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PETRONAS TECHNICAL STANDARDS

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

PIGS FOR USE IN


OPERATIONAL PIGGING

PTS 30.40.60.32
OCTOBER 2011

2011 PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 3

PREFACE
PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication, of
PETRONAS OPUs/Divisions.
They are based on the experience acquired during the involvement with the design, construction,
operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where appropriate they are based on, or
reference is made to, national and international standards and codes of practice.
The objective is to set the recommended standard for good technical practice to be applied by
PETRONAS' OPUs in oil and gas production facilities, refineries, gas processing plants, chemical
plants, marketing facilities or any other such facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical and
economic benefit from standardisation.
The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and decision
to implement. This is of particular importance where PTS may not cover every requirement or diversity
of condition at each locality. The system of PTS is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual
operating units to adapt the information set forth in PTS to their own environment and requirements.
When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use PTS they shall be solely responsible for the quality of
work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In particular, for those
requirements not specifically covered, it is expected of them to follow those design and engineering
practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected in the PTS. If in doubt, the
Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without detracting from his own responsibility, consult the
owner.
The right to use PTS rests with three categories of users:
1)
2)
3)

PETRONAS and its affiliates.


Other parties who are authorised to use PTS subject to appropriate contractual
arrangements.
Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users
referred to under 1) and 2) which requires that tenders for projects, materials supplied
or - generally - work performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant
standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users,
PETRONAS disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death)
suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use, application
or implementation of any PTS, combination of PTS or any part thereof. The benefit of this disclaimer
shall inure in all respects to PETRONAS and/or any company affiliated to PETRONAS that may issue
PTS or require the use of PTS.
Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual
arrangements, PTS shall not, without the prior written consent of PETRONAS, be disclosed by users to
any company or person whomsoever and the PTS shall be used exclusively for the purpose they have
been provided to the user. They shall be returned after use, including any copies which shall only be
made by users with the express prior written consent of PETRONAS.
The copyright of PTS vests in PETRONAS. Users shall arrange for PTS to be held in safe custody and
PETRONAS may at any time require information satisfactory to PETRONAS in order to ascertain how
users implement this requirement.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5
PART I
1.1
SCOPE .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.2
DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE, REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS AND
DEVIATION ....................................................................................................................... 5
1.3
DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................... 5
1.4
CROSS-REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 6
PART II
FOAM PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING ....................................................... 7
2.1
REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................................................. 7
2.1.1
Materials ............................................................................................................................ 7
2.1.2
General design .................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.3
Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................... 8
2.1.4
Brush foam pigs ................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.5
Pig locators ........................................................................................................................ 8
2.2
HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE ................................................................. 8
2.2.1
Pig transport and storage .................................................................................................. 9
2.2.2
Inspection of pigs ............................................................................................................... 9
2.2.3
Pig cleaning ....................................................................................................................... 9
2.3
IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION ............................................................................ 9
PART III
MANDREL (STEEL BODY) PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING .....................11
3.1
MANDREL PIG REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................11
3.1.1
Type of mandrel pigs ........................................................................................................11
3.1.2
Running capabilities of pigs ..............................................................................................14
3.1.3
Functional requirements ...................................................................................................15
3.1.4
Materials ...........................................................................................................................15
3.1.5
Shape and dimensions .....................................................................................................17
3.2
HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE ................................................................17
3.2.1
Pig transport and storage .................................................................................................17
3.2.2
Inspection of pigs ..............................................................................................................18
3.2.3
Pig cleaning ......................................................................................................................18
3.2.4
Spare parts .......................................................................................................................18
3.3
IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION ...........................................................................18
PART IV
SOLID CAST POLYURETHANE PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING .............21
4.1
SOLID CAST PIG REQUIREMENTS................................................................................21
4.1.1
Types of pigs ....................................................................................................................21
4.1.2
Running capabilities of cast pigs .......................................................................................22
4.1.3
Materials ...........................................................................................................................23
4.1.4
Shape and dimensions .....................................................................................................24
4.2
HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE ................................................................24
4.2.1
Pig transport and storage .................................................................................................24
4.2.2
Inspection of pigs ..............................................................................................................24
4.2.3
Pig cleaning ......................................................................................................................24
4.3
IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION ...........................................................................24
5.
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................27
APPENDIX A

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF FOAM PIG - INFORMATION PROVIDED BY


THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER

APPENDIX B

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF MANDREL PIG - INFORMATION PROVIDED


BY THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER

APPENDIX C

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF SOLID CAST POLYURETHANE PIG INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER

APPENDIX D

SAMPLE OF REQUEST FOR QUOTATION

APPENDIX E

INSPECTION CHECKLIST FOR OPERATIONAL PIG

APPENDIX F

SELECTION OF PIGS

APPENDIX G

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OTHER TYPES OF PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL


PIGGING

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 5
PART I INTRODUCTION
1.1

SCOPE
This Specification defines the minimum technical requirements for:

PART II Foam Pigs

PART III - Mandrel (steel body) pigs

PART IV - Solid cast polyurethane pigs

The main characteristic for each tool:

1.2

PART II The foam pig is designed to pass through restrictions, but if the restrictions or
deposits become too heavy, the foam will break up relatively easily and pass through
the pipeline without becoming stuck. These pigs may also be used in swabbing
operations for gas pipelines. Foam pigs are often used as chaser pigs for stalled
mandrel pigs. Foam pigs cannot be reused, must be discard when worn (throw away
item)

PART III Mandrel pigs are most commonly used pig for operational pigging. The use
of mandrel pigs in the pipelines includes to control internal corrosion in pipelines by
removing water, sand, scales, iron oxides, wax and other debris, distribution of a film of
corrosion inhibitors across the internal pipe wall and batching of different products.
Alternatively, these pigs may be used in cleaning and commissioning operations for
new pipelines.

PART IV The use of solid cast pigs in the pipelines is to control internal corrosion in
pipelines by removing water, wax and other debris, distribution of a film of corrosion
inhibitors across the internal pipe wall, and batching of different products. Solid cast
pigs cannot be reused and must be discard when worn (throw away item).

DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE, REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS AND DEVIATION


Unless otherwise authorised by PETRONAS, the distribution of this PTS is confined to
companies forming part of PETRONAS group and to Contractors nominated by them.
This PTS is intended for use in oil refineries, gas handling installations, chemical plants, oil
and gas production facilities, and supply/marketing installations.
If national and/or local regulations exist in which some of the requirements may be more
stringent than in this PTS the Contractor/Manufacturer shall determine by careful scrutiny
which of the requirements are the more stringent and which combination of requirements will
be acceptable as regards safety environmental, economic and legal aspects. In all cases the
Contractor/Manufacturer shall inform the Principal of any deviation from the requirements of
this PTS which is considered to be necessary in order to comply with national and/or local
regulations. The Principal may then negotiate with the Authorities concerned with the object of
obtaining agreement to follow this PTS as closely as possible.
Any deviation to the requirements of this PTS shall seek approval / endorsement from the
appropriate Technical Authority (TA).

1.3

DEFINITIONS
The following definitions shall apply:
Bi-di pig Pigs which can move in two directions through a pipeline.
Brush Pig - A pig fitted with brushes that can be spring loaded pads, circular/circumferential
or moulded into the fabric of Foam Pigs and/or attached to Mandrel Pig. The usual material is
steel, but other materials are available to suit objectives.
By-pass A facility which allows product to flow through the pig body or seals in order to
provide a flushing action in front of the pig to keep debris in suspension and reduce the risk of
debris build up in front of the pig.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
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Company - PETRONAS (also referred to as the Principal) or any duly appointed Party
authorized to act for, and on its behalf.
Conical Cup A pig fitted with driving cups, which is restricted to moving in one direction
through a pipeline.
Contractor - A Party to a Contract with the Company (Principal) that is responsible for the
supply of all or part of any Facility, Product or Service to perform the duties specified by the
Company (Principal). The Company (Principal) may undertake all or part of the duties of the
Contractor.
Guide disc Guide disc has a shore hardness value of 85-90 and is thicker and harder than
sealing disc. Guide disc is bi-directional, used to centre the pig in the pipeline and is one of
the main components in the removal of debris.
Magnetic Pig A Mandrel pig having magnets mounted on the body.
Mandrel Pig Steel body pigs which are assembled from a number of different component
parts generally consisting of a central tubular body connected to various cups, discs, brushes
etc., allowing for interchangeable spare parts.
Manufacturer/Supplier - is the party which manufactures or supplies equipment and services
to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.
Principal - a Party, or an agent authorised to act for and on its behalf, that generally specifies
the technical requirements, initiates the Work and ultimately pays for the execution of that
Work. The Principal shall mean Company unless otherwise specified.
Progressive Pigging - The process of running a series of pigs that are progressively harder
or more aggressive in order to remove pipeline deposits in a series of runs, in a gradual
manner, or to prove the pipeline is suitable for the passage of more aggressive pigs.
Scale rust and corrosion products adhering to the inner surface of pipeline which decrease
ability to transfer heat and increase the pressure drop for flowing fluids.
Sealing Disc forms a seal with the pipe wall and provides the differential pressure to propel
the pig in the pipeline.
Solid Cast Pig - Pigs which have the same general shape and function of mandrel pigs (i.e.
bi-di or conical cup pig) but are moulded in one piece, cast from polyurethane material. These
pigs may be attached with wire brushes or blades.
Swabbing Pig Low density bare foam pigs used to mop up residual liquids following bulk
de-watering in order to prepare the pipeline for a drying exercise. May also be used in gas
pipelines to reduce condensates.
Uni directional pig Pigs which move in one direction only through a pipeline.
The words Shall and Will indicate a requirement.
The word Should indicates a recommendation.
The word May indicates an option.
1.4

