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Works Cited

Primary Sources
Abidor, Mitch, trans. "Constitution of 1801." Marxists.org. MarxistsInternetArchive, n.d. Web. 2
Dec. 2014. <http://www.marxists.org/history/haiti/1801/constitution.htm>. This primary
source was useful to us because it showed Louverture's views and impact on the social
change in the country of Haiti. The source was the Haitian Constitution of 1801, which
Toussaint wrote most of. Because he wrote it, it showed first hand how he was a leader in
the colony at the time.
Louverture, Toussaint. The Haitian Revolution. Comp. Jean-Bertrand Aristide and Nick Nesbitt.
London: Verso, 2008. Print. This book is made of a series of primary sources. This book
was extremely important to our project because most of the documents are written by
Toussaint Louverture.
- - -. "Letter to Dessalines." Letter to Jean-Jacques Dessalines. 8 Feb. 1802. TS. This primary
source letter from Louverture to Dessalines was helpful in our research because it proved
to us that Toussaint really wanted to defeat the French. He ordered Dessalines to defeat
the French even though he can't because he has been captured and sent to Fort de Joux.
- - -. Letter to Etienne Laveaux. 18 May 1794. TS. This letter from Toussaint Louverture to
General Laveaux shows the time in which Toussaint changed allegiances from the
Spanish to the French. His expression of regret towards the French General was very
helpful in seeing his true character. It was beneficial to our research because it clearly
showed how he wanted to fight for the French since the Directory abolished slavery in
the colony of St. Domingue.

- - -. "Letter to Napoleon from Fort de Joux." Letter to Napoleon Bonaparte. 17 Sept. 1802. TS.
This primary source letter from Louverture to Napoleon was useful to us because it
showed Toussaint's contradictory position or mindset. He apologized to Napoleon, yet he
told Dessalines to fight back against Napoleon.

Secondary Sources
Altman, Susan. "Toussaint Louverture, Franois-Dominique." Facts on File. Facts on File, 2014.
Web. 11 Dec. 2014. <http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE01>.
This secondary source article was a useful source to us because it gave us background
information about how Toussaint was involved in the war and how he led the slave
revolt.
Beauvoir, Max G. "Highlights of the life of Francois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture."
Toussaint Louverture Historical Society. The Toussaint Louverture Historical Society,
Inc., 2014. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.
<http://toussaintlouverturehs.org/ManOfMillennium.htm>. This secondary source gave
quality in formation from a trustworthy site.
Bell, Madison Smartt. Toussaint Louverture. New York: Pantheon, 2007. Print. This biography is
a secondary source that talked about Toussaint Louverture's life in depth. It helped our
website because it gave us lots of relevant information about our topic. It talked about
what life was like in Haiti before the revolution and when Toussaint was in control in the
country.
Bellegarde-Smith, Patrick. "Toussaint Louverture." World Book Student. World Book, 2014.
Web. 21 Nov. 2014. This secondary source article was a short, easy to read summary of

Toussaint's life. It was an article that helped us learn in the beginning about him and
helped us learn how to pronounce his name.
Cellule de Toussaint Louverture au Fort de Joux. La Route des Abolitions de l'Esclavage et des
Droits de l'Homme. Route des Abolitions, 2007. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.abolitions.org/index.php?IdPage=abolitions>. This picture was useful for
our section on our website titled 'The Capture.' It showed us the conditions of Toussaint's
death.
Fagg, John E. "Toussaint Louverture." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, 21
Nov. 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/600902/Toussaint-Louverture>. This
secondary source had lots of useful background information, specifically about how his
early life led to his success in Haiti later in his life.
"FAQs Who was Toussaint-Louverture?" unesco.org. unesco, 2014. Web. 9 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/dialogue/the-slave-route/resistances-andabolitions/toussaint-louverture/>. This secondary source article provided us with
background information about Toussaint Louverture and described his life in a short
summary.
"Flag of Haiti." Maps of World. Compare Infobase, 2104. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/flags/haiti-flag.html>. We used this picture of this Haitian
flag as a background for our home page of our website.
"France Flag." Deviant Art. Deviant Art, 2015. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. This image provided a picture
of the french flag and is used in the PowerPoint presentation.

"Franois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004.


