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Subcultures,  Microcultures,    

and  Consumer  Iden5ty  
•  Consumers’  lifestyles  are  affected  by  group  
membership  within  the  society-­‐at-­‐large  
–  Subcultures  of  age,  race/ethnicity,  place  of  residence  

•  Microcultures  share  a  strong  iden5fica5on  with  an  
ac5vity  or  art  form  
–  Have  own  unique  set  of  norms,  vocabulary,  and  product  
insignias    
   

Ethnic  and  Racial  Subcultures  
•  Ethnic  subculture  
–  Homogeneous  vs.  heterogeneous  cultural  
socie5es  

•  Marketers  cannot  ignore  the  diversity  of  
cultures  in  society  today  
–  Ethnic  minori5es  spend  more  than  $600  billion  a  
year  on  products  

Ethnic  and  Racial  Subcultures  
•  An  ethnic  subculture  is  a  self-­‐perpetua5ng  
group  of  consumers  who  share  common  
cultural  or  gene5c  5es  where  both  its  
members  and  others  recognize  it  as  a  dis5nct  
category.    
•  In  countries  like  Japan,  ethnicity  is  
synonymous  with  the  dominant  culture  
because  most  ci5zens  claim  the  same  cultural  
5es.    

 poli5cal   behavior.  leisure  ac5vi5es.Ethnicity  and  Marke5ng  Strategies   •  Subcultural  memberships  help  shape  people’s   needs/wants   •  Minori5es  find  an  adver5sing  spokesperson   from  their  own  group  more  trustworthy   •  Ethnic  subculture  affects  level/type  of  media   exposure.  willingness  to  try   new  products   .  food/apparel  preferences.

 at  least  in  part.  with  the   influence  of  accultura5on  agents   –  Family   –  Friends   –  Church  organiza5ons   –  Media   .     •  Accultura5on  occurs.What  is  Accultura5on?   •  Accultura5on  is  the  process  of  movement  and   adapta5on  to  one  country’s  cultural  environment   by  a  person  from  another  country.

The  Progressive  Learning  Model   •  Assumes  that  people  gradually  learn  a  new   culture  as  they  increasingly  come  into  contact   with  it   •  When  people  acculturate  they  will  blend  their   original  culture  and  the  new  one   •  Consumers  who  retain  much  of  their  original   ethnic  iden5ty  differ  from  those  who   assimilate   .

A  Model  of     Consumer  Accultura5on   .

Is  Ethnicity  a  Moving  Target?   •  Defining/targe5ng  an  ethnic   group  is  not  always  so  easy   (“mel5ng  pot”  society)   –  Many  iden5fy  with  two  or   more  races   •  Tiger  Woods.   Mariah  Carey   •  De-­‐ethniciza5on   –  Bagels   .  Keanu  Reeves.

 and   Asian  Americans   –  Hispanic  popula5on  is  now  the  largest  ethnic   subculture  (12.6%)  are  the  fastest-­‐growing   racial  group  (due  to  immigra5on)   .  Hispanic  Americans.5%)   –  Asian  Americans  (3.The  “Big  Three”  American  Subcultures   •  African  Americans.

African  Americans   •  Overall  spending  pacerns   of  blacks  and  whites  are   roughly  similar   •  Household  income  and   educa5onal  levels  rising  for   African  Americans   •  Differences  in  consump5on   behaviors  subtle  but   important   .

Hispanic  Americans   •  “Hispanic”  =  many   different  backgrounds   •  Hispanics  are:   –  Brand  loyal   –  Highly  concentrated   geographically  by  country  of   origin  (easy  to  reach)   .

Dis5nguishing  Characteris5cs  of  the   Hispanic  Market   •  Looking  for  spirituality.   and  more  color  in  their  lives   •  Large  family  size  of  Hispanic  market   –  Spend  more  on  groceries   –  Shopping  is  a  family  affair   –  Regard  clothing  children  well  as  macer  of  pride   –  Convenience/saving  5me  is  not  important  to   Hispanic  homemaker   .  stronger  family  5es.

 best  educated   •  Most  likely  to  hold   technology-­‐related  jobs   •  Most  brand-­‐conscious  but   least  brand  loyal   •  Made  up  of  culturally  diverse   subgroups  that  speak  many   different  languages/dialects   .Asian  Americans   •  Fastest-­‐growing  group   •  Most  affluent.

Religious  Subcultures   •  The  rise  of  spirituality   –  Explosion  of  religion/spirituality    in   pop  culture   •  Churches  are  adop5ng  aggressive   marke5ng   –  Megachurches   •  Religious  themes  can  spill  over   into  everyday  consump5on   –  “Cult  products”   •  Marke5ng  opportunity  among   religious  subcultures   .

COM   .Old  and  New  Religions   •  There  is  an  astonishing  variety  of   flourishing  new  religious   movements   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Scientologists   Wicca   The  Raelians   The  Ahmadis   The  Brahma  Kumaris  World  Spiritual   University   Cao  Dai   Soka  Gakkai  Interna5onal   The  Toronto  Blessing   Umbanda   BELIEFNET.