CROSS-REFERENCES
Where cross-references to other parts of this document are made, the referenced section
number is shown in brackets thus (-). Other documents referenced in this document are listed
under References.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 7
PART II FOAM PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING
2.1

REQUIREMENTS
The Manufacturer shall furnish foam pigs that are able to fully comply with this Specification.
The Manufacturer shall ensure that the foam pigs to be supplied are able to perform the
required service and are fit for use in the pipelines as described by the Company, based on
the data as supplied by Company.
The Company shall specify the required functions of the foam pigs to be supplied. The
Company shall describe the pipeline in which the pigs are intended to be run. The format for
information to be supplied by the Company is shown in Appendix A.

2.1.1 Ma

terials
The main body of the foam pig shall be constructed of polyurethane foam that has an open
cell (porous) structure. The foam shall have a density of:

approx. 32 kg/m3 (2lb/ft3), if specified as low density.

approx. 80 kg/m (5 Ib/ft), if specified as medium density.

approx. 128 kg/m (8 Ib/ft), if specified as high density.

The outer surface of the foam pig may be bare, or coated with solid polyurethane elastomer
either covering 100% of the pig body or in strips in a spiral or criss-cross pattern, to promote
better contact between the pig and the pipe wall. The solid layer should strengthen and
contain the pig structure. It should provide adequate abrasion resistance to with stand the
specified pipeline travel length without wearing substantially or disbonding from the foam.
Unless otherwise specified, the coated foam pigs should be capable of travelling at least 15
km.
2.1.2 Gene

ral design

Typical uses for a foam pig include:

Batching

Swabbing

Water fill and removing

Condensate removal

Light debris removal

It should be noted that foam pigs can safely pass restrictions that would prevent the passage
of a mandrel pig. They should not be used to prove the pipeline for the passage of a mandrel
pig.
Foam pigs shall be capable of withstanding a run in a pipeline along the specified length
without breaking up or deteriorating substantially from excessive wear, unless encountering a
major restriction. The length of the run will be dependent upon the pipeline product, the
condition of the internal surface (roughness), the presence of debris and the pig coating.
The foam pig shall capable of breaking up should it encounter a restriction which it cannot be
squeezed through. The pig shall be capable of travelling through restrictions of up to 20% of
the specified nominal internal diameter. The differential pressure under which the pig breaks
up should not be more than 5 barg.
It is important that the foam pig only breaks up due to a major pipeline obstruction and not due
to excessive abrasion during its run or at a tee branch. For this reason, pig catcher should be
used for all foam pig runs.
Foam pigs should safely negotiate a 1D bend.

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October 2011
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The foam pigs shall be able to remove a limited amount of soft wax and loose debris from the
pipeline. The solid polyurethane elastomer coating may contain grooves, which provide a
passage for fluid bypass which is adequate to ensure that debris does not accumulate in front
of the pig and obstruct its passage.
All foam pigs to be used for pipelines shall be equipped with a polyethylene or polypropylene
rope loop through the nose of the pig in order to enhance its retrieval from the pig traps. This
rope should run through the inside length of the pig and be embedded/secured in the solid
polyurethane elastomer forming the base of the pig.
2.1.3

Shape and dimensions


Foam pigs may have a bullet or cylindrical shape. The nose of the bullet foam pig shall be
tapered and its front edges shall be rounded such that the pig will not snag on obstructions or
side branches. A rounded nose tip is preferable. The rear end of the foam pig shall have a
solid polyurethane elastomer sealed concave base. The recommended foam pig shape is
depicted in Figure 1.
All foam pigs shall be slightly oversized in relation to the internal diameter of the pipe, unless
otherwise specified. The recommended range of foam pig outer diameters in relation to the
nominal pipe diameters is tabulated in Table 1. However, for each specific pig order, the
Manufacturer shall ensure that the foam pig supplied can be used for the specified pipeline
without affecting the integrity of the pig structure. The Manufacturer shall also ensure that the
pig can perform the required function without the chance of becoming stuck.
Foam pigs shall have a sufficient length such that they do not experience excessive fluid
bypass whilst negotiating tee branches or bends. The length of the foam pig body, which is in
full contact with the pipe wall, shall be at least 1.5 times the nominal pipeline diameter.
If foam pigs are used for batching, pig profile should be cylindrical and not with conical nose.

2.1.4 Brus

h foam pigs

If it is specified that foam pigs are to be supplied as brush pigs, these foam pigs shall be
supplied with either wire brush bristles embedded in the foam or with silicon carbide chips
moulded into the coating. The bristles shall be made of hardened tempered steel. Stainless
steel brushes shall not be supplied unless specifically approved by the Company.
Design of the brush pig shall be such that bristles and chips cannot come loose during pigging
runs.
The wire brush components shall be attached such that they provide a 360 coverage of the
internal pipeline diameter. The wire brushes shall be wear-compensated such that they
contact the pipe wall for the entire pipeline travel length.
Typical uses for a wire brush foam pig include:

2.1.5 Pi

Scraping surface preparation for internal coatings of new pip

Heavy scraping but not suitable for hard/ heavy scale.

g locators
There is no requirement for the foam pigs to be able to carry pig tracking or locating devices
unless specified by the Company.

2.2

HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE


The Manufacturer shall furnish guidelines for cleaning, inspection and storage of the foam
pigs. Attention should be given to the limitations of what the foam pig can be exposed to, such
as temperatures, humidity, environment, etc.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
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2.2.1

Pig transport and storage


Horizontal transport and storage shall not be allowed. Polyurethane foam will take a
permanent set if subjected to a constant load at one point.
After manufacture, polyurethane foam pigs shall be stored away from direct sunlight, at a
temperature of 10 to 16C, and a relative humidity not exceeding 60%. This shall require an
air conditioned environment.
During transport, the Manufacturer shall ensure that the foam pigs are not exposed to direct
sunlight.

2.2.2

Inspection of pigs
The pigs shall be provided with specification sheet.
A darkening in the coloration of polyurethane can indicate material breakdown. The
Manufacturer shall give guidelines on this.
The Manufacturer shall also give guidelines on a simple check, made by attempting to force a
sharp object into the foam material. The Manufacturer shall indicate what amount of
penetration can be associated with good foam material.
The Company shall made visual inspection according to the datasheet and specification
assuring there are no cuts, tears, punctures or other damage which will affect the pig's ability
to run in the pipeline.

2.2.3 P

ig cleaning
Specification sheet shall indicate if steam cleaning is an acceptable option for cleaning the
foam pigs.
Polyurethane components should not be exposed to temperatures above 80C for long
periods of time.

2.3

IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION


The density of each foam pig supplied shall be clearly indicated by the Manufacturer such that
the density of each pig is easily recognisable to personnel conducting the pigging operations.
Manufacturing date shall be stencilled on the back end of the pig.
The Manufacturer shall indicate what the normal hardness of polyurethane coating of the pig
should be.

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October 2011
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TABLE 1

RECOMMENDED FOAM PIG OUTER DIAMETERS

Pipeline Nominal
Diameter

Outside Diameter of
Normal Foam Pig

Outside Diameter of
Brush Foam Pig

168.3 mm (6)

165 mm (6.5")

160 mm (6.3")

219.1 mm (8)

215 mm (8.6")

210 mm (8.3")

273.1 mm (10")

270 mm (10.6")

265 mm (10.4")

323.9 mm (12")

320 mm (12.6")

315 mm (12.4")

355.6 mm (14")

350 mm (14.0")

350 mm (13.8")

406.4 mm (16")

400 mm (16.0")

395 mm (15.5")

457 mm (18")

450 mm (18.0")

460 mm (18.1")

508 mm (20")

500 mm (20.0")

510 mm (20.1")

610 mm (24")

600 mm (24.0")

615 mm (24.2")

762 mm (30")

775 mm (30.5")

775 mm (30.5")

813 mm (32")

825 mm (32.5")

825 mm (32.5")

914 mm (36")

925 mm (36.4")

925 mm (36 4")

1016 mm (40")

1020 mm (40.2")

1020 mm (40.2")

Note: These outside diameters are for guidance only. Per pipeline, they should be checked for their
suitability.

