You are on page 1of 48

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TheDrainagesystemiscomposedofthepipingnetworkwithinastructurewhich
conveyssewage,rainwater,orotherwastesfromtheirpointoforigintoapointof
disposal,suchasapublicseweroraprivatetreatmentfacility(septictank).This
systemisoftenknownastheDWVSystem(Drainage,WasteandVent).Thecomplete
drainagesystemissubdividedintofour(4)subsystems,asfollows.
1.SOILDRAINAGESYSTEM Thepipingthatconveysthedischargeofwater
closetsorfixtureshavingsimilarfunctions(containingfecalmatter),withor
withoutthedischargesfromotherfixtures.
2.WASTEDRAINAGESYTEMorSANITARYDRAINAGESYSTEM Thepiping
thatreceivestheliquiddischarge,fromplumbingfixturesotherthanthosefixtures
(waterclosets)receivingfecalmatter.Thispipingisfreeoffecalflow.
3.STORMDRAINAGESYSTEM Thepipingsystemthatreceivesclearwater
drainagefromleaders,downspouts,surfacerunoff,groundwater,subsurface
water,condensatewater,coolingwaterorothersimilardischargesandconveys
themtothepointofdisposal.Allsanitarywastesmustbeexcluded.
4.VENTSYSTEM thepipingsystemthatreceivesafloworairtoorfroma
drainagesystemortoprovideacirculationofairwithinsuchsystemtoprotect
trapsealsfromsiphonage orbackpressure.

Drainage System
GENERALREQUIREMENTSFORAPROPERLYDESIGNEDDRAINAGESYSTEM

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

a. Thepipingmustbeairtight,gastightandwatertight.
b.Eachplumbingfixture,exceptthosewithintegraltraps,shallbeseparately
trappedbyanapprovedtypewatersealtrap.Thisistopreventodorladenand
germladentoriseoutofthedrainagesystemandcontaminatethesurrounding
airintheroom.
c.Eachplumbingfixturetrapshallbeprovidedwithventpipes.Thisistoprotectthe
drainagesystemagainstsiphonage andbackpressureandtoassureair
circulationthroughoutthedrainagesystem.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

d.Acleanout,easilyaccessible,shallbeprovidedforinspectionorcleaningofthe
piperun.Thelocationofthecleanoutshallbe:
Attheupperendofeveryhorizontalwasteorsoilpipe.
Ateverychangeofhorizontaldirectionofnotmorethan22.5degrees
Within1.5m(5)insidethepropertylinebeforethehousesewer
connection
Atevery15m(50)toahorizontalrunofasoilorwastepipe
e.Allhorizontalpipingshallberuninpracticalalignmentandatauniformgrade
ofnotlessthan2%or2cmpermetertowardthepointofdisposal.
f.Allhorizontalpipingshallbesupportedandanchoredatintervalsnottoexceed
3meters.
g.Verticalpipingshallbesecuredatsufficientlycloseintervalstokeepthepipein
alignment.Stacksshallbeproperlysupportedattheirbases.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

General Rules in designing


the Sanitary system:
Thepipesshouldtaketheshortestpossiblerouteto
thehousesewerortheterminatingpointofthe
Sanitarysystem
Controlcomponentssuchascleanouts,traps,and
vents,shouldbelocatedstrategicallysoastoensure
efficientcirculation

Subsystems of the
Sanitary System:
WasteCollectionSystem
VentilationSystem

Drainage System
WastePipe

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

conveysonlywastewaterorliquidwastefreeoffecalmatter.

VentPipe
usedforensuringthecirculationofairinaplumbingsystemand
forrelievingthenegativepressureexertedontrapseals.

Trap
afittingordevicedesignedandconstructedtoprovide,when
properlyvented,aliquidsealwhichpreventsthebackflowoffoul
airormethanegaswithoutmateriallyaffectingtheflowof
sewageorwastewaterthroughit.

Stack
theverticalmainofasystemofsoil,wasteorventpipings
extendingthroughoneormorestoriesandextendedthruthe
roof.

Branch
anypartofthepipingsystemotherthanamain,riserorstack.

Drainage System
House/BuildingDrain

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

partofthelowesthorizontalpipingofaplumbingsystemwhich
receivesthedischargesfromthesoil,wasteandotherdrainage
pipesinsideofabuildingandconveysittothehouseseweroutside
ofthebuilding.

