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Technical Manual

The difference is

www.richardlees.co.uk

innovation, commitment, support.

www.richardlees.co.uk

For a service with a difference, choose


Richard Lees Decking, the UK specialist
steel decking company with a 65 year
experience of innovation in structural
flooring products. In fact, ours is a
service which has delivered results
worldwide, providing floor deck profiles
into major projects in over 30 countries,
including some of the worlds most
prestigious buildings.

A commitment to excellence drives


every aspect of our work, from the
innovation that has seen us introduce
a number of firsts, to producing
top quality products. Perhaps thats
why Holorib has become the generic
term for steel decking in the UK and
consistently outsells any other profile
in the UK range. On-going development
partnerships to create new products and

services have introduced the Resotec


vibration damping system.
This is a service thats as complete as
it is reassuring; with all the support you
need from initial advice to complete
installation.
The difference is
Richard Lees Decking

Advantages of steel decking:


Steel decking acts as permanent or lost shuttering for suspended in situ concrete floors or roof slabs in new or
refurbished buildings. On most projects, it will act as all, or part, of the tensile bottom reinforcement for the concrete
slabs, hence the term composite.
The use of steel decking is especially suitable for fast construction methods. Quick to install, simple, and an ideal
complement to steel framed structures make steel decking suitable for both high and low rise buildings. Steel decking
is also used to speed up and simplify the construction of brickwork, blockwork and concrete framed buildings.

Up to 4 hours fire resistance with exposed soffit


can be designed.

Provides a safe working platform.

Composite construction reduces steelwork frame weight.

Minimal site storage requirements.

Lower dead load reduces frame and foundation loading.

Needs no (or minimal) propping.

Stiffens steelwork supporting frame.

Ceilings and services can be easily


suspended using standard fixings.

Cover for following trades.

www.richardlees.co.uk

Easily cut and fitted to awkward shapes.

Contents

Steel Decking Product Range

page

Section properties and notes to tables

page

Resotec

page

18

Shaping the London Skyline

page

20

Architectural Impact Across the UK

page

25

Guidance Notes for Design and Fixing

page

28

Deckspan Design Software

page

36

Steel Decking Product Range


the original:

Holorib

less concrete

Ribdeck E60

longer spans

Ribdeck S60

longer spans

Ribdeck 80

Holorib

Ribdeck S60

Trapezoidal profile.
Longer unpropped spans.
Available with closed ends and a pre-finished Colorcoat
soffit giving an attractive appearance with durability to
minimise future maintenance.

 e-entrant profile.
R
Available in the UK since 1972.
The UKs most widely specified steel decking profile.
Simple to detail and install.
Virtually continuous plain soffit finish.
Excellent load carrying capacity on the finished slab.
Use Holorib for its great versatility and strength.

Ribdeck 80
Ribdeck E60



Trapezoidal profile.
Fast to install 1.0m cover width.
Designed to minimise concrete volume.
Use Ribdeck E60 to reduce the overall cost of a floor slab.

Registered Trademarks:
Holorib, Ribdeck, Superib and Deckspan are trademarks of Richard Lees Decking Ltd

www.richardlees.co.uk

Trapezoidal profile.
Higher grade of steel.
Longer unpropped spans.
Use Ribdeck 80 to reduce the number of
steel members in a frame.

Section properties and notes to tables


Holorib Section Dimensions

British Standard

Standard soffit fixings

Holorib Section Properties (per metre width)






Gauge Self Weight


mm
kg/m2 kN/m2
0.9
1.0
1.2

13.3
14.3
17.3

0.13
0.14
0.17

Area
mm2

Inertia
cm4

YNA
mm

1,579
1,759
2,118

55.7
62.1
77.3

16.74
16.73
16.72

Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth -8mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck E60 Section Dimensions


Standard soffit fixings

Ribdeck E60 Section Properties (per metre width)






Gauge Self Weight


mm
kg/m2 kN/m2
0.9
1.0
1.2

9.3
10.3
12.3

0.091
0.101
0.121

Area
mm2

Inertia
cm4

YNA
mm

1,140
1,273
1,538

80.4
89.8
108.7

37.1
37.2
37.2

Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth 36mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck S60 Section Dimensions

Eurocode

Standard soffit fixings

Ribdeck S60 Section Properties (per metre width)



Gauge
mm

0.9
1.0
1.2

Self Weight
kg/m2 kN/m2
9.5
10.5
12.6

0.093
0.103
0.124

Area
mm2

Inertia
cm4

YNA
mm

1,171
1,301
1,570

67.4
75.2
90.9

28.0
28.0
28.0

Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth 33mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck 80 Section Dimensions


Standard soffit fixings

Ribdeck 80 Section Properties (per metre width)






Gauge Self Weight


mm
kg/m2 kN/m2
0.9
1.0
1.2

11.1
12.3
14.8

0.109
0.121
0.145

Area
mm2

Inertia
cm4

YNA
mm

1,375
1,533
1,848

167.5
186.7
224.8

40.7
40.7
40.7

Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth 44mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

In pages 8-17 The performance of each product is given in terms of span/load and fire design tables.

Span/load and fire design tables


1. Spans shown assume clear span +150mm to the centreline of supports.
2. Designs are fully in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1.
3. The dead weight of the slab has been included in the development of the spans
shown. However, when reading from the table, consideration should be given
to finishes, partitions, etc., as noted in the Loading combinations.
4. Based upon concrete densities at wet stage: normal weight concrete 24 kN/m,
lightweight concrete 19 kN/m, plus 1kN/m for unhardened concrete.
5. Maximum deflection in the direction of span of the decking is limited to
span/130 after taking account of ponding.
6. Construction stage design includes an allowance of 1.5kN/m2 for construction
loading.
7. Composite slabs are designed as simply supported irrespective of the deck
support configuration. A minimum crack control and distribution mesh is
required in accordance with clause 9.8.1(2) of BS EN 1994-1-1.
Alternatively the use of fibre reinforcement may be deemed acceptable after
reference to the relevant design tables and consultation with the Structural
Design Engineers.
8. Decking is manufactured from material meeting the specification: BS EN
10346-S350GD+Z275. It has guaranteed minimum yield strength of 350 N/mm.
9. Tables are applicable for any construction where the mesh may act in tension
over a supporting beam or wall (negative bending). This includes end bay
conditions i.e. the concrete slab is continuous over more than one span.

10. Loads shown are unfactored working loads and should include all imposed live
and dead loads, excluding only the self-weight of the slab.
11. An ultimate load factor of 1.0 is assumed throughout.
12. - indicates that the area of mesh is less than the minimum for crack control
recommended in BS EN 1994-1-1 cl.9.8.1(2)
13. Mesh should satisfy the minimum elongation requirement given in
BS4449: 2005.
14. For conditions outside the scope of the tables, including all isolated spans,
consult Deckspan software.
15. Tables are only based on the thinnest gauge of decking available in the Holorib
& Ribdeck E60 range. Improved performance with thicker gauges may be
checked using Deckspan software.
16. The figures in brackets shown thus (**) indicates the rebar diameter required
for the noted fire resistance one bar per trough.
17. Tables are based on concrete class C30/37 for Normal weight or LC30/33 for
Lightweight, as applicable.
18. The spans shown in the Holorib & Ribdeck E60 fire design tables are limited
for safety reasons to the maximum allowable for whichever is the lesser of
the construction or composite performance for a 0.9mm gauge profile. The
Deckspan software should be used to determine the minimum mesh required
for the actual design criteria.

Holorib Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete
Span/load table - BS 5950 Method

Multiple - Unpropped
Single - Propped

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *
0.4% Mesh **

100
120
130
150
175
200
250
100
120
130
150
175
200
250

0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242
0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*
A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

100
120
130
150
175
200
250

0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242

A193**
A252**
A393**
2xA252**
2xA252**
2xA393**
2xA393**

5.0
2.80
2.65
2.58
2.49
2.37
2.25
2.07
3.27
3.19
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63
2.40

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
2.80
2.65
2.58
2.49
2.37
2.25
2.07
3.04
3.19
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63
2.40

10.0
2.64
2.65
2.58
2.49
2.37
2.25
2.07
2.65
2.89
3.01
2.96
2.78
2.63
2.40

5.0
2.97
2.81
2.73
2.60
2.46
2.35
2.19
3.44
3.27
3.27
3.12
2.96
2.79
2.55

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
2.97
2.81
2.73
2.60
2.46
2.35
2.19
3.20
3.27
3.27
3.12
2.96
2.79
2.55

10.0
2.78
2.81
2.73
2.60
2.46
2.35
2.19
2.79
3.05
3.17
3.12
2.96
2.79
2.55

5.0
3.31
3.16
3.09
2.97
2.84
2.73
2.56
4.13
4.04
3.94
3.78
3.61
3.45
3.20

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.31
3.16
3.09
2.97
2.84
2.73
2.56
3.45
3.79
3.94
3.78
3.61
3.45
3.20

10.0
2.80
3.16
3.09
2.97
2.84
2.73
2.56
3.02
3.28
3.47
3.71
3.61
3.45
3.20

3.21
3.44
3.54
3.71
3.90
4.07
4.36

2.79
3.00
3.10
3.27
3.46
3.63
3.92

2.48
2.68
2.77
2.93
3.11
3.28
3.58

3.39
3.62
3.73
3.91
4.12
4.29
4.59

2.94
3.16
3.26
3.45
3.65
3.83
4.14

2.62
2.82
2.92
3.09
3.29
3.47
3.78

3.70
3.97
4.08
4.29
4.51
4.71
5.04

3.22
3.46
3.57
3.78
4.00
4.20
4.54

2.86
3.09
3.20
3.39
3.60
3.80
4.14

5.0

A142
7.5

10.0

5.0

A252 (A393***)
7.5

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Fire period (Hrs)

Normal weight concrete

British Standard

Single - Unpropped

Support Condition

Slab Depth (mm)

0.2% Mesh *

Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )


A193
5.0
7.5
10.0

10.0

1.0

100
120
130
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.27
3.19
-

3.04
3.19
-

2.65
2.89
-

3.27
3.19
3.11
-

3.04
3.19
3.11
-

2.65
2.89
3.01
-

3.27
3.19
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

3.04
3.19
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.65
2.89
3.01
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

1.5

110
120
130
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.20
3.19
-

2.78
2.88
-

2.47
2.56
-

3.20
3.19
3.11
-

2.78
2.88
3.11
-

2.47
2.56
2.86
-

3.20
3.19
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.78
2.88
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.47
2.56
2.86
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.0

125
130
150
175
200
250

A193*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.10
3.11
-

2.65
2.69
-

2.37
2.40
-

3.10
3.11
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.65
2.69
2.96
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

2.37
2.40
2.79
2.78
2.63***
2.40***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY
IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS
TOTAL
CATEGORIES
C
C
E

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

the original:

Holorib
8

Holorib Span/load and fire design tables


Lightweight concrete
Span/load table - BS 5950 Method

Single - Propped

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *
0.4% Mesh **

100
120
130
150
175
200
250
100
120
130
150
175
200
250

0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242
0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*
A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

100
120
130
150
175
200
250

0.092
0.112
0.122
0.142
0.167
0.192
0.242

A193**
A252**
A393**
2xA252**
2xA252**
2xA393**
2xA393**

5.0
3.00
2.85
2.78
2.67
2.54
2.43
2.25
3.47
3.36
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87
2.63

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.00
2.85
2.78
2.67
2.54
2.43
2.25
3.06
3.35
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87
2.63

10.0
2.66
2.85
2.78
2.67
2.54
2.43
2.25
2.67
2.91
3.03
3.18
3.03
2.87
2.63

5.0
3.15
3.02
2.95
2.81
2.67
2.55
2.35
3.65
3.49
3.45
3.34
3.19
3.04
2.79

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.15
3.02
2.95
2.81
2.67
2.55
2.35
3.23
3.49
3.45
3.34
3.19
3.04
2.79

10.0
2.80
3.02
2.95
2.81
2.67
2.55
2.35
2.81
3.07
3.20
3.34
3.19
3.04
2.79

5.0
3.54
3.38
3.31
3.18
3.04
2.92
2.74
4.19
4.31
4.22
4.06
3.88
3.72
3.47

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.51
3.38
3.31
3.18
3.04
2.92
2.74
3.51
3.85
4.00
4.06
3.88
3.72
3.47

10.0
3.07
3.35
3.31
3.18
3.04
2.92
2.74
3.08
3.35
3.51
3.75
3.88
3.72
3.47

3.32
3.57
3.68
3.88
4.10
4.29
4.63

2.86
3.09
3.19
3.38
3.59
3.78
4.12

2.53
2.74
2.83
3.01
3.21
3.40
3.72

3.49
3.76
3.88
4.09
4.32
4.53
4.88

3.01
3.25
3.36
3.56
3.79
3.99
4.35

2.66
2.89
2.99
3.17
3.39
3.58
3.93

3.82
4.11
4.24
4.48
4.74
4.96
5.35

3.29
3.56
3.68
3.90
4.15
4.38
4.76

2.91
3.16
3.27
3.48
3.71
3.93
4.31

5.0

A142
7.5

10.0

5.0

A252 (A393***)
7.5

10.0

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Fire period (Hrs)

Lightweight concrete

British Standard

Multiple - Unpropped

Single - Unpropped

Support Condition

Slab Depth (mm)

0.2% Mesh *

Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )


A193
10.0
5.0
7.5

1.0

100
120
130
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.47
3.36
-

3.06
3.35
-

2.67
2.91
-

3.47
3.36
3.32
-

3.06
3.35
3.32
-

2.67
2.91
3.03
-

3.47
3.36
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

3.06
3.35
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.67
2.91
3.03
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