FIGURE 1 FOAM PIG SHAPE

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October 2011
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PART III MANDREL (STEEL BODY) PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING
3.1

MANDREL PIG REQUIREMENTS


The Manufacturer shall furnish mandrel (steel body) pigs that are able to fully comply with this
specification.
The Manufacturer shall ensure that the mandrel pigs to be supplied are fit for use in the
pipelines as described by the Company, based on the data as supplied by the Company. The
Manufacturer shall also confirm that the pigs supplied are the optimum selection for the
purpose specified by the Company.
The Company shall specify the purpose of the mandrel pigs to be supplied. The Company
shall describe the pipeline in which the pigs are intended to be run. The format for information
to be supplied by the Company is shown in Appendix B.
This Specification addresses components that are commonly available. If the Manufacturer
has any products (i.e. different / proprietary design of disc or cup) which offers similar
functions as required by the Company, this alternative may be presented and used subject to
Company approval.

3.1.1 Ty
3.1.1.1

pe of mandrel pigs
Bi-di pigs
Bi-di pigs shall be able to remove dislodged iron oxides, loosely-adhered scales, soft wax and
loose debris from a pipeline, as well as sweep stagnant liquids out of a pipeline. Pluggable
bypass holes should be provided through the body and/or discs of the pig, if specified by the
Company. The bypass holes will provide a passage for fluid bypass, which is adequate to
ensure that debris does not accumulate in front of the pig and obstruct its passage.
Bi-di pigs shall consist of:

a metal cylindrical body which is capable of holding various removable sealing and
guide discs, wire brushes, magnets, scraper blades, pig tracking devices and
aluminium gauging plate.

sealing discs, with two fitted both at the front and back of the pig, although this is often
varied to suit circumstances. The number of seals is variable and will depend upon the
space and number of accessories to be mounted on a standard body.

guide discs, with one fitted both at the front and back of the pig.

See Figure 5 for a typical arrangement of the bi-di pig. However, such is the versatility of a
mandrel, many variations are possible to suit conditions and pigging objectives.
The Manufacturer shall advise if more discs are required to negotiate the bends in the pipeline
(based on the radius advised) or to improve performance.
The guide discs may be positioned outboard of the sealing discs, unless specified by the
Company.
A standard bi-di pig should not be used for the removal of hard or heavy scales as they will be
ineffective. Specialised pigs should be used in such cases.
A standard bi-di pig can be fitted with gauging plate and is called gauging pig. Gauging pig is
used to prove pipe roundness and to ensure excessive weld penetration or debris does not
exist in pipeline, as well as, proving minimum bend radius prior to intelligent pig runs.
Gauging plate O.D.'s range anywhere from 90% to 95% of the internal diameter of the pipeline
and can also have slots cut into the circumferential perimeter for easier deformation
identification. Depending on the size of the pig, the thickness of the gauging plate can be
1/8", 1/4", 3/8" and 1/2" thick. The standard construction material for gauging plates is
aluminium, but steel can also be used.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 12
Bi-di pigs are recommended for pre-commissioning work i.e. batching between products,
hydrostatic testing; and in operation for chemical batching and removal of loose deposits,
debris and relatively soft paraffin.
Gauging pigs are also recommended during pre-commissioning work as well as in operation
for the reasons mentioned above.
3.1.1.2

Conical cup pigs


It shall be possible to use conical cup pigs, without the various additions, as batching pigs,
which separate fluids in front and at the back of the pig with minimal bypass.
Pluggable bypass holes should be provided through the body and/or disc of the pig, if
specified by the Company. The bypass holes will provide a passage for fluid bypass, if
required. Bypass holes through the back cups of the pig do not have to be plugged.
The pluggable bypass holes shall be plugged on delivery of the pig.
Conical cup pigs shall consist of:

a metal cylindrical body capable of holding various removable cups as well as


aluminium gauge plate.

conical cups, with one cup minimum fitted at the front, and one cup minimum at the
back of the pig.

See Figure 6 for a typical arrangement of the conical cup pig.


The Manufacturer shall advise if more cups are required to negotiate the bends in the
pipelines (based on the radius specified), or to reduce wear on the front cup, or to improve
performance.
Unidirectional cup pigs can be used for the same functions as bi-directional pigs. There are
two types of cups used which are standard and conical. If a unidirectional pig is to be used for
batching, standard cups should be used.
Conical cups have advantages in which the most significant is the fact that they will allow
approximately 20% reductions in ID to be negotiated. This makes them very useful when
combined with a narrow body and gauge plate for assessing dents on a pipeline since
standard cup will only negotiate 9 11% only.
Typical uses for a conical cup pig include:

Batching

Water fill/ removal

Condensate removal

Light debris removal (if used with brush)

Conical cup pigs are recommended to be used as mentioned above only when the users are
sure on conditions of the pipeline i.e. no restriction (dent, ovality, buckle etc.) as well as
sufficient pressure and flow from start until the completion of pigging activities to ensure
smooth pigging operation.
3.1.1.3

Brush pigs
The brush pigs shall be capable of dislodging iron oxides, loosely-adhered scales and loose
debris from the pipeline wall.
Brush pigs should be either cup pigs or bi-di pigs fitted with a set of spring loaded brushes.
Pigs fitted with circular brushes are just as effective as spring loaded brushes.
The shape and stiffness of brush bristles plays an important part. Soft densely packed
brushes should not be used as they will clog very easily. Bristles should be slightly oversize
and have built in spring in order for pits and grooves can be cleaned.

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October 2011
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Brush pigs should not be used for heavy cleaning as they will be ineffective. Where heavy or
hard scale is present, specialised de-scaling pigs shall be used.
Typical uses for a brush pig include:

Light debris removal (if used with foam pig or conical cup pig)

Heavy debris removal (if used with bi-di pig)

Brush pigs are recommended to be used in operation phase where the iron oxide, loose scale,
debris and relatively soft paraffin/wax present.
3.1.1.4

Magnetic pigs
The magnetic pigs shall be capable of removing dislodged iron oxides, soft wax and loose
debris from the pipeline.
Magnetic pigs are recommended for pre-commissioning works where metallic construction
debris is usually present.
See Figure 4 for an example of magnetic pig.

3.1.1.5

Pit cleaning pigs


The pit cleaning pigs shall be capable of removing sediments and active bacteria from pits up
to 6 mm deep. Use should be in combination of a biocide treatment program.
A pit cleaning pig shall be used when bacteria (sulphate reducing bacteria) and pits are
suspected in the pipeline.
See Figure 7 for a typical arrangement of the pit cleaning pig. Figure 2 and 3 show the special
types of pit cleaning pigs.
Pit cleaning pigs should specially be designed with flexible brush. The differential pressure
required to drive the pig through the line is considerably higher than for a standard pig (up to
50% increase in normal pump pressure). When using this pig type for the first time, an
experienced operator shall be on site.
Pit cleaning pigs are recommended to be used in operation where a pipeline is known to have
internal metal loss (corrosion) and experiences microbiological induced corrosion (MIC).

FIGURE 2 EXAMPLE OF BI-DI PIT CLEANING PIG (SPECIAL PENCIL TYPE BRUSHES)

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October 2011
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FIGURE 3 EXAMPLE OF PIT CLEANING PIG

Note: This is specialized pig and not normally used for normal operation

FIGURE 4 EXAMPLE OF MAGNETIC PIG

3.1.2

Running capabilities of pigs


Mandrel pigs shall be capable of running in a pipeline, along the specified length, without
breaking up or deteriorating substantially from excessive wear, unless encountering a major
restriction.
The differential pressure required to drive the mandrel pig through the pipeline shall be
approximately 0.5 1 barg.
The mandrel pigs should be capable of travelling through restrictions of up to:

10% of the specified nominal internal diameter for bi-di pigs.

10% of the specified nominal internal diameter for standard cup pigs.

20% the specified nominal internal diameter for conical cup pigs.

The pigs to be supplied shall be capable of travelling through minimum of 3D bends.


Pigs in pipelines will be run at speeds between:

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 15

0.3 to 2.0 m/sec in liquid lines.

0.5 to 6.0 m/sec in gas and two-phase pipelines.

The Manufacturer shall advise if other limitations are applicable.


