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RAPID PROTOTYPING OF

CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM


ELECTROMAGNETIC
TRANSIENT SIMULATOR
PROGRAM
By:
Dexter M. T. J. Williams, Esa Nummijoki,
Aniruddha M. Gole and Erwin Dirks

University Of Manitoba
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NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Power Systems Simulation

Content
Introduction
Background
PSCAD Code Generator (PSCADCG)
Example System
Validation Testing
Conclusion

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INTRODUCTION

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Introduction
Software based design in power systems
Grown in popularity with computer processing
power
- Electromagnetic Transient (EMT) simulation
models the network in the greatest detail
- Application: Flexible Alternating Current
Transmission System (FACTS), High Voltage
Direct Current (HVDC)
- Exhaustive simulations are done to confirm the
controls operate in an appropriate manner
- However the control model must still be
transferred into a useable control code for infield use
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Introduction
Solution to Problem
Automatic code
generation from
simulation control
elements
PSCAD Code
Generator
(PSCADCG)
MATLABs Real-time
Workshop

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BACKGROUND

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Background

Library

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Workspace

Background
PSCAD/EMTDC power system simulator
2 main types of Library components:
Electrical
passive electrical components, power electronic
components, machines, transformers, application
specific components (EX: HVDC, FACTS)
Control
arithmetic operations, logical operations, filters,
application specific controls and more

Problem: To convert the control model to a


real-world real-time implementation
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Background
To allow for prototyping of the controls
the PSCAD Code Generator
(PSCADCG) is used
PSCADCG reads the graphic model and
develops embedded software compatible
code from the model

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PSCAD CODE GENERATOR


(PSCADCG)
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PSCADCG
The PSCADCG contains 3 main parts involved in the rapid prototyping
process
Network generation
C function generation
C interface generation

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PSCADCG: Network Generation


Network generation
Generates a virtual
network describing
the interconnection of
the control elements
of the design
Reads project and
library files to
generate and
equivalent virtual
network of the
systems controls

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PSCADCG:C Function Generation


C function generation
Generates the code that describes the control operations modeled
Sequential orders all elements into a queue based on order of operation
Elements are sequentially de-queued and the code for each element is sequentially
generated
Then the code is formatted and used to generate the header and C file

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PSCADCG: C Interface Generator


C interface
Generator
Interfaces the C
function to the
hardware platform
A hardware platform
must first be selected
The program reads
the virtual header file
and generates header,
configuration and
main loop C files

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PSCADCG: C Interface Generator


C interface
Generator
Main program
Configuring all
parameters
Infinite loop
Reads the A/D
converter values
and runs
Runs the C function
generated by the C
function generator
Outputs the values
to the ports
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EXAMPLE SYSTEM

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Example System
Step Down converter
Reduces voltage from input to output using pulse width modulation
Parameters

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Input = 10 Volts
Output = 5 Volts
Voltage Ripple = 0.2%
Current Ripple = 2.0%

Example System: Controls


Step Down converter
Control
Pulse Width Modulation
Negative feedback
Proportional-Integral (PI) controller for error reduction

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Example System:PSCAD Simulation


Step Down converter
Control system
Optimized controls

Controls must be
converted to a real
time controller

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Real-time Control Implementation


Cerebot 32MX4
development board
PIC32MX460F512L
microprocessor

80 MHz
32-bit memory.
PWM
digital and analog I/O
(Input and outputs)

8 peripheral ports

open collector driver


A/D
D/A converters
Etc.

Programmed with C using


the MPLAB development
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VALIDATION TESTING

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Validation Testing
5 volt output test
Calculated: 5.00
Simulated: 5.00
Blue signal represents the
PWM signal (Top)
Green signal represents PI
control signal (Top)
Blue signal represents the
output voltages (Bottom)
Green signal represents
the input voltages
(Bottom)

Hardware: 5.10
Blue signal represents the
PWM signal
Green signal represents
the input voltages
Orange signal represents
the output voltages
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Validation Testing
9.90 volt output test
Calculated: 9.90
Simulated: 9.90
Blue signal represents the
PWM signal (Top)
Green signal represents PI
control signal (Top)
Blue signal represents the
output voltages (Bottom)
Green signal represents
the input voltages
(Bottom)

Hardware: 9.53
Blue signal represents the
PWM signal
Green signal represents
the input voltages
Orange signal represents
the output voltages
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Validation Testing

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Duty
Cycle
(%)

Calc.
(V)

PSCAD
(V)

Actual
Hardware
(V)

50

5.00

5.00

5.10

Error
PSCAD
VS
Hardware
(%)
1.00

99

9.90

9.90

9.53

3.70

CONCLUSION

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Conclusion
PSCADCG capable of:
generating control systems for a PSCAD system
generating most any control system generated by PSCAD

PSCADCG can possibly reduce cost and expedite the


development of controls
Proof of Concept was demonstrated using a simple stepdown controller
It is equally applicable to design arbitrary Power System
Controllers
Larger scale / power systems may require additional hardware
for isolation, etc.
Additional code may be needed to interface with these devices

Future work
Support for multiple page modules
Support for FPGA platforms
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QUESTIONS

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