1.5

105
120
130
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.35
3.36
-

2.81
2.98
-

2.49
2.63
-

3.35
3.36
3.32
-

2.81
2.98
3.32
-

2.49
2.63
2.95
-

3.35
3.36
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.81
2.98
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.49
2.63
2.95
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.0

115
120
130
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

2.86
2.90
-

2.44
2.48
-

2.17
2.21
-

2.86
2.90
3.32
-

2.44
2.48
2.84
-

2.17
2.21
2.51
-

2.86
2.90
3.32
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.44
2.48
2.84
3.18
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

2.17
2.21
2.51
2.93
3.03
2.87***
2.63***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

Ribdeck E60 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete
Span/load table - BS 5950 Method

Multiple - Unpropped
Single - Propped

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *
0.4% Mesh **

130
140
150
160
175
200
250
130
140
150
160
175
200
250

0.094
0.104
0.114
0.124
0.139
0.164
0.214
0.094
0.104
0.114
0.124
0.139
0.164
0.214

A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*
A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

130
140
150
160
175
200
250

0.094
0.104
0.114
0.124
0.139
0.164
0.214

A393**
A393**
A393**
2xA252**
2xA252**
2xA393**
2xA393**

5.0
2.78
2.72
2.66
2.61
2.54
2.43
2.27
3.35
3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84
2.58

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
2.78
2.72
2.66
2.61
2.54
2.43
2.27
3.14
3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84
2.58

10.0
2.67
2.72
2.66
2.61
2.54
2.43
2.27
2.67
2.81
2.95
3.08
3.01
2.84
2.58

5.0
3.14
3.07
3.00
2.95
2.86
2.75
2.56
3.71
3.62
3.53
3.46
3.35
3.19
2.92

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.14
3.07
3.00
2.95
2.86
2.75
2.56
3.38
3.57
3.53
3.46
3.35
3.19
2.92

10.0
2.85
3.01
3.00
2.95
2.86
2.75
2.56
2.85
3.01
3.16
3.31
3.35
3.19
2.92

5.0
3.48
3.40
3.33
3.27
3.18
3.05
2.85
4.03
3.94
3.85
3.76
3.65
3.49
3.23

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.48
3.40
3.33
3.27
3.18
3.05
2.85
3.81
3.94
3.85
3.76
3.65
3.49
3.23

10.0
3.17
3.36
3.33
3.27
3.18
3.05
2.85
3.17
3.36
3.55
3.73
3.65
3.49
3.23

3.43
3.58
3.71
3.84
4.01
4.28
4.74

2.88
3.01
3.13
3.24
3.40
3.65
4.09

2.51
2.62
2.73
2.83
2.97
3.20
3.60

3.70
3.87
4.03
4.17
4.38
4.69
5.22

3.08
3.23
3.37
3.50
3.68
3.96
4.46

2.67
2.79
2.92
3.03
3.19
3.45
3.91

4.20
4.42
4.62
4.80
5.06
5.46
6.14

3.44
3.62
3.79
3.96
4.18
4.54
5.18

2.94
3.10
3.25
3.39
3.58
3.90
4.48

5.0

A142
7.5

10.0

5.0

A252 (A393***)
7.5

3.35
-

3.14
-

2.67
-

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Fire period (Hrs)

Normal weight concrete

British Standard

Single - Unpropped

Support Condition

Slab Depth (mm)

0.2% Mesh *

1.0

130
140
150
160
175
200
250

A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

1.5

140
150
160
175
200
250

A193*
A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

2.0

150
160
175
200
250

A193*
A252*
A252*
A393*
A393*

Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )


A193
5.0
7.5
10.0

10.0

3.35
3.27
3.19
-

3.14
3.27
3.19
-

2.67
2.81
2.95
-

3.35
3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

3.14
3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

2.67
2.81
2.95
3.08
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

3.27
3.19
-

3.19
3.19
-

2.81
2.95
-

3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

3.27
3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

2.81
2.95
3.08
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

3.19
-

3.19
-

2.72
-

3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

3.19
3.11
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

2.95
3.08
3.01
2.84***
2.58***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY
IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS
TOTAL
CATEGORIES
C
C
E

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

less concrete

Ribdeck E60
10

Ribdeck E60 Span/load and fire design tables


Lightweight concrete
Span/load table - BS 5950 Method

Multiple - Unpropped
Single - Propped

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *
0.4% Mesh **

120
130
140
150
175
200
250
120
130
140
150
175
200
250

0.084
0.094
0.104
0.114
0.139
0.164
0.214
0.084
0.094
0.104
0.114
0.139
0.164
0.214

A142*
A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A393*
A393*
A142*
A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A393*
A393*

120
130
140
150
175
200
250

0.084
0.094
0.104
0.114
0.139
0.164
0.214

A252**
A393**
A393**
A393**
2xA252**
2xA393**
2xA393**

5.0
3.02
2.95
2.89
2.83
2.70
2.59
2.42
3.60
3.56
3.48
3.40
3.23
3.08
2.82

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
2.96
2.95
2.89
2.83
2.70
2.59
2.42
2.96
3.14
3.31
3.40
3.23
3.08
2.82

10.0
2.53
2.67
2.81
2.83
2.70
2.59
2.42
2.53
2.67
2.81
2.95
3.23
3.08
2.82

5.0
3.40
3.33
3.26
3.19
3.05
2.93
2.74
3.60
3.90
3.86
3.78
3.59
3.43
3.17

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.17
3.33
3.26
3.19
3.05
2.93
2.74
3.17
3.38
3.57
3.76
3.59
3.43
3.17

10.0
2.69
2.85
3.01
3.16
3.05
2.93
2.74
2.69
2.85
3.01
3.16
3.52
3.43
3.17

5.0
3.60
3.69
3.61
3.54
3.39
3.25
3.04
3.60
3.90
4.17
4.10
3.92
3.75
3.48

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5
3.56
3.69
3.61
3.54
3.39
3.25
3.04
3.56
3.81
4.05
4.10
3.92
3.75
3.48

10.0
2.97
3.17
3.36
3.54
3.39
3.25
3.04
2.97
3.17
3.36
3.55
3.92
3.75
3.48

3.35
3.52
3.68
3.83
4.16
4.46
4.99

2.79
2.93
3.07
3.20
3.49
3.76
4.24

2.41
2.54
2.66
2.77
3.03
3.27
3.71

3.60
3.80
3.99
4.16
4.55
4.90
5.52

2.98
3.14
3.30
3.44
3.78
4.09
4.65

2.56
2.70
2.84
2.97
3.26
3.53
4.03

3.60
3.90
4.20
4.50
5.17
5.74
6.50

3.31
3.52
3.71
3.89
4.31
4.71
5.42

2.82
2.99
3.15
3.31
3.67
4.01
4.64

5.0

A142
7.5

10.0

5.0

A252 (A393***)
7.5

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Fire period (Hrs)

Lightweight concrete

British Standard

Single - Unpropped

Support Condition

Slab Depth (mm)

0.2% Mesh *

Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )


A193
5.0
7.5
10.0

10.0

1.0

120
130
140
150
175
200
250

A142*
A142*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.60
3.56
-

2.96
3.14
-

2.53
2.67
-

3.60
3.56
3.48
3.40
-

2.96
3.14
3.31
3.40
-

2.53
2.67
2.81
2.95
-

3.60
3.56
3.48
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

2.96
3.14
3.31
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

2.53
2.67
2.81
2.95
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

1.5

130
140
150
175
200
250

A193*
A193*
A193*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.56
3.48
3.40
-

3.14
3.31
3.40
-

2.67
2.81
2.95
-

3.56
3.48
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

3.14
3.31
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

2.67
2.81
2.95
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

2.0

140
150
175
200
250

A193*
A193*
A252*
A393*
A393*

3.48
3.40
-

3.31
3.40
-

2.81
2.95
-

3.48
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

3.31
3.40
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

2.81
2.95
3.23
3.08***
2.82***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

11

Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method


Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.39 (10)
3.30 (8)
3.22 (8)
3.15 (8)
3.08 (8)
3.02 (8)
2.95 (8)
2.90 (8)

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

5.0

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

3.39 (10)
3.30 (10)
3.22 (10)
3.15 (10)
3.08 (8)
3.02 (8)
2.95 (8)
2.90 (8)

3.39 (12)
3.30 (12)
3.22 (12)
3.15 (10)
3.08 (10)
3.01 (10)
2.95 (10)
2.89 (10)

3.57 (10)
3.48 (10)
3.40 (10)
3.33 (8)
3.26 (8)
3.20 (8)
3.14 (8)
3.09 (8)

3.30 (12)
3.22 (12)
3.15 (10)
3.08 (10)
3.01 (10)
2.95 (10)
2.89 (10)

3.29 (16)
3.22 (12)
3.14 (12)
3.08 (12)
3.01 (12)
2.95 (10)
2.89 (10)

3.29 (16)
3.21 (16)
3.14 (16)
3.07 (16)
3.01 (12)
2.95 (12)
2.89 (12)

3.21 (16)
3.14 (16)
3.07 (16)
3.01 (16)
2.94 (16)
2.89 (16)

3.20 (20)
3.13 (20)
3.07 (16)
3.01 (16)
2.94 (16)
2.89 (16)

3.20 (20)
3.13 (20)
3.06 (20)
3.00 (20)
2.94 (20)
2.88 (20)

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

3.57 (12)
3.48 (10)
3.40 (10)
3.33 (10)
3.26 (10)
3.20 (10)
3.14 (8)
3.09 (8)

3.57 (12)
3.48 (12)
3.40 (12)
3.32 (12)
3.26 (10)
3.20 (10)
3.14 (10)
3.09 (10)

3.82 (10)
3.73 (10)
3.64 (10)
3.56 (10)
3.50 (8)
3.43 (8)
3.37 (8)
3.31 (8)

3.82 (12)
3.72 (12)
3.64 (10)
3.56 (10)
3.49 (10)
3.43 (10)
3.36 (10)
3.31 (10)

3.81 (16)
3.72 (12)
3.64 (12)
3.56 (12)
3.49 (12)
3.43 (12)
3.36 (10)
3.31 (10)

3.48 (12)
3.40 (12)
3.32 (12)
3.26 (10)
3.20 (10)
3.14 (10)
3.09 (10)

3.47 (16)
3.39 (16)
3.32 (12)
3.26 (12)
3.20 (12)
3.14 (12)
3.08 (12)

3.47 (16)
3.39 (16)
3.32 (16)
3.25 (16)
3.19 (16)
3.13 (12)
3.08 (12)

3.72 (12)
3.64 (12)
3.56 (12)
3.49 (12)
3.43 (12)
3.36 (10)
3.31 (10)

3.71 (16)
3.63 (16)
3.55 (16)
3.48 (16)
3.43 (12)
3.36 (12)
3.31 (12)

3.71 (16)
3.63 (16)
3.55 (16)
3.48 (16)
3.42 (16)
3.36 (16)
3.30 (16)

3.39 (16)
3.32 (16)
3.25 (16)
3.19 (16)
3.13 (16)
3.08 (16)

3.38 (20)
3.31 (20)
3.24 (20)
3.18 (20)
3.13 (16)
3.08 (16)

3.37 (25)
3.29 (25)
3.24 (20)
3.18 (20)
3.12 (20)
3.07 (20)

3.62 (20)
3.54 (20)
3.48 (16)
3.42 (16)
3.36 (16)
3.30 (16)

3.62 (20)
3.54 (20)
3.48 (20)
3.41 (20)
3.35 (20)
3.29 (20)

3.60 (25)
3.53 (25)
3.46 (25)
3.41 (20)
3.35 (20)
3.29 (20)

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - EC Standard Method


0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *

10.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.43 (8)
3.29 (8)
3.16 (8)
3.04 (8)
2.94 (8)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.43 (10)
3.28 (10)
3.16 (8)
3.04 (8)
2.94 (8)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.42 (12)
3.28 (12)
3.16 (10)
3.04 (8)
2.94 (8)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.83 (10)
3.76 (10)
3.62 (8)
3.48 (8)
3.36 (8)
3.25 (8)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

3.83 (12)
3.76 (10)
3.62 (10)
3.48 (8)
3.36 (8)
3.25 (8)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

3.82 (16)
3.75 (12)
3.61 (12)
3.48 (10)
3.36 (10)
3.25 (8)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

4.49 (12)
4.35 (10)
4.21 (10)
4.09 (8)
3.99 (8)
3.98 (8)
3.88 (8)
3.77 (8)

4.48 (16)
4.34 (12)
4.21 (12)
4.08 (10)
3.98 (10)
3.98 (10)
3.88 (8)
3.77 (8)

4.00 (16)
4.25 (16)
4.20 (16)
4.08 (12)
3.98 (12)
3.97 (12)
3.88 (10)
3.77 (8)

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.28 (12)
3.16 (8)
3.04 (8)
2.94 (8)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.26 (12)
3.15 (12)
3.04 (10)
2.94 (8)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.26 (16)
3.14 (16)
3.02 (12)
2.94 (10)
2.84 (10)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.75 (12)
3.61 (12)
3.48 (10)
3.36 (8)
3.25 (8)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

3.74 (16)
3.59 (16)
3.47 (12)
3.36 (10)
3.25 (10)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

3.72 (20)
3.59 (16)
3.46 (16)
3.34 (16)
3.25 (12)
3.14 (10)
3.05 (8)

4.33 (16)
4.20 (16)
4.07 (16)
3.98 (12)
3.98 (10)
3.88 (8)
3.77 (8)