The Manufacturer shall advise at which minimum velocity the bypass holes in the pigs should
be plugged.
Manufacturer shall advice the dry handling weight of the pig. If the dry handling weight is more
than 150 kg, then two lifting lugs shall be welded to the pig body.
3.1.3 Func

tional requirements

All mandrel pigs to be used for pipelines shall be designed such that they can be retrieved
using a hook. For bi-directional pigs, this shall be designed and installed at both ends.
There is a requirement for the mandrel pigs to be able to carry pig tracking or locating devices.
When a pig is fitted with the pig location device, the pig shall be evenly balanced in relation to
its centre point of gravity and not "nose heavy".
If specifically requested by the Company, the pigs to be run in oil pipelines shall be neutrally
buoyant as possible in relation to the fluid it is to run in, in order to reduce uneven wear on the
pig. In such cases, the handling weight increase of this pig over a normal pig shall be
indicated in the pigs Specification sheet.
3.1.4 Ma
3.1.4.1

terials
Main pig body
The main body of the mandrel pig shall be constructed of mild or carbon steel, coated with an
epoxy paint system. The coatings specifications and coating procedure shall be approved by
the Company. The coating shall not disbond while in service or storage. Preparation of the
metal surface shall be by blast cleaning prior to coating application.
Alternatively, the body may be made of an aluminium alloy, provided that the magnesium
content of the alloy does not exceed 4%.
Stainless steel bodies are not allowed, unless specifically approved by the Company.

3.1.4.2

Sealing discs
Sealing discs shall be made of a solid polyurethane elastomer. Synthetic rubbers such as
neoprene and nitrile are not allowed.
The polyurethane shall be mildly abrasion resistant and have adequate tear strength for its
intended use. It shall be compatible with the intended fluid service and impermeable to
hydrocarbons.
The quality of the polyurethane material of the sealing discs shall be such that the pig can be
used for a minimum of six months after delivery.
The sealing discs shall have a hardness of 65 Shore-A (+/- 10) or as specified by the
Company.
Note: The Company shall inspect the hardness of the discs (refer to clause 3.2.2).

The thickness of the sealing discs shall be a minimum of 20 mm or 10% of the nominal
internal diameter of the pipeline, whichever is the smaller.
The sealing discs shall be sized to be approximately 5 - 10% larger than the nominal internal
diameter of the pipeline. General guidelines can be found in Table 2. Dimensions of the discs,
however, shall be confirmed by the Manufacturer.
For the bolted connections, which attach the discs to the pig body, the nuts, washers, bolts
and spacers shall be either plated (nickel or zinc) or hot dip galvanised. All bolted connections
shall use double locking nuts with insert lock washers or nylock nuts to prevent the bolts from
vibrating loose during pigging runs.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 16
3.1.4.3

Guide discs
Guide discs shall be made of a solid polyurethane elastomer. Synthetic rubbers such as
neoprene and nitrile are not allowed.
The polyurethane shall be highly abrasion resistant and have adequate tear strength for its
intended use. It shall be compatible with the intended fluid service and impermeable to
hydrocarbons.
The quality of the polyurethane material of the guide discs shall be such that the pig can be
used for a minimum of six months after delivery.
The guide discs shall have a hardness of 90 Shore-A (+/-10) or as specified by the Company.
Note: The Company shall inspect the hardness of the discs (refer to clause 3.2.2).

The thickness of the guide discs shall be specified by the Manufacturer and will vary
depending on the pipeline diameter.
The guide disc shall be sized to have approximately the same diameter as the nominal
internal diameter of the pipeline. General guidelines can be found in Table 2. Dimensions of
the discs, however, shall be confirmed by the Manufacturer.
For the bolted connections, which attach the discs to the pig body, the nuts, washers, bolts
and spacers shall be either plated (nickel or zinc) or hot dip galvanised. All bolted connections
shall use double locking nuts with insert lock washers or nylock nuts to prevent the bolts from
vibrating loose during pigging runs.
3.1.4.4

Driving cups
Driving cups shall be made of a solid polyurethane elastomer. Synthetic rubbers such as
neoprene and nitrile are not allowed.
The polyurethane shall be highly abrasion resistant and have adequate tear strength for its
intended use. It shall be compatible with the intended fluid service and impermeable to
hydrocarbons.
The quality of the polyurethane material of the driving cups shall be such that the pig can be
used for a minimum of six months after delivery.
The driving cups shall have a hardness of 65 75 Shore-A (+/-10) or as specified by the
Company.
The design of the driving cups shall be such that the outer rim of the cup, providing the seal
against the pipe wall, is stiffer than the rest of the cup. Reinforcement with materials other
than polyurethane (e.g. steel wire wear rings), however, is not allowed.
The diameter of the cups shall not be smaller than the nominal internal diameter of the
pipeline. General guidelines can be found in Table 2. Dimensions of the cups, however, shall
be confirmed by the Manufacturer.
For the bolted connections, which attach the cups to the pig body, the nuts, washers, bolts
and spacers shall be either plated (nickel or zinc) or hot dip galvanised. All bolted connections
shall use double locking nuts with insert lock washers or nylock nuts to prevent the bolts from
vibrating loose during pigging runs.

3.1.4.5

Brushes for pipe wall cleaning


It may be specified that mandrel pigs are to be supplied with wire brush bristles. The bristles
shall be made of hardened tempered steel. Stainless steel wire bristles shall not be supplied
unless specifically approved by the Company.
Design of the brushes shall be such that bristles cannot come loose during pigging runs. The
wire brushes shall be wear-compensated such that they contact the pipe wall for the entire
pipeline travel length.
The brushes shall cover 360 of the circumference of the pipe. The length of the brushes
along the pig axis shall not be less than 20% of the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 17
The brushes can be designed as spring loaded or circumferentially wire brush, being pressed
against the pipe wall. The loading of the springs shall be similar around the pig to help
centralise the pig in the pipeline. Springs for brushes shall be designed with fatigue in mind.
The spring arrangement shall be of a leaf spring type and not a cantilever type unless
specified otherwise by the Company. Circumferential wire brushes are acceptable and can be
advantageous for pits and grooves. Circumferential wire brushes can also be used to
centralise the pig in the pipeline. The design and thickness of wire brush can be customised
according to the application, as agreed by the Company.
All brushes shall be attached with double locking nuts with insert lock washers to prevent bolts
from vibrating loose during pigging runs.
For the bolted connections, the nuts, washers, bolts and spacers shall be either plated (nickel
or zinc) or hot dip galvanised.
3.1.4.6

Brushes for pit cleaning


The brushes used for pit cleaning pig shall have prior approval from the Company.
The brushes shall be based on the following:

Outside diameter of brushes shall be larger than internal diameter of the pipeline, as
recommended by the Manufacturer and agreed by the Company.

The brushes shall be designed to provide full circumferential coverage of the internal wall.
3.1.4.7

Magnets
It may be specified that mandrel pigs are to be supplied with permanent magnets. Design of
the magnets shall be such that they cannot come loose during pigging runs. The brackets of
the magnets shall be welded to the pig body.
The magnets shall cover 360 of the circumference of the pipe. The length of the magnets
measured along the pig axis shall not be less than 20% of the nominal internal diameter of the
pipeline. Stand off of the magnets from the pipe wall shall not be more than 10% of the
nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
All magnets shall be attached to the brackets with double locking nuts with insert lock washers
to prevent bolts from vibrating loose during pigging runs.
For the bolted connections, the nuts, washers, bolts and spacers shall be either plated (nickel
or zinc) or hot dip galvanised.

3.1.5

Shape and dimensions


All mandrel pigs shall have a minimum distance between the outer seals of not less than of
1.5 times the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
The Manufacturer shall ensure that the mandrel pig supplied can be used for the specified
pipeline without affecting the integrity of the pig structure. The pig shall perform the required
function without the chance of becoming stuck due to local restrictions of bores.
Note: The Company shall provide all the relevant data to ensure optimum design and avoid the
possibility of stuck pig.

3.2

HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE

3.2.1

Pig transport and storage


The Supplier shall ensure that pigs are transported and stored standing on one end or on
cradles supporting the body only. Different types of horizontal transport and storage are not
allowed. Polyurethane will take a permanent set if subjected to a constant load at one point.
After manufacture, pigs and spare discs and cups shall be stored away from direct sunlight, at
a temperature of 10 to 16C, and a relative humidity not exceeding 60%. This shall require an

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 18
air conditioned environment. The Company shall follow the same requirements for pig
storage.
During transport, the Supplier shall ensure that the mandrel pigs and spare discs and cups are
not exposed to direct sunlight.
3.2.2

Inspection of pigs
The Manufacturer shall indicate how pigs can be identified as still suitable for use. A
darkening in the coloration of polyurethane can indicate material breakdown. The
Manufacturer shall provide guidelines on this.
The pig Manufacturer through Supplier shall provide comprehensive pig inspection checklist
for the purpose of inspection by the Company at point of delivery of the pigs. The inspection
checklist shall, at the very minimum, consist of the followings:
i.

