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DESIGN OF FARM HOUSE IN

SEISMIC REGION

SESSION 2003( F ) - 2007


Project Advisor:

ENGR. MUHAMMAD IRFAN-UL-HASSAN


( ASSISTANT PROFESSOR )

Submitted By:
SAFEER ABBAS
MOHAMMAD AFZAL
ADNAN KHALID
MOHAMMAD AHSAN

2003(F)-CIVIL-988
2003(F)-CIVIL-982
2003(F)-CIVIL-976
2003(F)-CIVIL-987

Department Of Civil Engineering

University of Engineering & Technology


Lahore.

DESIGN OF FARMHOUSE
IN
SEISMIC REGION

This project is submitted to Department of Civil Engineering,


University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan, for the partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Bachelors of Science
In

CIVIL ENGINEERING

Approved on: _______________

Internal examiner:
(Project advisor)

Sign: ____________________________
Name: Engr. Muhammad Irfan-ul-Hassan

External examiner:

Sign: ____________________________
Name: ____________________________

Department of Civil Engineering


University of Engineering and Technology
Lahore-Pakistan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ARCHITECTURAL PLANS

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Earthquake

1.2 Old concepts about an earthquake

1.3 Causes of Earthquake

1.4 Types of Earthquakes

1.5 Earthquake Measuring Instruments

1.6 How does Earthquake affect Building

1.7 Complexity of Earthquake Ground motion

1.8 Effects of Earthquakes

1.9 Earthquakes in Pakistan

1.10 Scope of Seismic design of structure

11

1.11 Objectives of Project

11

1.12 Introduction of Project

12

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Codes

13
13

2.1.1 ACI CODE


2.1.2 UBC 97
2.2 Masonry Design

24

2.3 Related Terms

27

2.3.1 Beam
2.3.3 Column
2.3.4 Slab
2.3.5 Wall & Footing

2.4 Fundamental Assumptions for Reinforced Concrete

35

Behavior
2.5 Design Basis

35

2.6 Trend of making the earthquake resistant structures

36

2.6.1 Present Practices in Pakistan

CHAPTER 3:

SEISMIC DESIGN OF STRUCTURE

38

3.1 Purpose

38

3.2 Minimum Seismic Design

38

3.3 Seismic and Wind Design

39

3.4 Some Related Terms

39

3.5 Construction Of Buildings In Seismic Region

43

3.5.1 Dead loads


3..5.2 Live loads
3.5.3 Dynamic / viberations loads
3.5.4 Wind loads
3.5.5 Seismic loads
3.5.6 Thermal loads
3.5.7 Shrinkage and creep
3.5.8 Snow loads
3.6 Structural systems

50

3.7 Expansion and separation joints

51

3.8 Foundations and substructures

51

3.9 Method of analysis

52

3.10 For single to two storey houses units

52

3.10.1 Materials
3.10.2 Structural forms and building cconfigurations
3.10.3 Horizontal reinforcement in walls
3.10.4 Plinth Band

3.10.5 Lintel Band


3.10.6 Roof Band
3.10.7 Vertical reinforcement in walls
3.10.8 Vertical joints between orthogonal walls
3.10.9 Dowels at corner and junctions
3.11 Guideline for multistory frame structure

57

3.11.1 Material types for wall


3.11.2 Foundations
3.11.3 Masonary shear walls
3.11.4 Reinforced concrete walls
3.11.5 Minimum beam , column and slab sizes

CHAPTER 4:

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

59

4.1 Two-Way Slabs.


4.1.2 Design by the coefficient method
4.2 For One way slab

60

4.2.1 Design procedure


4.3 Beams

62

4.3.1 Design of structural beams


4.3.1.1 Design procedure for simply
Supported beams
4.3.1.2 Design procedure for doubly
reinforced beams
4.3.1.3 Design procedure for continuous
Beam
4.4 Design of lintels

65

4.4.1 Wall load on lintel


4.5 Columns

4.5.1 Design procedure for the

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Structural columns
4.6 Wall design and foundations

67

4.6.1 Design of masonary foundation


4.6.2 Thickness of wall
4.6.3 Design procedure for isolated footing
4.7 Design of stairs

69

4.8 Software used in design of


farm house as frame structure

69

4.8.1 Overview of ETABS program


4.8.2 Procedure for modeling in ETABS

STRUCTURAL PLANS

CHAPTER 5:

DESIGN OF FARMHOUSE

76

A ) Manual Calculations

5.1 Walls And Foundations

77

5.1.1 Exterior wall ( W1 )


5.1.2 Exterior wall ( W1 )
5.1.3 Interior wall ( W2 )
5.1.4 Interior wall ( W2 )
5.1.5 Exterior wall ( W1 )
5.1.6 Conclusions
5.2 Design of column ( C3 ) footing

84

5.3 Design of column ( C2 ) footing

90

5.4 Design of slabs

96

5.4.1 Design of ground floor slab system


5.4.2 Design of first floor slab system
5.5 Design of beams
5.5.1 Non structural beams

110

5.5.2 Structural beams


5.6 Design of lintels

115

5.7 Design of columns

118

5.8 Design of stairs

124

B ) Computer aided asnalysis and results

127

Drawings
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

156

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

No natural event is more frightening than an earthquake


because earthquake strikes (damages) suddenly without giving any warning. The frame
and huge foundation of the earth shake like a coward. The destructive movements are all
over in less than a minute, leaving behind fallen dreams and broken structures.

Earthquake , like other natural disasters, have affected hundreds of thousands of persons
directly over the ages. Earthquake is a major problem for mankind, killing thousands
each year. Earthquake are causing death and destruction in a wide variety of ways, from
building collapse to conflagrations , tsunamis , landslides. In Pakistan earthquakes are not
so common compared to other part of the world but some areas of Pakistan (North and
South Himalayas) lies in the area of high seismic zone. Recently 8th October 2005
earthquake shakes the most part of Azad Kashmir and NWFP and causes huge
destruction and loss of life.

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

1 . 1 EARTHQUAKE
An earthquake is a disturbance or vibration of earth by different types of natural and
human induced phenomenon e.g. meteoric impact, volcanic activity, under ground
nuclear explosion, rock stress changes due to large reservoirs, and movements of tectonic
plates. During an earthquake the earth's surface starts vibrating, and rumbling and roaring
noise come from underneath and the buildings start cracking and collapsing, and the
people get frightening.

1 . 2 OLD CONCEPTS ABOUT AN EARTHQUAKE


Mythological explanations for earthquakes have included the ox who carries the earth on
one shoulder [or in some versions, one horn] and causes earthquakes when shifting the
earth to the other shoulder or horn. According to some accounts, Pythagoras suggested
that earthquakes resulted from the multitudes of dead people fighting under the earth.

1 . 3 CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKE
The sudden slip that is an earthquake results from a gradual build-up of stress inside the
earth. Basically, the rocks that make up the outer layers of the Earth, if subjected to
sufficient force, can be brought to a "breaking point". It is even easier for them to snap if
certain places are already weakened, much the way a sheet of paper will tear more readily
along a sharp crease. When the stress in a particular location is great enough to overcome
the forces holding together the rocks below us, something, effectively, "breaks" or "gives
way", and an earthquake begins. The forces needed to cause this stress and move such
large masses of rock are immense.

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Tectonics deals with structural ruptures at the plate boundaries. These plates drift very
slowly with relation to each other as they "float" on the more fluid material (the mantle)
beneath them. At their edges, they may be colliding, separating, or moving laterally past
each other. The nature of these plate to plate boundaries has a tremendous effect on the
geology, volcanic and seismic activity along the edges of each plate. Earthquakes are
therefore the result of tectonic movements. The crust of the earth consists of several very
thick plates, and at the boundaries of these plates as well as within each plate
geological discontinuities, known as faults, usually occur. The sudden relative movement
of plates at a fault engenders vertical and horizontal vibrations of the ground over a large
area, usually causing damage to structures and also loss of life.

Therefore earthquakes are the result of tectonic movements, Meteoric impact , Volcanic
activity, Under Ground nuclear explosions , Rock stresses change due to large reservoirs

1 . 4 TYPES OF EARTHQUAKES
1 ) Tectonic earthquakes
2 ) Interplate earthquakes
3 ) Deep focus earthquakes
4 ) Volcanoes

1 . 5 EARTHQUAKE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


There are different types of earthquakes measuring instruments e.g. accelerograph,
seismograph but the principle of working of these are almost same.These instruments are
used to measure ground shaking and structural vibration during an earthquake. The basic
element of vibration measuring instrument is a transducer.Three separate transducers are

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

required to measure the three components of motion i.e. two horizontal and one vertical.
The data can be obtained in the form of three acceleration components.

SEISMOGRAPH

Figure 1.1 Seismograph

SEISMOGRAM

Figure 1.2 Seismogram

1 . 6 HOW DO EARTHQUAKES AFFECT BUILDINGS


The dynamic response of the building to earthquake ground motion is the most important
cause of earthquake-induced damage to buildings. Failure of the ground and soil beneath
buildings is also a major cause of damage. Most earthquakes result from rapid movement
along the plane of faults within the earth's crust. This sudden movement of the fault
releases a great deal of energy, which then travels through the earth in the form of
seismic waves.