4.33 (16)
4.20 (16)
4.07 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.88 (10)
3.77 (10)

4.24 (20)
4.18 (20)
4.05 (20)
3.97 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.86 (16)
3.76 (12)

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.14 (12)
3.04 (10)
2.93 (10)
2.84 (8)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.13 (20)
3.03 (16)
2.93 (12)
2.84 (10)
2.74 (8)
2.66 (8)

3.12 (20)
3.01 (20)
2.92 (16)
2.83 (16)
2.74 (10)
2.66 (8)

3.58 (20)
3.46 (16)
3.35 (12)
3.25 (10)
3.14 (8)
3.05 (8)

3.58 (20)
3.44 (20)
3.34 (16)
3.24 (16)
3.14 (12)
3.05 (10)

3.55 (25)
3.42 (25)
3.33 (20)
3.22 (20)
3.13 (16)
3.05 (12)

4.18 (20)
4.05 (20)
3.97 (20)
3.97 (16)
3.86 (16)
3.76 (12)

4.15 (25)
4.02 (25)
3.97 (20)
3.96 (20)
3.86 (16)
3.75 (16)

4.10 (32)
4.02 (25)
3.95 (25)
3.95 (25)
3.82 (25)
3.74 (20)

5.0

7.5

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to
maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck S60
12

10.0

EC = Eurocode

Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method


Concrete
Volume 0.2% Mesh *
(m /m )

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.40 (A142)
3.31 (A193)
3.23 (A193)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.39 (A252)
3.30 (A193)
3.23 (A193)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.38 (2xA193)
3.30 (A393)
3.22 (A393)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.58 (A142)
3.49 (A193)
3.41 (A193)
3.33 (A252)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.56 (A393)
3.48 (A252)
3.41 (A193)
3.33 (A252)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.56 (2xA252)
3.48 (A393)
3.40 (A393)
3.33 (A393)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.83 (A193)
3.73 (A193)
3.65 (A193)
3.57 (A252)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.81 (A393)
3.73 (A252)
3.65 (A252)
3.57 (A252)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.80 (2xA252)
3.71 (2xA252)
3.64 (2xA193)
3.56 (A393)
3.49 (A393)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.31 (A193)
3.23 (A193)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.30 (A393)
3.22 (A393)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.29 (2xA252)
3.21 (2xA252)
3.15 (A393)
3.08 (A393)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.48 (A252)
3.41 (A193)
3.33 (A252)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.48 (A393)
3.40 (A393)
3.33 (A252)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.47 (2XA252)
3.39 (2xA252)
3.32 (2xA252)
3.26 (A393)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.73 (A252)
3.65 (A252)
3.57 (A252)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.72 (A393)
3.64 (A393)
3.56 (A393)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.70 (2xA393)
3.63 (2xA252)
3.56 (2xA252)
3.49 (2xA252)
3.43 (A393)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.23 (A252)
3.15 (A252)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.22 (A393)
3.15 (A393)
3.08 (A252)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.21 (2xA252)
3.14 (2xA252)
3.08 (2xA193)
3.02 (A252)
2.95 (A393)
2.90 (A393)

3.41 (A252)
3.33 (A252)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.40 (A393)
3.33 (A393)
3.27 (A252)
3.21 (A252)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.39 (2xA252)
3.32 (2xA252)
3.26 (2xA252)
3.20 (A393)
3.14 (A393)
3.09 (A393)

3.64 (A393)
3.57 (A252)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.40 (2xA193)
3.56 (A393)
3.49 (A393)
3.44 (A252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

3.62 (2xA393)
3.54 (2xA393)
3.49 (2xA252)
3.42 (2xA252)
3.37 (A393)
3.31 (A393)

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - UK NCCI Method


Concrete
Volume 0.2% Mesh *
(m /m )

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

7.5

10.0

7.5

10.0

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.43 (A252)
3.29 (A193)
3.17 (A193)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.42 (A393)
3.29 (A252)
3.17 (A193)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.28 (2xA252)
3.27 (2xA252)
3.15 (A393)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.83 (A393)
3.76 (A252)
3.63 (A193)
3.49 (A252)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.82 (2xA252)
3.75 (2xA193)
3.61 (A393)
3.49 (A252)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.29 (2xA252)
3.71 (2xA393)
3.57 (2xA393)
3.48 (A393)
3.36 (A393)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

4.49 (A393)
4.34 (A393)
4.21 (A393)
4.09 (A252)
3.99 (A252)
3.98 (A252)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

4.24 (2xA252)
4.33 (2xA252)
4.20 (2xA252)
4.08 (A393)
3.98 (A393)
3.98 (A252)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

3.33 (2xA252)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.17 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
3.98 (A393)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.28 (A393)
3.17 (A193)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.28 (2xA193)
3.15 (A393)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.24 (2xA393)
3.12 (2xA252)
3.03 (2xA252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.75 (A393)
3.61 (A393)
3.49 (A252)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.74 (2xA252)
3.60 (2xA252)
3.48 (2xA193)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.71 (2xA393)
3.57 (2xA393)
3.44 (2xA393)
3.33 (2xA393)
3.25 (A393)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

4.33 (2xA252)
4.21 (2xA193)
4.08 (A393)
3.98 (A393)
3.98 (A252)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

4.30 (2xA393)
4.17 (2xA393)
4.07 (2xA252)
3.98 (2xA252)
3.98 (A393)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

3.71 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
3.78 (A393)

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A193
A252
A252
A252
A393
A393

3.15 (A393)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.15 (2xA193)
3.05 (A252)
2.94 (A252)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.12 (2xA393)
3.02 (2xA252)
2.93 (A393)
2.85 (A252)
2.75 (A393)
2.67 (A393)

3.61 (A393)
3.49 (A252)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.60 (2xA252)
3.47 (2xA252)
3.37 (A252)
3.26 (A252)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

3.57 (2xA393)
3.44 (2xA393)
3.33 (2xA393)
3.25 (A393)
3.15 (A393)
3.06 (A393)

4.20 (2xA252)
4.07 (2xA252)
3.98 (2xA193)
3.98 (A252)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

4.17 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
3.89 (A393)
3.78 (A393)

3.57 (2xA393)
3.74 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
3.75 (2xA393)

5.0

7.5

10.0

5.0

5.0

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans,
increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

13

Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method
Concrete
Volume 0.4% Mesh *
(m /m )

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.77 (32)
4.91 (25)
4.83 (12)
4.64 (12)
4.48 (10)
4.33 (8)
4.17 (8)
4.05 (8)

4.44 (32)
4.68 (32)
4.76 (25)
4.62 (16)
4.47 (12)
4.33 (10)
4.17 (8)
4.05 (8)

3.93 (32)
4.11 (32)
4.27 (32)
4.42 (32)
4.46 (16)
4.31 (16)
4.17 (10)
4.04 (10)

4.80 (32)
5.08 (32)
5.36 (32)
5.32 (20)
5.17 (12)
5.00 (10)
4.82 (8)
4.67 (8)

4.46 (32)
4.74 (32)
5.01 (32)
5.22 (32)
5.12 (16)
4.98 (16)
4.81 (10)
4.67 (10)

3.98 (32)
4.30 (32)
4.48 (32)
4.64 (32)
4.79 (32)
4.96 (16)
4.79 (16)
4.66 (12)

4.85 (32)
5.13 (32)
5.41 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.94 (32)
6.12 (32)
6.01 (16)
5.86 (12)

4.51 (32)
4.79 (32)
5.06 (32)
5.32 (32)
5.58 (32)
5.83 (32)
5.90 (32)
5.81 (16)

3.97 (32)
4.29 (32)
4.60 (32)
4.90 (32)
5.18 (32)
5.34 (32)
5.49 (32)
5.63 (32)

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.91 (25)
4.81 (16)
4.62 (16)
4.46 (16)
4.33 (10)
4.17 (10)
4.04 (10)

4.68 (32)
4.76 (25)
4.60 (20)
4.46 (16)
4.31 (16)
4.15 (16)
4.04 (12)

4.11 (32)
4.27 (32)
4.42 (32)
4.44 (20)
4.29 (20)
4.14 (20)
4.03 (16)

5.08 (32)
5.36 (32)
5.32 (20)
5.13 (20)
4.98 (16)
4.79 (16)
4.66 (12)

4.74 (32)
5.01 (32)
5.22 (32)
5.13 (20)
4.96 (20)
4.78 (20)
4.65 (16)

4.30 (32)
4.48 (32)
4.64 (32)
4.79 (32)
4.92 (25)
4.78 (20)
4.63 (20)

5.13 (32)
5.41 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.94 (32)
6.12 (32)
6.00 (20)
5.82 (20)

4.79 (32)
5.06 (32)
5.32 (32)
5.58 (32)
5.83 (32)
5.90 (32)
5.82 (20)

4.29 (32)
4.60 (32)
4.90 (32)
5.18 (32)
5.34 (32)
5.49 (32)
5.63 (32)

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.76 (25)
4.57 (25)
4.41 (25)
4.29 (20)
4.14 (16)
4.03 (16)

4.70 (32)
4.52 (32)
4.41 (25)
4.27 (25)
4.11 (25)
4.01 (20)

4.27 (32)
4.42 (32)
4.36 (32)
4.22 (32)
4.11 (25)
3.99 (25)

5.36 (32)
5.22 (32)
5.10 (25)
4.93 (25)
4.75 (25)
4.61 (25)

5.01 (32)
5.22 (32)
5.04 (32)
4.88 (32)
4.75 (25)
4.61 (25)

4.48 (32)
4.64 (32)
4.79 (32)
4.88 (32)
4.70 (32)
4.56 (32)

5.41 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.94 (32)
6.12 (32)
5.90 (32)
5.73 (32)

5.06 (32)
5.32 (32)
5.58 (32)
5.83 (32)
5.90 (32)
5.73 (32)

4.60 (32)
4.90 (32)
5.18 (32)
5.34 (32)
5.49 (32)
5.63 (32)

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method
Concrete
Volume 0.4% Mesh *
(m /m )

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

1.0

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.097
0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

1.5

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

2.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )

5.0

7.5

10.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

5.0

7.5

10.0

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.10 (2xA252)
4.48 (2xA393)
4.70 (2xA393)
4.63 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA252)
4.34 (2xA252)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

3.56 (2xA252)
4.10 (2xA393)
4.15 (2xA393)
4.20 (2xA393)
4.27 (2xA393)
4.34 (2xA252)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

3.06 (2xA252)
3.53 (2xA393)
3.58 (2xA393)
3.64 (2xA393)
3.72 (2xA393)
4.03 (2xA393)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

4.15 (2xA252)
4.54 (2xA393)
4.77 (2xA393)
4.81 (2xA393)
4.86 (2xA393)
5.02 (2xA252)
4.83 (2xA393)
4.68 (2xA393)

3.60 (2xA252)
4.14 (2xA393)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.30 (2xA393)
4.62 (2xA393)
4.83 (2xA393)
4.68 (2xA393)

3.09 (2xA252)
3.56 (2xA393)
3.62 (2xA393)
3.67 (2xA393)
3.74 (2xA393)
4.03 (2xA393)
4.36 (2xA393)
4.68 (2xA393)

4.24 (2xA252)
4.66 (2xA393)
4.85 (2xA393)
4.90 (2xA393)
4.96 (2xA393)
5.23 (2xA393)
5.61 (2xA393)
5.81 (2xA393)

3.68 (2xA252)
4.21 (2xA393)
4.26 (2xA393)
4.31 (2xA393)
4.38 (2xA393)
4.63 (2xA393)
5.00 (2xA393)
5.33 (2xA393)

3.16 (2xA252)
3.62 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.74 (2xA393)
3.81 (2xA393)
4.04 (2xA393)
4.37 (2xA393)
4.68 (2xA393)

0.107
0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.37 (2xA393)
4.41 (2xA393)
4.44 (2xA393)
4.46 (2xA393)
4.34 (2xA252)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

3.82 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)
3.91 (2xA393)
3.94 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
4.08 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

3.29 (2xA393)
3.34 (2xA393)
3.39 (2xA393)
3.43 (2xA393)
3.47 (2xA393)
3.57 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)

4.40 (2xA393)
4.44 (2xA393)
4.47 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA393)
4.51 (2xA393)
4.60 (2xA393)
4.68 (2xA393)

3.84 (2xA393)
3.89 (2xA393)
3.93 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
4.00 (2xA393)
4.09 (2xA393)
4.41 (2xA393)

3.31 (2xA393)
3.36 (2xA393)
3.41 (2xA393)
3.45 (2xA393)
3.49 (2xA393)
3.58 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)

4.45 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA393)
4.53 (2xA393)
4.55 (2xA393)
4.58 (2xA393)
4.62 (2xA393)
4.94 (2xA393)

3.88 (2xA393)
3.94 (2xA393)
3.98 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)
4.06 (2xA393)
4.11 (2xA393)
4.40 (2xA393)

3.35 (2xA393)
3.41 (2xA393)
3.45 (2xA393)
3.50 (2xA393)
3.54 (2xA393)
3.59 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)

0.117
0.127
0.137
0.147
0.157
0.167

A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252
2xA393
2xA393

4.22 (2xA393)
4.28 (2xA393)
4.30 (2xA393)
4.32 (2xA393)
4.18 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

3.70 (2xA393)
3.77 (2xA393)
3.80 (2xA393)
3.84 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
4.01 (2xA393)

3.20 (2xA393)
3.27 (2xA393)
3.31 (2xA393)
3.35 (2xA393)
3.38 (2xA393)
3.52 (2xA393)

4.24 (2xA393)
4.31 (2xA393)
4.33 (2xA393)
4.35 (2xA393)
4.37 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA393)