Inspection of physical condition of pig body

ii.

Inspection of physical condition of cups and/or discs

iii. Inspection of physical condition of bolts and nuts


iv. Inspection of physical condition of brushes
v.

Inspection of physical condition of magnets

vi. Inspection of dimensions of pig, its cups and/or discs, brushes, magnets, bolts and nuts
etc.
The Company shall made visual inspection according to the datasheet and specification
provided by Manufacturer.
Refer to Appendix E for sample of acceptance criteria.
3.2.3 P

ig cleaning
The Manufacturer shall furnish guidelines for cleaning, inspection and storage of the mandrel
pigs. Attention should be given to the limitations of what the discs and cups of the pig can be
exposed to, such as temperatures, humidity, environment, etc.
The Manufacturer shall indicate if steam cleaning is an acceptable option for cleaning the
mandrel pigs. Polyurethane components should not be exposed to temperatures above 80C
for long periods of time.

3.2.4 Spare

parts

The Supplier shall provide each mandrel pig with one set of spare cups or discs if specified by
the Company. The Supplier shall supply item numbers for re-ordering of additional cups, discs
and other major parts.
Note: The Company shall specify the spare parts requirements based on:

3.3

Frequency of usage

Delivery time from Manufacturer(s)

Storage capacity

IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION


The manufactured date of the cups and/or discs shall be stencilled on the back end of the
discs and cups.
At the very minimum, the following information shall be provided:

limitations on pig speeds, if different from those indicated by the Company.

minimum speed of pig at which bypass holes should be plugged.

weight of pig.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 19

weight increase of pig if specified as neutrally buoyant.

number of cups or discs required for pigging through the specified radius of bends.

guidelines on checking whether pig cups and discs are still suitable for further use.

recommendations for pig cleaning after usage.

identification numbers of spare parts.

TABLE 2
MANDREL PIG CUP AND DISC OUTER DIAMETERS
Nominal Pipeline
Seal Disc Outer
Guiding Disc Outer Conical Cup Outer
Size
Diameter
Diameter
Diameter
114.3 mm (4)

111 mm (4.4)

102 mm (4.0)

110 mm (4.3)

168.3 mm (6)

168 mm (6.6)

152 mm (6.0)

168 mm (6.4)

219.1 mm (8)

219 mm (8.6)

203 mm (8.0)

218 mm (8.5)

273.1 mm (10)

274 mm (10.8)

254 mm (10.0)

266 mm (10.5)

323.9 mm (12)

324 mm (12.8)

305 mm (12.0)

323 mm (12.4)

355.6 mm (14)

356 mm (14.0)

337 mm (13.3)

356 mm (13.9)

406.4 mm (16)

406 mm (16.0)

387 mm (15.3)

406 mm (16)

457 mm (18)

457 mm (18.0)

438 mm (17.3)

457 mm (18.0)

508 mm (20)

508 mm (20.0)

489 mm (19.3)

508 mm (20.0)

610 mm (24)

610 mm (24.0)

591 mm (23.3)

610 mm (24)

660 mm (26)

660 mm (26.0)

641 mm (25.3)

660 mm (26)

711 mm (28)

711 mm (28.0)

692 mm (27.3)

718 mm (28.3)

762 mm (30)

762 mm (30.0)

743 mm (29.3)

762 mm (30.0)

813 mm (32)

813 mm (32.0)

794 mm (31.3)

813 mm (32.0)

864 mm (34)

864 mm (34.0)

845 mm (33.3)

864 mm (34)

914 mm (36)

914 mm (36.0)

895 mm (35.3)

914 mm (36.0)

965 mm (38)

1020 mm (40.1)

927 mm (36.5)

965 mm (38.0)

1016 mm (40)

1016 mm (40.0)

997 mm (39.3)

1016 mm (40)

1067 mm (42)

1067 mm (42.0)

1048 mm (41.3)

1067 mm (42)

Note: These diameters are for general guidance only and should be checked and verified by the
Manufacturer.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 20
FIGURE 5 BI-DI PIG

FIGURE 6 CONICAL CUP PIG

FIGURE 7 PIT CLEANING PIG

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 21
PART IV SOLID CAST POLYURETHANE PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL PIGGING
4.1

SOLID CAST PIG REQUIREMENTS


Solid cast pigs are normally used for batching or condensate removal. They may also be used
for the removal of soft wax. They are far less efficient than mandrel pigs for the removal of
harder debris. Wire brushes may be specified but this is not common. Brushes specified are
normally circumferential.
Note: Solid cast pigs are similar in shape and function to mandrel pigs and, therefore, represent an
alternative for pigging of pipelines up to a nominal size of 10". Solid cast pigs shall not be used in
pipelines of 12" nominal size or larger. A solid cast pig shall be used instead of a mandrel pig only if it
proves to be economically cheaper without any compromise whatsoever in performance and/or function.

The Manufacturer shall furnish solid cast pigs that are able to fully comply with this
Specification.
The Manufacturer shall ensure that the solid cast pigs to be supplied are fit for use in the
pipelines as described by the Company, based on the data as supplied by the Company. The
Manufacturer shall also confirm that the pigs supplied are the optimum selection for the
purpose specified by the Company.
The Company shall specify the purpose of the solid cast pigs to be supplied. The Company
shall describe the pipeline in which the pigs are intended to be run. The format for information
to be supplied by the Company is shown in Appendix C.
4.1.1

Types of pigs
Solid cast pigs shall be supplied as either bi-di or conical cup pigs with the option of the
attachment of wire brush or blades. Wire brushes may be moulded into the polyurethane or
attached to the pig body.
Typical uses for a solid cast pig include:

4.1.1.1

Product removal

Batching

Hydrostatic testing

Paraffin, debris or other build-up removal.

Bi-di cast pigs


Bi-di cast pigs, without brushes or blades, shall be able to remove dislodged soft wax and
loose debris from a pipeline, as well as sweep stagnant liquids out of a pipeline. Bi-di cast pigs
with brushes should be able to remove iron oxides and loosely-adhered scales.
Pluggable bypass holes shall be provided through the discs or through the body of the pig.
The bypass holes will provide a passage for fluid bypass, which is adequate to ensure that
debris does not accumulate in front of the pig and obstruct its passage.
See Figure 8 for a typical arrangement for the bi-di cast pig.
The Manufacturer shall advise if more discs are required to negotiate the bends in the pipeline
(based on the radius advised) or to improve performance.
Solid cast pigs do not usually have separate guides and seals.
Normally solid cast do not have by-pass holes as pigs are often used for batch separation.
However, holes can be drilled in the discs if by-pass is needed.

4.1.1.2

Conical cup cast pigs


It shall be possible to use conical cup cast pigs, without brushes or blades, as batching pigs,
which separate fluids in front and at the back of the pig with minimal bypass.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 22
Pluggable bypass holes shall be provided through the front discs or through the body of the
pig. The bypass holes will provide a passage for fluid bypass, if required. Bypass holes
through the back discs of the pig do not have to be plugged.
The pluggable bypass holes shall be plugged on delivery of the pig.
See Figure 9 for a typical arrangement of the conical cup pig.
The Manufacturer shall advise if more cups are required to negotiate the bends in the
pipelines (based on the radius specified), or to reduce wear on the front cup, or to improve
performance.
4.1.1.3

Brush pigs
The brush pigs shall be capable of dislodging iron oxides, scales and loose debris from the
pipeline wall.
Brush pigs shall be either cup or bi-di cast pigs fitted with a set of spring loaded brushes.

4.1.1.4

Other types of pigs


Bi-di and cup cast pigs can also be fitted with elastomeric blades or other similar scraping
tools. If required, these tools should be specified by the Company on a separate sheet and
added to this Specification.

4.1.2

Running capabilities of cast pigs


Solid cast pigs shall be capable of running in a pipeline, along the specified length, without
breaking up or deteriorating substantially from excessive wear, unless encountering a major
restriction. Unless otherwise specified, the solid cast pigs should be capable of travelling 15
km.
The differential pressure required to drive the solid cast pig through the pipeline shall be
approximately 0.5 - 1 barg.
The solid cast pigs should be capable of travelling through restrictions of up to:

15% of the specified nominal internal diameter for bi-di pigs.

20% of the specified nominal internal diameter for cup pigs.

The solid cast pig shall be capable of breaking up should it encounter a restriction which it
cannot be squeezed through. The differential pressure under which the pig breaks up should
not be more than 5 barg. It is important that the solid cast pig only breaks up due to a major
pipeline obstruction and not due excessive abrasion during its run or at a tee branch.
Unless specified otherwise, gate and ball valves in the pipelines do not have a bore smaller
than 90% of the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
Unless specified otherwise, check valves are not present in the pipeline
The pigs to be supplied shall be capable of travelling through both pulled bends and mitred
bends. Pulled and mitred bends shall be assumed to be 3D unless specified otherwise and
mitre angle of 6 MAX.
Pigs in pipelines will be run at speeds between:

0.3 to 2.0 m/sec in liquid lines.