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

Figure 1.3showing the movement of seismic waves

The seismic waves travel for great distances before finally losing their energy.At some
time after their generation, these seismic waves will reach the earth's surface,and set it in
motion, which we not surprisingly refer to as earthquake ground motion. When this
earthquake ground motion occurs beneath a building and when it is strong enough, it sets
the building in motion, starting with the foundation, and transfers the motion throughout
the rest of the building in a very complex way. These motions in turn induce forces which
can produce damage. Ground motion at a building site is vastly more complicated than
the wave form. Compare the surface of the ground in an earthquake to the surface of a
small body of water. You can set the surface of a pond in motion--by throwing stones
into it. The firstfew stones create a series of circular waves, which soon begin to collide
with one another. After a while, interference patterns begin to predominate and the
originalwaves disappear. In an earthquake, the ground vibrates in a similar manner, as
waves of different frequencies and amplitude interact with one another

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

1 . 7 COMPLEXITY OF EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION


The complexity of earthquake ground motion is due to three factors:
1) SOURCE EFFECTS

The seismic waves generated at the time of earthquake fault movement are not all
uniform.
2) PATH EFFECTS

As seismic waves pass through the earth on their way from the fault to the building
site, they are modified by the soil and rock media through which they pass.

3) LOCAL SITE EFFECTS

Once the seismic waves reach the building site they undergo further modifications,
which are dependent upon the characteristics of the ground and soil beneath the building

1 . 8 EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES
There are many effects of earthquakes, these include, but are not limited to,
1)

Broken windows

2)

Collapse of buildings

3)

Fires

4)

Landslides

5)

Destabilizations of the base of some buildings which may lead to collapse in a


future earthquake

6)

Disease

7)

Lack of basic necessities

8)

Human loss of life

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

9)

Higher insurance premiums

Fault rupture tearing apart a building in Glck Naval Base

+
Figure 1.4 shows the broken windows
( Turkey )

Figure 1.6 shows that the building collapses


during an earthquake in
Ahmedabad (27-01-2001)

Figure 1.5 shows that the whole building tilted


on left side after the earthquake.

Figure 1.7 earthquake in Ahmedabad


(26-01-2001)

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Figure 1.8 shows that the building get inserted into the ground and tilted due to earthquake. ( Bhug )

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

1 . 9 EARTHQUAKES IN PAKISTAN
Major Earthquakes in Pakistan are,
Year
1935
1945
1974
1981
1997
2001
2002
2005

Location
Quetta (Balochistan)
Makran coast (Baluchistan)
NE of Malakhand, NWFP
Gilgit Wazarat (Jammu & Kashmir)
Near Harnai (Baluchistan),
Near Bhachau (Gujarat )
Gilgit
Ballakot , Muzzafarabd , Kashmir

Figure 1.9 ( Margala tower )

Figure 1.10 ( Margala tower )

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

Figure 1.11 ( Muzzaffarabad )

Figure 1.12 ( Muzzaffarabad )

Figure 1.13 ( Muzzaffarabad )

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Introduction

CHAPTER 1

1 . 10 SCOPE OF SEISMIC DESIGN OF STRUCTURE


After 8th October earthquake in Pakistan the importance of earthquake resistant structures
have increased. Now a day the scope of Seismic design of structures is increase because
peoples are more interested to construct earthquake resisting structures for their domestic
and commercial activity. Even if our structure is going to built at a site where there is a
minimum chances of earthquake, we have to consider the earthquake forces and then
design accordingly.

1 . 11 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT
In this project (

DESIGN OF FARM HOUSE IN SEISMIC REGION

the main objective is to

understand the whole design process of design practice , to under stand the special
provisions that are made to make the structure earth quake resistant according to the
seismic codes ( UBC 97 ).

In common study practice usually design of individual structural components is carried


out. The main purpose behind the project is to design the whole building by applying the
seismic provisions when only architectural drawings are given, while the engineer has to
determine the all the input data himself as many design parameters are required at
different design stages.

To understand the masonry construction of the houses in the seismic region is also the
one of the objective in this project. The objective is to get the knowledge of the different
techniques that are used in the masonry construction of the houses in the seismic regions.

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

The aim is to understand, what separate things (materials) that are used in the
construction of masonry wall in the seismic region.

The objective of this project is also to understand the Computer Aided analysis and
Design of the structures. The aim is to understand how seismic loads are applied on the
structures in the computer software.

1 . 12 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT


In this project (design of farm house in seismic region) we have design the walls,
foundations, slab systems, beams, lintels and columns of the farm house. Some special
measures are adopted to make this masonry building as earthquake resistant.

In our project, first we manually design the structural components of the load bearing
farm house with some extra seismic provisions and then we convert our farm house in a
frame structure and then whole design is carried out through ETABS.

In chapter 2 of this project, we discuss the codes & related articles from the different
books. Seismic provisions and their implementation for the structures have been
discussed in 3rd chapter. Design methodologies are in chapter 4 and manual calculations
& computer aided results are done in chapter 5.

Different self made excel sheets are prepared for the design of different structural
components (beams, slabs, lintels).

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CHAPTER
LITERATURE REVIEW

The code covers the design of structural concrete used in buildings and where
applicable in structures. ACI 318-05 was adopted as a standard of the American
Concrete Institute October 27, 2004 to supersede ACI 318-02 in accordance with the
Institutes standardization procedure.UBC-97 (Uniform building Code) is adopted for
the seismic design of structures.

2 . 1 CODES
2 . 1.1 ACI 318-05
ACI 7.6.1
The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer shall be db but not less than
25mm.

ACI 7.6.2
Where parallel reinforcement is placed in two or more layers, bars in upper layers shall be
placed directly above bars in the bottom layers with clear distance between layers not less
than 25mm.

ACI 7.6.3
In spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression members, clear distance between
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CHAPTER 2

literature review

longitudinal bars all not be less than 1.5db or 40mm.


ACI 7.6.5
In walls and slabs other than concrete joist Construction, primary flexural reinforcement
shall be spaced not farther than three times the wall thickness, nor 450mm.
ACI 7.10.5.2
Vertical Spacing of ties shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie diameter or
lest dimension of compression member.
ACI 7.12.1
Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses normal to flexural reinforcement shall
be provided in structural slabs where the flexural reinforcement extends in one direction
only.
ACI 7.12.2.1
Area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall provide at least the following ratios
of reinforcement area to the gross area, but not less than 0.0014,
a)

b)

Slabs where grade 40 or 50 deformed bars are used


Slabs where grade 60 deformed bars are used

0.0020
0.0018

ACI 7.12.2.2
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be placed not farther apart than five times
the slab thickness, nor farther apart than 450mm.
ACI 9.5.2.1
Minimum thickness in Table 9.5(a) shall apply for one-way construction not supporting or
attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deflections, unless
computation of deflection can be used without adverse effects.

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CHAPTER 2

ACI 9.5 (a) MINIMUM THICKNESS OF NON-PRESTRESSED BEAMS OR


ONE-WAY SLABS
Minimum thickness, h,
One
End Both
Ends
Cantilever
Continuous
Continuous
Members not supporting or attached to partitions or other likely to be damaged by
large deflections.
Simply Supported
Members
Construction
Solid
One-Way
Slabs
Beams Or Ribbed
One-Way Slabs

1/20

1/24

1/28

1/10

1/16

1/18.5

1/21

1/8

Table 2.1

ACI 9.3.2
Strength reduction factor shall as follows,
Tension controlled section
Compression controlled section

0.9
0.65

ACI 9.3.2.3
Shear and torsion

0.75

ACI 10.2.2
Strain in the reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the
distance from the neutral axis.
ACI 10.2.3
Maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal to
0.003.
ACI 10.2.5
Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial and flexural calculations of
reinforced concrete.
ACI 10.3.6
Design axial load strength Pn of the compression member shall not be taken greater than
the following:
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CHAPTER 2

literature review

ACI 10.3.6.1
For non pre-stressed members with spiral reinforcement conforming to 7.10.4 or composite
members conforming to 10.14
Pn = 0.85 [0.85fc'(Ag Ast) + fy Ast]

ACI 10.3.6.2
For non pre-stressed members with tie reinforcement conforming to 7.10.5
Pn = 0.85 [0.85fc'(Ag Ast) + fy Ast]

ACI 10.5.4
For structural slabs of uniform thickness, minimum area and maximum spacing of
reinforcement in the direction of the span shall be as required for shrinkage and temperature
according to 7.12.
ACI 10.9.1
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for non composite compression members shall
not be less than 0.01 or more than 0.08 time's gross area Ag of the section.
ACI 10.9.2
Minimum number of longitudinal bars in compression members shall be 4 for bars
within rectangular ties or circular ties, 3 for bars within triangular ties.
ACI 11.5.5.1
Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to the axis of the member shall
not exceed d/2 in non pre-stressed member.

CI 11.5.5.2
Inclined stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforcement shall be so spaced that every
45o line, extending toward the reaction from mid depth of member d/2 to longitudinal
tension reinforcement, shall be crossed by at least one line of shear reinforcement.
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CHAPTER 2

literature review

ACI 11.5.7.1
When factored shear force Vu exceeds shear strength Vc shear reinforcement shall
be provided to satisfy eqs 11-1 & 11-2.
ACI 15.2.2
Base area of footing shall be determined from un-factored forces and moments
transmitted by footing to soil and permissible soil pressure selected through principles of
soil mechanics.
ACI 15.4.1
External moments on any section of a footing shall be determined by passing a
vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces acting over
entire area of the footing on one side in that vertical plane.
ACI 15.4.2
Maximum factored moment for an isolated footing shall be computed as prescribed
in 15.4.1 at critical sections located as follows:
a)

At the face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings supporting a concrete column,
pedestal or wall.

b)

Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings supporting a masonry wall.

ACI 15.4.3
In one-way footings, and two-way square footings, reinforcement shall be distributed
uniformly across entire width of footing.
ACI 15.4.4
In two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement shall be distributed as follows:
ACI 15.4.4.1

Reinforcement in long direction shall be distributed uniformly across entire width of


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literature review

CHAPTER 2

the footing.
ACI 15.4.4.2

For reinforcement in short direction in a rectangular footing a portion of the total


reinforcement given by Eq.15-1 shall be distributed uniformly over a bandwidth equal to the
length of short side of the footing. Remainder of reinforcement required in short direction
shall be distributed uniformly outside centre bandwidth of the footing.