3.72 (2xA393)
3.79 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
3.89 (2xA393)
4.01 (2xA393)

3.21 (2xA393)
3.28 (2xA393)
3.32 (2xA393)
3.37 (2xA393)
3.40 (2xA393)
3.52 (2xA393)

4.28 (2xA393)
4.34 (2xA393)
4.37 (2xA393)
4.40 (2xA393)
4.42 (2xA393)
4.50 (2xA393)

3.75 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA393)
3.90 (2xA393)
3.93 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)

3.24 (2xA393)
3.32 (2xA393)
3.36 (2xA393)
3.40 (2xA393)
3.44 (2xA393)
3.52 (2xA393)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.4% for propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased
mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORY

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck S60
14

EC = Eurocode
NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information

Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method

5.0

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

4.11 (10)
4.03 (10)
3.96 (10)
3.87 (10)
3.79 (10)
3.72 (10)
3.66 (8)

4.11 (12)
4.03 (12)
3.95 (12)
3.87 (10)
3.79 (10)
3.72 (10)
3.65 (10)

4.09 (16)
4.02 (16)
3.94 (16)
3.87 (12)
3.79 (12)
3.72 (12)
3.65 (12)

3.83 (16)
3.74 (16)
3.65 (16)
3.57 (16)
3.49 (16)
3.42 (16)

4.02 (16)
3.95 (12)
3.87 (12)
3.79 (12)
3.72 (12)
3.65 (12)

4.02 (16)
3.94 (16)
3.86 (16)
3.78 (16)
3.71 (16)
3.65 (12)

3.71 (25)
3.62 (25)
3.54 (25)
3.48 (20)
3.41 (20)

3.93 (20)
3.85 (20)
3.77 (20)
3.70 (20)
3.65 (16)

3.91 (25)
3.85 (20)
3.77 (20)
3.70 (20)
3.64 (20)

5.0

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

3.95 (10)
3.85 (10)
3.75 (10)
3.66 (10)
3.58 (8)
3.50 (8)
3.43 (8)

3.94 (12)
3.84 (12)
3.75 (10)
3.66 (10)
3.58 (10)
3.50 (10)
3.43 (10)

3.90 (16)
3.84 (12)
3.75 (12)
3.66 (12)
3.57 (12)
3.50 (10)
3.43 (10)

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.84 (12)
3.75 (12)
3.66 (12)
3.57 (12)
3.50 (12)
3.43 (10)

3.83 (16)
3.74 (16)
3.65 (16)
3.57 (16)
3.50 (12)
3.43 (12)

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.73 (20)
3.64 (20)
3.57 (16)
3.49 (16)
3.42 (16)

3.73 (20)
3.64 (20)
3.56 (20)
3.49 (16)
3.42 (16)

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *

1.0

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.096
0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

5.0

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

4.27 (12)
4.19 (10)
4.11 (10)
4.04 (10)
3.98 (10)
3.91 (10)
3.84 (10)

4.27 (12)
4.18 (12)
4.11 (12)
4.04 (12)
3.98 (10)
3.91 (10)
3.84 (10)

4.20 (16)
4.18 (16)
4.10 (16)
4.04 (12)
3.98 (12)
3.90 (12)
3.84 (12)

4.01 (20)
3.94 (16)
3.86 (16)
3.78 (16)
3.71 (16)
3.65 (16)

4.18 (16)
4.10 (16)
4.03 (16)
3.98 (12)
3.90 (12)
3.84 (12)

4.18 (16)
4.10 (16)
4.03 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.90 (16)
3.83 (16)

4.16 (20)
4.09 (20)
4.03 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.90 (16)
3.83 (16)

3.91 (25)
3.83 (25)
3.76 (25)
3.70 (20)
3.64 (20)

4.09 (20)
4.03 (20)
3.96 (20)
3.89 (20)
3.82 (20)

4.08 (25)
4.01 (25)
3.96 (20)
3.89 (20)
3.82 (20)

4.08 (25)
4.01 (25)
3.95 (25)
3.87 (25)
3.81 (25)

10.0

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - EC Standard Method

5.0

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

4.21 (10)
4.03 (10)
3.87 (8)
3.73 (8)
3.59 (8)
3.47 (8)
3.35 (8)

4.20 (12)
4.03 (12)
3.87 (10)
3.72 (10)
3.59 (8)
3.47 (8)
3.35 (8)

4.08 (16)
4.01 (16)
3.86 (12)
3.72 (12)
3.58 (10)
3.46 (10)
3.35 (8)

4.43 (12)
4.37 (10)
4.30 (10)
4.14 (10)
3.99 (8)
3.86 (8)
3.74 (8)

4.43 (12)
4.37 (12)
4.29 (12)
4.14 (10)
3.99 (10)
3.86 (8)
3.74 (8)

4.25 (16)
4.36 (16)
4.27 (16)
4.13 (12)
3.98 (12)
3.86 (10)
3.73 (10)

5.02 (12)
4.85 (12)
4.70 (12)
4.56 (10)
4.50 (10)
4.48 (8)
4.36 (8)

4.92 (16)
4.84 (16)
4.70 (12)
4.56 (12)
4.49 (12)
4.48 (12)
4.35 (10)

4.33 (16)
4.57 (16)
4.68 (16)
4.54 (16)
4.48 (16)
4.48 (12)
4.35 (12)

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

4.01 (16)
3.86 (12)
3.72 (12)
3.58 (10)
3.47 (8)
3.36 (8)

4.01 (16)
3.84 (16)
3.70 (16)
3.58 (12)
3.46 (10)
3.36 (8)

3.99 (20)
3.84 (16)
3.70 (16)
3.57 (16)
3.45 (16)
3.35 (12)

4.36 (16)
4.27 (16)
4.12 (12)
3.98 (12)
3.86 (10)
3.74 (8)

4.36 (16)
4.27 (16)
4.12 (16)
3.97 (16)
3.84 (16)
3.73 (12)

4.35 (20)
4.25 (20)
4.10 (20)
3.97 (16)
3.84 (16)
3.72 (16)

4.84 (16)
4.68 (16)
4.54 (16)
3.48 (16)
4.46 (16)
4.35 (12)

4.82 (20)
4.66 (20)
4.54 (16)
4.48 (16)
4.46 (16)
4.33 (16)

4.55 (20)
4.66 (20)
4.53 (20)
4.47 (20)
4.45 (20)
4.33 (16)

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.82 (20)
3.70 (16)
3.56 (16)
3.49 (12)
3.35 (10)

3.82 (20)
3.68 (20)
3.55 (20)
3.43 (20)
3.34 (12)

3.79 (25)
3.65 (25)
3.52 (25)
3.43 (20)
3.32 (20)

4.25 (20)
4.10 (20)
3.95 (20)
3.84 (16)
3.73 (12)

4.22 (25)
4.07 (25)
3.95 (20)
3.82 (20)
3.70 (20)

4.16 (32)
4.07 (25)
3.92 (25)
3.80 (25)
3.70 (20)

4.63 (25)
4.52 (20)
4.47 (20)
4.45 (20)
4.32 (10)

4.63 (25)
4.50 (25)
4.46 (25)
4.42 (25)
4.29 (25)

4.58 (32)
4.45 (32)
4.43 (32)
4.42 (25)
4.29 (25)

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *

1.0

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.096
0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to
maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

EC = Eurocode

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck 80
15

Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method


0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

0.2% Mesh *

1.0

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.096
0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.67 (A193)
3.85 (A193)
3.76 (A193)
3.67 (A193)
3.58 (A252)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

2.99 (A193)
3.84 (A393)
3.74 (A393)
3.66 (A252)
3.58 (A252)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

2.53 (A193)
3.71 (2xA252)
3.74 (2xA252)
3.65 (2xA252)
3.58 (A393)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

3.74 (A193)
4.03 (A252)
3.96 (A193)
3.88 (A193)
3.80 (A252)
3.73 (A252)
3.66 (A252)

3.06 (A193)
4.03 (A393)
3.95 (A393)
3.88 (A252)
3.80 (A252)
3.73 (A252)
3.66 (A252)

2.56 (A193)
3.70 (2xA252)
3.95 (2xA252)
3.86 (2xA252)
3.79 (A393)
3.72 (A393)
3.65 (A252)

3.89 (A193)
4.19 (A252)
4.12 (A193)
4.05 (A193)
3.98 (A252)
3.91 (A252)
3.85 (A252)

3.18 (A193)
4.18 (A393)
4.11 (A393)
4.04 (A393)
3.98 (A252)
3.91 (A252)
3.85 (A252)

2.67 (A193)
3.67 (2xA252)
4.09 (2xA393)
4.03 (2xA252)
3.97 (2xA252)
3.91 (A393)
3.84 (A393)

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.84 (A393)
3.74 (A393)
3.66 (A252)
3.58 (A252)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

3.42 (2xA252)
3.74 (2xA252)
3.66 (A393)
3.58 (A393)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

2.78 (2xA252)
3.72 (2xA393)
3.64 (2xA393)
3.57 (2xA252)
3.49 (2xA252)
3.43 (A393)

4.03 (A393)
3.95 (A393)
3.87 (A393)
3.80 (A252)
3.73 (A252)
3.66 (A252)

3.44 (2xA252)
3.95 (2xA252)
3.86 (2xA252)
3.79 (A393)
3.72 (A393)
3.66 (A252)

2.81 (2xA252)
3.93 (2xA393)
3.85 (2xA393)
3.77 (2xA393)
3.71 (2xA252)
3.65 (2xA252)

4.18 (2xA252)
4.11 (A393)
4.04 (A393)
3.98 (A252)
3.91 (A252)
3.85 (A252)

3.48 (2xA252)
4.10 (2xA252)
4.03 (2xA252)
3.98 (A393)
3.91 (A393)
3.84 (A393)

2.86 (2xA252)
4.09 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
3.89 (2xA393)
3.83 (2xA252)

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.74 (A393)
3.66 (A393)
3.58 (A393)
3.51 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

3.72 (2xA393)
3.65 (2xA252)
3.58 (2xA193)
3.50 (A252)
3.44 (A252)

3.21 (2xA393)
3.64 (2xA393)
3.56 (2xA393)
3.48 (2xA393)
3.42 (2xA252)

3.95 (2x252)
3.87 (A393)
3.79 (A393)
3.73 (A252)
3.66 (A252)

3.93 (2xA393)
3.86 (2xA252)
3.79 (2xA252)
3.72 (2xA193)
3.65 (A393)

3.20 (2xA393)
3.85 (2xA393)
3.77 (2xA393)
3.70 (2xA393)
3.65 (2xA393)

4.10 (2xA252)
4.04 (A393)
3.98 (A393)
3.91 (A393)
3.85 (A252)

4.09 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA252)
3.90 (2xA252)
3.83 (2xA252)

3.21 (2xA393)
3.81 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
3.89 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)

10.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - UK NCCI Method


0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

3.41 (A193)
4.02 (A393)
3.87 (A252)
3.73 (A193)
3.60 (A252)
3.47 (A252)
3.36 (A252)

2.95 (1xA193)
4.00 (2xA252)
3.85 (2xA252)
3.73 (A252)
3.60 (A252)
3.47 (A252)
3.36 (A252)

2.53 (A193)
3.28 (2xA252)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.58 (A393)
3.46 (A393)
3.36 (A252)

3.48 (A193)
4.36 (2xA252)
4.29 (A393)
4.15 (A252)
4.00 (A252)
3.87 (A252)
3.75 (A252)

2.97 (A193)
4.02 (2xA252)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.12 (2xA252)
3.99 (A393)
3.87 (A252)
3.75 (A252)

2.54 (A193)
3.31 (2xA252)
4.05 (2xA393)
4.09 (2xA393)
3.95 (2xA393)
3.85 (A393)
3.73 (A393)

3.62 (A193)
4.84 (2xA252)
4.70 (A393)
4.56 (A393)
4.49 (A393)
4.49 (A252)
4.36 (A252)

3.10 (A193)
4.08 (2xA252)
4.66 (2xA393)
4.52 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA252)
4.48 (A393)
4.35 (A393)

2.63 (A193)
3.38 (2xA252)
4.06 (2xA393)
4.22 (2xA393)
4.37 (2xA393)
4.45 (2xA393)
4.32 (2xA393)

A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.79 (2xA252)
3.85 (2xA252)
3.71 (A393)
3.60 (A252)
3.47 (A252)
3.36 (A252)

3.19 (2xA252)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.70 (2xA252)
3.57 (2xA252)
3.47 (2xA252)
3.36 (A252)

3.81 (2xA252)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.12 (2xA252)
3.98 (A393)
3.87 (A252)
3.75 (A252)

3.22 (2xA252)
4.21 (2xA393)
4.09 (2xA393)
3.95 (2xA393)
3.85 (2xA252)
3.74 (A252)

2.73 (2xA252)
3.41 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.70 (2xA393)

3.87 (2xA252)
4.66 (2xA393)
4.55 (2xA252)
4.49 (2xA252)
4.47 (2xA252)
4.35 (A393)

3.28 (2xA252)
4.19 (2xA393)
4.52 (2xA393)
4.47 (2xA393)
4.45 (2xA393)
4.32 (2xA393)

2.78 (2xA252)
3.44 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.81 (2xA393)
3.92 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)

A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

3.82 (2xA393)
3.70 (2xA252)
3.58 (A393)
3.47 (A252)
3.36 (A252)

3.60 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.55 (2xA393)
3.45 (2xA252)
3.36 (1xA252)