0.5 to 6.0 m/sec in gas and two-phase pipelines.

The Manufacturer shall advise if other limitations are applicable.


The Manufacturer shall advise at which minimum velocity the bypass holes in the pigs should
be plugged.
All solid cast pigs to be used for pipelines shall be equipped with a moulded bull nose or
polyethylene/polypropylene rope loop on the front of the pig through which a hook can be
inserted, in order to enhance retrieval of the pig from the pig traps. The bull nose shall have a

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 23
soft cover to prevent damage to valves, if these should come in contact with the pig during
pigging operations.
4.1.3 Ma
4.1.3.1

terials
Bi-di cast pigs
The solid cast bi-di pig shall be moulded from a solid polyurethane elastomer. Synthetic
rubbers such as neoprene and nitrile are not allowed.
The polyurethane shall be abrasion resistant and have adequate tear strength for its intended
use. It shall be compatible with the intended fluid service and impermeable-to hydrocarbons.
The quality of the polyurethane material shall be such that the bi-di cast pig can be used for a
minimum of six months after delivery.
The bi-di cast pigs shall have an overall hardness of approximately 75 to 85 Shore A (+/10).
For the bi-di cast pig, the thickness of the sealing discs shall be a minimum of 20 mm or 10%
of the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline, whichever is the smaller. The thickness of the
guide discs shall be a minimum of 40 mm or 20% of the nominal internal diameter of the
pipeline, whichever is the smaller.
The sealing discs of bi-di cast pigs shall be sized to be approximately 10% larger than the
nominal internal diameter of the pipeline, whilst the guide discs shall be sized to have
approximately the same diameter as the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
General guidelines on sealing and guide disc dimensions can be found in Table 3. These
dimensions, however, shall be confirmed by the Manufacturer.
The Manufacturer shall state the number of expected pigging runs to be achieved with each
bi-di cast pig supplied.

4.1.3.2

Conical cup cast pigs


The solid cast conical cup pig shall be moulded from a solid polyurethane elastomer.
Synthetic rubbers such as neoprene and nitrile are not allowed.
The polyurethane shall be abrasion resistant and brave adequate tear strength for its intended
use. It shall be compatible with the intended fluid service and impermeable to hydrocarbons.
The quality of the polyurethane material shall be such that the conical cup cast pig can be
used for a minimum of six months after delivery.
The conical cup cast pigs shall have an overall hardness of approximately 65 to 75 Shore A
(+/-10).
The design of the conical cup pigs shall be such that the outer rim of the cup, providing the
seal against the pipe wall, is stiffer than the rest of the pig Reinforcement with materials other
than polyurethane (e.g. steel wire wear rings), however, is not allowed. The diameter of the
cups shall be not smaller than the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
General guidelines on cup dimensions can be found in Table 3. These dimensions of the
cups, however, shall be confirmed by the Manufacturer.
The Manufacturer shall state the number of expected pigging runs to be achieved with each
conical cup cast pig supplied.

4.1.3.3

Brushes
It may be specified that solid cast pigs are to be supplied with wire brush bristles. The bristles
shall be made of hardened tempered steel. Stainless steel wire bristles shall not be supplied
unless specifically approved by the Company.
Design of the brushes shall be such that bristles cannot come loose during pigging runs.
The wire brushes shall be wear-compensated such that they contact the pipe wall for the
entire pipeline travel length.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 24
The brushes used on solid cast pigs are circumferential type and cover 360 of the
circumference of the pipe. The length of the brushes along the pig axis shall not be less than
20% of the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
All brushes shall be attached with double locking nuts with insert lock washers to prevent bolts
from vibrating loose during pigging runs.
For the bolted connections, the nuts, washers, bolts and spacers shall be either plated (nickel
or zinc) or hot dip galvanised.
4.1.4

Shape and dimensions


All solid cast pigs shall have a minimum distance between the outer seals of not less than of
1.5 times the nominal internal diameter of the pipeline.
The Manufacturer shall himself ensure that the solid cast pig supplied can be used for the
specified pipeline without affecting the integrity of the pig structure. The Manufacturer shall
also ensure that the pig can perform the required function without the chance of becoming
stuck, especially taking local restrictions of bores into account.

4.2

HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE


The Manufacturer shall furnish guidelines for cleaning, inspection and storage of the solid cast
pigs. Attention should be given to the limitations of what the pig can be exposed to, such as
temperatures, humidity, environment, etc.

4.2.1

Pig transport and storage


The Manufacturer shall ensure that solid cast pigs are transported and stored standing on one
end or on cradles supporting the body only. Different types of horizontal transport and storage
are not allowed. Polyurethane will take a permanent set if subjected to a constant load at one
point.
After manufacture, the solid cast pigs shall be stored away from direct sunlight, at a
temperature of 10 to 16 C, and a relative humidity not exceeding 60%. This shall require an
air conditioned environment. The Company shall follow the same requirements for pig
storage.
During transport, the Manufacturer shall ensure that the solid cast pigs are not exposed to
direct sunlight.

4.2.2

Inspection of pigs
The Manufacturer shall indicate how pigs can be identified as still suitable for use. A
darkening in the coloration of polyurethane can indicate material breakdown. The
Manufacturer shall give guidelines on this.
The Company shall made visual inspection according to the datasheet and specification
provided by Manufacturer. The Company shall perform hardness test as per specification
provided by Manufacturer or Manufacturer shall perform hardness test at delivery point.
The diameter must be larger than the inside pipe diameter to maintain a good seal.
Inspect the sealing surfaces to assure there are no cuts, tears, punctures or other damage
which will affect the pig's ability to run in the pipeline.

4.2.3 P

ig cleaning
The Manufacturer shall indicate if steam cleaning is an acceptable option for cleaning the solid
cast pigs.

4.3

IDENTIFICATION AND INFORMATION


The Manufacturer shall stencil the manufacturing date and expiry date (the latest date by
which the solid cast pig should be used) on the back end of the pig.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 25
The Manufacturer shall provide information on:

Limitations on pig speeds, if different from those indicated by the Company.

Minimum speed of pig at which bypass holes should be plugged.

Number of cups or discs required for pigging through the specified radius of bends.

Guidelines on checking whether the pig is still suitable for further use.

Recommendations for pig cleaning after usage.

TABLE 3

SAMPLE OF TYPICAL SOLID CAST PIG CUP AND DISC OUTER


DIAMETERS

Nominal
Pipeline Size

Seal Disc Outer


Diameter

Guiding Disc
Outer Diameter

48.3 mm (1.5)

51 mm (2)

43 mm (1.7)

60.3 mm (2)

60 mm (2.4)

51 mm (2)

88.9 mm (3)

89 mm (3.5)

77 mm (3)

114.3 mm (4)

107 mm (4.2)

101 mm (4)

168.3 mm (6)

168 mm (6.6)

152 mm (6)

219.1 mm (8)

215 mm (8.4)

201 mm (7.9)

273.1 mm (10")

273 mm (10.7)

252 mm (9.9)

323.9 mm (12)

324 mm (12.7)

301 mm (11.8)

355.6 mm (14)

356 mm (14)

331 mm (13)

Note: These diameters are for general guidance only and should be checked.

FIGURE 8 BI

-DI CAST PIG

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 26
FIGURE 9

CONICAL CUP CAST PIG

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 27
5. REFERE

NCES

In this PTS, reference is made to the following publications.


NOTE: Unless specifically designated by date, the latest edition of each publication shall be used, together with any
amendments / supplements / revisions thereto.

PETRONAS STANDARDS
Index to PTS publications and standard specifications

PTS 00.00.05.05

Requisition binder

PTS 30.10.01.10

Pipeline and Riser Engineering

PTS 20.214

Operational Pigging Philosophy

PTS 30.40.10.30

Specifications and Requirements for Pipeline In-Line Inspection

PTS 30.40.60.31

Design of Pipeline Pig Trap System

PTS 31.40.10.13

Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines (Amendments /


Supplements to ASME B31.8S-2004)

PTS 30.40.60.13

Managing System Integrity for Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines


Amendments / Supplements to API 1160-2001)

PTS 30.40.60.14

AMERICAN STANDARD
Managing System Integrity for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines
API Standard 1160
1st Edition, NOV 2001
Issued by:
API Publishing Services,
1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005

Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines


ASME B31.8S-2004
Issued by:
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Three Park Avenue,
New York,
NY 10016-5990, USA.

NORWEGIAN STANDARD
Offshore Standards
DNV-OS-F101 / RP116
Submarine Pipeline Systems
October 2007
Issued by:
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
Veritasveien 1,
NO-1322 Hvik,
Norway.