REINFORCEMENT IN BAND WIDTH


TOTAL REINFORCEMENT IN SHORT DIRECTION

2
+1

ACI 15.5.1
Shear strength of footings shall be in accordance with 11.12.
ACI 15.8.1
Forces and moments at base of the columns, wall, or pedestal shall be transferred to
supporting pedestal or footing by bearing on concrete and by reinforcement dowels and
mechanical connectors.
ACI 15.8.2
In cast in-situ construction, reinforcement required to satisfy 15.8.1. shall be
provided either by extending longitudinal bars into supporting pedestal, footing or by
dowels.
ACI 15.8.2.1

For cast in place columns area of reinforcement across interface shall be not less
than 0.005 times gross area of supported member.
ACI 15.7
Depth of footing above bottom reinforcement shall not be less than 150mm, for
footings on soil .
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CHAPTER 2

ACI 15.6.3
Critical sections for development of reinforcement shall be assumed at the same
location as defined in 15.4.2 for maximum factored moment.
ACI 21.2.1.4
In regions of high seismic risks or for structures assigned to high seismic
performance special moment frames special structural walls shall be used resists forces
induced by earthquake motion.
ACI 21.2.3
Strength reduction factor shall be as given in 9.3.4
ACI 21.2.4.1
Specified compressive strength of concrete shall not be less than 3000 Psi
ACI 21.3.1.1
Factored axial compressive force on the member, Pu shall not exceed Agfc' / 10
ACI 21.3.1.2
Clear spans for flexural members, ln shall not be less than four times its effective depth.
ACI 21.3.1.3
Width of flexural member, bw , shall not be less than the smaller of 0.3h & 250mm.
ACI 21.3.1.4
Width of flexural member, bw , shall not exceed the width of the supporting member plus
distance on each side of supporting member not exceeding three fourth of the depth the
flexural member.
ACI 21.3.2.1
At any section of flexural member for top as well as for bottom reinforcement, the amount
of reinforcement shall not be less than eq 10.3 and the reinforcement ratio shall not exceed
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CHAPTER 2

0.025.Atleast 2 bars shall be provided continuously both top and bottom.


ACI 21.3.2.2
Positive moment strength at joint face shall not be less than one half of the negative moment
strength provided at back face of joint.
ACI 21.4.1.1
The shortest cross sectional dimension measured on a straight line passing through the
geometric centroid shall not be less than 300mm
ACI 21.4.3.1
Area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be less than 0.01Ag or more than 0.06Ag.

ACI MOMENTS COEFFICIENT

o Positive moment End spans


Discontinuous end unrestrained............................... wuln 2/11
Discontinuous end integral with support ...................... wuln 2/14
Interior spans ................................................................. wuln 2/16
o Negative moments at exterior face of first interior support
Two spans ......................................... wuln 2/9
More than two spans...................... wuln 2/10
o

Negative moment at other faces of interior supports............. wuln 2/11

Negative moment at face of all supports for Slabs with spans not exceeding 10 ft;
and beams where ratio of sum of column stiffness to beam stiffness exceeds eight
at each end of the span.. wuln 2/12

o of exterior support for members built integrally with supports


Where support is spandrel beam ... wuln 2/24
Where support is a column .............. .wuln 2/16

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CHAPTER 2

ACI 3 . 2 CEMENT
ACI 3 . 2.1 Cement shall conform to one of the following specifications:

(a) Specification for Portland Cement (ASTM C 150)


(b) Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C 595), excluding Types S
and SA which are not intended as principal cementing constituents of structural
concrete.
(c) Specification for Expansive Hydraulic Cement (ASTM C 845)
(d) Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement (ASTM C 1157)

ACI 3 . 3 AGGREGATE
ACI 3 . 3.1 Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the following specifications:

(a) Specification for Concrete Aggregates (ASTM C 33)


(b) Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C 330)

ACI 3 . 3.2 Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be not larger than:

(a) 1/5 the narrowest dimension between sides of forms, nor


(b) 1/3 the depth of slabs, nor
(c) 3/4 the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or
wires, bundles of bars.

ACI 3 . 4 WATER
ACI 3 . 4.1

Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious

amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances


deleterious to concrete or reinforcement.

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CHAPTER 2

2 . 1.2 UBC 97
2 . 1.2.1

BASE SHEAR
According to UBC 97 1630.2.1
V = CV I x W
RT

W = Total weight of structure.


V = Design base shear at the base of structure.
Cv = Seismic coefficient based on acceleration& dependent on
soil condition & seismicity of the region
I = Seismic Importance Factor
= Its value is 1 , 1.25 , 1.5 for ordinary structure , Special & Essential structure .
R = Structural coefficient depending upon ductility and overstrength of the structure
T = Fundamental Time Period of the Structure.
Ta = Ct (hn ) ^3/4
Where
Ta = Approx. time period
Ct = 0.035 for steel structure
= 0 . 03 for concrete structure
= 0 . 02 for other structures
hn = Total height of structure.
TB = Tme period obtained by analysis
Max. value of V is = 2.5 Ca I x W
R
W = It include the dead load plus the partition load &floor finishes& cladding
In case of storage building 25% of the live load can be considered
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CHAPTER 2

In case of snow load 20% of the flat roof snow load can be considered.
If flat snow load > 30 lb/ft^2
P.L = 10lb/ft^2 = F.F = cladding
Vmin = 0. 11Ca I W
Ca = similar to Cv
= Constant Value of Ca Cv can be read from table.
For seismic zone :

V = 0.8 Z Nv I x W
R
Z = seismic coefficient = 0.4 for zone 4
(Balakot, Muzaffarbad, Bagh, Quetta, Chamman, Gilgit, Malakand)
Z = 0.3 for zone 3
( Rawalpindi , Islamabad , Peshawar )
Z = 0.2 for zone 2B
(Lahore Faisalbad, Jhang)
Z = 0.15 for zone 2A
Z = 0. 075 for zone 1
(Multan, D.G Khan, Bahawalpur )
Nv, Na = near source factor for zone 4 & in conjunction with soil type

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES


According to UBC 97 1630.5
Fx = ( P Ft ) Wxhx
wihi

Where

Fx = Story lateral force


V = Total base shear
Ft = Additional force at the top for the participation & higher mode in the large structures.
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CHAPTER 2

Ft = 0.07 T V [ 0. 25 V IF T > 0.07 sec


Ft = 0 if T [ 0. 7sec.
Wx = Storey load
Hx = Storey height
Storey Shear is ,
Vx = Ft + Fi

DRIFT RATIO / DRIFT LIMITATION / ALLOWABLE STOREY


LATERAL DEFLECTION
According to UBC 97 1630.9.2
M = 0.7 R s
Where ,
M = Max. Deflection/max.inelastic response/max. inelastic deflection.
s = Horizontal Deflection at mid height under Factored Load
R = A constant

2 . 1.2.2 MASONARY DESIGN

SLENDERNESS RATIO

R = H or l = 18
t
t
For load bearing wall = 20
= 18 for non-loading bearing in case of exterior walls.
= 36 for interior wall ( non load bearing wall )
( See UBC table 21- O )

Where R = slenderness Ratio


H = Effective Storey Height
l = Length of wall
t = Thickness of wall

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( UBC-97 2107.3.3 )

ALLOWABLE COMRESSIVE STRESS

The allowable compressive stress Fb is given by


Fb = 0.33 f 'm 13.8 Mpa

ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRESS ( UBC-97 2107.3.2 )

The allowable axial compressive stress Fa is given by

Fa = 0.25f 'm[1- (R/40) 2] ,

R 29

Fa = 0.25f 'm[20/R]2

R > 29 , R = slenderness Ratio

COMBINED AXIAL & COMPRESSIVE STRESS ( UBC-97 2107.3.4 )

fa / Fa + fb / Fb 1.0
fa , fb = applied stresses
Fa, Fb = allowable strength

ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRENGTH

( UBC-97 2107.3.5 )

The allowable tensile strength Ft is given by


Ft = 1 fm1/2 for tension perpendicular to bed joint
7
Ft = 1

15

fm1/2 for tension perpendicular to head joint

Where fm= compressive stress due to dead load only

ALLOWABLE SHEAR STRENGTH ( UBC-97 2107.3.6 )

The allowable shear strength Fv is given by


Fv = 1 fm1/2 345 Kpa
12

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ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS

( UBC-97 2107.3.8 )

The allowable bearing stress Fbr is given by


Fbr = 0.26fm when full area is loaded
F'br= 0.38 f'm when 1/3 rd or less area is loaded.

TABLE UBC 19-I-CFOUNDATIONS FOR BEARING WALLS

NUMBER OF
FLOORS
SUPPORTED BY THE
FOUNDATION

1
2
3

WIDTH OF
FOOTING(inches)

THICKNESS OF
FOOTING(inches)

DEPTH BELOW
UNDISTURBED
GROUND
SURFACE(inches)

X 25.4 for mm

12
15
18

6
7
8

12
18
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TABLE 2.2

BEAM DETAILS

According to UBC 1921.3.1 , 1921.3.2 , 1921.5.4

COLUMN DETAILS

According to UBC 1921.4 , 1921.4.3 , 1921.4.4.4 , 1921.4.4.6 , 1921.4.4.2.

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2 . 3 RELATED TERMS
2 . 3.1 BEAM
Beam are the structural member that is subjected to a transverse loading and resists
the bending moments.
When a beam is subjected to bending moments, bending strains are produced. These strains
produce stresses in the beam, compression in the top and tension in the bottom. Bending
members must, therefore, be able to resist both tensile and compressive stresses.By
embedding reinforcement in the tension zone, we create a reinforced concrete member. Such
members can resist bending sufficiently.