House/BuildingSewer
extendsfromthehousedrainatapoint0.60metersfromthe
outsidefaceofthefoundationwallofabuildingtothejunctionwith
thestreetsewerortoanypointofdischarge,andconveyingthe
drainageofonebuildingsite.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

MINIMUM SLOPE OF
DRAINAGE LINES
Minimumslopeorpitchofhorizontaldrainagepipe 2%or
20mm/m("perfoot).
Exception:Whereitisimpracticableduetodepthofstreet
sewer,adversestructuralfeaturesandirregularbuildingplans,
pipes102mmdiaorlargermayhaveaslopeofnotlessthan
1%or10mm/m(1/8"perfoot),approvedbytheAdministrative
Authority

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Drainage System

Types of Permissible Traps:

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TheCommonPTrap
Usedforlavatories,kitchensinks,
laundrytubs,&urinals
Materialscommonlyusedforthe
Ptrap:nickel,chromeplatedbrass,
Galvanizedmalleablecopper,&PVC.

TheDeepSealPTrap
Watersealisabouttwicethesizeof
ThecommonPtrap
Usedforextremeconditionsbecause
resealingqualityisgreater

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TheStandTrap
Usedforfixturessuchasslopsinks
thatareusuallybuiltlowinthe
ground,leavingverylittlespacefora
foundation&atrap
Servesasawaterseal&structural
supportforthefixture

TheRunningTrap
Usedwithinthelineof
thehousedrain

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TheDrumTrap
Hasalargediameter(around0.16m)
Usedforfixturesthatdischargelargeamountofwater
(bathtubs,showerorfloordrains)

Drainage System

REQUIREMENTS:

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TrapsREQUIRED
Eachplumbingfixture,exceptthosewithintegraltraps,shallbe
separatelytrappedwithanapprovedtypewatersealtrap.
Onlyonetrapshallbepermittedonatraparm(portionofafixturedrain
betweenatrapandthevent)

Onetrap,centrallylocated,mayservethreesinglecompartmentsinks
orlaundrytubsorlavatories,adjacenttoeachotherandinthesame
room,wheretheirwasteoutletsarenotmorethan0.75mapart.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

SIZE OF TRAPS:
Thetrapshallbethesamesizeasthetraparmtowhichitis
connected.
Eachfixturetrapshallhaveatrapsealofwaterofnotlessthan
51mmandnotmorethan102mm(exceptwhereadeeperseal
isfoundnecessarybytheAdministrativeAuthorityforspecial
conditions.

Drainage System

INSTALLATION OF TRAPS:

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Theverticaldistancebetweenafixtureoutlettailpieceandthe
trapweirshallnotexceed0.60minlength.

HorizontalDistanceofTrapArms
TRAP ARM
DIAMETE
R

DISTANCE
TO VENT

32 mm

0.76 m

38 mm

1.07 m

51 mm

1.52 m

76 mm

1.83 m

102 mm & larger

3.05 m

Note: Innocaseshallthe
trapdistancebelessthan2
timesthediameterofthe
traparm.

Thedevelopedlengthofthetraparm(measuredfromthetopof
closetringtoinneredgeofvent)ofawaterclosetorsimilar
fixtureshallnotexceed1.8m.
Fortraparm76mmdiaorlarger,acleanoutisrequiredfora
changeofdirectionofgreaterthan22.

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

REQUIREMENTS:
CleanoutsREQUIRED
attheupperterminalofeveryhorizontalsewerorwasteline
ateachrunofpipingmorethan15meters(50feet)intotal
developedlength
atevery15m(50ft)oftotaldevelopedlengthorafraction
thereof
additionalcleanoutshallbeprovidedonahorizontallinewithan
aggregate offset angle exceeding 135
insidethebuildingneartheconnectionbetweenthebuilding
drainandthebuildingsewerorinstalledoutsidethebuildingat
thelowerendofthebuildingdrainandextendedtograde.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

VENTILATION
Portionofthedrainagepipeinstallationintendedtomaintaina
balancedatmosphericpressureinsidethesystem

VentPipe apipeoropeningusedforensuringthe
circulationofairinaplumbingsystemandforrelievingthe
negativepressureexertedontrapseals.