2.70 (2xA252)
3.40 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.55 (2xA393)
3.43 (2xA393)
3.35 (A393)
3.00 (2xA393)
3.29 (2xA393)
3.55 (2xA393)
3.43 (2xA393)
3.32 (2xA393)

4.24 (2xA393)
4.09 (2xA393)
3.98 (2xA252)
3.85 (2xA252)
3.75 (A252)

3.60 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)
3.95 (2xA393)
3.82 (2xA393)
3.72 (2xA252)

3.01 (2xA393)
3.29 (2xA393)
3.54 (2xA393)
3.68 (2xA393)
3.70 (2xA393)

4.35 (2xA393)
4.52 (2xA393)
4.47 (2xA393)
4.45 (2xA393)
4.34 (2xA252)

3.62 (2xA393)
3.99 (2xA393)
4.39 (2xA393)
4.45 (2xA393)
4.32 (2xA393)

3.04 (2xA393)
3.31 (2xA393)
3.54 (2xA393)
3.67 (2xA393)
3.75 (2xA393)

Concrete
Volume 0.2% Mesh *
(m /m )

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

1.0

140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.096
0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A252
A252

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

5.0

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans,
increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


CATEGORY

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck 80
16

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information

Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables


Normal weight concrete

Eurocode

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method
0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

1.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

5.47 (32)
5.73 (32)
5.65 (20)
5.46 (16)
5.28 (12)
5.11 (10)

5.08 (32)
5.28 (32)
5.47 (32)
5.43 (20)
5.26 (16)
5.09 (16)

4.26 (20)
4.46 (16)
4.61 (16)
4.76 (16)
4.91 (16)
5.07 (16)

5.50 (32)
5.76 (32)
6.02 (32)
6.07 (25)
5.93 (16)
5.74 (16)

5.12 (32)
5.38 (32)
5.63 (32)
5.85 (32)
5.87 (25)
5.72 (20)

4.42 (16)
4.61 (16)
4.79 (16)
4.95 (16)
5.09 (16)
5.24 (16)

5.55 (32)
5.81 (32)
6.07 (32)
6.32 (32)
6.57 (32)
6.71 (32)

5.17 (32)
5.43 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.93 (32)
6.17 (32)
6.43 (32)

4.64 (20)
4.87 (20)
5.07 (20)
5.24 (20)
5.42 (16)
5.59 (16)

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

5.47 (32)
5.73 (32)
5.65 (20)
5.43 (20)
5.26 (16)
5.09 (16)

5.08 (32)
5.28 (32)
5.47 (32)
5.43 (20)
5.24 (20)
5.07 (20)

4.26 (20)
4.45 (20)
4.61 (20)
4.76 (20)
4.91 (20)
5.06 (20)

5.50 (32)
5.76 (32)
6.02 (32)
6.07 (32)
5.91 (25)
5.72 (20)

5.12 (32)
5.38 (32)
5.63 (32)
5.85 (32)
5.87 (25)
5.72 (20)

4.42 (20)
4.60 (20)
4.76 (20)
4.93 (25)
5.07 (25)
5.22 (25)

5.55 (32)
5.81 (32)
6.07 (32)
6.32 (32)
6.57 (32)
6.71 (32)

5.17 (32)
5.43 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.93 (32)
6.17 (32)
6.43 (32)

4.62 (25)
4.89 (25)
5.06 (25)
5.22 (25)
5.39 (25)
5.57 (25)

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

5.73 (32)
5.54 (32)
5.38 (25)
5.21 (25)
5.04 (25)

5.28 (32)
5.47 (32)
5.33 (32)
5.15 (32)
4.98 (25)

4.42 (32)
4.58 (32)
4.72 (32)
4.87 (32)
4.98 (32)

5.76 (32)
6.02 (32)
6.01 (32)
5.81 (32)
5.62 (32)

5.38 (32)
5.63 (32)
5.85 (32)
5.81 (32)
5.62 (32)

4.57 (32)
4.75 (32)
4.91 (32)
5.05 (32)
5.20 (32)

5.81 (32)
6.07 (32)
6.32 (32)
6.57 (32)
6.71 (32)

5.43 (32)
5.68 (32)
5.92 (32)
6.05 (32)
6.35 (32)

4.87 (32)
5.03 (32)
5.16 (32)
5.29 (32)
5.42 (32)

0.4% Mesh *
5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

10.0

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method

5.0

0.9 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.0 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

5.0

1.2 Gauge
Imposed Load (kN/m )
7.5

10.0

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

4.19 (2xA252)
4.77 (2xA393)
4.83 (2xA393)
4.88 (2xA393)
5.00 (2xA393)
5.10 (2xA393)

3.65 (2xA252)
4.17 (2xA393)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.30 (2xA393)
4.42 (2xA393)
4.72 (2xA393)

3.14 (2xA252)
3.60 (2xA393)
3.67 (2xA393)
3.74 (2xA393)
3.85 (2xA393)
4.12 (2xA393)

4.25 (2xA252)
4.82 (2xA393)
4.88 (2xA393)
4.93 (2xA393)
5.02 (2xA393)
5.34 (2xA393)

3.70 (2xA252)
4.21 (2xA393)
4.28 (2xA393)
4.35 (2xA393)
4.44 (2xA393)
4.73 (2xA393)

3.18 (2xA252)
3.64 (2xA393)
3.71 (2xA393)
3.78 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)
4.13 (2xA393)

4.35 (2xA252)
4.90 (2xA393)
4.97 (2xA393)
5.03 (2xA393)
5.08 (2xA393)
5.44 (2xA393)

3.79 (2xA252)
4.29 (2xA393)
4.37 (2xA393)
4.44 (2xA393)
4.50 (2xA393)
4.74 (2xA393)

3.26 (2xA252)
3.70 (2xA393)
3.78 (2xA393)
3.85 (2xA393)
3.92 (2xA393)
4.15 (2xA393)

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A393
A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

3.52 (2xA252)
4.22 (2xA393)
4.40 (2xA393)
4.46 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA393)
4.52 (2xA393)

3.07 (2xA252)
3.70 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)
3.93 (2xA393)
3.97 (2xA393)
4.01 (2xA393)

2.64 (2xA252)
3.19 (2xA393)
3.35 (2xA393)
3.41 (2xA393)
3.46 (2xA393)
3.51 (2xA393)

3.56 (2xA252)
4.26 (2xA393)
4.44 (2xA393)
4.49 (2xA393)
4.53 (2xA393)
4.56 (2xA393)

3.10 (2xA252)
3.73 (2xA393)
3.90 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
4.01 (2xA393)
4.05 (2xA393)

2.67 (2xA252)
3.22 (2xA393)
3.38 (2xA393)
3.44 (2xA393)
3.49 (2xA393)
3.54 (2xA393)

3.65 (2xA252)
4.32 (2xA393)
4.50 (2xA393)
4.56 (2xA393)
4.60 (2xA393)
4.63 (2xA393)

3.18 (2xA252)
3.78 (2xA393)
3.96 (2xA393)
4.02 (2xA393)
4.07 (2xA393)
4.11 (2xA393)

2.74 (2xA252)
3.27 (2xA393)
3.43 (2xA393)
3.50 (2xA393)
3.55 (2xA393)
3.60 (2xA393)

0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

A393
A393
2xA252
2xA252
2xA252

3.82 (2xA393)
4.06 (2xA393)
4.24 (2xA393)
4.30 (2xA393)
4.32 (2xA393)

3.34 (2xA393)
3.57 (2xA393)
3.73 (2xA393)
3.80 (2xA393)
3.84 (2xA393)

2.89 (2xA393)
3.09 (2xA393)
3.25 (2xA393)
3.31 (2xA393)
3.36 (2xA393)

3.85 (2xA393)
4.09 (2xA393)
4.26 (2xA393)
4.33 (2xA393)
4.35 (2xA393)

3.37(2xA393)
3.59 (2xA393)
3.76 (2xA393)
3.83 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)

2.91 (2xA393)
3.11 (2xA393)
3.27 (2xA393)
3.34 (2xA393)
3.38 (2xA393)

3.90 (2xA393)
4.14 (2xA393)
4.31 (2xA393)
4.38 (2xA393)
4.41 (2xA393)

3.42 (2xA393)
3.64 (2xA393)
3.80 (2xA393)
3.87 (2xA393)
3.91 (2xA393)

2.95 (2xA393)
3.15 (2xA393)
3.31 (2xA393)
3.38 (2xA393)
3.42 (2xA393)

Fire
period
(Hrs)

Slab
Depth
(mm)

Concrete
Volume
(m /m )

1.0

150
160
170
180
190
200

0.106
0.116
0.126
0.136
0.146
0.156

1.5

150
160
170
180
190
200

2.0

160
170
180
190
200

0.4% Mesh *

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.4% for propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased
mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m )


C

IMPOSED
CEILING & SERV.
FINISHES
PARTITIONS

3.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

4.0
1.0
1.5
1.0

7.5
1.0
1.5
0.0

TOTAL

5.0

7.5

10.0

CATEGORY

CATEGORIES
C
C
E

Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables


Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information
EC = Eurocode

DESCRIPTION
Congregation
Congregation
Storage

17

Resotec is an innovative way to design footfall vibration damping


into a building. In the past a great emphasis has been put on
countering vibrations through the provision of mass in the structure
but with Resotec the building can remain lightweight whilst still
benefiting from a low design response factor.

18

www.richardlees.co.uk

The only analysis tool that can


predict the damped floor response
achievable with Resotec. Providing
automatic stud and section design,
Compos is the premiere tool for
composite analysis and design.
Supplied by Oasys Ltd
Tel: +44 (0) 191 238 7559
www.oasys-software.com

What is it?
Resotec is a thin constrained layer damping membrane that
sits between the soffit of the steel decking and parts of the top
flange of the steel beams. In these zones there is no mechanical
connection between the floor and the supporting structure,
allowing the two to move independently under the influence of
vibration induced excitation.

Where does it go?


For maximum effectiveness the Resotec strips are installed on
the top flange of a steel beam, extending from each end for
approximately one quarter of the length towards the middle
of the span. Steel decking can then be laid over the top of the
Resotec but it should not be secured down to the beams in
any way. Instead fixity is achieved by side lapping and stitching
together the sheets to form one continuous membrane.

Composite beams

Design assistance

In a traditional secondary beam design the shear studs are

Engineers are encouraged to consider the use of Resotec

evenly spaced along the length of the beam. With a Resotec

when designing large column free floor areas with lightweight

layer installed there can be no shear studs in the outer quarter

long span beams. Because of the effects Resotec has on the

portion of the beam so a new approach is needed. The result is

placement of shear studs and the design of the supporting

a 50% partially composite beam design which is illustrated in

structure it is seldom possible to incorporate Resotec as a

the Bending Moment diagram. Shear studs are installed in the

last minute solution to a footfall vibration issue. Engineers are

middle section of the beam and the design allows for partial

therefore encouraged to consider Resotec in the early stages

interaction between the beam and the slab to be developed

of a building design. Assistance for doing this can be obtained

in this zone only. The bending and shear resistance of the

through the use of COMPOS, part of the OASYS suite of

structure in the outer quarter regions of the beam is that of the

structural design programmes, or through contacting Richard

steel section alone with no composite interaction with the slab.

Lees Decking.

16

X 105

50% partially composite beam: BM capacity and demand

14

Strength provided
in 100%
composite design

12

Effect with Resotec


Partially composite

Moment (Nm)

10

Beam
strength

Strength
required
2

Length (m)

10

15

19

Shaping the London Skyline


30 St. Mary Axe - The Gherkin

Location:
30 St Mary Axe, London,
England, United Kingdom
Status: Complete
Completion Date: 2004
Height: 180 metres
Floor Area:
70,000 square metres
Architect: Foster + Partners
Steel Contractor:
Victor Buyck Hollandia JV
Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80
Widely known throughout the world by
the nickname The Gherkin, 30 St Mary
Axe stands at 180 metres tall, making it on
completion the second tallest building in the
City of London and the sixth tallest in the
Greater London region.
Thanks to the efficiency of its
environmentally-conscious design, The
Gherkin uses half the power that a similar
tower would typically consume, whilst the
unique triangulated perimeter structure
makes this tall building sufficiently stiff
to control wind-excited sways without
requiring any additional cross-bracing.
The specification of Ribdeck 80 for this
project was an integral factor in achieving
the ambitious design of this unique building,
with its radial steel beam arrangement
requiring a decking profile that could span
up to 4.75m without any requirement for
additional framing or temporary support.

20

www.richardlees.co.uk

Shaping the London Skyline


20 Fenchurch Street
Location: 20 Fenchurch
Street, London, England,
United Kingdom
Status: In Construction
Completion Date: 2013
Height: 160 metres
Floor Area:
83,500 square metres
Architect: Rafael Vinoly
Steel Contractor:
William Hare
Deck Profile: Ribdeck E60,
Ribdeck 80 & Holorib
20 Fenchurch Street is one of Londons
most eagerly anticipated development
projects thanks to celebrated architect
Rafael Violys innovative design.
The 160m high building flares outwards
from its base so that the larger floorplates
are to be found at the higher storeys,
delivering both impressive architecture and
more efficient office space than many of
its neighbours. The distinctive shape of the
building, has earned it the nick-name, the
Walkie Talkie.
The successful intergration of Ribdeck E60
decking into the scheme was intergral to
the rapid erection of the steel frame, which
rose at the rate of a floor per week.

