions of today’s PC and magnetic storage desks could word 100,000 tones more data than current disk. Computation will then become a property of matter, computers right be morporated in next generation, by 2010 we will be aware of our using nanoscale computers. 2.1. Ballistic Sensor Disc:

Nanoscale computers will certain hard disks, which have sensors, sensitive enough to detect presence or absence of magnetic field in a microscopic bit of material. This is done as if the magnetic field is strong enough to change a sensors electron flow the bift represents a 1, if not it is 0, the key factor is making sensors that can read and matter bits in increasing the magnetic resistance of sensors.

Fig2.

The contact between these wires is only a few hundred atoms wide. The tight squeeze keeps electrons from scattering, allowing the sensor to read the minuscule bits that future, super high-capacity disk drives will depend on.

2.2. Spintronics: Researchers are aiming to make a spin based computer chip that does all the timing that conventional chip do but with cost power size and were viability advantages that come from magnetic logic with the concept of Spintronics hard disks may be replaced with plastic memories to open up many opportunities for new technologies such as flexible displays and responsive solar cells. Ohio State University researchers have made nearly all the moving electrons inside a sample of plastic to

spin in same direction – an effect called spin polarization that could field plastic memories by replacing the high/low voltage representation of boolean ones and zero’s with north pole/south pole respectively. We can construct basic logic gates, which carry out computations using the spin electrons. This technology will make extremely small chips that are inexpensive than traditional IC’s because the circuits are made from single wires rather than semiconductor transistors leading to use of cheap and low power computers. Also because spin states of electrons remain stable even when power goes off, such a computer would not have to boot up every time it is turned on. 2.3 Smart Dust: These are bottle-cap-shaped micro-machines fitted with wireless communication devices - that measure light and temperature, When clustered together, they automatically create highly flexible, low-power networks with applications ranging from climatecontrol systems to entertainment devices that interact with handheld computers."

fig3. Golem-dust. solar powered mote with bi-directional communications and sensing
(acceleration and ambient light) 11.7 mm3 total circumscribed volume~ total displaced volume Engineers also envision other uses for the Smart Dust project, including: 4.8 mm3

1) Monitoring humidity and temperature to assess the freshness of foods stored in the refrigerator or cupboard. 2) Monitoring quadriplegics' eye movements and facial gestures and to assist them in operating a wheelchair or using computational devices. 3) Communicating with a handheld computer for games and other forms of entertainment. A user could attach the sensors to his or her fingers to "sculpt" 3D shapes in virtual clay visible on the device's screen. The same idea could be applied to playing the piano or communicating in sign language, with the handheld computer translating hand gestures into music and speech. 4) Detecting the onset of diseases, such as cancer. Experiments on humans are expected to begin as soon as one year from now, with adoption taking place anywhere from three to 10 years, according to Smart Dust researchers

3. Medicinal Era brought by Nanotechnology We can actually say good-bye to cancer diseases; hospitals no longer will plagues of AIDS or Ebola

strike the human race. Antibiotics will even decreasing effectiveness, would no longer be staple of medical industry. How it will be possible since diseases are caused largely by damage at molecular level and cellular level and today’s surgical tools at this scale are large and low, so with NT we will have nano-robots which will be programmed to perform delicate surgeries.

Fig4.showing an artificial DNA structure built by nano-matters

Autonomous molecular m/c operating in human body could monitor levels of various compounds and store

the info in internal memory. The molecular m/c can be filtered out of blood supply and the information can be analyzed supply and the information can be analyzed. This is very useful in diagnosis of various diseases. It is also suggested that using NT medical diagnosis will be transformed and use of nano- robots within body could provide a defense against invading viruses. This technology could be used in particular application when considering immune sys. as this to combat immune deficiency diseases live HIV/AIDS. There is also speculation that nano-robots would show on even reverse the aging process and life expectancy could increase significantly. In near future we will be acquainted with notions like: Cell Pharmacology: Delivery of drugs by medical nano-machines to exact location in the body. Cell Surgery: Modifying cellular structures using medical nano-machines. Ribosome: Naturally occurring molecular machine that manufactures proteins according to instructions derived from cell’s genes. Nanomedicine: Bunch of non -replicating nanorobots with a specified medical task such as cleaning and closing a would and many more. Reciprocytes: Mechanical Artificial RBC: A blood borne spherical 1 Micron diamonded 1000 atm pressure vessel with active pumping powered by

endogenous serum glucose, able to delver 236 times more oxygen to tissues per unit volume than national red cells and to manage carbonic acidity. Microbivore Artificial WBC: This will destroy microbiological agent causing disease found in human bloodstream using a digest and discharge protocol.

