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Chapter 3 Management Interventions/Options and

Action Plans
Mangrove ecosystem is considered to be one of the richest and most
productive ecosystems. The mangrove ecosystem is dominated by mangrove trees
as the primary producer interacting with associated aquatic fauna, social and
physical factors of the coastal ecosystem.
Like other coastal ecosystems, mangroves are not safe from human intervention
and destruction. These ecosystems have become an easy target for the extraction
of wood for fuel and construction, the production of food and waste disposal. Due to
the importance of mangrove forest to the ecological system and environment, it is
necessary to have a good management, conservation and restoration plan of
mangrove forest. This chapter provides the various interventions and plans that will
address different components, namely; Environment, Social, Economic and Legal.

Environmental Component

Establishment of Mangrove vetum/ nursery

Mangrove nursery a place for raising and tending mangrove seedlings until
they are ready for planting or for sale to other mangrove planters

A. General criteria for the selection of the Nursery site:

Water supply Locating a nursery near a brackish or freshwater

source should be easy since mangroves are located in the coastal
Central location and accessibility the nursery should be located
close to the mangrove area. The area should be open enough to
ensure that the seedlings get enough light. For security reasons, it
would also be wise to locate nursery site near peoples homes.
Drainage Proper drainage is essential because plants become
waterlogged when standing water is always present and working in
the area becomes difficult.
Size of area The size of an area is the last contributory factor in
nursery efficiency.

B. Building the Nursery

Building the nursery will probably require more people than there are
in the committee. Other important activities include:


Site preparation
Seed germination beds
Seed boxes
Germinating shed
Potting sheds
Bagging and storage shed
Potting soil and river sand
Compost piles
Seedling/hardening beds

C. Maintenance of the seedlings

Seedling quality in the nursery will depend on care and maintenance. This
a. Watering
b. Shading
c. Weeding
d. Protection from pests, diseases and stray animals.

Mangrove Plantation Establishment

In establishing a mangrove plantation, it is important to consider the

following factors:
A. Type of Substrates:
The substrate is an important controlling factor in selecting an area for
plantation development. In the municipality of Claver, the following
substrates are found:
a. Mud best characterized as soft sediment composed of a
combination of organic and inorganic material. It may be as shallow
as 2-3 centimeters or as deep as a few meters. Mud is a good
substrate to plant: Bakauan lalaki and Bakauan babae.
b. Rocky or coralline this substrate may best be described as hard
shelves where small or thin pockets of softer sediment are found for
protection and other ecological purposes the following species are
recommended in these areas: Bakauan lalaki and pagatpat.
c. Sandy consists of very small grains of sediment (often coral)
usually less than 2 millimeters in diameter like mud, sand may be
as shallow as 2-3 centimeters or as deep as several meters. The
following species do well in sandy substrate: Bakauan lalaki and
B. Common species present - There are at least 20 true mangrove species

and 4 associate species belonging to 12 families are found in the

Municipality of Claver. Moreover, species composition varies in each

eleven barangays. Brgys. Panatao and Hayanggabon have the most

number of mangroves recorded with ten (10) recorded species followed
by Brgys. Wangke, Lapinigan and Taganito with 8 species listed. The
most dominant species in all sites are nipa (Nypa fruticans), bakauan
lalaki (Rhizophora apiculata), saging-saging (Aegiceras corniculatum)
and pagatpat (Sonneratia alba)
III. Protection and Maintenance of Plantation Areas
A. Creation and mobilization of Bantay Gubat as the main enforcement and
monitoring team.
B. In general, maintaining a young plantation involves the following:
Regular visits (daily or every other day)
Removal of debris
Installation or fence repair
Removal of barnacles and other pests
Uprooting and replacement of sick or dead plants
C. Maintenance activities in subsequent years
When the trees attain economic size, pruning of the stand should be done
to allow better growth. Pruning is a maintenance activity that takes place
after the initial year or two of intensive maintenance. It is defined as the
cutting of unnecessary branches and stems. Pruning is done to:
Enhance height and trunk diameter growth rate. He nutrients that
otherwise would be absorbed by the branches will now be utilized
by the upper part of the tree, thus increasing growth rate.
Improve the tree form and wood quality. Cutting the lower branches
will help to define the tree trunk and reduce knots in the lumber.

Social Component
To increase the knowledge, understanding and level of awareness of the
community regarding the importance of mangroves, the following activities should
be taken: (production, distribution, implementation,)
a. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) - This activity will focus on public awareness
on mangroves and its importance on the lowest level of the barangay that
even children could understand its significance. FGD will be conducted
every quarter in the coastal barangays that will manage in the protection
of mangrove protected areas.

b. Produce and print flyers Flyers that will be printed in Bisaya and English
dialects will be distributed in the municipality of Claver. This will be done
once every quarter.

c. Establishment of Signage in every barangay Upon the start of the

project, signages will be installed in every barangays.
d. Posting of Billboards, tarpaulins and information - Billboards and tarpaulins
will be made available upon the implementation of the project.
e. Conduct of film showing activities about mangroves In order to
strengthen the consciousness of the people, film showing will be
simultaneously conducted during FGD discussion.

Economic Component
1. Organization of POs Creation of POs will be organized. People that will be
directly affected during operation will be the members of the organization.
This POs will also co-manage to conform the community based -management
(eligible pos)
2. Training of POs Alternative livelihood trainings will be conducted to POs.
Assessment of livelihoods will be done in order to attain the best alternative
that will suit to the communities. They will be trained in order to capacitate
their abilities on wise implementation and to achieve a sustainable
development that will augment their standard of living.
3. Pilot testing on Alternative Livelihood - This aims to have a model on the
livelihood that will be chosen by the POs. Livelihood projects such as mud
crab fattening, build a boardwalk through the mangroves and charge tourists
entry, investing materials for beehives and selling honey if the mangrove can
support an aviary, selling wine, vinegar and nipa shingles. Pilot testing will be
made in order to test its effective of such livelihood.
4. Full Implementation of Alternative Livelihood Once the pilot testing will be
successful, full implementation of the said project will then be launched.
However, constant monitoring will be conducted to monitor its sustainability.

Legal Component
The national government of the Philippines has national laws that prohibits
cutting of mangrove tree species per section 4, Republic Act No. 7161, otherwise
known as An Act Incorporating Certain Sections of the National Internal Revenue
Code of 1977, as amended, otherwise known as The Revised Forestry Code of the
Philippines, and Providing Amendments thereto by Increasing the Forest Charges
on Timber and Other Forest Products dated 22 July 1991. As stated in Republic Act
No. 7160, also known as the Local Government Code of 1991, the Management/
Implementation of community forestry projects, communal forests less than 500
hectares, enforcement of community-based laws shall be devoted to the local
The municipal government of Claver shall formulate ordinances, resolutions
and even guidelines regarding mangrove management to wit:

An Ordinance that creates Mangrove Management Council;

Develop Code of Conduct to sustain Mangrove ecosystem;
Formulation of Eco tourism guidelines; (coordination with the LGU)
Formulation of Guidelines for Research and Development;
Imposition of bylaws, fines and penalties

To ensure apt implementation of the ordinances, the Local Government of Claver

will spearheads together with line agencies, mining companies and coordination
with the community.

Group 2
Sarah Garcia
Analee Alverastine
Cyril Reginald Canonoy
Kag. Elsa Cabiling
Anna Marie Larong

Kag. Tersita E. Calog

Kag. Vicente Betanio