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Vol.

12-4

Chemistry Edition

2012 Flinn Scientific, Inc.

Combustion of Acetylene
Reaction of Calcium Carbide with Water
Introduction

Use this demonstration at the start of


the school year or in your unit on
chemical reactions. The safe, controlled
explosion gives you the opportunity
to answer Yes to a question that
chemistry students often ask, Are we
going to blow something up today?
Materials
Calcium carbide, CaC2, 2.5 g
Water, tap
Corks to fit flask, 2
Filter flask, 250-mL
Forceps or spatula
Matches
Safety shield

Concepts
Combustion
Exothermic reaction

Safety Precautions

Calcium carbide is corrosive to eyes and


skin. The solid must be kept dry since
exposure to water or moisture generates flammable acetylene gas. Carry out
this demonstration on the scale provided
and in a well-ventilated lab. Avoid contact of chemicals with eyes and skin and
follow all laboratory safety guidelines.
Wear chemical splash goggles, chemicalresistant gloves, and a chemical-resistant
apron. A safety shield is recommended.
Please review current Material Safety
Data Sheets for additional safety, handling, and disposal information.

Revised OSHA Rules Coming


Learn the Details from Flinn Scientific
Some things are the same worldwidea
liter is the same volume, a meter is the
same length, etc. However, the information provided on a chemical label or
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) may
be different from one chemical manufacturer to another. For example, a chemical might be described as slightly toxic
on one label but toxic on another. For
improved safety there will soon be
greater consistency in how chemical
hazard information is communicated.
In March 2012 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
revised the Hazard Communication
Standard to align it with the United
Nations Globally Harmonized System
(GHS) for the classification and identi-

14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 1

fication of chemical hazards. (GHS has


been in use internationally since 2002.)
The goal of the updated OSHA standard is to eliminate possible confusion
about the risk associated with chemical
hazards and thus provide better protection for employees and emergency
responders. By improving the understanding of the nature of chemical
hazards, and requiring specific safety
training, the GHS standard seeks to
transform the Right to Know law into
the Right to Understand.

Focus on Three Areas

Flinn Scientific has begun laying the


groundwork necessary to implement
the new standard by focusing on three

Procedure

1. Fill a 250-mL filter flask with tap water to a depth of approximately 2 cm.
2. Using forceps, add about three
pieces of calcium carbide to the
water and quickly place the cork
on the flask. Immediately (within a
few seconds) bring a lit match to the
sidearm. A small explosion occurs,
blowing the cork off the flask.
3. Add three more pieces of calcium
carbide to the flask, and again place
the cork on the flask.
Continued on page 4

Whats Inside
Combustion of Acetylene . . . . . 1, 4
Revised OSHA Rules Coming . . 12
The Elements Teaching Tools . . . 3
Teaching Chemistry
Video Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Emerging Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Product Spotlight . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Flinn Fax Bulletin Board . . . . . . . 8

Continued on page 2

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Vol. 12-4 Chemistry Edition

Revised OSHA Rules ComingContinued from page 1

main areas: teacher and staff training,


chemical labels, and Safety Data Sheets.
(Under the GHS standard, MSDS will
now be known simply as Safety Data
Sheets, or SDS.) Flinn will update our
chemical labels and SDS and provide
professional development training for
teachers and laboratory staff.

Compliance Schedule

Passage of the GHS standard in March


2012 started a three-year clock or
schedule for employers and chemical
manufacturers to comply with the new
requirements. The first deadline, December 2013, is for employers. Your employer
(your school or school district) must provide training for teachers and staff to help
you recognize and understand the new
elements of the GHS labels and SDS.
There is a common misconception
about this deadline. Chemical labels
and SDS are NOT required to meet the
new format by December 2013. This
deadline is for training, to ensure that
employees (teachers and school staff)
recognize and understand the new
hazard classifications in case some
chemicals they receive have GHSformatted labels and SDS.
The deadline for manufacturers and
chemical distributors (such as Flinn
Scientific) to reclassify their chemicals
and produce GHS-formatted labels and
SDS for new products is June 2015.
In advance of this deadline, Flinn
plans to gradually phase in both the
label and SDS changes. You may
begin to see the new labels on some
Flinn chemicals in late 2012.