1.

TYPES OF CROSS SECTIONS W.R.T. FLEXURE AT ULTIMATE LOAD


LEVEL

TENSION CONTROLLED SECTION

A section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than or
equal to 0.005 when the corresponding concrete strain at the compression face is 0.003.
2.

TRANSITION SECTION

The section in which net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than y
but less than 0.005 when corresponding concrete strain is 0.003.
3.

COMPRESSION CONTROLLED SECTION

The section in which net steel strain in the extreme tension steel is lesser than y
when corresponding concrete strain is 0.003.

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
A ) COVER

Concrete cover is provided to protect steel against fire and corrosion and to improve
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bond strength. It reduces the wear of steel and attack of chemicals especially in
factories.
B ). SELECTION OF STEEL BARS

1 ) When different diameters are selected the maximum difference can be a gap of
one size.
2 ) Minimum number of bars must be at least two, one in each corner.
3 ) Always Place the steel symmetrically.
4 ) Preferably steel may be placed in a single layer but it is allowed to use 2 to 3
layers.
5 ) Selected sizes should be easily available in market
6 ) Small diameter (as far as possible) bars are easy to cut and bend and place.

C ) SPACING BETWEEN STEEL BARS

Minimum spacing must be lesser of the following


1 ) Nominal diameter of bars
2 ) 25mm in beams & 40mm in columns
3 ) 1.33 times the maximum size of aggregate used.

We can also give an additional margin of 5 mm.


- A minimum clear gap of 25 mm is to be provided between different layers of steel
- The spacing between bars must not exceed a maximum value for crack control

CONCRETE

Mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate,


coarseaggregate, and water, with or without admixtures.

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT

Deformed reinforcement is defined as that meeting the deformed reinforcement


specifications of 3.5.3.1, or the specifications of 3.5.3.3, 3.5.3.4, 3.5.3.5, or 3.5.3.6. No

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other reinforcement qualifies. This definition permits accurate statement of anchorage


lengths. Bars or wire not meeting the deformation requirements or welded wire
reinforcement not meeting the spacing requirements are plain reinforcement, for code
purposes, and may be used only for spirals.

CONTRACTION JOINT

Formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane


and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change of
different parts of the structure.

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

Length of embedded reinforcement, including pretension strand, required to develop


the design strength of reinforcement at a critical section. ( See 9.3.3.)

EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION

Distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension


reinforcement.

EMBEDMENT LENGTH

Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

Ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
proportional limit of material. ( See 8.5.)

MOMENT FRAME

Frame in which members and joints resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial
force.

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SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT

Continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix.

STIRRUP

Reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member;


typically bars, wires, or welded wire reinforcement either single leg or bent into L, U,
or rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle to longitudinal
reinforcement.

STRENGTH DESIGN

Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor . ( See 9.3.)

STRENGTH, NOMINAL

Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and


assumptions of the strength design method of this code before application of any
strength reduction factors. ( See 9.3.1.).The basic requirement for strength design may
be expressed as follows:
Design strength Required strength
Pn Pu, Mn Mu,, Vn Vu

STRUCTURAL WALLS

Walls proportioned to resist combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces


induced by earthquake motions.

TIE

Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement. A continuously


wound bar or wire in the form of a circle, rectangle, or other polygon shape without reentrant corners is acceptable.

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YIELD STRENGTH

Specified minimum yield strength or yield point of reinforcement. Yield strength or


yield point shall be determined in tension according to applicable ASTM standards
as modified by 3.5 of ACI code.

2 . 3.3 COLUMN
They are classified as concentrically loaded and eccentrically loaded
columns, depending on their configuration of the structural frame and the loading to which
they are subjected.

2 . 3.4 SLAB
A reinforced slab is a broad, flat plate, usually horizontal, with top and bottom surfaces
parallel or nearly so.
It may be supported by reinforced concrete beams (and is usually cast monolithically with
such beams), by masonry or by reinforced concrete walls, by steel structural members,
directly by columns, or continuously by ground.

ONE-WAY SLAB

The slab which resists the entire/major part of applied load by bending only in one
direction
R=

Shorted Side
< 0.5
Longer Side
..

..

EFFECTIVE SPAN. ( L )

Lesser of the following:


L = Ln + h/2 + h/2
= Ln + h
h = depth of slab
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and
L = c/c distance between supports.

BAR SPACING FOR SLABS

smax will be lesser of following.


1.) 3 x h

(local practice is 2 x h) , for one way slabs

2.) 450 mm

(local practice is 300 mm)

3.) (158300/fy) -2.5Cc


4.) 12600/fy
Where , Cc = Clear Cover

DISTRIBUTION, TEMPERATURE & SHRINKAGE STEEL FOR SLABS

Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement is required at right angle to main reinforcement to


minimize cracking and to tie the structure together to ensure its acting as assumed in design.
For Grade 300 0.2% of b x h = 0.002 As = 0.002bh
For Grade 420 0.18% of b x h = 0.0018 ..As = 0.0018bh
S max. will be lesser of following
1-

5xh

(field practice is 2 x h)

2-

450 mm

(field practice is 2 x h)

TWO-WAY SLAB

Slab resting on walls or sufficiently deep and rigid beams on all sides. Other
options are column supported slab e.g. Flat slab, waffle slab.
Two way slabs have two way bending.

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DESIGN METHODS
1 ). ACI co-efficient method
2 ). Direct design method
3 ). Equivalent frame method
4 ). Finite element method

MINIMUM DEPTH OF 2-WAY SLAB FOR DEFLECTION CONTROL

According to ACI-318-1963
hmin = (inner perimeter of slab panel)/180
90 mm
For fy = 300 MPa
h min =

2(L x + L y )
180

For fy = 420 Mpa


h min =

2(L x + L y )
165

According to ACI-318-2005

h min =

L n (0.8 + f y 1500 )

(36 m + 9)

m=

Lx
Ly

Ln = clear span in short direction


2 . 3.5 WALLS & FOOTINGS

FOUNDATION

Footings are structural members used to support columns and walls and to
transmit and distribute their loads to the soil in such a ay that the load bearing capacity of
the soil is not exceeded. Excessive settlement, differential settlement or rotations are
prevented and adequate safety against overturning or sliding is maintained

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TYPES OF FOOTINGS

Wall Footings
Isolated Footings
Combined Footings
Cantilever or Strap Footings
Continuous Footings
Raft or Mat Footing
Pile Caps
DESIGN OF MASONARY FOUNDATION

Load is distributed at 60 degree in case of bricks & 45 degree in case of plain concrete
(a)

If the width of footing is not sufficient to accommodate the 60 degree load


distribution it will be un safe

( b ) If the width of footing is sufficient to accommodate 60 degree load distribution


which is safe but may be uneconomical

ASSUMPTIONS

1 ) Load at the bottom of footing is uniformly distributed with out considering any voids
underneath the foundation.
2 ) That voids may be present due to the uneven surface or uneven compaction
3 ) The effect of intersections is also ignored which are from perpendicular wall
4 ) In case of boundary wall (property line wall) the resultant of soil pressure not coincide
with line of action of applied force that may result in over turning moment. In order to
avoid this footing is designed considering increased load by 35%.
5 ) Effect of beam is also ignored.
6 ) F.O.S for the bearing capacity is taken as 3 & for the backfill is 1.5.

STRENGTH OF BRICKS

Crushing strength of bricks ranges from 4.3 to 19.3 Mpa

Strength of first class brick in Punjab is 10.5 Mpa.

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25% of the strength is reduced in case of saturated condition Also more strength is
shown by machine due to the end plates effect so normally design strength is taken
half of the strength obtained by compression testing of bricks in dry condition.

So design strength =10.5 / 2 = 5.25 Mpa.

Available design strength is 70% in case of (1:3) c/s mortar.


It is 65% in case of (1:4) c/s mortar.
It is 45% in case of (1:6) c/s mortar
It is 30% in case of (mud) mortar.

Table 2.3
Mortar
1:3
1:4
1:6
MUD

Compressive strength of brick


4 MPa
3.4 MPa
2.4 Mpa
1.6 Mpa

STOREY HEIGHT

Storey height can be defined as the distance between plinth level & first
lateral support (as slab)

(1)

EFFECTIVE STOREY HEIGHT (H)

If lateral support + superimposed compressive load then


H = 0.75 x Storey height

(2)

No lateral support + superimposed compressive load


H = 1.05 x storey height

(3)

No lateral support + no superimposed compressive load


H = 2 x Storey height

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2 . 4 FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE


BEHAVIOUR
The fundamental propositions on which the mechanics of reinforced concrete is
based are as follows:
The internal forces, such as bending moments, shear forces and normal, shear
stresses at any section of a member are in equilibrium with the effects of the
external loads at that section.
It is assumed that perfect bonding exists between concrete and steel at
the interface so that no slip can occur between the two materials. Hence, as the
one deforms, so must the other.
t is assumed that concrete is not capable of resisting any tension stress whatever.

2 . 5 DESIGN BASIS
The single most important characteristic of any structural member is its actual
strength, which must be large enough to resist, with some margin to spare, all
foreseeable loads that may act on it during the life of the structure, without failure or
other distress. It is logical, therefore, to proportion members, i.e., to select concrete
dimensions and reinforcement, so that member strengths are adequate to resist forces
resulting from certain hypothetical overload stages, significantly above loads
expected actually to occur in service. This design concept is known as STRENGTH
DESIGN.