Fig 4.Showing artificial WBC. Utility Fog: These are objects formed of “intelligent” polymorphic substances, having typically an octet truss. It’s a simple extension of nanotechnology, based on tiny self-replicating robots. The robots are called Foglets and the substance they form is Utility Fog.

Fig5. shows us individual foglet & then the whole Utility Fog.

4. Nanotechnology & International Security: The possible applications of Nanotechnology to advanced weaponry are fertile ground for fantasy. It is obvious that 3-D assembly of nano- structures in bulk can yield much better versions of most conventional weapons e.g. guns can be made lighter, easy more ammunition, fire self guided bullets, incorporate multispectral gun sights or even fire themselves when an enemy is detected. Aerospace hardware would be far lighter and higher performance, built with minimal or no metal, it would be such harder to spot radar.Embedded computer would allow remote activation of any weapon and more compact power handling would allow greatly improved robotics.Nuclear weapons can be credited

to prevent major wars since their inventions. Nuclear weapons have high long term cost of use that would be much lower with nanotech weapons.Nuclear weapons require massive research effort and industrial development, which can be tracked more easily than nanotech weapons. Greater uncertainty of capabilities of the adversary less response time to an attack and better targeted destruction of enemy’s resources during an attack all make nanotech arm races less stable. Nanotech weapons would be extremely powerful and could lead to a dangerously to an arm race. Also unless nanotech is tightly controlled the number of nanotech nations in the world could be such higher than the number of nuclear nations increasing the chance of a regional conflict blowing.

5.Nanotechnology and Environment : Nano technology has the potential to substantially benefit environment through pollution prevention, treatment and remediation. Auborne nano robots can be programmed to rebuild the removed from water sources and oil spills can be cleaned up instantly. Our dependence an non-renewable sources would

diminish with nano-technology. Many resources can be developed by nano-machines.

Fig6. Nanotectnology making transortation easy.

However use of NT is scaled up emissions to environment may also increase and perhaps a whole new class of toxins or other environment problems may be created.

6. Basis of Economy: A Strong possibility: The purchaser of manufactured product today is paying for its design, raw materials, the labour and capital of manufacturing, transportations storage and sales. If nano-factories can produce a wide variety of

product when and where they are wanted most of this efforts will become unnecessary.

7. Conclusion: Thus, what we are seeing is the segment of a revolution caused by our ability to work on same

scale as nature, Nano-technology will afford every aspect of our lives from the medicines we use power of our computers the energy supplies we require, the food we eat, the cars we drive, the building we live in, the clothes we wear. Nanotechnology with all its challenges and opportunities is an unavoidable part of our future. The researches are filled with optimums and products are filled with optimum and products based on this technology are beginning to make their mark. The extent to which non-technology will impact our lives only depends on times of human in genuinely. Humanity will be faced with a power accelerated social reduction as a result of nano-technology. More powerful industrial revolution capable of bringing wealth, health and education to every person on this planet is just around the corner. Along with the development of nanotechnology comes the necessary to develop reasonable guidelines procedures and laws in order to protect humanity from new forms of terror, runaway inanities misuse of technologies.

8. References: K.ERIC.DREXLER-“INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECNOLOGY”. RICHARD FEYMANN’S BOIGRAPHY (www.wikipedia.com) www.nanotechweb.com Ralph C. Merkle “SELF REPLICATNG SYSTEMS AND LOW COST MANUFACTURING”. adekeczer@mail.arc.nasa.gov.

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