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Main Types:

VENTS

MainSoil&WasteVent

the'backbone'oftheentiresanitary
system
ConnectedtotheMainSoil&Waste
Stack
Theportionwherewastedoesnot
travelthrough
Continuestotheroof;theportion
penetratingtheroofiscalledthe
VentStackThroughRoof(VSTR)

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

MainVent
theprincipalarteryoftheventing
systemtowhichventbranchesare
connected.
a.k.a.'CollectingVentLine'
servesassupporttotheMainSoil&
WasteVent

IndividualVentorBackVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

apipeinstalledtoventafixturetrap,that
connectswiththeventsystemabovethe
fixtureservedorterminatesintheopenair.

Drainage System
Unit,Common,orDualVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

anarrangementofventingso
installedthatoneventpipe
servetwo(2)traps.

Drainage System
ReliefVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

averticalventlinethatprovides
additionalcirculationofairbetween
thedrainageandventsystemsorto
actasanauxiliaryventonaspecially
designedsystemsuchasa
"yokevent"connectionbetweenthe
soilandventstacks.

Drainage System
YokeorBypassVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Purpose:
tomaintainatmospheric
pressureinthesoil,waste
andventstacks
Yokeventisrequiredin
buildings12storeys and
higher

Definition:
"Yokeventmeansaventpipethatisconnectedatitslowerendtoasoil
orwastestackanditsupperendtoaventstackorabranchventthatis
connectedtoaventstack."

Drainage System
CircuitVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

agroupventpipewhichstartsinfrontofthe
extreme(highest)fixtureconnectionona
horizontalbranchandconnectstotheventstack.
a.k.a.'LoopVent'
Servesabatteryoffixtures

Drainage System
LoopedVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

averticalventconnectionona
horizontalsoilorwastepipe
branchatapointdownstream
ofthelastfixtureconnection
andturningtoahorizontalline
abovethehighestoverflow
levelofthehighestfixture
connectedthere
Usedinspaceswithoutpartitions

Drainage System
WetVent

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

thatportionofaventpipethroughwhichwastewateralso
flowsthrough.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

LocalVent
apipeorshafttoconveyfoulair
fromaplumbingfixtureoraroom
totheouterair.

DryVent
aventthatdoesnotcarryliquidor
waterbornewastes.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

StackVent
theextensionofasoilorwastestack
abovethehighesthorizontaldrain
connectedtothestack.

VentStack
theverticalventpipeinstalled
primarilyforprovidingcirculationof
airtoandfromanypartofthesoil,waste
ofthedrainagesystem.Theuppermost
endabovetheroofhastraditionallybeen
referredtoasVentStackThroughRoof(VSTR).

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

REQUIREMENTS:
VentsREQUIRED
Eachtrapshallbeprotectedagainstsiphonage andbackpressure
throughventing.

VentsNOTREQUIRED
onaprimarysettlingtankinterceptorwhichdischargesthrougha
horizontalindirectwastepipeintoasecondaryinterceptor.The
secondaryinterceptorshallbeproperlytrappedandvented.
Trapsservingsinksinanislandbarcounter.Suchsinkshall
dischargebymeansofanapprovedindirectwastepipeintoa
floorsinkorotherapprovedtypereceptor.

Drainage System

SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS:


TrapSealLoss

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

DirecteffectoftheMinus&PlusPressureinsidethesystemdue
toinadequateventilationoftraps
Attributedtothefollowingconditions:

Siphonage directandmomentum

Drainage System
BackPressure

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Evaporation causedbyextremetemperatures,idleness
WindEffects strongwindsblowthetrapseal
Retardationofflow

Duetotheeffectofatmosphericpressureand/orgravity

DeteriorationoftheMaterials

Duetotheformationofacids

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

IndirectWastePipe
isapipethatdoesnotconnectdirectlywiththe
drainagesystembutconveysliquidwastesby
dischargingintoaplumbingfixture,interceptoror
receptacledirectlyconnectedtothedrainagesystem.