Encyclopedia.com. 11 Dec. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. This biography of
Toussaint Louverture was useful in our research because it gave us a brief description of
Toussaint's life in Haiti.
"Haiti." World Book. Vol. 9. 2007. Print. This secondary source article in the encyclopedia about
Haiti and its revolution provided us with information about Toussaint Louverture during
the time he was there.
"Haitian Revolution." Atlanta Black Star. Atlanta Black Star, 26 Sept. 2013. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
<http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/09/26/15-black-uprisings-european-arab-opressionwont-teach-schools/>. This photo was used under the tab of The Revolution, because it is
an image from the Haitian Revolution.
"Haiti - Social : Floral offering in memory of Toussaint Louverture." Haiti Libre. Haitilibre.com,
2015. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-8287-haiti-social-floraloffering-in-memory-of-toussaint-louverture.html>. We used this photo as a background
for our legacy page to show how he is remembered. The statue shows that Toussaint
Louverture is still remembered today in various pages.
Hutchins, Zachary. "The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the Negro Patriot of Hayti: Comprising
an Account of the Struggle for Liberty in the Island, and a Sketch of Its History to the
Present Period." Documenting the American South. University Library, 17 Dec. 2014.
Web. 15 Jan. 2015. <http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/beardj/summary.html>. This is a
secondary source about John Relly Beard's perspective on Toussaint Louverture.
"Image Ownership: Public Domain." Black Past. Black Past, 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.blackpast.org/gah/haitian-revolution-1791-1804>. This photo is one of the

Haitian Revolution that we included on our website in the section called the Night of
Fire.
James, C. L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution.
2nd ed. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print. C.L.R. James' book The Black Jacobins is a
great secondary source. He gives great incite to the life of Haitians and Toussiant
Louverture himself. He also adds geography of the island as well as crops grown there.
"L'Ouverture, Toussaint (1742-1803)." Black Past. Black Past, 2007-2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.blackpast.org/gah/loverture-toussaint-1742-1803>. This article was a
secondary source that gave us lots of background information about Toussaint
Louverture. It gave a clear description of his early life and a brief description of his fight
against Napoleon. This helped our website because there was plenty of useful
information that helped us describe Louverture's life in detail.
McNally, Deborah. "Dessalines, Jean-Jacques (1758-1806)." BlackPast.org. BlackPast.org, 2007.
Web. 9 Dec. 2014. <http://www.blackpast.org/gah/dessalines-jean-jacques-1758-1806>.
This secondary source held important information and benefited our website because it
told us about Jean-Jacques Dessalines and about what he did when he replaced Toussaint
Louverture's place in the government of Haiti.
Picture of Toussaint's coin. Tumblr. Tumblr, 2015. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.
<http://37.media.tumblr.com/96c0daee2b731266f44d1575ea35f22e/tumblr_n2266nUQX
P1sj3omto1_1280.jpg>. We used it in the PowerPoint presentation to provide an image of
Toussaint.
Scherman, Katherine. The Slave Who Freed Haiti. Illus. Adolph Dehn. New York: Random,
1954. Print. This book provided information on Toussaint Louverture's life and gave us

plenty of helpful information. It was a secondary source book that was highly useful and
informative.
Suchodolski, January Suchodolski. "Battle at Santo Domingo." Urban Faith. URBAN FAITH,
2015. Web. 29 Jan. 2015. <http://urbanfaith.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/01/San_Domingo-Battle480x350-thumb-480x350-1553.jpg>. This
secondary source is important because it shows the fight between the whites and the
blacks. We put this picture on our Leadership page.
Sutherland, Claudia E. "Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)." Black Past. Black Past, 2011. Web. 10
Dec. 2014. <http://www.blackpast.org/gah/haitian-revolution-1791-1804>. This
secondary source was useful for our the information presented on our website because it
described the Haitian Revolution and provided us with pertinent information on our topic.
It detailed the successes of the Revolution and how Toussaint Louverture was involved in
it.
TheMarches09, ed. National Anthem of Haiti | Im nasyonal la an Ayiti. By Philip Sheppard
Sheppard. youtube. 2015 YouTube, 10 Aug. 2012. Web. 30 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thRQ3x4RKsU>. This secondary source plays the
Haitian National Anthem,which was written upon Haiti's Independence. This is being
played on our home page.
"Toussaint L'Ouverture." History Wiz. History Wiz, 1998-2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.historywiz.org/searchresults.html?cx=partner-pub9161040710096656%3Absiurkiu2f3&cof=FORID%3A10&ie=ISO-88591&q=toussaint+l%27overture&sa=Search&siteurl=historywiz.com
%2Fsearch.htm&ref=historywiz.com

%2F&ss=9080j8606734j20&siteurl=historywiz.com
%2Fsearch.htm&ref=historywiz.com%2F&ss=9080j8606734j20>. This secondary source
article held important information that aided us in our research. We were informed of the
tensions between Napoleon and Louverture.
"Toussaint Louverture." Media Lib. Media Lib, 2015. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
<http://a66c7b.medialib.glogster.com/media/f4/f41138d18ea5e69472deb0f812fabe24ac5
ccdb357c2d8cd437370e4f3808002/0-0-400-500.jpg>. This image was used in our
PowerPoint presentation as our main photo of Toussaint Louverture.
Williams, Kevin. "Toussaint Louverture." Historical Text Archive. Donald J. Mabry/Historical
Text Archive, 1990-2015. Web. 29 Jan. 2015.
<http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?action=read&artid=630>. This secondary
source was beneficial to our project because reliable information about the Night of Fire
was scarce. This source was rich in well-researched information that helped our project
immensely.

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