Teacher Training

Beginning this fall, Flinn Scientific will


provide free written and online video
training resources regarding the new
GHS requirements. These resources
will be designed to help schools meet
the December 2013 deadline to provide
training for teachers and staff members
in accordance with the revised OSHA
HazCom and Laboratory Standard.
To receive free training updates and
notification of the latest posting of training resources, please sign up to receive
e-mails from Flinn Scientific by going
to our website at www.flinnsci.com and
clicking on Monthly Emails. Note:
You do not need to sign up if you already
receive e-mails from Flinn Scientific.

Flinn will help you


meet the December 2013
training deadline.
Labels and Safety Data Sheets

Flinn Scientific chemical labels will


be redesigned to comply with the new
standard. GHS establishes quantitative,
objective criteria for classifying the
relative hazards (flammability, toxicity, etc.) of chemicals. A standard set
of pictograms, hazard statements, and
signal words will be used to identify
and further describe each hazard on the
label. The appropriate label elements
are selected from a total of eight pictogramssymbols within a red diamond
borderand 89 individual or combined
hazard statements. Examples of hazard

statements include highly flammable


liquid and vapor and harmful in
contact with skin. In addition to these
elements, GHS labels and SDS will
include a signal word, if needed, and
various precautionary statements. The
signal word may be either warning
for less hazardous materials or danger
for materials that are more hazardous.
The pictograms, hazard statements,
and precautionary statements will be
incorporated into the new SDS as well.
The GHS format for Safety Data Sheets
is very similar to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) format,
which Flinn already follows, so the
transition will be fairly straightforward.
Most of the new information regarding
hazard class and level is already present on our current MSDS. Currently all
Flinn Scientific MSDS can be accessed
via the Safety Resources page on our
website, www.flinnsci.com. We will
continue this practice with the new SDS
as well. In addition, we will post more
information about both GHS labels and
SDS on our website in the future as part
of our training for teachers.

Your Safer Source

Flinn Scientific is Your Safer Source


for Science Supplies. This motto is our
promise to always provide safe, quality
products and the most reliable and upto-date information to help you improve
safety in your school. You can count
on Flinn to help you comply with the
new GHS standard. Thank you for your
continued loyal support of the vision
and values of Flinn Scientific.

Flinn Scientific Laboratory Safety Course


Free Online Videos at flinnsci.com

Flinns highly regarded safety training is available to all science


teachers absolutely free online! The critical safety information every
science teacher needs to know is covered in the new Flinn Scientific
Laboratory Safety Course.
Discover how Flinns safety training will give you the confidence
and knowledge to effectively improve laboratory safety:
Comprehensive Safety Training10 Major Topics, 45 Videos
Maximum ConvenienceAvailable Online 24/7
Get Flinn Certified in Safety
Free Professional Development Credit Opportunities
No Fees! Its All Absolutely Free!
Additional free videos covering laboratory design, safety and the
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Visit flinnsci.com
Start Your Free Safety Training Today!

Larry Flinn, Chairman of Flinn Scientific, in a video from the Flinn


Scientific Laboratory Safety Course.

22
14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 2

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Flinn Scientific Your Safer Source 1-800-452-1261 flinnsci.com

The Elements Teaching Tools

Periodic Table, Book, and Cards Feature Stunning Photos


Bring the elements to life with unique, colorful, and informative periodic table poster, book, and card set. Featuring vibrant
photographs created from the authors collection of nearly 2,300
element samples, these products will make a great addition to the
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Flinn Scientifics The Elements Periodic Table
Quite possibly the most beautiful periodic table in the world!
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The Elements Book
Embark on a fascinating journey through the periodic table
with this visual exploration of every known atom in the
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The Elements Card DeckNew!
Beautiful photographs combined with vital information
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Learn more about each The Elements product by entering
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Description

