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Chapter 1

Background of the Study
Hand sanitizer is one of the important needs of the people right now. It's being used in
preventing the spread of diseases and bacteria.
In these days, we are experiencing what they so called 'climate change'. This climate
change can cause sickness of young children, not only young children but also the adults. And in
this case, we are encouraged to buy medicines for us to easily cure. But some people cannot
afford to buy medicines, right? So, the researcher decided to come up an Investigatory project
which is very beneficial to everyone, not only the beauty it reflect but also it can help us to avoid
getting sick. Making your homemade antibacterial herbal hand sanitizer is our answer to our
problem. Hand sanitizer making uses Dried Lansones fruit peels as important ingredients. The
increasing cost of synthetic chemicals resulted in the increase cost of commercial hand sanitizer
in the market. Due to these facts, it is very important to recognize the possibilities of utilizing
herbal hand sanitizer ingredients that are environment friendly and cost effective.
With news of AH1N1 outbreaks and dangerous HFMD infections on the rise, we need to
keep ourselves protected even when good old soap and water aren't at arms reach. Buying costly
little bottles of hand sanitizer adds up. Here is a simple, homemade, easy, effective and natural
approach to hand sanitizer. Yes, soap and water are better, but it's good to have "just in case" your
children need a snack in the car and they haven't recently washed their hands. Leave a bottle in
your purse, and in your vehicle.

Statement of the Problem

The study will be conducted to determine the antibacterial activity of dried lansones fruit
peels as hand sanitizer.
Specifically, this study seek to answer the following questions:
1. What are the chemicals present in the dried lansones fruit peels that can inhibit the growth
of bacteria?
2. What are the bacteria that dried lansones fruit peels can inhibit?
3. How long does the shelf life of the hand sanitizer made out of dried lansones fruit peels?
1. The air-dried fruit peel of Lansones yielded five onoceroid triterpenes; Study yielded a
rare class of onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lamesticumin a, lamesticumins B-F, lansic acid 3ethyl ester and ethyl lansiolate and four known analogues from the twigs of LD. Compounds 1-9
exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria

2. Dried lansones fruit peels can inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, B subtilis, C albicans, A
3. The Dried lansones fruit peels as hand sanitizer can last up to 1 year respectively.
Significance of the study:
The study is found to be significant to the following:

Local Community. It can benefit people in our local community through eliminating bacteria
with the help of this plant.
Environmentalist. Through making hand sanitizer, we are becoming more eco-friendly and the
fact that this study does not need any harmful chemicals which does not have any negative effect
against the environment.
Researchers. Some researchers who wish to make a study about hand sanitizer can make this
study as their basis.
International Community. The entire world needs sanitation especially the fact that we are now
facing health crisis.
Scope and Delimitations
This study will investigate the potency of hand sanitizer with the use of dried lansones fruit
peels which can be used to eliminate bacteria.

The capability of dried lansones fruit peels as hand sanitizer will be tested on the probability
of inhibiting the growth of some bacteria are soon be tested in the Department of Science and
Technology Manila, Philippines.

This chapter presents the numerous literatures written by eminent scientists. It is
therefore imperative to review the works of these elites with a view of making them a strong
background for the problem under study.

Related literature

Lansones is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, 20 to 40
centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 7 to 18 centimeters in length, and
pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, yellow and borne on spikes, solitary or fascicled on the
trunk or larger branches. Fruit is yellowish-white, occurring in bunches on a single stem,
ellipsoid or globose, 2 to 4 centimeters long, with bitter seeds that are surrounded by a

translucent pulp (arillus). The outer skin is thin and tough, abundant in a milky juice. The pulp
occurs in five sections with one well-developed seed.
Hand sanitizer
Anyone who has been in a child's play area has witnessed it. As the children come off of
the play equipment, the mothers reach into their purse to grab their hand sanitizer. Each child
gets a dab of sanitizer to rub into her hands in order to eliminate the germs that have been
transferred to her skin. The hope is that this practice will keep the children, and therefore their
families, healthier.
Hand sanitizers can now be found in the entrances to nursing homes and hospitals and in
many public washrooms. We all know the importance of proper hand-washing in reducing
harmful germ transmission. However, there are times when there is no access to soap and water
or not enough time to wash thoroughly. A hand sanitizer can serve as a suitable alternative to
hand washing. Using a hand sanitizer decrease your chance of getting sick.
P. aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is noted for its environmental
versatility, ability to cause disease in particular susceptible individuals, and its resistance to
antibiotics. The most serious complication of cystic fibrosis is respiratory tract infection by the
ubiquitous bacteriumPseudomonas aeruginosa. Cancer and burn patients also commonly suffer
serious infections by this organism, as do certain other individuals with immune systems
deficiencies. Unlike many environmental bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a remarkable capacity to
cause disease in susceptible hosts. It has the ability to adapt to and thrive in many ecological
niches, from water and soil to plant and animal tissues. The bacterium is capable of utilizing a
wide range of organic compounds as food sources, thus giving it an exceptional ability to