21

Shaping the London Skyline


Canary Wharf

12

8
7
13

Location: Isle of Dogs, London, England,


United Kingdom
Completion Date: Various
Height: 235 metres (highest point)
Floor Area: See panel opposite
Architect: Various
Steel Contractor: Various

Deck Profile: See panel opposite

22

www.richardlees.co.uk

Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located


on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the
old West India Docks in the London Docklands. When topped out in 1990, One
Canada Square became the UKs tallest building and a powerful symbol of the
regeneration of Docklands, as well as being an imposing architectural presence on
the London skyline.
During the various phases of construction at Canary Wharf, over 800,000 square
metres of Ribdeck profiles were used, testament to the quality of service and the
superiority of the profiles supplied over the years.

10
11
2

2
1 Canada Square - 147,000 m Ribdeck 60
2 8 Canada Square - 101,700 m2 Ribdeck AL

3 5 Churchill Place - 38,500 m2 Ribdeck E60

4 20 Churchill Place - 38,700 m2 Ribdeck E60

5 25 North Colonnade - 34,000 m2 Ribdeck 60

6 30 South Colonnade - 35,000 m2 Ribdeck 60

7 20 Cabot Square & 10 South Colonnade

- 68,000 m2 Ribdeck 60

2
25 Cabot Square - 60,000 m Ribdeck 60
9 40 Bank Street - 71,700 m2 Ribdeck AL
10 1 Cabot Square - 65,000 m2 Ribdeck 60
11 10 Cabot Square & 5 North Colonnade
- 75,000 m2 Ribdeck 60
12 15 Westferry Circus - 23,500 m2 Ribdeck AL
13 20 Bank Street - 59,300 m2 Ribdeck AL

Total decking supplied: 817,400 m2

23

Shaping the London Skyline


The Willis Building
Location:
51 Lime Street, London,
England, United Kingdom
Status: Complete

Floor Area:
51,000 square metres
Architect: Foster + Partners

Completion Date: 2007

Steel Contractor:
William Hare

Height: 125 metres

Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

The Willis Building stands opposite the


famous Lloyds building in the heart of
the City of London. The building features
an iconic stepped design, which was
intended to resemble the shell of a
crustacean, with setbacks rising at 97 and
68 metres respectively.
Constructed between 2004 and 2007, it was
a significant addition to the London skyline,
becoming the third tallest building in the
City after 30 St Mary Axe and CityPoint.
The core was topped out in July 2006,
with Ribdeck 80 specified throughout the
structure primarily due to its excellent load
carrying properties and unrivalled ability
to carry long unpropped spans. The Willis
Building was the first in a wave of new
skyscrapers planned for the area.

24

www.richardlees.co.uk

Architectural Impact Across the UK


Civil Justice Centre, Manchester
Location:
Spinningfields, Manchester,
England, United Kingdom
Status: Complete
Completion Date: 2007
Height: 80 metres
Floor Area:
35,160 square metres
Architect:
Denton Corker Marshall
Steel Contractor:
William Hare
Deck Profile: Holorib
This distinctive building is widely
recognisable for the fingers at each end
that are cantilevered over the lower levels it is rumoured that architect Barrie Marshall
sketched the entire building by hand and
that very little has deviated from his original
drawings. On the west side of the building
is an imposing 11,000 m2 suspended glass
wall -the largest in Europe.
The specification of Holorib throughout
the building was an important factor in
minimising the construction depth of the
floor slab to suit the architects vision of the
slender form of the finger protrusions at
each end of the building.

25

Architectural Impact Across the UK


Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth
Location:
Portsmouth Harbour,
Portsmouth,
United Kingdom
Status: Complete
Completion Date: 2005
Height: 170 metres
Floor Area:
1,600 square metres
Architect: HGP Architects
Steel Contractor: Butterley
Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

The Spinnaker Tower is the centrepiece of


the redevelopment of Portsmouth Harbour,
and was chosen by Portsmouth residents
from a selection of concept designs.
Thetower reflects Portsmouths maritime
history, representing sails billowing in the
wind a design accomplished using two
large, sweeping steel arcs.
An imposing and stunning addition to the
Portsmouth horizon, Spinnaker Tower
is the tallest accessible structure in the
United Kingdom outside London, with three
observation platforms constructed from
Ribdeck 80 affording glorious views of up to
23 miles.

26

www.richardlees.co.uk

Architectural Impact Across the UK


The Curve, Leicester Performing Arts Centre
Location:
Rutland Street, Leicester,
England, United Kingdom
Status: Complete
Completion Date: 2008
Floor Area:
2,600 square metres
Architect:
Rafael Vinoly
Steel Contractor:
William Hare
Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

Based on the redeveloped Cultural Quarter in Leicester City Centre, the Curve Theatre opened
in Autumn 2008 and is one of the main flagship projects in the regeneration of the city.
This ambitious and innovative design has complete architectural transparency, with the
weight of the structure suspended from the roof of the building. The long spanning capacity
of Ribdeck 80 allowed the number of steel members in the structure to be kept to a
minimum, emphasising the light and airy form of the structure.

27

Guidance Notes for Design and Fixing


Design
General

28

Professional
pages 30-32
fixing

Construction Loading

28

Installation Service

30

Forming Openings

34

Permanent Loading

28

Health & Safety

30

Cleaning the Decking

34

Reinforcement

28

Fall Arrest

30

Deflection

28

Fixing and Securing

31

Temporary Support

29

Cartridge Tools

31

Concrete
placement

Durability

29

Site Testing

31

Full Lateral Restraint

29

Edge Trim

31

Diaphragm Action

29

Cantilevered Deck and Trim

32

Composite Beams

29

Decking on Shelf Angles

Perimeter Beams

29

Transverse Reinforcement

29

Shear Studs

29

Reference Literature

29

Concrete Encased Perimeter


Steel Beams

Delivery

pages 28-29

Prior to concrete
page 34
placement

page 34

Temporary Props

34

Construction Joints

34

Placing and Compacting

34

32

Curing

34

Decking Around Columns

32

Minimising Concrete Loss

32

Composite
floor slab

32

page 30

Shear studs

page 33

Delivery, Transportation and Access 30

Spacing of Shear Studs

33

Identification

30

Preparation of Steel Flanges

33

Lifting and Storage

30

Stud Installation Equipment

33

Installation and Testing

33

page 35

Soffit Fixings

35

Holowedge and Wedge Nut

35

Alphawedge

35

GOODPRACTICE: These guidance notes have been developed by RLD during our many years in the Steel Decking Industry. Whilst
every effort has been made to ensure that they are comprehensive, we would refer you to the BCSA publication No 37/04 BCSA
Code of Practice for Metal Decking and Stud Welding for further guidance. These notes should also be read in conjunction with
the prevailing national design guidance and health and safety legislation.

Design
General

RLDs structural decking can be used as permanent shuttering


to an in situ concrete topping, or as both shuttering and tensile
reinforcement to form what is referred to as a composite floor slab.
Composite floor slabs form the most frequent application and these
are designed to the currently applicable design codes (principally BS
EN 1994-1-1). A slab design appropriate to the required application
can be selected by a suitably qualified person from reference to
either RLDs span/load tables or using Deckspan software, both of
which are available free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk. When
decking is used as permanent shuttering only it is the responsibility
of the Project Structural Design Engineer to specify all the slab
reinforcement necessary to support the permanent loads, ignoring
any contribution from the decking profile.

Construction Loading

The RLD design span/load tables generally make allowance for


a temporary construction live load of 1.5kN/m2 in addition to the
wet weight of concrete. This should not be exceeded without
consultation with the RLD Technical Advisory Service. The heaping
of concrete during placement should be avoided. In the unpropped
condition it is normally the construction stage that governs the
allowable spans shown in the tables.

Construction Loading after Initial Concrete Set

The slab strength will generally have been specified by the Project
Structural Design Engineer on the basis of support of long-term
loads consistent with the buildings intended use. In the temporary
condition, construction loads from plant used for erecting steelwork
or from materials stored for following trades may constitute a more
onerous design condition and should be referred back to the Project
Structural Design Engineer for assessment.

Permanent Loading

The self weight of the slab has been taken into account in the design
process and need not be included in the imposed loads indicated
in the span/load tables. The Project Structural Design Engineer
should sum all predominantly uniform applied live, partition, finishes

28

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and loads when reading from these tables. Any walls other than
lightweight partitions should be considered separately as either line
or concentrated loads, and specific calculations should be made to
check the adequacy of the selected slab to support them.

Reinforcement
In all circumstances appropriate crack control and distribution
reinforcement should be provided within the slab and this can be in
the form of a wire-welded mesh or, in certain situations, as macro
fibres. This reinforcement may also be sufficient to provide the
necessary fire resistance for the slab and this can be checked by
reference to the RLD tables for the Fire Design Methods, available
in literature on the RLD website. Where the design criteria are
not covered by the tables, then reinforcing bars, positioned in
the decking troughs, will be required, the exact quantity being
determined using RLDs Deckspan software.
Decking can only contribute to the transverse shear reinforcement
for the distribution of longitudinal shear forces in composite beams
when it is spanning perpendicular to the beam. In addition it should
either be continuous across the beam, or the beam flange be wide
enough to allow effective anchorage of the deck using shear studs
welded in a staggered pattern. Additional reinforcement may also
be required to comply with building or other regulations and it is the
customers responsibility to ensure that the necessary design checks
and approvals have been granted.

Deflection
Decking will deflect under the weight of wet concrete as it is placed.
The design process takes account of this deflection and limits it in
accordance with the relevant code of practice. The additional weight
of concrete due to this deflection is factored into this and
all subsequent calculations. No account is taken in RLDs tables
or software for any deflection of the supporting steel frame. Those
responsible for the placement of the concrete should be made aware
of all expected deflections when assessing concrete volumes and
finishing techniques.

As examples, values for lateral restraint with 0.9mm thickness

L=Span
Slab
Depth

Decking
Props placed in
accordance with
span/load tables

Continuous supporting
timber propped at 1m
centres along its length
Slab
depth
(mm)

Runner Size

Span L
(m)

Depth

Width

decking are:
a) with nails at 333mm centres at sheet ends
X-ENP-19 L15 = 8.10 kN/m
DAK 16 = 2.40 kN/m
b) with nails at 666mm centres at intermediate support
X-ENP-19 L15 = 4.05 kN/m
DAK 16 = 1.20 kN/m

Diaphragm Action
Guidance on diaphragm action of steel decking during construction
can be obtained from BS EN 1993-1-3. cl. 10.3 and by reference to
ECCS publication No. 88.

120

3.25

175mm

50mm

Composite Beams

130

3.75

200mm

50mm

150

4.25

225mm

50mm

200

4.75

225mm

75mm

Guidance on the design of composite beams is given in


BS EN 1994-1-1. Within the design there is a requirement for the
provision of transfer of horizontal shear forces between the steel
beam and the concrete slab. This is commonly achieved with the
use of headed shear studs welded through the decking panels to the
underlying beam top flange.

ABOVE DATA OFFERED AS A GUIDE ONLY TO SIZE OF TIMBER RUNNER

Temporary support
Temporary support may sometimes be necessary to sustain the
dead weight of wet concrete and any other construction loads.
General guidance is provided by RLD in the form of span/load tables
and Deckspan software and, where provided, on project specific
installation layout drawings and design calculations. The Project
Structural Design Engineer may also specify temporary propping in
situations where tighter control on deflections is deemed necessary.
The design and safe installation of temporary supports, including
any bracing necessary, is the responsibility of the Project Structural
Design Engineer. There should be continuous sole and header plates
across the full width of every propped bay and the system should
be installed so as to ensure zero deflection of the deck at propped
points prior to concrete placement. The header plate should offer a
wide area of support so as not to locally compromise the structural
integrity or the appearance of the decking. Except where specifically
advised by RLDs Technical Department, all temporary props to
unsupported slab edges are to be fully in place prior to installation of
the edge trim or decking. The same condition also applies to internal
props meeting the conditions set out in Table 1.

The Project Structural Design Engineer should ensure that sufficient


studs can be welded within the confines of the metal decking
troughs to achieve the required degree of shear connection. In
particular it is important to avoid the specification of beams with
top flanges that are too thin and/or too narrow to accept off-centre
welded studs. (Refer to Shear Studs section for further guidance
-page 33).

Perimeter Beams

Profile

Span

If perimeter beams, and beams adjacent to internal slab openings,


are to be designed as composite L beams, then the edge of the
slab should extend a minimum distance of 6 times the stud diameter
beyond the beam centreline. In most cases this will equate to a
minimum distance of 114mm. If this condition is satisfied but does
not exceed 300mm, then reinforcement should be specified in
the form of U bars detailed below the heads of the studs. If the
edge distance exceeds 300mm, then the composite beam may
be designed as an internal beam (albeit with reduced effective
composite flange width) and reinforcement added as required to
satisfy longitudinal shear transmission rules.

Holorib

>= 4.0 m

Transverse Reinforcement
The concrete flange of a composite beam is subjected to splitting
forces and these may be resisted in part by contributions from the
concrete, decking, top mesh and any additional steel bars crossing
the beam perpendicular to the span direction. Any contribution
from the decking should only be considered where the decking
spans onto the beam and is either continuous across or is securely
anchored to it with through deck welded shear studs. The decking
contribution should be ignored where it spans parallel to the
composite beam being considered. Any shortfall in transverse shear
resistance is normally compensated for by the design and inclusion
of additional reinforcement bars.

Ribdeck E60

>= 4.0 m

Ribdeck S60

>= 4.0 m

Ribdeck 80

>= 4.5 m

Table 1: Lower Limit for Pre-installation of Temporary Supports.


Temporary supports should remain in place until the concrete
has reached a minimum of 70% of its characteristic strength.