Introduction to Chemistry DVD Set


Teaching Chemistry as an Experimental Science DVD Set
Atoms, Molecules and Ions DVD Set
Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry DVD Set
Chemistry of Gases DVD Set
Energy and Thermodynamics DVD Set
Solids and Liquids DVD Set
Advanced Concepts in Chemical Reactions DVD Set
Electron Transfer in Chemistry DVD Set
Applications of Chemistry DVD Set
Teaching Chemistry Video Series Complete DVD Set

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14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 3

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Vol. 12-4 Chemistry Edition

Combustion of AcetyleneContinued from page 1

4. Wait several seconds before bringing


the lit match to the side arm. Instead
of an explosion, a small flame burns
steadily at the side arm.
5. Immediately squelch the reaction
by bringing a wet paper towel to the
side arm to extinguish the flame.
Then pour out the water, and check
for any remaining calcium carbide.

Disposal

Please consult your current Flinn Scientific Catalog/Reference Manual for general guidelines and specific procedures,
and review all federal, state and local
regulations that may apply, before proceeding. After calcium carbide has reacted with the water, a basic solution is
produced. Neutralize the solution with
3 M hydrochloric acid and check with
pH paper according to Flinn Suggested
Disposal Method #24b. Decant the neutral solution and rinse it down the drain
with at least a 20-fold excess of water.
Make sure there is no unreacted calcium carbide in the mixture.

Discussion

Calcium carbide, CaC2, is primarily


used as a source of acetylene gas, which
is produced by reacting calcium carbide
with water. This reaction was utilized in
original carbide (miners) lampswa-

ter was slowly dripped on the carbide


producing acetylene gas, which was
then ignited. These lamps were commonly used in slate, copper and tin
mines. Since acetylene gas is highly
flammable, the carbide lamps were not
used in coal mines, where they would
be a serious hazard. Most carbide lamps
have been replaced today by electric
LED lamps.
Acetylene, HC CH, consists
of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon
atoms joined by a triple bond. Acetylene
is often found as the fuel in torchesit
burns brilliantly in air with a very hot
flame due to its very high heat of combustion (1300 kJ/mole).
The reaction of calcium carbide and
water produces acetylene and a chalky
suspension of calcium hydroxide.
CaC2 (s)+2H2O(l)
C2H2 (g) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Equation 1
When a lit match is brought up to the
side arm of the flask, the combustion
of the acetylene occurs inside the flask.
The resulting rapid expansion of the
gaseous products followed by air rushing into the flask causes a controlled
explosion.
2C2H2 (g)+5O2 (g)
4CO2 (g)+2H2O(g)
Equation 2
When a lit match is brought to the

Knock Your Socks Off

Safe and Reusable Carbide Cannon


Use this simple, safe, and
exciting carbide cannon
to demonstrate the reaction of calcium chloride
with water. Fill the base of
the apparatus with a few
grains of calcium carbide
and add water to produce
flammable acetylene gas.
Wait a minute, and ignite.
The projectile, a soft sock,
will be propelled across
the room, to the amazement of your students!
Carbide cannon is constructed of durable PVC and can be reused for many years to
come. Kit includes comprehensive safety instructions, procedure and demonstration
notes. Calcium carbide and a safety lighter are required and sold separately.
Catalog No.

AP7311
C0346
AP8960

Description

Price/Each

Knock Your Socks Off Apparatus KitReaction of Calcium Carbide


Calcium Carbide, 100 g
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sidearm of the flask after several seconds, the combustion of the acetylene
takes place outside the flask due to the
lack of available oxygen in the flask.

Flinn Scientific Teaching


Chemistry Video Series

A video of the Combustion of Acetylene


activity, presented by Kathleen Dombrink, is available in Reactions of Calcium CarbideCombustion of Acetylene,
part of the Flinn Scientific Teaching
Chemistry Video Series.
Materials for Combustion of
Acetylene are available from
Flinn Scientific
Catalog No.