Recommended Practice
DNV-RP-F116
Integrity Management of Submarine Pipeline Systems
October 2009
Issued by:
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
Veritasveien 1,
NO-1322 Hvik,
Norway.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 28
APPENDIX A

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF FOAM PIG - INFORMATION PROVIDED BY


THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER
PETRONASTECHNICALSTANDARDS
COATEDFOAMPIGDATASHEET

NUMBEROFCOATEDFOAMPIGSREQUIRED
SPECIFICPIGMODEL(ifknown)

RIN:
DATE:
PAGE1OF1

DATEREQUIRED

INTENDEDUSEOFPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

DEWATERING
DRYINGOPERATIONSFORGASPIPELINE
CLEANING
REESTABLISHPIGGING/PROVINGPIPELINE

TYPEOFCOATEDFOAMPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

MEDIUMDENSITY
HIGHDENSITY
WIREBRUSH/SILICONECARBIDE

PIGTOBEUNDERSIZED:
(Tickasappropriate)

NO
YES(specifyDIAMETER)

PIPELINESERVICE
(Tickasappropriate)

GAS
CRUDEOIL
TWOPHASEFLOWLINE
TWOPHASEGAS/CONDENSATE

PIPELINEMATERIAL
(Tickasappropriate)

CARBONSTEEL
STAINLESSSTEEL
OTHER(specify)

PIPELINEINTERNALLINER
(Tickasappropriate)

NONE
YES(specify)

mm

PIPELINEINTERNALDIAMETER

NOMINAL
MINIMUM(ifknown)
MAXIMUM(ifknown)

mm
mm
mm

PIPELINELENGTH

TOTAL

km

PULLEDBENDS

MINIMUMRADIUS

xND

MITREDBENDS

MAXIMUMMITREANGLE

MAXIMUMNOMINALBRANCHSIZEWITHOUTBARREDORSPHERETEE

mm

NORMALPIPELINEOPERATINGPRESSURE

bar(g)

NORMALPIPELINEPIGGINGSPEED

m/s

Preparedby:

Ref.Ind:

Signature:

Tel:

Date:

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 29
APPENDIX B

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF MANDREL PIG - INFORMATION PROVIDED


BY THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER
PETRONASTECHNICALSTANDARDS
MANDRELPIGDATASHEET

NUMBEROFMANDRELPIGSREQUIRED
SPECIFICPIGMODEL(ifknown)

RIN:
DATE:
PAGE1OF1

DATEREQUIRED

NUMBEROFSPAREDISC/CUPSREQUIRED
NUMBEROFSPAREBRUSHESREQUIRED
NUMBEROFSPAREMAGNETSREQUIRED

SETS
SETS
SETS

INTENDEDUSEOFPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

REMOVEDISLODGEDIRONOXIDES
REMOVEDISLODGEDSCALE
REMOVESOFTWAX
REMOVESOFTDEBRIS
DISLODGEIRONOXIDES
DISLODGESCALE
LIQUIDBATCHING

TYPEOFMANDRELPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

BIDIWITHOUTATTACHMENTS
CONICALCUPWITHOUTATTACHMENTS
BIDIWITHBRUSHESFORPIPEWALLCLEANING
Leafspringtype
Cantilevelspringtype
CONICALCUPWITHBRUSHESFORPIPEWALLCLEANING
Leafspringtype
Cantilevelspringtype
BIDIBRUSHESFORPITCLEANING
CONICALCUPBRUSHESFORPITCLEANING
DUALBODYBIDIWITHMAGNETS
OTHER(Specify)

PIPELINESERVICE
(Tickasappropriate)

GAS
CRUDEOIL
TWOPHASEFLOWLINE
TWOPHASEGAS/CONDENSATE

PIPELINEMATERIAL
(Tickasappropriate)

CARBONSTEEL
STAINLESSSTEEL
OTHER(specify)

PIPELINEINTERNALLINER
(Tickasappropriate)

NONE
YES(specify)

PIPELINEINTERNALDIAMETER

NOMINAL
MINIMUM(ifknown)
MAXIMUM(ifknown)

mm
mm
mm

PIPELINELENGTH

TOTAL

km

PULLEDBENDS

MINIMUMRADIUS

xND

MITREDBENDS

MAXIMUMMITREANGLE

MAXIMUMNOMINALBRANCHSIZEWITHOUTBARREDORSPHERETEE

mm

NORMALPIPELINEOPERATINGPRESSURE

bar(g)

NORMALPIPELINEPIGGINGSPEED

m/s

DATEOFLASTPIGGING
Preparedby:

Ref.Ind:

TYPEOFPIG(S)
Signature:

Tel:

Date:

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 30
APPENDIX C

SAMPLE FORM FOR SELECTION OF SOLID CAST POLYURETHANE PIG INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY TO THE MANUFACTURER
PETRONASTECHNICALSTANDARDS
SOLIDCASTPIGDATASHEET

NUMBEROFSOLIDCASTPIGSREQUIRED
SPECIFICPIGMODEL(ifknown)

RIN:
DATE:
PAGE1OF1

DATEREQUIRED

INTENDEDUSEOFPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

REMOVEDISLODGEDIRONOXIDES
REMOVEDISLODGEDSCALE
REMOVESOFTWAX
REMOVESOFTDEBRIS
DISLODGEIRONOXIDES
DISLODGESCALE
LIQUIDBATCHING

TYPEOFSOLIDCASTPIG:
(Tickasappropriate)

BIDIWITHOUTATTACHMENTS
CONICALCUPWITHOUTATTACHMENTS
BIDIWITHBRUSHESFORPIPEWALLCLEANING
Leafspringtype
Cantileverspringtype
CONICALCUPWITHBRUSHESFORPIPEWALLCLEANING
Leafspringtype
Cantileverspringtype
OTHER(Specify)

PIPELINESERVICE
(Tickasappropriate)

GAS
CRUDEOIL
TWOPHASEFLOWLINE
TWOPHASEGAS/CONDENSATE

PIPELINEMATERIAL
(Tickasappropriate)

CARBONSTEEL
STAINLESSSTEEL
OTHER(specify)

PIPELINEINTERNALLINER
(Tickasappropriate)

NONE
YES(specify)

PIPELINEINTERNALDIAMETER

NOMINAL
MINIMUM(ifknown)
MAXIMUM(ifknown)

mm
mm
mm

PIPELINELENGTH

TOTAL

km

PULLEDBENDS

MINIMUMRADIUS

xND

MITREDBENDS

MAXIMUMMITREANGLE

MAXIMUMNOMINALBRANCHSIZEWITHOUTBARREDORSPHERETEE

mm

NORMALPIPELINEOPERATINGPRESSURE

bar(g)

NORMALPIPELINEPIGGINGSPEED

m/s

DATEOFLASTPIGGING
Preparedby:

Ref.Ind:

TYPEOFPIG(S)
Signature:

Tel:

Date:

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 31
APPENDIX D

SAMPLE OF REQUEST FOR QUOTATION


REQUEST FOR QUOTATION

Name:
Title:
Company:
Address1:

Phone:
Fax:
Email:

City:
State/Country:
PostalCode:

Reason for Inquiry / Pigging Problems / Questions / Requests

TheinformationrequestedbelowisOPTIONAL.Pleaseconsiderthatthemoreinformationyousupply,thebetterour
abilitytoassistyou.Pleasesupplyallinformationthatapplies.

Pipe Dimensions
(circleallthatapply)

NominalDiameter(ND):
WallThickness(WT):
InsideDiameter(ID):
MinimumID:
MaximumID:
LengthofPipe(L):
TypeofPipe:

inches/mm
inches/mm
inches/mm
inches/mm
inches/mm
feet/miles/meters/km
Carbonsteel/HDPE/PVC/Ductileiron/Castiron
Other
(Pleasespecify)

Pipe Bends

1.5D/3D/5Dorgreater/Mitred/Unknown
Other

(circleallthatapply)

(Pleasespecify)

Branched Fittings
(circleallthatapply)

Wyes/Tees?
Type:
AreTeesbarred?
Canbranchedfittingsbe
isolated?

Yes/No
Wyes/Tees
Other
Yes/No
Yes/No

(Pleasespecify)

Valves
(circleallthatapply)

ArethereValves?
Typeofvalve:
Typeofcheckvalve:

Yes/No
Gate/Ball/Checkvalve
Other

(Pleasespecify)

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 32

Pigging History
(circleallthatapply)

Previouslypigged?
Typeofpigging:
Mediausedtopig:
Frequencyofpigging:
Mostrecentpigging:
Typesofpigused:

Launchersinstalled?
Receiversinstalled?