colonize ecological niches where nutrients are limited. P. aeruginosa can produce a number of
toxic proteins which not only cause extensive tissue damage, but also interfere with the human
immune system's defense mechanisms. These proteins range from potent toxins that enter and
kill host cells at or near the site of colonization to degradative enzymes that permanently disrupt
the cell membranes and connective tissues in various organs. This bacterium is also noted for its
resistance to many antibiotics. P. aeruginosa is widely studied by scientists who are interested in
not only its ability to cause disease and resist antibiotics, but also its metabolic capability and
environmental versatility. Analysis of its genome sequence has identified genes involved in
locomotion, attachment, transport and utilization of nutrients, antibiotic efflux, and systems
involved in sensing and responding to environmental changes.A major interest of pharmaceutical
companies, such as Chiron*, is to learn more about the genes of P. aeruginosa and other diseasecausing bacteria in order to better understand the physiology of these organisms. These insights
will be used to develop new antibacterial drugs to successfully treat infections by bacteria like P.
aeruginosa that are resistant to many of todays antibiotics. For answers to commonly asked
questions about Pseudomonas aeruginosa, please visit our frequently asked questions section.
B. subtilis
B. subtilis express both intracellular and extracellular exopeptidases and so there is a risk that
expressed proteins may be cleaved up inside the cytoplasm or in the solution.
B. subtilis parts - Although many labs and iGEM teams have looked at B. subtilis as a potential
chassis, there are relatively few working B. subtilis parts available in the Registry. This however
is rapidly changing and soon there will be the basic parts required to make B. subtilis a highly
viable chassis.

Vector Degradation - B. subtilis does not use all the same vectors as E. coli. One reason for this
is that B. subtilisoften recognises vectors grown in E. coli as foreign and digests them. Vectors
and shuttle vectors are thus not reliable carriers of genetic information.
C. albicans
A. niger
Aspergillus niger is a haploid filamentous fungi and is a very essential microorganism in the field
of biology. In addition to producing extracellular enzymes and citric acid,A. niger is used for
waste management and biotransformations. The fungi is most commonly found in mesophilic
environments such as decaying vegetation or soil and plants.
Genome sequencing of A. niger is important because of its involvement in producing citric acid
as well as industrial enzymes, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases. The use of these enzymes
are essential because of its importance for transformation to food enzymes. Other properties of
this species include pathogens that cause the spoilage of food and production of secondary
metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that are toxic. Metabolite production, involvement in food
spoilage, and simply being a pathogen creates a great economic impact on the U.S. (roughly $45
billion on the U.S. economy alone). Understanding this economic importance as well as the
effects it makes on the environment makes the genome sequencing of A. niger essential to
biological applications.
A. niger was isolated from the plant Welwitschia mirabilis in Namibia and Angola, a plant
estimated to be about 3000 years old. A. niger is easily isolated from common thing such as dust,
paint, and soil. Commonly in labs, A. niger is isolated via chemostat cultures which can test
positively or negatively for the fungi.



The researchers, main purpose in conducting this study is to help create a productwhich is
cheaper and could use the same quality as the one through the use oforanges. This study aims to
help people who do not have enough money to buyexpensive hand sanitizer. It also helps the
researchers determine the similaritiesand differences of the two products have by comparing
their qualities. Theprocedure in making this product is simple. First, scrape the gel inside the
AloeVera leaves. After scraping the gel, the group put it a plastic container and added1 cup of
Ethyl alcohol and 2 teaspoons of Glycerin. Next, grate the orange to getthe zest and add it to the
mixture, then, mix till well blended. Lastly, the grouprecycled a small bottle that was used as a
container for the mixture. Theresearchers concluded that the Aloe Vera gel can be used to make
the handsanitizer more jelly and the zest of the orange more hydrating to the skin. It iseasy to
make since the materials used are found in stores and have the cheapestprice. The group is
confident that the product is effective because of the Ethylalcohol. The researchers advised to use
more Aloe Vera for the product to be more jelly.i