C0346
GP4072
AP8314
AB1018

Description

Calcium Carbide, 100 g


Filtering Flask, 250-mL
Cork, Size 14, Pkg/100
Forceps, Polypropylene

Price/Each

$8.90
17.10
36.70
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Incomplete Combustion
Application in Daily Life
Never use a charcoal or gas grill
inside your home!
The balanced chemical reaction in
Equation 2 represents the complete
combustion of acetylene to produce
carbon dioxide and water. Complete combustion of a hydrocarbon
occurs when oxygen gas in the
surrounding air mixes completely
and is present in the stoichiometric mole ratio to react completely
with the amount of hydrocarbon.
For acetylene, the mole ratio is five
moles of oxygen per two moles of
acetylene, or 2.5:1.
If a hydrocarbon is burned in a
confined area, such as indoors, the
amount of oxygen is insufficient for
complete combustion. When this
happens, incomplete combustion
results in the dangerous build-up
of poisonous carbon monoxide gas,
shown in the following equation for
acetylene.
2C2H2 + 3O2 4CO + 2H2O
In practice, combustion of charcoal, natural gas, gasoline, etc.
often generates some carbon monoxide as a by-product. Thats why
its so important to remember the
vital consumer safety rule shown
above. NEVER use a generator,
charcoal grill, hibachi, lantern,
camp stove or other gasoline- or
charcoal-burning device inside
your home, basement or garage, or
outside near an open window.

4
14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 4

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Flinn Scientific Your Safer Source 1-800-452-1261 flinnsci.com

Emerging Line

Observe Diffusion and Precipitation


Introduction

Observe slow-motion precipitation in a Petri dish, providing


evidence for diffusion of ions and their resulting combination
reactions.

Concepts
Diffusion

Precipitation

Materials
Silver nitrate, AgNO3

Document projector

Sodium chloride, NaCl

Petri dishes, 2

Sodium iodide, NaI

Spatulas, 3

Water, distilled

Safety Precautions

Silver nitrate is a corrosive solid and can cause burns.


It may also stain skin and clothingavoid contact with
eyes and skin. Sodium iodide is slightly toxic by ingestion.
Wear chemical splash goggles, chemical-resistant gloves,
and a chemical-resistant apron. Please review current Material Safety Data Sheets for additional safety, handling, and
disposal information.

Procedure

1. Place two Petri dishes side-by-side and fill each approx


imately one-third full with distilled or deionized water.
2. Use a clean spatula to add a small scoop of silver nitrate
crystals to the water at one edge of the Petri dish.
3. Directly opposite the silver nitrate, add a small scoop of
sodium iodide crystals to the water using a clean spatula
(see Figure 1).
4. The solids will slowly dissolve and diffuse through the
water. As the ions meet in the center of the Petri dish, a
line of precipitate will begin to form and continue to grow
across the length of the dish (see Figure 2).
5. (Optional) Repeat steps 25 in a second Petri dish replacing
the sodium iodide with sodium chloride.

Many different salts may be usedany two solutions that


form a precipitate will react in a similar fashion using this
method. You may even try adding three salts to the same Petri
dish to achieve a y-shaped line.
The reaction between silver nitrate and sodium iodide is
interesting since both start out as colorless salts but form
a yellow precipitate.
Glass or plastic Petri dishes may be used.

Discussion

The precipitate formed in the first reaction is silver iodide.


AgNO3(aq)+NaI(aq)AgI(s)+NaNO3(aq) Reaction 1
or
Ag+(aq)+I(aq) AgI(s) (yellow)
The precipitate formed in the second reaction is silver chloride.
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) Reaction 2
or
Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s) (white)

Reference
Flinn ChemTopic Labs, Volume 6, Irene Cesa, Ed., Flinn

Scientific, Inc., Batavia, IL, 2004.

Materials for Emerging Line are available from


Flinn Scientific
Catalog No.

S0274
S0083

Description

Stretch Your Chemistry Budget


Chemistry teachers need to be aware that the price
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Compare these 2012 published prices of reagent grade
silver nitrate.

Carolina

Figure 2.

Disposal
Please consult your current Flinn Science Catalog/Reference
Manual for general guidelines and specific procedures, and
review all federal, state and local regulations that may apply,
before proceeding. Filter the mixtures to recover silver halides.