Yes/No
Construction/Maintenance/Operational/OnLine
Product/Air/Nitrogen/Water/NaturalGas/Other
Daily/Weekly/Monthly/Lessthanmonthly
Month
Year
Steelmandrelwithcups
Steelmandrelwithdiscs
Steelmandrelwithbrushes
PollyPigs/foampigs
Solidurethanepigs
Sphere
Other:
Yes/No
Yes/No

Product in Pipeline
Normal
Flow:
Pressure:
Temperature:

Max

Min

Units
3
gpm/bbl/hr/m /hr
psi/kPa
F/C

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 33
APPENDIX E

INSPECTION CHECKLIST FOR OPERATIONAL PIG

1. Check the dimensions of the pig i.e. overall length, size of the discs/cups, separation between
discs/cups; shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
2. Check the discs/cups configuration; shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
3. For pig fitted with gauging plate, check the size (diameter), thickness and condition (scratch,
gouge, cut etc.); shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
4. For pig fitted with brush, check the diameter and/or length of the brush to ensure that the
brushes maintain contact with the pipe wall. Check also the condition of the brush i.e. corrosion
and breakage. Every precaution should be taken to prevent these brushes from breaking in the
pipeline. Loose bristles can damage valves, instrumentation, and other pipeline equipment. All
components of brush type mandrel pigs should be checked to be certain that they are tight and
in good condition.
5. For pig fitted with magnet, check the magnet for any sign of damage i.e. breakage, scratch etc.
Check also the magnet housing for any sign of damage as well as the bolts and nuts i.e. for
corrosion, gouge and loose connection/tightening.
6. Check the pig body for corrosion, scratch, gouge.
7. Check the pigs bolts and nuts for corrosion, scratch, gouge and loose connection/tightening
(for mandrel pig).
8. Check the pigs disc and/or cup for scratch, gouge, tear, cut, puncture, blister and other
damages.
9. Check the hardness of the disc/cup using proper tool i.e. Durometer Hardness Tester Gauge.
10. For intended re-use of pig, the above inspection checks shall be carried out.
11. For specialised pig i.e. V-jet pig, Pit Boss pig, HAPP pig etc., the above inspection checks shall
be carried out; and in addition to that, specific checks shall be carried out for the specialised
feature/s on the pig by experienced personnel.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 34
APPENDIX F

SELECTION OF PIGS

Table below represents the most commonly practiced routing pigging activities using the most common
utility pigs. The removal of heavy scale has been included to demonstrate the unsuitability of all these
pigs for this application.

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 35
APPENDIX G
PIGGING

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OTHER TYPES OF PIGS FOR USE IN OPERATIONAL

Non-Standard Pigs for operational use


Pigs that do not conform to the accepted norm may be used on the advice of the TA. Such pigs would
include modifications to standard pig design and pigs with factory design for specific applications.

Modified Bi-Di pigs

Re-positioning discs
Bi-Di pigs are very versatile and may be modified to suit specific pipeline conditions. Picture
below shows a modified bi-di pig which will provide for general improved cleaning ability by
repositioning the seal and guide discs. This configuration will also increase the seal length
providing improved sealing qualities.

Modifying discs
Discs can be modified under certain circumstances with the express agreement of the TA and
can be run by operational staff using standard procedures. Slotted discs are very useful if the
cleaning ability of the pig is required to be reduced (when large accumulation of debris is to be
avoided). Such configurations are useful as a part of a progressive cleaning programme See
picture below for an example.

Sphere Pig
Spheres have been used for many years as a sealing pig. There are four basic types of spheres;
inflatable, solid, foam, & soluble. The soluble sphere in usually used in crude oil pipelines and contains
a micro crystalline wax and amorphous polyethylene which act as a paraffin inhibitor. Although the
sphere will normally dissolve in a few hours, the dissolving rate is a function of fluid temperature, fluid

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 36
movement, friction, and absorbability of the crude. If the line has never been pigged, it is a good idea to
run the soluble pig. If it hangs up in the line, it will not obstruct the flow.
The inflatable sphere is manufactured of various elastomers (polyurethane, neoprene, nitrile and Viton)
depending on the application. It has a hollow center with filling valves which are used to inflate the
sphere with liquid. Spheres are filled with water, or water and glycol and inflated to the desired size.
Spheres should never be inflated with air. Depending on the application and material, the sphere is
inflated 1%-2% over the pipe inside diameter. As the sphere wears from ser-vice, it is resized,
extending its life. In small sizes the sphere can be manufactured solid, eliminating the need to inflate it.
The solid sphere does not have the life of an inflatable sphere because it cannot be resized.
Spheres can also be manufactured from open cell polyurethane foam. They can be coated with a
polyurethane material to give better wear. For cleaning purposes they can have wire brushes on the
surface. The advantages of the foam sphere are that they are light weight, economical, and do not need
to be inflated.
Spheres are commonly used to remove liquids from wet gas systems, water from product pipelines,
batching dissimilar products, meter prover service, paraffin control in crude oil pipelines, and hydrostatic
testing and de-watering after pipeline rehabilitation or new construction.

Wax Cutting Pig


On waxy pipelines, pigs have been designed to improve performance in removal of wax accumulations.
These pigs may be run by operational staff using the same procedures as for the standard pig design.
Wax is usually removed by the leading edge of the guide disc. For enhanced wax cleaning, mandrel
pigs can be fitted with polyurethane wax cutting blades. Steel blades are not recommended as they can
cause damage to pipeline internal wall and fittings.
Enhanced wax cleaning pigs can also incorporate slotted discs and guides which will provide increased
surface area for wax removal.
Please refer to picture below for an example of wax cutting pig.

Pressure By-pass pig


Pressure by-pass pigs are very useful for removing loose debris such as sand, where running a
standard pig risk line blockage. The pressure by-pass is provided by a spring loaded valve which will
only open when the differential across the pig rises to a pre-set figure. When the valve opens, high
pressure from behind the pig is directed through nozzles at the front of the pig which form powerful jets
which blast away debris build up. The action of debris build up in front of the pig, pressure build up
behind the pig and jetting action can happen many times during the pig run.

Gel Pig
Gel pigs are series of gelled liquid systems which have been developed for use in pipeline operations,
either during initial commissioning, or as a part of continuing maintenance program. Most pipeline gels
are water based, but a range of chemicals, solvents, and even acids can be gelled. Some chemicals
can be gelled as the bulk liquid and others only diluted in the carrier. Gelled diesel is commonly used as

PTS 30.40.60.32
October 2011
Page 37
a carrier of corrosion inhibitor in gas lines. There are 4 main types of gel that are used in pipeline
applications:

Batching or separator gel

Debris pick-up gel

Hydrocarbon gel

Dehydrating gel

The principle pipeline applications for gel pigs are as follows:

Product separation

Debris removal

Line filling or hydrotesting

Dewatering and drying

Condensate removal from gas lines

Inhibitor and biocide laydown

Special chemical treatment

Removal of stuck pigs

Specially formulated gels have also been used to seal valves during hydrostatic testing. Gels have been
developed with a control gellation time and a control viscosity for temporary pipeline isolation purposes.

Pinwheel Pig
A pinwheel pig which uses steel pins with hardened tips was developed to remove wax and scale from
a pipeline. This revolutionary pig has been specifically designed and developed for the removal of hard
wax and scale adhering to the inside wall of the pipe which conventional cleaning pigs cannot dislodge.
Although this wax or scale is usually at its worst in the 4 to 8 o'clock position, the pin-wheel pig, through
its cleaning assembly, will give a 360 circumferential cleaning action, and also allow for any rotation of
the pig. The cleaning assemblies consist of a number of heavy-duty polyurethane discs (referred to as
pin-wheel discs) which are up to 2in thick and have an outside diameter in the order of 3-4in less than
the inside diameter of the pipeline. Protruding radially from the circumferential edge of each disc is a
number of steel pins which are screwed into threaded housings anchored into the disc. The length of
the pins is such that the diameter across any two opposite pins is greater than the inside diameter of the
pipeline by up to 1 in., depending on line size. This means that when the disc is travelling through the
pipeline the pins are bent back at a slight angle, which both assists in the cleaning action and also
compensates for any wear. The pins have hardened inserts to reduce wear to a minimum and the
inserts are radiused to prevent damage to the pipe wall.
Depending on the size of pipeline, four or six pin-wheel discs are attached to a purpose-built steel body
using appropriate retaining bolts. The pin-wheel pig is always towed behind a conventional swabbing
pig using a universal joint to couple both pigs together. Each pin-wheel disc is orientated to ensure that
the cleaning pins on each disc are suitably offset from one another; this offset ensures that the total
surface area of the pipeline is cleaned. The use of removable pins enables many options for wax/scale
removal and cleaning to be adopted, and on completion of each run any worn or damaged pins can be
simply replaced with new ones. By increasing the hardness of the polyurethane discs and/or the length
of the cleaning pins, increased aggressiveness is achieved.