Durability
Decking is produced from galvanised steel strip to BS EN 10346
with a standard Z275 coating. When used in a dry and unpolluted
environment, such as is the case in the majority of offices,
warehouses, hospitals, and schools etc, a design life to first
maintenance of 20 - 50 years can be expected. Recent documented
research would suggest that the predicted performance is likely to
approach the higher end of this range.

Full Lateral Restraint


Guidance on lateral stability of beams can be obtained from SCI
publication 360. Positive connection between the composite floor
slab and the compression flange of a steel support beam may be
achieved using either X-ENP-19 L15 or DAK 16 nails. These nails are
capable of resisting lateral forces as required by BS EN 1993-1-1, with
safe working loads per nail indicated for differing sheet thicknesses in
Table 2.
Deck Thickness
(mm)

X-ENP-19 L15
Shear (kN)

DAK 16
Shear (kN)

0.8

2.3

0.8

0.9

2.7

0.8

1.0

3.0

0.8

1.1

3.5

0.8

1.2

4.0

0.8

Shear Studs
Shear studs are manufactured from low carbon steel with minimum
values of yield point of 350 N/mm2, ultimate tensile strength
450 N/mm2, and elongation 15%. The studs should be headed and
for through deck welding they should be specified with a shank
diameter of 19mm. Studs should protrude a minimum of 35mm
above the shoulder of the decking profile and the covering of
concrete over the head of the stud should be a minimum of 15mm.
The shear capacity of headed studs embedded in solid concrete is
calculated in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 cl. 6.6. In composite
slabs the studs may be affected by the proximity of the webs of the
steel decking sheet and their capacity may be reduced. Refer to
BS EN 1994-1-1 cl. 6.6 for reduction factor formulae.

Reference Literature
MCRMA Technical Paper 13 / SCI Publication P300: Composite
Slabs and Beams Using Steel Decking: Best Practice for Design
and Construction.
BCSA Publication 37/04: Code of Practice for Metal Decking and
Stud Welding.
BS EN 1994-1-1 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and
concrete structures.

Table 2: Safe Working Load per Nail

29

Delivery
Delivery, Transportation and Access

Identification

Loads are normally delivered by articulated vehicles of approximately


16 metres in length and with maximum gross weights of up to 36
tonnes. Decking will normally be delivered in full loads. Suitable
access to and from unloading points on sites must be provided
and maintained by the client. Delivery vehicles have a maximum
unloading time of 2 hours. Unless otherwise agreed in writing
before delivery, offloading and lifting to level and position is the
responsibility of the customer.

Where appropriate, bundles will be marked to correspond with RLD


layout drawings, with a bundle label identifying the product, the site,
and a schedule reference code.

Deck

Width (mm)

Height (mm)

Holorib

680

Ribdeck E60

1020

525
175

Ribdeck S60

620

350

Ribdeck 80

620

350

Table 3: Approximate Maximum Sizes of Bundles


Bundle length will depend on decking panel lengths. Export/shipped
bundles may differ please ask for details.
Lengths of decking manufactured in accordance with RLD layout
drawings or customer schedules are normally consolidated into
compact, banded bundles as shown in Table 3. These bundles may
weigh up to 1.5 tonnes and cover an effective area up to 100 square
metres when laid, depending on the profile, gauge and length of
the panels being delivered. Table 4 gives the mass per linear metre
(kg/m) of each profile and gauge to assist in the calculation of
individual bundle weights.

Deck

Gauge of Steel
0.9

1.0

1.2

Holorib

8.0

8.7

10.4

Ribdeck E60

9.3

10.3

12.3

Ribdeck S60

6.3

7.0

8.4

Ribdeck 80

6.7

8.0

9.2

Table 4: Mass of Deck Panels (kg/m)


The maximum sheet length on a particular project could be governed
by one or more of the following: manual handling limitations, support
configuration, transportation and access for loading deck bundles
onto the steel frame.

installation
Health and Safety
Decking is manufactured to ISO 9001 from high yield steel coated with
zinc and may be covered with a soluble protective lubricant which does
not adversely affect performance. The sheets will have sharp edges
and corners. COSHH data sheets are available for all hazards/activities
associated with the handling and fixing of RLD decking.

Fall Arrest
It is recommended that appropriate fall arrest systems are used.
Generally safety netting is advised for steel-framed structures; air
bags or similar for other structures. Details of the appropriate fall
arrest system, together with a risk assessment covering the safety
system installation method, should be included in the detailed
installation method statement prepared by the decking installer prior to
commencement of work.

30

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Lifting and Storage


The customer should arrange for bundles to be lifted using two
double wrapped chains, with care taken to avoid excessive pressure
across the sheets. Careless use of the slings can cause panels to
buckle. Under no circumstances should the bundles or sheets be
removed from delivery vehicles by tipping, barring or similar means.
Bundles should be lifted directly from the delivery vehicle and placed
on the building framework at the correct level and in positions
appropriate for installation. Generally one bundle of decking will
be positioned in each steelwork bay. The sides of the bundles are
identified with paint splashes and these marked sides must all face
away from the appropriate set out point. Care must be taken to avoid
local overloading of the structure.
Except in situations where fixing is contracted to RLD, it is the
customer who is responsible for the safe execution of the works.
All users, installers and persons working in the proximity of the
decking should be made familiar with the recommendations in this
section.

Fixing and Securing

Cartridge Nails

Prior to the commencement of installation of the decking the


supporting structure must be in a sound and stable condition.
Steelwork must be adequately restrained and support for the decking
must be provided around columns, splices, openings and other
penetrations. Brickwork, blockwork and concrete supports must be
adequately cured.

The nails are suitable for fastening decking and edge trim to
structural steelwork up to 630 Rm N/mm2 and a minimum thickness
of 6mm. Technical advice on the use of these tools can be obtained
from Hilti Technical Advisory Service, Manchester (Freephone 0800
886 100, e-mail gbtas@hilti.com, web www.hilti.com).

Steelwork

Concrete

Other Materials
(incl. Brick and Block)

50mm

70mm

70mm

Table 5: Minimum Bearing Requirements for Decking


Decking MUST be suitably secured to avoid excessive deflection
or dislodgement during construction. The fixings should be placed
at 333mm maximum spacing at panel ends and 667mm maximum
spacing on intermediate supports. No pedestrian access to the
installed decking should be permitted until it has been securely fixed
to the supporting structure and access is recommended to be limited
to essential construction personnel once installation is complete.
In the case of a steel support structure, low power powder-actuated
fastenings such as Hilti X-ENP-19 L15 can be used with the DX 76
fastening tool to make this connection. In situations where shear
studs are subsequently to be welded through the decking, a lighter
gauge nail such as Hilti X-DAK 16 can be used with the DX 460 or DX
36 cartridge tools at the discretion of the Project Structural Design
Engineer.
Alternatives to Hilti nails are available through companies such as
Spit, or decking can be secured to steelwork using self-tapping
screws. Decking may be secured to brickwork, blockwork and
concrete supports provided that the top surface is flat and level and
that the top course of bricks or blocks are of solid construction.
Special masonry fixings, such as the Hilti HPS-1 Hammer Screw
and Hilti X-SW Soft Washer Fastener can be considered, but in
all instances it is recommended that the decking installer refers
to the fixing manufacturers recommendations for the system to
be used. Decking may be cut on site to accommodate notching
around obstructions such as columns but this may affect the design
of the sheet and its spanning capability. In such situations special
consideration should be given as to the adequacy and completeness
of bearings and to the spanning capability of cut sheets, adjacent
sheets and the finished floor slab. A petrol-driven disc cutter is the
preferred method for cutting deck sheets and edge trim on site.
It is recommended that all profiles are seam-stitched at regular
intervals along their length using self-tapping screws. Care should be
taken to ensure that the seam stitch screws effectively penetrate and
engage with the under-lapping deck sheet.
Holorib Ribdeck E60 Ribdeck S60 Ribdeck 80
1.0m
1.0 m
1.0 m
1.0 m
Table 6: Maximum Spacing of Seam Stitch Screws
Note: The guidance given here applies to the shallow deck range of
profiles supplied by RLD. Separate guidance should be sought on
the safe installation of deep deck profile CF225.

Alternative tools and fixings can be obtained from Spit


(tel: 0800 731 4924, e-mail tsupport@itwcp.co.uk,
web www.itwcp.co.uk).

Site Testing
Once nails have been installed, the effectiveness of the fixing can
be determined by comparing appearance of the installed nail with
guidance diagrams and other information in the manufacturers
literature.

Edge Trim

Decking

Restraint Strap

Edge Trim

Galvanised steel edge


trim is not a structural
component. It is used only
as permanent formwork
Typical Edge
Detail 1
to retain the wet concrete
600mm
slabs, avoiding the need
maximum
for timber shuttering. It
is normally supplied in
Edge Trim Restraint Strap
galvanised steel
3m lengths but may be in
permanent
Decking
edge formwork
2.5m lengths if obtained
directly from our stock
depots. Thicknesses, or
Brick, block,
Typical Edge
gauges, are usually 0.9mm
masonry, concrete
Detail 2
or steel supports
or 1.2mm, but can be up to
2mm when needed. Edge
minimum
trim is supplied complete
6 x stud dia.
with restraint strapping in
Shear Stud
lengths to be cut to suit
Edge Trim
(when used)
on site. Fixing screws are
only provided when RLD is
Decking
carrying out installation.
SEE
Typical Edge
Edge trim can be secured to
TABLE 7
Detail 3
the end of a decking sheet
using self-tapping screws
(see detail 1) or to the main
support structure using the
same fixings as used for securing the decking (details 2 & 3).
Fixings to the top flange are normally made at each end of the edge
trim sheet and at no more than 600mm centres along its length.
Edge trim is delivered to site in straight lengths and is cut to suit
on site. To approximate a curve, the edge trim can be cut on site to
form a facetted face and the frequency of fixings may need to be
increased accordingly.
Restraint straps are used to control the outward deflection of
the edge trim under pressure from the wet concrete and should
generally be installed at no more than 600mm centres and at an
angle no steeper than 45o.

Cartridge Tools
Hilti cartridge tools are commonly
used to install X-ENP-19-L15 and
X-DAK 16 nails. No external power
source is required. These tools
should be used only by suitablytrained personnel in accordance
with manufacturers instructions.
When detailing steelwork for the
support of metal decking sheets,
consideration should be given to
the physical dimensions of the
cartridge tool, which must be held
perpendicular to the fixing surface
and will experience a re-coil effect
on firing.

DX-750 Cartridge Tool

Approx. Dims. 450mm


x 70 - 110mm wide

Typical dimensions to show


clearance/access required
for use of tool

WARNING: Steel decking is a structural element of the construction and should always be installed by a competent contractor to avoid
adverse effects on following trades. As a minimum requirement, valid CSCS cards for steel decking and/ or stud welding should be held by
all workers involved in the installation of these products.

31

Cantilevered Deck and Trim

Decking Around Columns

Special consideration should be given to cantilevers. Guidance is


given here on the use of both decking and edge trim as cantilevered
shuttering. It is the responsibility of the Project Structural Design
Engineer to assess whether any additional reinforcement is required
to enable the finished floor slab to carry the design imposed loads.
In the direction of span of the decking sheets, a maximum cantilever
distance of 600mm is recommended. This limit is based on health &
safety considerations and is not affected by the gauge or profile of
decking, or the depth of concrete to be poured. It is important that
the back span of the decking sheet is securely anchored at no more
than the recommended maximum spacing for end and intermediate
supports respectively. Unsupported side cantilevers of decking are
NOT permitted in any circumstances.
Edge trim cantilevers are measured from the toe of the beam flange.
The maximum cantilever length permitted varies with concrete depth
to be poured and with gauge of edge trim. When cantilevering edge
trim to the distances shown in Table 7, the maximum spacing of the
restraint straps and fixings to the beam top flange should follow the
guidelines given previously for non-cantilevered edge trim.

Decking should be cut on site to fit into the webs of columns that
penetrate the floor plate. Where there are no beams available as
supports, and where column penetrations exceed 250mm in width,
the steel frame supplier should provide additional support (such as
welded on angle brackets) in the web of the column.

Overall
Slab
Depth
130
150
200
250
300
350

Minimising Concrete Loss

Deck End Deck Side


From Beam Centreline
Any Gauge
600
0
600
0
600

0
600

0
600

0
600

0

Edge Trim
From Toe of Beam
0.9 1.2
1.6 2.0
100 125 160 195
50 115 150 185
n/a 100 130 160
n/a 50 100 135
n/a n/a
50 100
n/a n/a n/a
50

Table 7: Maximum Cantilever Distances


For conditions outside of the scope of Table 7, permanent supports
or temporary propping may be required. Please refer to the RLD
Technical Department for further guidance.

Decking on Shelf Angles


Where decking is required to be supported on shelf angles, the
following checks are made to ensure it is physically possible to place
panels of sufficient length to achieve 50mm minimum end bearings.
Similar arrangements are necessary where the decking panels sit on
the bottom flanges of steelwork.
lmin = Lclear + 2 x 50mm
lmax = Lcc B / 2 - Tw / 2 - 20mm [- Trsa if angle leg upwards]
Where:
lmin is the minimum allowable sheet length
lmax is the maximum allowable sheet length
Lclear is the clear distance between toes of shelf angles
Lcc is the centre to centre spacing of the beams
B is the smaller of the two flange widths
Tw is the web thickness of the other beam
Trsa is the thickness of the vertical leg of the shelf angle
B

Decking Support Details at a Column Web

Wherever possible, decking sheets are butt jointed with ribs


lined through. Gaps up to 5mm in width can be tolerated without
significant leakage of concrete over the top flange of the beams.
Gaps greater than 5mm should be sealed using a method such as
adhesive tape or expanding foam. At the building perimeter the
decking should either continue out to butt up against the edge trim
or be sealed using a 0.7mm gauge galvanised steel or plastic closure
plate or preformed polystyrene inserts.
For the treatment of side lap
0.7mm Closure Plate
Decking
joints of decking refer to the
earlier section on seam stitching
requirements.
Where the decking changes
Galvanised Steel
direction of span it may be
Closure Plates
necessary to stitch the edge of
the last sheet to the supporting
beam and seal off the ends of the perpendicularly-spanning sheets
with closure plates or preformed polystyrene inserts.