The filtrate may be disposed of according to Flinn Suggested


Disposal Method #26a.

Tips
For improved viewing by the entire class, use a document
or overhead projector. Place an acetate sheet under the Petri
dishes to protect the projector from spills.

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Figure 1.

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14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 5

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Vol. 12-4 Chemistry Edition

Product

Spotlight

Percent Composition

Demonstration Tray

Student Lab Kit

Makes Cleanup Easier

A real-world application
for a fundamental conceptpercent composi
tion! Calcium magnesium
acetate (CMA) is sold
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chemical de-icer. It is less
corrosive than salt for
melting ice and protects
delicate pet paws. Determine the percent composition of calcium versus
magnesium acetate in CMA using a simple three-step process.
Titrate with EDTA to determine total calcium and magnesium
content, precipitate calcium ions with ammonium oxalate,
and then carry out a second EDTA titration on the filtrate to
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Kit includes reproducible student handouts, background information, Teacher Notes with sample data and answers to all
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Burets are required and may be purchased separately.
Catalog No.

Description

Price/Each

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Calcium Magnesium Acetate
Buret, Flint Glass with Teflon Stopcock, 50-mL

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Stop worrying about cleanup after those fun but messy chemical
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Flinn Electronic Balances


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14197_FlinnFax_2012-4_Chemistry.indd 6

8/23/12 3:05 PM

Flinn Scientific Your Safer Source 1-800-452-1261 flinnsci.com

Splash Goggles

Holiday Demos and Labs

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See our complete selection
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Description

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Modern Materials
Amazing Multi-Demo Kit

From nanotechnology to nitinolbring amazing modern


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Liquid crystalsmatter
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Applications include
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Description

Price/Each

AP7531

Amazing Modern MaterialsChemical Demonstration Kit

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Take advantage of the fun and excitement of holidays


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The Reappearing Pumpkin Demo Kit
Perform Halloween magic with this
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Pumpkin face disappears and then
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Florence flask (GP3095) sold separately.
Blinking Holiday Colors Demo Kit
Two beakers magically
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Each solution contains a
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Silver Ornament Lab Kit

Create 24 stunning
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complex ions in
a glass ornament
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out on the inside of the ornament.
See all of our seasonal demonstration kits, including
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2012 Flinn Science Catalog/Reference Manual or by
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AP6384
GP3095
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AP7189

Description

The Reappearing Pumpkin


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7
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For Chemistry Teachers
Understanding the
Revised OSHA Rules
Save on Silver Nitrate
Activities to Help Your
Students Succeed!

Its Here Already!


Are you irritated by frequent, lengthy backorders from other
science supply companies? Dont accept second-rate service!
Cancel those annoying backorders and reorder from Flinn.
Before you know it, youll be saying, Oh my gosh, its here
already! Call Flinn today at 1-800-452-1261.
From the Flinn Mailbag

I love Flinn! You make teaching chemistry a joy! As
always, my order was complete, prompt, and a wonderful
bargain over other vendors!
Kimberly Kass, Argyle High School, TX
As always, thank you for your continued prompt, excellent
service. You provide top-quality equipment and continue
to be the best chemical supplier for education that I have
found.
Roger Felch, Castle View High School, CO
I cant believe how quickly this order was processed and
shipped. It was ordered on a Wednesday and I had it by
that Friday. Everything was included and nothing was
broken. Amazing service! Thank you so much.
Anne Nyseth, Holmen High School, WI

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Free Flinn Workshops


at Fall NSTA Conferences
Make plans to attend Flinns demonstration shows and workshops if you are going to a National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) Regional Conference this fall. You will learn
new and exciting demonstrations and experiments to share
with your students. Free write-ups are provided. Visit the
Flinn booth where you can sign up to win a free electronic
balance and microscope. Check your conference program for
workshop times and locations. Learn more about the conferences by visiting www.nsta.org/conferences.

Louisville, KY
October 1820, 2012

Atlanta, GA
November 13, 2012

Phoenix, AZ
December 68, 2012

8/23/12 3:06 PM