2 . 6 TREND OF MAKING THE EARTH QUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES


2. 6.1 PRESENT PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN
Previously , in Pakistan there were no practices to make the structure earth quake
resistant and there were no consideration of the seismic forces but after the earth
quake of 8th October 2005 special provisions are made & more consideration are
given to make the structure earth quake resistant. Now a days special provisions are
applied on the structures to make the structure earth quake resistant

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Figure 2.1 :

Columns and Beams are


provided in the masonary
structure to insure the box action
in the building of one or two
storey house and to give the
additional strength and stiffness
Figure 2.1

Figure2.2

Steel bars are provided at every


opening ( Window opening ) in
vertical directions

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Columns are placed at each corner of


a building to insure the box action.
Shear stirrups

Special hook

Figure 2.3

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38

CHAPTER
SIESMIC DESIGN OF STRUCTURE

In Seismic Design of structure , we apply some special provisions on the structures such
that it can resist the earthquake forces. The aim of designing the structures
earthquakeresistant is that , the structure should be undamaged during the moderate
earthquake and it should not collapse during the severe earthquake to safe the life and
property.

3 . 1 PURPOSE.
The purpose of the earthquake provision here in is primarily to safeguard against
major structural failures and loss of life, not to limit damage or maintain function.

3 . 2 MINIMUM SEISMIC DESIGN


Structures and portions thereof shall, as a minimum, be designed and constructed
to resist the effects of seismic ground motions as provided in this division

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Seismic Design of Structure

CHAPTER 3

3 . 3 SEISMIC AND WIND DESIGN.


When the code-prescribed wind design produces greater effects,the wind design
shall govern, but detailing requirements and limitations prescribed in this section
and referenced sections shall be followed.

3 . 4 SOME RELATED TERMS

BASE
Base is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to

the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported.

BASE SHEAR
It is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of a structure.

BEARING WALL SYSTEM


It Is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame.

BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM


It is an essentially complete space frame that provides support for gravity loads.

COLLECTOR
It is a member or element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a

structure to vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME


It is a braced frame in which members are subjected primarily to axial forces.

DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION


It is that ground motion that has a 10 percent chances of being exceeded in 50

years as determined by a site specific hazard analysis or may be determined


from a hazard map

DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM


It is an elastic response spectrum for 5% equivalent viscous damping used to

represent the dynamic effect of the Design groundmotion for the design of
structure. This response spectrum may be either a site-specific spectrum based
on geologic,seismological and soil characteristics associated with aspecific site
or may be a spectrumconstructed in accordance with the spectral shape.

DIAPHRAGM
It is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to

the vertical resisting system.

ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS


Elastic response parameters are the forces and deformations determined
from an elastic dynamic analysis using an unreduced ground motion
representation.
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Seismic Design of Structure

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ESSENTIAL FACILITIES
Those structures which are necessary for emergency operations subsequent to

natural disaster.

LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM


It is the structural system designed to resist the Design Seismic Forces.

MOMENT RESISTING FRAME


It is the frames in which members and joints are capable of resist forces

primarily by flexure.

MOMENT RESISTING WALL FRAME


It is a masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide ductile behavior.

ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS
These are the earthquake load effects on structural system common to the

lateral force resisting systems along two orthogonal axes.

OVERSTRENGTH FACTOR
It is a characteristic of structures where the actual strength is larger than the

design strength. The degree of over strength is material and system-dependent.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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P EFFECT
It is the secondary effect on shears, axial forces and moments of

framemembers induced by the vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced


building system.

SHEAR WALL
It is wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall.

SHEAR WALL FRAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM


Uses combination of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in

proportion to their relative rigidities, considering interaction between shear walls


and frames on all levels.

SPACE FRAME
It is a three dimensional structural system, without bearing walls, composed

of members interconnected so as to function as a self-contained unit with or


without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor bracing system.

STORY
It is the space between the levels. Story x is the story below level x.

STORY DRIFT
It is the lateral displacement of one level relative to the level above or below.
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Seismic Design of Structure

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STORY DRIFT RATIO


It is the ratio of story drift to story height.

STORY SHEAR
It is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under

consideration.

STRENGTH
It is the capacity of an element or a member to resist factored loads.

STRUCTURE
It is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and

resist lateral forces.

3 . 5 CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS IN SEISMIC REGION


All structures and their components shall be analysed for all phases of construction for a
high degree of structural competence, reliability and ease of construction, as per the
various standards & codes

3 . 5.1 DEAD LOADS


Dead loads are the vertical loads due to the weight of all permanent structural and nonstructural components of a building, such as walls, built-in & moveable partitions, floors,
roofs, and finishes including all other permanent construction.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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Dead loads also include the weight of all fixed services equipments, such as
piping, heating & air-conditioning equipments, elevators and the weights of all
other fixed equipments.

The vertical and lateral pressures of liquids are also treated as dead loads.

Dead loads shall be calculated from the unit weights given in UBC or from
the actual known weights of the materials used.

To provide for partitions where their positions are not known on the plans, the
beams &the floor slabs (where these are capable of effective lateral distribution
of the loads) shall be designed to carry, in addition to other loads, a uniformly
distributed load per sqft of not less than one third of the weight per foot of the
2

finished partition but not less than 20 lb/ft (1 KPa), if the floor is to be used for
office purpose

DEAD LOADS
1 ). Roof Finishes including insulation
and water proofing treatment

55 psf. (2.75 KPa)

2 ). Floor Finishes:
i) Terrazzo/ Marble/ Local granite flooring

30 psf. (1.5 KPa)

ii) Ceramic/ Glazed/ Vinyl tiles flooring

30 psf. (1.5 KPa)

iii) Plain cement concrete flooring

20 psf. (1 KPa)

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Seismic Design of Structure

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3 ). Ceiling Finishes:
i) Plaster

5 psf. (0.25 KPa)

ii) False Ceiling including supporting structure

3 psf. (0.15 KPa)

4 ). Piping, Ducts, Cables:


5 ). Masonry Walls
6 ). Light Partitions for Office areas

10 psf. (0.5 KPa)


as per actual location and weight
25 psf. (1.25 KPa)

7 ). Wall Finishes:
i) Plaster
ii) Cladding with marble, granite etc.

5 psf. (0.25 KPa)


15 psf. (0.75 KPa)

8 ). Fixed Service Equipments Mechanical/Electrical As per actual loads equipments for


example elevators, pumps, fan according to manufacturer's
coil units compressors etc. information.
9 ). Facades including glazing tiles etc. As per actual weight

3 . 5 .2 LIVE LOADS

Live loads are the loads superimposed by the use and occupancy of the building
not including the wind, seismic and temperature loads or dead loads.

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Seismic Design of Structure

Live loads include loads due to intended use and occupancy of an area, personnel,
moveable equipments, lateral earth pressures, vehicle and impact loadings.

Floor live loads as per occupancy and intended use requirements. Unit live loads
are the minimum live loads for the design of the listed areas. For any area not
listed, minimum design live loads shall be in accordance with UBC. For elevators
and other moving loads, equipment manufacturer information shall be used for
wheel loads, equipment loads, and weights of moving parts. If not otherwise
specified by the equipment manufacturer, impact and lateral forces shall be in
accordance with UBC.

The floor area live load may be omitted from areas occupied by equipment whose
weight is specifically included in dead load. Live load is not omitted under
equipment where access is provided.

LIVE LOADS
1 ). Monument Deck Levels

125 psf. (6.25 KPa)

2 ). Libraries
i) Reading
ii) Book storage area

60 psf. (3 KPa)
150 psf. (7.5 KPa)

3 ). Mosques, Stairs

100 psf. (5 KPa)

4 ). Museum

80 psf. (4 KPa)

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Seismic Design of Structure

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5 ). Offices
i) Filling and storage space

100 psf. (5 KPa)

ii) Office for general use

50 psf. (2.5 KPa)

iii) Office with computing data

75 psf. (3.75 KPa)

processing and similar equipments.

6 ).
i) Corridors first floor
ii) Corridors above first floor

100 psf. (5 KPa)


80 psf. (4 KPa)

7 ). Roof
i) Accessible

40 psf. (2 KPa)

ii) Inaccessible

20 psf. (1 KPa)

3 . 5.3 DYNAMIC / VIBRATIONS LOADS


Dynamic effects caused by vibrating loads of equipment and
machinery such as pumps, fans, screens, and compressors shall be determined by
established analytical methods or design data from suppliers. It is intended to minimize

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Seismic Design of Structure

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the vibration effects as far as possible by the provision of shock absorbing materials in
accordance with supplier's Recommendations.

3 . 5.4 WIND LOAD


All loads due to the effect of wind pressure or suction shall be considered as wind
loads. The wind loads on the structure shall be calculated in accordance with
ANSI/ASCE 7 using the following formula:
2

qz = 0.00256 kz (IV)
Where

V = Basic wind speed = 100 miles/hour


Kz = Velocity pressure Exposure coefficient I = Importance factor
qz = Velocity Pressure at height Z in pounds per square foot.
2

qz = 0.613 kz (IV)
Where

V = Basic wind speed = 45 meter/sec


Kz = Velocity pressure Exposure coefficient I = Importance factor
2

qz = Velocity Pressure at height Z in N/m .

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Seismic Design of Structure

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3 . 5.5 SEISMIC LOADS


Earthquake load shall be computed using the ground motion values given in
Seismic Zoning Maps of the earthquake affected areas issued separately by NESPAK.
The seismic zoning maps show Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) values for 10%
Probability of Exceedance in 50 years (500 years return period) and PGA values for 2%
Probability of Exceedance in 50 years (2500 years return period).
The PGA values shown on these maps are for firm-rock (shear wave velocity of 760
m/sec) site condition. For soil sites amplification of ground motion is introduced
therefore appropriate amplification factors should be used keeping in view the
geotechnical properties of the subsoil. Taking average shear wave velocity of 400m/sec
of the sub-soil in the earthquake affected areas, the average value of amplification factor
of 1.3 should be used.

