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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.

BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

BASKETBALL

History
Basketball was introduced by Dr. James Naismith in 1891 while he was the
physical education head of YMCA College in Springfield, Massachusetts. He invented
this indoor game to keep their students occupied and in good shape during long winter
days. Dr. Naismith used a peach basket and a soccer ball the first equipment for
basketball. At first, the basket was hung on the gymnasiums wall and the ball was shot
into it. Whenever the ball goes inside the basket, someone from the second floor of the
gym would get the ball and give it back to the players. Equipment evolved and rules
were changed. The game gained popularity all over the United States and became an
official sport in the Berlin Olympic game in1939. It reached the Philippines during the
American period. In 1900, the United States YMCA introduced basketball in the
Philippines. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Philippines reached its golden era in
basketball, spearheaded by Caloy Loyzaga by winning two consecutive gold medals in
the Asian Games. In 1975, the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) was established
with teams owned by private companies. Today, the PBA remains the oldest
professional basketball league in Asia and the second oldest in the world, after the NBA
(National Basketball Association).

Game Description, Equipment, and Skills


Basketball is a team sport composed of five players. Two teams play against
each other. The goal is to outscore the opponent by shooting the ball through the basket
or ring (offense) and preventing the other team from scoring (defense). The ball, made
of leather or a rubber material, is used throughout the game. The standard height of the
basketball ring is ten feet. The playing area, also called the hard court, can be made of
wood or concrete. Players wear uniforms, composed of a jersey and shorts with a
number and name at the back, rubber shoes, and protective gear, like knee pads and
ankle supports. Since there is just one ball and ten players are on the hard court,
several skills must be learned and mastered by a player to be able to play the game
well.

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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.


BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

Basic Skills
1. Shooting a fundamental skill to be learned by a player. It is done when a
player throws or puts the ball inside the basket. It is a skill that gives opportunity.
There are several types of shots. The most basic are the set shot or free throw,
and the lay-up.
a. Set Shot or Free Throw Shot this can be used if the player is shooting
far from the basket or is taking free throw shot. It is a shot usually done
with feet flat on the floor. It is a shot executed with a screen and pick from
the teammates to have an easy shot.
b. Jump Shot a very effective offensive weapon because of its high point
of release.
c. Lay-up Shot one of the highest percentage shots because of its
closeness of range. This type of shot can be used if the player is near the
basket.

2. Passing makes ball movement fast and gives a team many scoring options. It
also promotes team work and selflessness among players.
a. Chest Pass this type of pass is given from the chest of the passer to the
chest level of the receiver. It is the best passing option when the receiver
is near the passer. It is probably the most common used pass.
The ball is held in both hands, the fingers spread on the sides of
the ball with the thumbs behind the ball.
The palms should be facing downward or slightly outward, with the
elbow chest high on the follow-through.
b. Bounce Pass this pass is made by bouncing the ball off the floor and
having it end up in the receivers hands after it rebounds. It is a shortdistance pass used to avoid a deflection or interception when a player is
being closely guarded. It is best passing option when an opponent is
between the passer and a receiver.
It is executed in the manner of a chest pass except that the ball is
bounced into the hands of the receiver.
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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.


BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

c. Overhead Pass this pass is made by throwing the ball to the air using
two hands. It is used to pass the ball over a shorter defensive player,
usually to a post player or a cutter. It is the best passing option when the
receiver is far from the receiver.
The ball is held overhead with both hands, thumbs under the ball
and fingers spread on the sides of the ball.
The arms which are slightly bent are brought forward sharply, with a
snap of the wrists releasing the ball.
d. Baseball Pass used most frequently to cover long distances, especially
in initiating the fast break.
When this pass is thrown with the right hand, the ball is brought
back to the right ear, close to the hand.
The ball is released about one foot in front of the body with the wrist
snapping forward and downward.

3. Dribbling means of moving the ball which is slower than passing. It is a way of
individually handling the ball. Players who play as guards must be very good in
ball handling. It should be used only to (1) penetrate or drive towards the ring; (2)
create a better passing lane; (3) bring the ball down the court.
a. Control Dribble this can be used to protect the ball from an opponent
who is close by.
b. Speed Dribble this can be done during a fast break situation or when no
opponent is guarding the ball handler.

Player Positions
1. Point Guard usually the fastest player on the team; organizes the teams
offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at
the right time.
2. Shooting Guard takes many shots on offense; guards the opponents outsideshooting player on defense.

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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.


BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

3. Small Forward often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the
basket and dribbling near the basket; on defense, seeks rebounds and steals,
but sometimes plays more actively.
4. Power Forward plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense,
plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power
forward (in man-to-man defense).
5. Center uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely
(on defense), or to rebound.
Violations
A violation is an infraction made by a player to equipment and to the playing
court. The following are examples of violations:
1. Traveling occurs when the ball handler moves her feet without dribbling
2. Double Dribble occurs when the ball handler dribbles the ball using both
hands or catches the ball in between dribbles
3. Carrying the Ball occurs when the ball handlers hand is under the ball while
dribbling
4. Kicked Ball is called when any defensive player kicks the ball; this also results
in a shot clock reset
5. Three-second Violation occurs when an offensive player stays inside the
painted area for more than three seconds
6. Eight-second Violation occurs when the defensive team fails to bring the ball
from the back court to the front court after eight seconds
7. Backing Violation is committed by the offensive team when the ball goes back
to the back court from the front court and was touched last by an offensive player
8. Shot Clock Violation occurs when the offensive team fails to shoot the ball
within 24 seconds
When the offensive team commits a violation, the game is stopped and ball
possession will be given to the other team.
Fouls
An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physical contact is
illegal and is called a foul.
1. Defensive Foul a foul committed by a defensive player on an offensive player
2. Offensive Foul also known as a charge. Its a foul committed by an offensive
player on a defensive player. This will result in a loss of ball possession by the
offensive team.
3. Technical Foul a foul committed by a player, coach, or any member of the
coaching and team staff for showing poor sportsmanship for instance, by
arguing with a referee or by fighting with another player
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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.


BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

If a player is fouled during the act of shooting, free throws will be awarded to this
player, the number of which depends on the number of points she/he was attempting
to make before the foul (two free throws for two-point attempts, or three free throws
for three-point attempts). When a team reaches the maximum number of fouls they
can commit, they are placed under a penalty situation, during which free throws will
be awarded to the player who was fouled even if he/she was not in the act of
shooting.
Basketball Terminologies
Basket -- the 18 inch ring with a suspended cord-net through which players attempt to
throw the ball
Boxing out -- a term used to designate a defensive player's position under the
backboard, which prevents an offensive player from achieving a good rebounding
position
Center -- often the tallest man on the team. He is usually located on offense between
the foul line and the basket (outside of the three second lane). He often plays with his
back to the basket until a shot is taken. He, along with the corner men, has rebounding
responsibility.
Charging -- personal contact against the body of an opponent by a player with the ball
Double dribble -- dribbling the ball twice or using both hands before passing the ball
Double foul -- when two opponents commit personal fouls against each other at
approximately the same time
Dribble -- ball movement caused by a player in control who throws or taps the ball in
the air or onto the floor and then touches it. The dribble ends when the dribbler touches
the ball with both hands simultaneously, permits it to come to rest while he is in contact
with it, or loses control.
Forwards -- players who are basically responsible for the rebounding; phase of a
team's operation. On offense, they are usually located at the side of the court between
the foul line and the base line.
Foul -- Any infraction of the rules for which the penalty is one or more free throws
Free throw -- the privilege given a player to score one point by an unhindered throw for
goal from within the free-throw circle and behind the throw line
Give and go -- a maneuver in which the offensive player makes a short pass to a
teammate and then goes in toward the basket for a return pass
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Gayam, Glydenne Glaire P.


BS Medical Technology 2B

PE4

Held ball -- Occurs when two opponents have one or both hands firmly on the ball, and
neither can gain possession without undue roughness. Also called a jump ball
Hook shot -- a shot made by extending the arm overhead and shooting the ball across
the body over the head
Jump ball -- a method of putting the ball into play by tossing it up between two
opponents in one of the three circles
Jump shot -- shot that revolutionized the game
Pass -- movement of the ball caused by a player in control, throwing, batting, or rolling
the ball to another player
Pivot -- takes place when a player who is holding the ball steps once or more than once
in any direction with the same foot, the other foot, called the pivot foot, being kept at its
point of contact with the floor
Post -- a pivot position usually near the lane
Pressing defense -- a defense designed to break up the offensive through constant
guarding and forcing the offensive team to move the ball
Rebound -- a term usually applied when the ball bounces off the backboard or basket
Screen -- an attempt to protect a teammate's play by shutting off an opponent's
approach without personal contact
Shot an attempt to score in a basketball game
Ten-second line -- the line that divides the court in two parts. After a throw-in, the ball
must be advanced beyond this line within 10 seconds
Throw in -- a method of putting the ball in play from out of bounds. Must be done in five
seconds
Traveling -- when a player in possession of the ball within bounds progresses illegally
in any direction
Three-second area -- that area inside the "key" below the free throw line

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