Drainage System
SIPHONVORTEX

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Waterentersthroughdiagonal
punchingaroundtherimofthe
bowl,creatingavortexthatdraws
thewaterdownintothereartrap
withaswirlingactionthatscours
thewallsofthebowl.Waterstrikes
twoparallelridgesandfoldsover
formingajet,producingsiphonic
action.Largewatersurfaceprovides
averyefficientandcleanprocess,
andtheflushingisextremelyquiet.
Thismodelismostlyofonepiece
constructionwithalowprofile.
Expensive.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

SIPHONJET

Waterentersthroughrimpunching
andjetsplacedinan uplegofthe
reartrap,fillingthetrapwayand
creatinganinstantsiphonaction
withoutriseofwaterlevel.The
resultisquickwaterwithdrawal.
Largewatersurfaceprovidesan
efficientandcleanoperation.
Withquietflushingandmoderate
cost,thisisthemostpopular
residentialmodel.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

REVERSETRAP

Waterentersthroughrim
punchingandthroughajetthat
fillsthereartrapway
completely,creatingasiphon
actionandresultinginquick
withdrawalofwater fromthe
bowl.Awaterjetislocatedat
theinletofthetrapway.Most
ofthebowlsurfaceiscovered
withwater.Thismodelis
efficientbutmoderatelynoisy.
Itscostisreasonablylow.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

WASHDOWN

Waterentersthroughanopenrim,
asthoughabucketofwaterwere
dumpedintothebowl,fillingthe
fronttrapway andcreatingsiphon
action.Thismodelprovidesquick
removalofwaterwithminimum
waterrise.Smallwatersurface
makesthemodelmorevulnerable
tosoilingandclogging.
Thisistheleastefficientandmost
noisytypebutlowestincost.

Drainage System
PRESSURE/TANK

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Asteeltankislocatedinsidethe
chinatank.Usespressurefromthe
watersupplysystem.A1.5in.
watersupplylineprovides25psi
pressure,compressingtrappedair
inthetank.Whenflushedthe
compressedairforcesthewater
out.Thebowlisdesignedtoaccept
thetorrentofwater.Thecrestof
thesurgingwateremptiesthebowl
throughtheenlargedtrap.Large
watersurfacemakesthismodel
efficient.Designfeaturesmakeit
suitableforresidentialuse.Flushing
isverynoisy.Lowwaterusage(1.5
gpf)helpsconservewater.
Expensive.

Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

PRESSURE/TANKLESS

Strongflushingactioniscreatedbya
jetofwaterdirectedintotherim
andjet.Theforceofthejetdraws
thebowlcontentsintothereartrap.
Itdoesn'tusesiphonic actionbut
reliesonthedrivingforceofjet
action.Atflushvalve25psiis
neededwith1.5in.inletspud.Large
watersurfaceandlargetrapway size
makethismodelefficientand
suitableforcommercialuse.
Flushingisverynoisy.Expensive.

FLEA 2012 REVIEW

STORM DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS

Storm Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

3 Major Systems of
Collecting Storm Water:
TheIndependentSystem
a.k.a.'theSeparateSystem'
Bringscollectedwaterdirectly
tothewaterreservoirs

Storm Drainage System

TheCombinedSystem

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Combinesstormwater
withsanitarywastes

Storm Drainage System

TheNaturalSystem

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Withoutusinganyroofguttersordownspouts
Alsowhenrainwateriscollectedincisterns

StormDrainLocations

Storm Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Roofing Elements to
Collect Rainwater:
TheGutter
Usuallylocatedalongthe
entireperimeteroftheroof

TheDownspout
Locatedevery8to10meters
&ateverycorneroftheroof
(but,toavoidcloggingofpipes,
itisbesttolocatethemevery
4to6m)

Storm Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

TheStrainerorRoofDrain
Draindesignedtoreceivewatercollectingon
thesurfaceofaroofandtodischargeitintoa
downspout.Designedtopreventclogging.

TheShoe
Atthebottomoftheroofleadertodirectrain
watertowardsthenearestcatchbasin

Storm Drainage System

TheCatchBasin

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Downspoutsshouldterminateinacatchbasin(canservemorethanone
downspout)
Deliverswatertothesewersinthestreetviagravity
AreaDrainCatchBasin:alsocollectssurfacewater

TheStormLine
Connectstoeachcatchbasin

Storm Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

Storm Drainage System

P
L
U
M
B
I
N
G

FLEA 2012 REVIEW

END