3 . 5.6 THERMAL LOADS


The temperature effect will be investigated against a maximum differential
temperature of 20 degree centigrade for the frame structure.
In this project ( Design of farm house in seismic region ) we do not consider this load.

3 . 5.7 SHRINKAGE & CREEP


Shrinkage of reinforced concrete shall be considered as a
shortening of 0.04 inch per feet (3.33 mm per meter). This can be reduced to 0.02 inch
per feet (1.67 mm per meter), if effects of creep are included.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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3 . 5.8 SNOW LOADS


The roofs shall be designed for snow loads or live loads whichever is more
severe. Actual load due to snow will depend upon the shape of the roof and its capacity to
retain the snow; and each case shall be treated on its own merits. In the absence of any
specific information, the loading due to the collection of snow may be assumed to be 1.3
lbs/sq.ft per in (2.441 Pa per mm) depth of snow.( according to NESPAK )

3 . 6 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Structural elements e.g. slab, beams, columns, walls and footings are
combined in various ways to create structural systems for buildings. For the selection of a
suitable framing system for a building, the determining factors are:
a ) Appearance, functional & aesthetic requirements.
b ) Limitations on the size of structural members as imposed by architectural design
and practical constraints on the basis of structural considerations.
c ) Clear spans and height required.
d ) Loads, including special loads.
e ) Availability of materials, skilled labor and construction equipments.
f ) Integration of structure with respect to architectural details, mechanical
equipment, occupancy requirements etc.

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CHAPTER 3

Seismic Design of Structure

g ) Economy, not merely in structural system but also the overall economy in the
finished structure.
Except for the very simple and ordinary structure, study of several alternative systems,
materials and layouts shall be made, before the final scheme is set. From many
alternatives, the criteria for the selection of the best structural system for a building
would be its compliance with the functional and aesthetic requirements in an efficient and
in technically sound manner.

3 . 7 EXPANSION AND SEPARATION JOINTS


Arrangements of these joints shall be made on the following principles: Joints shall
be provided only to avoid extremely irregular plan shapes & to avoid excessively long
interconnected structures. In general, maximum interconnected length shall be limited to
about 150 feet (46 meter). This is acceptable only if the structure is temporarily separated
at about 65 feet (20 meter) long intervals or less by "shrinkage control pour strips" which
are left open for at least 30 days after placement of concrete on each side.
Width of joint will be at least 1 inch (25 mm).
Double columns shall be provided at isolation joints.

3 . 8 FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURE


The bearing capacity of the soils and other factors pertaining to foundation design
shall be evaluated as per recommendations laid down in the soil investigation report. In

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Seismic Design of Structure

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case no soil investigations are carried out, an allowable bearing capacity of 0.75 t/ft (8.07
2

t/m ) may be adopted for small residential units.( Nespak )


The foundation and the substructure requirement depend on the soil type and the seismic
zone.

3 . 9 METHOD OF ANALYSIS
The analysis shall be carried out using computer aided methods of
analysis and design as listed below using well reputed compute software e.g..
a) SAP-2000 - Structural Analysis Programme (Static & Dynamic Finite element
Analysis of Structure).
b) STAAD-Pro - Structural Analysis and Design Program
c ) Etabs Extended three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems

3 . 10

FOR SINGLE TO TWO STOREY HOUSING UNITS

3 . 10.1 MATERIALS (for construction of houses in earthquake prone areas)

MASONRY UNITS:
- Concrete block work
- Cut-stone masonry
- Burnt clay brick

52

Seismic Design of Structure

CHAPTER 3

Avoid using random rubble masonry


The bricks shall be of standard shape, burnt red, hand formed or machine made and shall
2

have a minimum crushing strength of 1500 psi (10 N/mm ). The concrete block shall be
solid blocks of 12 x 8 x 6 (300mm x 200mm x 150mm) made with 1:2:4 mix

MORTAR:
Cement-sand mixes of 1:6 and 1:4 shall be adopted for one-brick and half- brick

thick walls, respectively. The addition of small quantities of freshly hydrated lime
to the mortar in a lime-cement ratio of 1/4:1 to 1/2:1 will increase its plasticity
greatly without reducing its strength. Where steel reinforcing bars are provided,
the bars shall be embedded in a cement-sand mortar not leaner than 1:4, or in a cement
concrete mix of 1:2:4

PLASTER:
All plasters shall have a cement-sand mix not leaner than 1:6 on outside or inside
2

faces. It shall have a minimum 28 days cube crushing strength of 450 psi (3 N/mm ) . A
minimum plaster thickness of 3/8 (10 mm) shall be adopted.

3 . 10.2 STRUCTURAL FORM AND BUILDING CONFIGURATION


A ) Avoid creating heavy concentrated masses, particularly at roof level (eg.
large water tanks).
B ) Make sure no heavy masses are located above stairwells etc.

53

Seismic Design of Structure

CHAPTER 3

C ) Avoid irregular floor plan shapes to avoid torsional effects in earthquakes.


D ) Make sure columns and walls are continuous between floors.
E ) Make sure buildings do not have large openings (eg. for garages or shops) as
these can weaken structure and cause torsional effects.
F ) Make sure that buildings plan shape at any floor level, including ground
floor, is symmetrical.
G ) If shear walls are concentrated inside a building make sure it will not be
subject to torsional effects or design structure, to resist this.
H ) Make sure structure is not long in relation to its width (W). Avoid long
unsupported walls of longest length (L) does not exceed 3 W.

3 . 10.3 HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT IN WALLS


Horizontal reinforcing of walls is required in order to tie orthogonal walls
together. The most important horizontal reinforcing is by means of reinforced concrete
bands provided continuously through all load-bearing longitudinal and transverse walls at
plinth, lintel and roof-eave levels and also at the top of gables according to the
requirements stated below.

3 . 10.4 PLINTH BAND


This should be provided in those cases where the soil is soft or uneven in its properties. It
may also serve as damp-proof course.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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3 . 10.5 LINTEL BAND


A lintel band shall be incorporated in all openings and shall be continuous over all
interior and exterior walls. The reinforcement over the openings shall be provided in
addition to that of any other requirement.

3 . 10.6 ROOF BAND


This band shall be provided at the eave-level of trussed roofs and also below gable levels
on such floors which consist of joists and covering elements so as to integrate them
properly at their ends and fix them into the walls. This band is not required in case of
reinforced concrete or reinforced brick masonry slabs.
The width of the RC bands (at plinth and lintel) shall be the same as the thickness of the
wall. The minimum thickness of a load-bearing wall shall be 9 inches (225 mm). A cover
of one inch from the face of wall shall be maintained for all steel reinforcing.
The vertical thickness of the RC bands may be kept to a minimum of 6 (150 mm) with 4
(115 mm) bars as reinforcement. For economical reasons a minimum
thickness of 3 (75 mm) with 2 (65 mm) bars may be adopted.
The concrete mix is to be 1:2:4 by volume. Alternatively, it shall have a minimum
2

compressive cylinder strength of 2500 psi (17 N/mm ) at 28 days.


The longitudinal bars shall be held in position by steel stirrups 3/8 (10mm) placed 6
(150 mm) centre to centre.

55

CHAPTER 3

Seismic Design of Structure

3 . 10.7 VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IN WALLS


Steel bars shall be installed at the critical sections (i.e. the corners of walls, junctions of
walls, and jambs of doors) right from the foundation concrete. They shall be covered with
cement concrete in cavities made around them during the masonry construction. This
concrete mix should be kept to 1:2:4 by volume, or richer.
The vertical steel at openings may be stopped by embedding it into the lintel band, but
the vertical steel at the corners and junctions of walls must be taken into either the floor
and roof slabs or the roof band.
. 3 . 10.8 VERTICAL JOINTS BETWEEN ORTHOGONAL WALLS
For convenience of construction, builders prefer to make a toothed joint which is later
often left hollow and weak. To obtain full bond, it is necessary to make a sloped or
stepped joint. It should be constructed so as to obtain full bond by making the corners
first to a height of 24 inches (600 mm), and then building the wall in between them.
Alternatively, the toothed joint shall be made in both the walls in lifts of about 18 inches
(450 mm).

3 . 10.9 DOWELS AT CORNERS AND JUNCTIONS


Steel dowel bars shall be provided at corners and T-junctions to integrate box action of
the walls. Dowels are to be taken into the wall to sufficient length so as to provide their
full bond strength.

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Seismic Design of Structure

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3 . 11

GUIDELINES FOR MULTI-STOREY FRAME STRUCTURES

3 . 11.1 MATERIAL TYPES FOR WALLS


- Concrete block work units
- Cut-stone masonry units
- Reinforced Concrete walls (expensive alternative)
- Factory manufactured brick units
- Avoid using random rubble masonry

3 . 11.2 FOUNDATIONS
- Check soil type and water level.
- Use reinforced concrete strip footings under main load bearing walls and
columns.
- Soft clays and loose-medium dense sand, which is waterlogged, may liquefy
during an earthquakes. Seek specialist advice on piled foundations and
structural design.

3 . 11.3 MASONRY SHEAR WALLS


Masonry walls acting as non-structural shear walls to resist lateral shaking:
- Make sure walls are made with good strength

57

Seismic Design of Structure

CHAPTER 3

- Make sure wall are build first and use shutters for columns to give strong
bonding between masonry walls and column.
- All masonry units to be bonded with mortar, of 1 part cement to 3 parts sand
- Make sure all walls are continuous from foundations to roof level.
- Make sure masonry buildings is tied to floors and columns at suitable intervals

3 . 11.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS


-

These can be combined with columns to provide additional shear resistance


against earthquakes.