Concrete Encased Perimeter Steel Beams


Concrete encasement may be specified as part of the fire resistant
design of perimeter steel members. The preferred method of
construction is for concrete encasement to be carried out off site
prior to erection of the steel frame. If the encasement only extends
to the top of the steel beam, then metal decking installation can
proceed as normal.
In situations where pre-encasement is not practical, the following
solution is offered for Holorib floor slabs only. The Holorib decking
should be fitted to the perimeter steel beams as normal to provide a
working platform and then cut back to the line of the shuttering once
it has been installed around the beam. The Project Structural Design
Engineer should check that the shuttering system has been designed
to support the decking and subsequent weight of wet concrete, and
if not, to specify the inclusion of an adequate temporary propping
system as indicated in the diagram.
Crack Control Reinforcement
by others

Lcc

Nominal
Cover

Hairpin Tie Bars


by others

Trsa
Lclear
Tw

Holorib Re-entrant Decking


Supporting Timber
and Temporary Prop

The shelf angles are structural supports and the Project Structural
Design Engineer should ensure that they are fit for purpose. In
addition it is important that the angles project a minimum of 50 mm
beyond the top flange of the steel beam to enable a cartridge tool or
similar to be used to secure the decking to the supporting structure.

32

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Wrapping Fabric by others


Timber Formwork

A sufficient quantity of hairpin tie bars, as determined by the Project


Structural Design Engineer, should be positioned in each trough of
the Holorib decking prior to placement of the concrete.

Shear Studs
Shear studs are normally welded through the decking to the top
flange of the steel beam. To avoid burn through of the beam flange
the studs should be welded directly above the web (on the beam
centreline) or the flange should have a minimum thickness of 0.4
times the shank diameter (0.4 d = 7.6mm generally). It is preferable
to limit the number of studs to a maximum of 2 per trough, wherever
possible. As the number of studs increases beyond this limit, the
decking becomes more susceptible to localised heat warping and
weld splatter can interfere with subsequent welds.
An alternative to welded shear studs is the Hilti X-HVB shear
connector. These connectors are L shaped galvanised steel
sections that are secured to the steel beam flange using the Hilti
DX 76 powder actuated tool. The mechanical properties of the HVB
connectors are different to those of welded studs and a substitution
should not be made without the consent of the Project Structural
Design Engineer.
A greater number of X-HVB connectors are needed to provide the
same degree of shear connection as when using welded studs, and
particular attention should be paid to the space available for placing
these within the confines of a steel decking profile. Guidance and
Assistance on the application of the HVB system is available from
Hilti (tel: 0800 886100).

Spacing of Shear Studs


In order to maintain effective shear connection, both maximum
and minimum spacings are defined for the studs. The maximum
longitudinal spacing is defined to prevent localised vertical separation
of the slab from the beam. Minimum spacings are defined to
ensure that each stud is adequately embedded in concrete and that
concentrations of compressive force do not occur as a result of
overlapping zones of influence around adjacent studs.

Minimum Spacing
Single Studs

Minimum Spacing
Studs in Pairs

4d (76mm)
5d (95mm)

Minimum Spacing
Staggered Studs

Maximum Spacing

5d
)

5m

(9

3d (57mm)
600 or 4DS

4d (76mm)

35
d

Stud Installation Equipment


The preferred method for welding shear studs is through the use
of mains power. This provides a quiet, clean and environmentallyfriendly option. The supply should be 3 phase with 415 V / 150 A per
phase. The welding convertor, measuring 0.5m cubed and weighing
0.5 tonne, is connected to this supply through a watertight 150 amp
plug and socket.
80m (cable)
maximum

7.5m
maximum

Where access for the welding rig to within 7.5m of the frame is
restricted, a steel section may be welded to the frame and extended
to a position from which the 7.5m access rule may be applied.
This steel section should, as a minimum, be a steel plate measuring
100 x 10mm. In situations where access for the mobile rig is
restricted and mains power is not available, a static generator can
be provided. This 200 KVA generator is housed in a unit measuring
3m long, 2m wide and 2m high and with a gross weight of 5 tonnes.
This unit will emit diesel fumes when in operation and should
be positioned on the structure in a well-ventilated area which is
verified as suitable for this purpose by the Project Structural Design
Engineer. Consideration should also be given to the method of safely
re-fuelling the unit and to the safe storage of fuel in a bunded diesel
bowser on the site.

Installation and Testing


Welded shear studs should be installed and tested in accordance
with BS EN 14555, the recommendations of the manufacturers of
the welding equipment and studs, and the project specific design
and layout.

15

DS

20

Studs on
Centreline

7.6mm

Studs
Offset

The studs should not be welded closer than 20mm


clear distance from the edge of the top flange

Preparation of Steel Flanges


Any impurities present at the welding interface will lead to a
decrease in weld quality. RLD profiles are formed from steel with a
Z275 galvanised coating and the through deck welding process can
be successfully applied to this material provided that the top flange
of the steel beam is not primed, painted or galvanised and is also
free from dirt, grease and loose rust. Light rusting that occurs after
shot blasting is acceptable. In the welding zone, the decking should
fit closely against the beam top flange, a condition that can generally
be assured by the installer at the time of welding.

33

PRIOR TO CONCRETE PLACEMENT


Forming Openings
The following guidelines are offered for forming openings in a slab.
It is the responsibility of the Project Structural Design Engineer to
ensure the slab will be adequate to support the design imposed loads
after the formation of any openings. RLDs responsibilities exclude
the design, supply or installation of any framing or reinforcement and
the boxing out of decking to form openings.
Openings can be classified in terms of the width measured
perpendicular to the span of the decking:
1) Up to 300mm wide No special treatment is required. The
opening should be boxed out and the decking only cut out using a
reciprocating saw or nibbler when the slab has cured.
2) Between 300mm and 700mm wide The opening should be
formed as above but additional reinforcement bars should be
designed and added as necessary to spread the load laterally
around the opening, supplement the slab strength immediately
parallel to the opening, and control crack widths at corners.
3) Over 700mm wide Structural trimming steel should be added to
the framing arrangement before the decking is installed.
Health and Safety note: Due consideration should be given to the
means of providing protection against falls and accidental passage
through of materials at whatever stage openings are formed in the
slab. One method that can be used is to provide a temporary cover
to the opening using unconcreted decking secured to a special
edge trim.

Timber
Formwork
Deck over Void

The three size categories, outlined here, relate to isolated openings.


If openings are grouped such that a gap of less than 1.5 times
the width of the largest opening exists between them, then
consideration should be given to the combined width.

Cleaning the Decking


It is recommended that any debris on the decking be removed by the
contractor after all reinforcement has been positioned and openings
boxed out and immediately prior to concreting. Slight surface grease
or oil residue from the decking manufacturing process does not
affect the design bond strength between decking and concrete
and therefore need not be removed. Any residual ceramic ferrule
fragments left over after breaking them away from the welded shear
studs can be left distributed over the decking surface and lost within
the concrete pour.

CONCRETE PLACEMENT
Temporary Props

Placing and Compacting

Immediately prior to concrete placement, it is recommended that


checks are made to ensure that temporary propping is installed:
a) where indicated on RLD drawings if supplied under the
contract;
b) where shown to be required on RLD standard span/load tables;
c) where indicated on project specific design calculations.
Care should be taken not to over-jack these props whilst ensuring
that the prop header is in continuous and level contact with the deck
soffit. The propping system should extend to the full width of the
bay and be left in place for a minimum of 14 days after the concrete
has been placed to ensure that sufficient shear bond resistance is
developed.

Care should be taken when concreting in extremes of temperature.


If the air temperature falls below 4oC, then the concrete should be
discharged from the mixer at a temperature of no lower than 10oC
and be protected from frost and maintained at no lower than 5oC for
72 hours after placement. In hot weather the concrete temperature
when deposited should not exceed 32oC and measures should
be taken to prevent drying out of the surface before any curing
protection can be applied.
Where possible the concrete should be pumped or discharged
from a skip in a controlled manner over an intermediate beam of
a multiple span sheet and spread evenly into the adjacent spans.
For single span slabs and in situations where the concrete must be
discharged directly on to the span, care should be taken not to allow
the concrete to fall from a height exceeding 1.0m nor for heaping to
a depth significantly in excess of the design slab depth. Work should
progress transversely across each bay in a direction such that the lap
joints are approached from the side of the overlapping sheet.
If the workability of the concrete is too low, then it will not be
possible to achieve full compaction and an acceptable finish.
Advice should be obtained from the concrete supplier on any
measures to be taken to recover the workability of the mix. Under no
circumstances should water be added to the concrete after it has left
the batching plant.
The concrete should be compacted using a power driven beam or
plate vibrator. Immersion vibrators should not be used. Care should
be taken to avoid over-vibration as this could cause segregation of
the mix, leakage through deck joints, and surface laitance.

Construction Joints
Continuous concrete pours in excess of 1,000m2 can be achieved
on composite floor slabs. If the limits of the pour do not coincide
with permanent slab edges, a construction joint should be formed.
The construction joint should wherever possible be positioned
over permanent supports at the ends of decking panels, not over
intermediate supports which would result in only one span of a
multiple span sheet receiving concrete.
Where it is not possible to have the construction joint at a sheet end,
it should be positioned such that no more than 1/3 of the final span
is left unconcreted.

Concrete

Decking

Construction Joint
Preferred Location

Permanent
Supports

Construction Joint
Alternative Location

Max
1/3rd
Span

Decking
Butt Jointed
Span

34

www.richardlees.co.uk

Curing
Decking
Butt Jointed

Concrete should be protected from the harmful effects of sun, wind,


cold and rain during the first stage of hardening. The protection
should be applied as soon as possible after placing the concrete and
be designed to prevent surface drying for a minimum of 7 days. No
concrete should be disturbed for at least 24 hours after placing.

COMPOSITE FLOOR SLAB


Loading of the composite floor slab to its full design load should only
take place once the concrete has reached its target strength. Early
loading of the slab can have detrimental effects on the long-term
strength and load-bearing capacity of the structure. The use of the
floor slab for storage of materials or as a working platform for further
erection of the structure should only be attempted with the prior
approval of the Project Structural Design Engineer.

Soffit Fixings

The wedges are designed to act as vertical anchors only and should
not be used as nuts. To avoid local overloading of the floor slab
the wedges should not be closely grouped, a nominal 600 mm
grid being recommended as a minimum. Design advice for closer
groupings should be obtained from the Project Structural Design
Engineer or from RLD Technical Department. Dynamic loads should
NOT be supported by wedge fixings. Proprietary anchors can be
embedded in the slab and used as directed by the manufacturer and
where approved by the Project Structural Design Engineer.

The Holorib and Ribdeck ranges of steel decking allow the


suspension of lightweight services and fixtures from removable
wedge-shaped fixings. It is important that the correct wedge fixing
and decking are paired together and that the wedges are not
inserted into lap joints. Table 8 shows the options available, together
with the safe static working load that can be suspended from each
fixing when attached to a fully cured composite floor slab.

Profile

Wedge Type


Holorib


Ribdeck E60
Ribdeck S60
Ribdeck 80

Thread Size
Safe Static
(mm)
Working Load (kg)

Holowedge

Alphawedge
Wedge Nut
Wedge Nut

4
6, 8, 10
6, 8, 10
6, 8, 10
6, 8, 10

150
200
100
100
100

Table 8: Safe Static Working Loads

Installation Procedure:
1) Ensure that the correct wedge is selected.
2) Thread wedge onto the required bolt or rod.
3) Insert wedge in to dovetail rib from below and rotate
through 90o so that the sloped faces of the wedge bear on
the decking ribs.
4) The bolt or rod should then be finger tightened up to the
roof of the dovetail or to a washer set against the soffit of
the decking.
5) Use mechanical tightening to finish.

Alphawedge
The Alphawedge suspension fixing is available from Lindapter
International Ltd (tel: 01274 521444, email support@lindapter.com,
web www.lindapter.com). It is designed for use with all gauges of
Ribdeck E60. Guidance on the use of Alphawedge fixings is available
from Lindapter International Ltd.

Deckspan Design Software


for Holorib, Ribdeck E60, Ribdeck S60, Ribdeck 80, available to
download free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk

Wedge correctly inserted and bolt/rod


tightened against top of dovetail rib

Alternative fitting with washer or


plate tightened against soffit

35

Deckspan Design Software


for Holorib, Ribdeck E60, Ribdeck S60 and Ribdeck 80
available to download free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk

36

www.richardlees.co.uk

Our partners...
Supplied by Oasys Ltd
Tel: +44 (0) 191 238 7559 www.oasys-software.com

37

Richard Lees Decking Limited


Brandlesholme House, Brandlesholme Road,
Bury, Greater Manchester, BL8 1JJ
Tel: +44 (0) 161 609 0455
www.richardlees.co.uk
Email: sales@richardlees.co.uk

Content copyright Richard Lees Decking Ltd and liable to change without notice.
Trademarks acknowledged.
TM1 04/14