The  Impact  of  Religion  on  Consump5on   •  Religion  is  seen  as  a  taboo  subject  to  marketers   –  Dietary  and  dress  requirements  create  demand  for  certain   products   •  Religious  subcultures  affect  personality.  income.g..  and  poli5cal  aktudes   –  Church  leaders  can  encourage  and/or  discourage   consump5on  (e.  aktudes   toward  sexuality.  birthrates  and  household   forma5on.  boycoc  of  Disney)   .

Religious  Subcultures     and  Product  Demand   •  Religious  themes  can  spill  over  into  everyday   consump5on   –  “Cult  products”   •  Marke5ng  opportunity  among  religious   subcultures  due  to  dress  and  food   requirements   .

The  Born-­‐Again  Boom   •  Born-­‐Again  Chris5ans  are   those  who  follow  literal   interpreta5ons  of  the  Bible   and  who  acknowledge  being   born  again  through  belief  in   Jesus   •  Fastest-­‐growing  religious   affilia5ons  in  United  States   .

Age  and  Consumer  Iden5ty   •  A  consumer’s  age  exerts  a  significant  influence   on  his/her  iden5ty   •  Age  cohort  (“my  genera5on”)   –  Marketers  target  specific  age  cohorts   •  Feelings  of  nostalgia   –  Our  possessions  let  us  iden5fy  with  others  of  a   certain  age/life  stage   .

Genera5onal  Categories   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  The  Interbellum  Genera5on   The  Silent  Genera5on   The  War  Baby  Genera5on   The  Baby  Boom  Genera5on   Genera5on  X   Genera5on  Y   Genera5on  Z   .

1  Nostalgia  Scale   Scale Items They don’t make ‘em like they used to. We are experiencing a decline in the quality of life. History involves a steady improvement in human welfare (reverse coded). Products are getting shoddier and shoddier.Table  14. Modern business constantly builds a better tomorrow (reverse coded). Steady growth in GNP has brought increased human happiness (reverse coded). Things used to be better in the good old days. Technological change will ensure a brighter future (reverse coded). .

The  Youth  Market   •  “Teenage”  first  used  to  describe  youth   genera5on  in  1950s   •  Youth  market  oren  represents  rebellion   •  $100  billion  in  spending  power   .

S.Gekng  to  Know  Gen  Y   •  “Echo  Boomers”  =   “millennials”  =  Gen  Yers   •  Make  up  one-­‐third  of  U.   in  a  500-­‐channel  TV   universe   .   popula5on   •  Spend  $170  billion  a  year   •  First  to  grow  up  with   computers  in  their  homes.

Gen  Y  Learning  Styles   •  •  •  •  Devalue “face time” in favor of virtual Communal learning – with no “winners or losers” Multiprocessing and switching contexts rapidly Early exposure to video games creates a fondness for trial-and-error learning in an environment of suspended reality •  Expectations for instantaneous access and response that cannot always be provided in traditional settings. often favoring instant or text messaging over the delays associated with emailing     .

  .S.  Army  already  are  experimen5ng  with   new  3D  immersive  learning  plauorms  that   sync  with  the  digital  environments  in  which   young  people  immerse  themselves  every  day.Forward-­‐thinking  organiza5ons  from  IBM  to   the  U.

Youth  research     .

50.Expert: Chef: I can help with menu ideas or ingredient pairings for the low price of $2. Chef Each team gets $25 for shopping and to use in exchange for expert advice .

28 . The side screens can be used to show web cams or additional media.PowerPoint slides were projected onto the front screen.

 save   por5on  of  income.  and   view  home  as  expression  of   individuality   .Baby  Busters:  “Genera5on  X”   •  Consumers  born  between   1966  and  1976   •  Today’s  Gen  Xer  is  both   values-­‐oriented  and  value-­‐ oriented   •  Desire  stable  families.

Baby  Boomers   •  Consumers  born  between  1946  and  1965   •  Ac5ve  and  physically  fit   •  Currently  in  peak  earning  years   –  Food.  apparel.  and  re5rement  programs   –  “Midlife  crisis”  products   .

 interested   in  life.The  Gray  Market   •  Tradi5onally  neglected    by   marketers   •  People  are  now  living  longer/ healthier  lives   –  “Zoomers”  =  ac5ve.  enthusias5c  consumers   with  buying  power   –  Fastest  growing  group  of   Internet  users   .

Perceived  Age:   You’re  Only  as  Old  as  You  Feel   •  Age  is  more  a  state  of  mind  than  of  body   •  Perceived  age:  how  old  a  person  feels  as   opposed  to  his  or  her  chronological  age   –  “Feel-­‐age”   –  “Look-­‐age”   •  The  older  we  get.  the  younger  we  feel  rela5ve   to  actual  age   .

Values  of  Older  Adults   •  Autonomy:  want  to  be  self-­‐ sufficient   •  Connectedness:  value  bonds   with  friends  and  family   •  Altruism:  want  to  give   something  back  to  the  world   .

 70s)   –  Marital  status   –  Health  and  outlook  on  life   •  Social  aging  theories:  try  to   understand  how  society   assigns  people  to  different   roles  across  life  span   .Segmen5ng  Seniors   •  Segmented  by:   –  Specific  ages  (50s.  60s.