3 . 11.5 MINIMUM BEAM, COLUMN AND SLAB SIZES


10 ft (3 m) span concrete floor slabs, minimum depth 150 mm
15 ft (4.5 m) span beams, minimum 18 inch x 12 inch (450mm x 300mm)
Concrete columns average 12 inch x 12 inch (300mm x 300mm)
-

Make sure that all main reinforcing bars in concrete are high yield deformed bars,
not plain bars.

58

4
2

CHAPTER
DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Over the past several decades the strength design method has largely displaced the older
service load design methods both in Pakistan and abroad because in this method, individual
load factors may be adjusted to represent different degree of uncertainty for the various
types of loads and strength reduction factors likewise may be adjusted to the precision with
which various types of strength (bending, shear, torsion, etc.) Therefore, throughout in the
design of this building, strength design is followed. In this project we design the farm house
first manually & we provide the plinth band , lintel band & roof band for making the
building earthquake resistant. Also the steel bars are provided in the masonary walls. We are
following the ACI 2005 & UBC-97 codes.We use the excel sheets for the manual
calculations.
Also the analysis and design results are taken from the ETABS by converting the load
bearing wall structure ( farm house ) into frame structure .

4 . 1 TWO-WAY SLABS
These are the slabs that are essentially supported on more than two faces. A term "aspect
ratio" is sometimes defined for the slab that is the ratio of shorter to longer span. For a slab
to be two-way, this ratio must lie between 0.5 and 1, both values included.
59

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

4 . 1.2 DESIGN BY THE COEFFICIENT METHOD


A unified method in the two way slab design was presented in 1963 ACI code. Its use
spread all over the world for the design of such slabs and its continued use is permissible
under the code provision .
The method makes use of tables of moment coefficients for variety of conditions.
Unit width strip is taken in both directions. The strip is designed separately for +ve and ve
moment
M u = C u L n

C = ACI co-efficient
u = Factored slab load
C depends upon the end conditions of slab and the aspect ratio.
Three tables are available for C
Dead load positive moment
Live load positive moment
-ve moment
4 . 2 FOR ONE-WAY SLAB
4 . 2.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE
1 ). Check whether the slab is one-way or two-way.
2 ). Calculate hmin and round it to higher 10mm multiple.

i. Not less than 110 mm for rooms

60

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

ii. Not less than 75 mm for sunshades.


3 ). Calculate dead load acting on the slab.

Dead Load = Load per unit area x 1m width.


4 ). Calculate live load acting on the slab.

Live load = Load per unit area x 1m width.


5 ). Calculate total factored load per unit strip. (kN/m)
6 ). Calculate the moments either directly (simply supported) or by using coefficient for

continuous slabs.
7 ). Calculate effective depth.

d = h (20 + ()db)
db = 10, 13, 15, generally used.
8 ). Check that

d dmin
9 ). Calculate As required for 1m width.
10 ). Calculate minimum/distribution/temperature & shrinkage steel.
11 ). Select diameter and spacing for main and steel.
12 ). Check the spacing for max. and min. spacing.

smin 90mm
if spacing is less than minimum increase the diameter of bar.

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Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

13 ). For continuous slabs, curtail or bend up the +ve steel. For -ve steel see how much steel

is already available. Provide remaining amount of steel.


14 ). Calculate the amount of distribution steel. Decide its dia. & spacing like main steel.
15 ). Check the slab for shear.

vVc Vu
16 ). Carry out detailing and show results on the drawings.
17 ). Prepare bar bending schedule, if required

4 . 3 BEAMS
All the Beams in a farm house are not a structural Beam as they are not provided to take the
transverse load (to resist the bending).They are provided to insure the box action. They are
provided to increase the ductile nature of the masonary structure. They give additional
strength and stiffness.
The minimum steel Area is provided on these Beams
min

= 0.0018

for Grade 420 MPa

As min. = 0.0018 x b x h
They are provided at the Plinth Level , at the Lintel Level , at the Roof Level

4 . 3.1 DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL BEAMS


4 . 3.1.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS
1 ) Calculate self weight of the beam
2 ) Calculate the Slab Load
62

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

3 ) Calculate the total factored load that is subjected to beam


4 ) Determine the clear span of the beam ln
5 ) Find the moment
M = wu ln2
8
6 ) Determine the dmin
7 ) Provide a clear cover of 40mm.
8 ) Calculate h.
9 ) Calculate
= w x [ 1- [ (1-0.216R/fc')]
w = 0.85 fc' / fy
R = Mu / ( bd2 )
10 ) Check against min
min = 1.4 / fy
11 ) Calculate the area of steel
12 ) Select the no of bars according to the calculated area of steel

4 . 3.1.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS


1 ) Calculate self weight of the beam
2 ) Calculate the Slab Load
3 ) Calculate the total Factored load that is subjected to beam
4 ) Determine the clear span of the beam ln
5 ) Find the moment "M"
6 ) Calculate dmin

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Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

7 ) If dmin is greater than the h req then design the beam as a doubly reinforced.
8 ) Calcute d' / d
9 ) Determine ( 600 fy ) / 1600

If ( 600 fy ) / 1600 < d' / d so compression steel will be yielded.


10 ) max = 0.85 1x 3fc' / (8 fy)
11 ) Calculate As1 = max x b x h ( tension steel area )
12 ) Calcute a = 0.85 1 x 3d / 8
13 ) Determine M1

M1 = x As1 x fy x ( d - ( a / 2 ))
14 ) Determine M2

M2 = M - M 1
15 ) Calculate As' = M2 / ( x fy x ( d d' ))

( compression steel area )

16 ) As = As1 + As'
17 ) Calculate the no of bars for the tension steel area and also for the compression steel

area.

4 . 3.1.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR CONTINUOUS BEAM


1 ) Calculate self weight of beam
2 ) Calculate the slab load
3 ) Calculate the total Factored load that is subjected to beam.
4 ) Calculate the moments at the ;

Negative moment at the exterior face of exterior support

Negative moment at the exterior face of the first interior support

Negative moment at the interior face of first interior support


64

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

Exterior span positive moment

Interior span positive moment

5 ) From these moments find the corresponding area of steel and then the no of bars

corresponding to the steel area

4 . 4 DESIGN OF LINTELS
4 . 4.1 WALL LOAD ON THE LINTEL
Equivalent UDL on lintel if height of slab above lintel is greater than 0.866L
UDL = 0.11 x tw x L
tw = wall thickness in "mm"
L = opening size in "m"
If the height of slab above lintel is less than 0.866L
Total Wall Load + Load from slab incase of load bearing wall
UDL = ( Equivalent width of slab supported ) x ( Slab Load per unit area )
= m x KN / m2 = KN / m
After the calculation of the load the rest of the design is same as the beam

4 . 5 COLUMNS
The minimum area of steel is provided is provided in the columns of a farm house which are
provided for the purpose to insure the box action & to give additional strength to the
masonary design of a farm house. These columns are not for the purpose to take the axial
loads and moments.( Non Structural columns )
Special provisions are applied for the detailing ( Seismic provisions ).e.g Lap is provided at
the centre of the columns.
65

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

4 . 5.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR THE STRUCTURAL COLUMNS


( AXIAL LOAD + MOMENTS )
1 ) Find the PD , PL , Mux , Muy
2 ) Calculate the size of the Column using the following formula

Ag

Pu +2Mux+2Muy
0.5fc' + 0.01 fy

3 ) Calculate the " "


4)

Calculate ex , ey & eox


ey = Mux / Pu

ex = Muy / Pu

eox = ex + ey x b
h

5 ) Use interaction curves and charts to determine


6 ) From these value find the area of steel for the longitudinal bars and then decide the no

of bars.
7 ) Check the provided

0.01 < provided < 0.03


8 ) Transverse reinforcement
9 ) Spacing of shear stirrups
10 ) Calculate the lap length

l = 0.093 fy d b

4 . 6 WALL DESIGN & FOUNDATIONS


4 . 6.1 DESIGN OF MASONARY FOUNDATION
W = Load per unit length of wall.
W = li 385 + ( hi ti ) x1920 + ( qi li )0.5
L = Width of the footing =

(kg/m)

W 10 F
(qa-10D)
66

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

Li = Clear span of each slab or the panel ( m )


hi = Height of each floor ( m )
ti = Thickness of wall of each storey (m).
Qi = Allowable partition load (kg/m^2)
L = Width of footing in mm
qa = Allowable bearing capacity in KPa.
F = 1.0 for interior footing
F = 1.35 for exterior footing
D = Depth of bottom footing from plinth level (m)
No of Steps = L 2h t
114
4 . 6.2 THICKNESS OF WALL
If the load W is divided by compressive strength of brick it will give us wall thickness at the
section. Normally thickness of wall is expressed in no. of half bricks.

No of half bricks = W 2 / 2
4500
Where
2

1 for interior wall

2 = 1.5 for exterior wall


(Only for 1:6 mortar)
67

CHAPTER 4

Design Methodology

4 . 6.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR ISOLATED FOOTING


1 ) Collect all the required information i.e allowable bearing capacity , depth of footing ,

type of load coming and decide type of footing.


2 ) For service DL , LL and net allowable bearing capacity find the size of footing.
3 ) Select or assume a suitable depth of footing satisfying two way punching shear.
4 ) Calculate the net factored contact pressure "qnu" at the interface of soil and concrete

surface.
5 ) Calculate one way shear in longer direction and check for its capacity.
6 ) Calculate the moment in shorter and longer direction.
7 ) Calculate the total amount of steel in shorter and longer direction and find the spacing.
8 ) Check the bearing pressure at the bottom of column.
9 ) Check the development length for the steel provided.

