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THEORY OF ATOMS

Development
Old theories about atoms were formed in several ancient civilizations.
In Western tradition, Greek philosophers such as Democritus, Leucippus, and
the Epicureans claimed the existence of atoms. They said that the world
consists of two components: indivisible atoms and empty void. Atoms can’t
be destroyed and have an infinite variety of forms and sizes. Atoms are
clustered-up into different shapes and arrangements to form various objects
and substances in the world.
During the 18th century, Antoine Lavoisier formulated the “Law of
conservation of mass” in 1789. He stated that the total mass in a chemical
reaction remains constant. Another theory called the “Law of definite
proportions” was made by French chemist Joseph Louis Proust in the year of
1799. He claimed that if a compound is broken down into its constituent
elements, then the masses of the elements will always have the same
proportions, regardless of the number or source of the original substance.
John Dalton used this previous theory and expanded it, developing the
“Law of multiple proportions”. He claimed that if two elements form more
than one compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the
second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be
ratios of small whole numbers. Dalton proposed that each element consists
of atoms of a single, unique type, and though they cannot be altered and are
indestructible by chemical means, they are able to combine to form more
complicated chemical compounds. Dalton then orally presented his list of
relative atomic weights for a number of substances.
Joseph Gay-Lussac then announced the “Law of combining volumes” in
1808. He showed that at the same temperature and pressure, two volumes
of hydrogen gas reacted with one volume of oxygen gas to produce two
volumes of water in the form of gas. Amadeo Avogrado proposed a
hypothesis in 1811. The hypothesis claims that at the same temperature and
pressure, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules or
atoms. This theory is connected to Gay-Lussac’s “Law of combining
volumes”. This hypothesis was considered as a radical statement at the time
and was not widely accepted until fifty years later. In 1860, Stanislao

wikipedia. Niels Bohr used quantum theory to make his Bohr model of the atom. In 1926. The model describes that an electron could only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy.J. explored whether or not the movement of an electron in an atom could be better explained as a wave rather than as a particle. Schrodinger published a theory describing an electron as a wave function instead of a point particle Sources: http://cstl-csm.htm http://en.Cannizzaro proposed that Avogrado’s Hypothesis be accepted at the Karlsruhe Conference.org/wiki/Atomic_theory . In 1897. In 1924. the neutron. He stated that all of the positive charge and all of the mass of the atom occupied a small volume at the center of the atom and that most of the volume of the atom was empty space occupied by the electrons. Louis De Broglie proposed that all moving particles show a degree of wave-like behavior. Thompson discovered the negatively charged electron in the cathode ray tube. In 1920. inspired by this idea. He deduced that the electron was a component of all matter and calculated the charge to mass ratio of the electron. Rutherford proposed the existence of the third atomic particle.edu/mcgowan/ch181/atomhist. Thompson also proposed the plum pudding model.semo. Erwin Schrodinger. Rutherford also created a planetary model in which a cloud of electron surrounded a small compact nucleus of positive charge. He and the others also discovered protons by studying atoms based on charges. when Max Planck and Albert Einstein stated that light energy is emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts known as quanta. its distance from the nucleus being proportional to its energy. Ernest Rutherford then proposed the nuclear atoms as the result of the gold-foil experiment in 1911. J. Quantum theory revolutionized physics at the beginning of the 20th century.