4 . 7 DESIGN OF STAIRS
1 ) Calculation of span of slab
2 ) Depth of slab
3 ) Loads calculation
4 ) Calculation of Moments
5 ) Steel calculations & spacing
6 ) Check for maximum spacing.
7 ) Shear check.
8 ) Detailing.
68

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

4 . 8

SOFTWARES USED IN DESIGN OF FARM HOUSE AS FRAME


STRUCTURES
We use the software ETABS for the design of farm house as frame structure.

4 . 8.1 OVERVIEW OF ETABS PROGRAM


ETABS ( Extended Three dimentional Analysis of Building System ) is a stand-alone finiteelement-based structural analysis program with special purpose features for structural design
and analysis of building systems. The analysis methods include a wide variety of Static and
Dynamic Analysis Options. We can import our file ( Plan of a complex building ) from the
AUTOCAD to the ETABS.

4 . 8 .2 PROCEDURE FOR MODELING IN ETABS


Step 1
Begin a New Model
In this Step, the dimensions and story height are set. Then a list of sections that fit the
parameters set by the architect for the design are defined.

Figue 4.1: ETABS user interface


69

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

A.

Change the units in the lower right corner in the drop down box according to our
desired units.

B.

Click the File menu > New Model command or the New Model button.

Figue 4.2:The New Model Initilization form

C.

Select the No button on that form and the form. The Building Plan Grid System and
Story Data form is used to specify horizontal grid line spacing, story data, and, in
some cases, template models. Template models provide a quick, easy way of starting
your model. They automatically add structural objects with appropriate properties to
your model. It is highly recommend to start models using templates whenever
possible. However, in this project , we import the drawing from the AUTOCAD .

D.

Set the number of stories.

E.

Type 11 ft in the bottom storey height.

F.

Then click grid only

G.

Click the OK button to accept your changes. When you click the OK button, your
model appears on screen in the main ETABS window with two view windows tiled
vertically, a Plan View on the left and a 3-D View on the right.The number of view
windows can be changed using the Options menu > Windows command. Note that
the Plan View is active.When the window active, the display title bar is highlighted.
Set a view active by clicking its window. If you change the views, return to the

70

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

default described in the previous paragraph, with the Plan View active, before
continuing with the next step.

Figue 4.3:The Building plan gird system and storey data definition form

Figue 4.4:The Building plan gird system and storey data definition form

71

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

Figue 4.5:Storey Data

Step 2
In this step we define the frame section , material properties , and the slab thickness.
Step 3
Define Static Load Cases
The static loads used in this example consist of the dead, live, earthquake applies a UBC97
static earthquake load to the building and wind loads acting on the building. Define menu >
Static Load Cases command or click the Define Static Load Cases button

Figue 4.6:The define Static Load Cases Name form after all static load cases have been defined
72

Design Methodology

CHAPTER 4

Figure 4.7: UBC 97 Seismic Loading form

Step 4
Assign Gravity Loads
For Super dead and Live load click the Assign > Shell/Area Loads > Uniform
For Application of line load Click the Assign > Frame/Line Loads > Distributed
Step 5
Define a Developed Elevation
In this Step, a Developed Elevation View of the right-hand side of the building will be
defined so that the horizontal load can be assigned to it.
Step 6
Review Database Display of Input Data
Click the Display menu > Set Input Table Mode command to bring up the Database Input
Tables form.

73

CHAPTER 4

Design Methodology

Step 7
Click on Analysis > command Set Analysis options
Check Model
Run the Analysis
Click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command and click the Run button on the Run
Options form.

Step 8
Design
Design
Click the Design > Concrete frame design command and click the Start Design/Check of
structure.
Click the Design > Concrete frame design command and click the Verify Analysis Vs
Design results

Step 9
Click Dislay > Set output table > Reactions >ok
Calculate the total reactions and base shear manually and then compare it with the ETABS
calculations.

74

5
2

CHAPTER
DESIGN OF FARM HOUSE

There are two approaches for the design of structures (i) Manual design (ii) Computer Aided
Design. Both methods are applicable for Load Bearing Wall System and Frame Structures. In
this project we design whole Farm House considering load bearing wall system (Manual Design)
with some seismic provisions. For this different seismic codes (UBC & ACI) and design
procedures from different books have been followed (detail in reference). And different excel
worksheets are developed for the design of different structural components (Beams ,Columns ,
Lintels, Slabs etc).Then Farm House is converted to frame structure and analyzed and designed
by using computer aided approach (ETABS). The results of computer aided design are given in
this chapter. Detail work of manual and computer aided approach is given as:

ASSUMED VALUES
fc`= 21 MPa
fy= 420 MPa
Depth of Footing = 1.2 m
Partition Load =100 kg/m2
Allowable Bearing Capacity = 100 KPa

76

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

A ) MANUAL CALCULATIONS
5 . 1 WALLS AND FOUNDATIONS
5 . 1.1 EXTERIOR WALL ( W 1 )
Depth of footing =
Partition Load =
qa =

1.2 m
100 Kg / m2
100 Kpa

3.05 m
6.1

3.05m

Wall & Footing To be Designed

3.35m
1.2m

W = li x 385 + (hi xti)x1920 + (qi x li)x0.5


W=

((6.1+3.05)x385)+((.228x3.35)+(.228x3.05)) x1920 +((100x6.1)x0.5)

W=

6629.41 Kg / m
No. of Half Bricks =

No. of Half Bricks =


Wall Thickness

Now Width of Footing =


L=

W xY
4500
6629.41x 1.5
4500
2.20
342 mm
L

x 10F

qa - 10D
L=

6629.41
x 10(1..35)
100 - (10x1.2)

L=

1017 mm

L=

1017 mm

Now no. of Steps = n


n=
n=
n=

L-2h-t
114
1017-(2x175)-342
114
2.85

77

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

No. of Steps = 3
Final adjusted Width is ,
=
=
L' =

n x 114 + 2h + t
( 3x 114 ) + ( 2x 175 ) + 342
1034 mm

5 . 1.2 EXTERIOR WALL ( W 1 )


Depth of footing =
Partition Load =
qa

1.2 m
100 Kg / m2

3.35m

100 Kpa
4.88m

6.71m

3.05m
1.2m

W = li x 385 + (hi xti)x1920 + (qi x li)x0.5


W=

((6.71+6.71)x385)+((.228x3.35)+(.228x3.05))x1920 +((100x(6.71)x0.5))

W=

8303.86 Kg / m
No. of Half Bricks =

No. of Half Bricks =


Wall Thickness

Now Width of Footing =


L=

W xY
4500

Wall & Footing To be


Designed

Y = 1.5

8303.86 x 1.5
4500
2.76
342 mm
L

x 10F

qa - 10D
L=

8303.86 x10 x 1.35


100 - (10x1.2)

L=

1274 mm

L=

1274 mm
Now no. of Steps =

F=1.35

78

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

n=
n=
n=

L-2h-t
114
1274-(2x175)-342
114
5.10

No. of Steps = 6
Final adjusted Width is ,
=
=
L' =

n x 114 + 2h + t
( 6x 114 ) + ( 2x 175 ) + 342
1376 mm

5 . 1.3 INTERIOR WALL ( W 2 )


Depth of footing =
Partition Load =
qa

1.2 m
100 Kg / m2

2.44 m

2.172m

3.05m

100 Kpa
3.35m

W = li x 385 + (hi xti)x1920 + (qi x li)x0.5

1.2m
Wall & Footing To be
Designed

W=

((2.44+2.172)x2x385)+((.228x3.35)+(.228x3.05))x1920 +((100x(2.44+2.172)x0.5))

W=

6583.504 Kg / m
No. of Half Bricks =

No. of Half Bricks =


Wall Thickness

Now Width of Footing =


L=

W xY
4500
6583.504 x (1.0)
4500
1.5
228 mm
L

x 10F

qa - 10D
L=

6583.504 . x 10
100 - (10x1.2)

79

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

L=

748.125 mm

L=

748.125 mm
Now no. of Steps =

n=
n=
n=

L-2h-t
114
748-(2x175)-228
114
1.5

No. of Steps = 3
Final adjusted Width is ,
=
=
L' =

n x 114 + 2h + t
( 3x 114 ) + ( 2x 175 ) + 228
920 mm

5 . 1.4 INTERIOR WALL ( W 2 )


Depth of footing =
Partition Load =
qa

1.2 m
100 Kg / m2

4.573m

3.35m

100 Kpa
3.35m
6.1m

4.5m
1.2m

W = li x 385 + (hi xti)x1920 + (qi x li)x0.5


W=

((6.1+4.5)x385)+((.228x3.35))x1920 +((100x(6.1+4.5))x0.5)

W=

6077.49 Kg / m
No. of Half Bricks =

No. of Half Bricks =


Wall Thickness

Wall &
Footing
To be
Designed

W xY
4500
6077.49
4500
1.35
228 mm

80

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Now Width of Footing =


W

L=

x 10F

F=1.0

qa - 10D
L=

6077.49 x10
100 - (10x1.2)

L=

691 mm

L=

691 mm

Now no. of Steps = n


n=
n=

L-2h-t
114
691-(2x175)-228
114

n=

No. of Steps = 3
Final adjusted Width is ,
=
=
L' =

n x 114 + 2h + t
( 3x 114 ) + ( 2x 175 ) + 228
920 mm

5 . 1.5 EXTERIOR WALL ( W 2 )


Depth of footing =
Partition Load =
qa

1.2 m
100 Kg / m2

4.573m

3.05m

100 Kpa
Section 4

6.1m

4.5m

3.05m
1.2m

W = li x 385 + (hi xti)x1920 + (qi x li)x0.5


Wall & Footing To be
Designed

W=

((6.1+4.573)x385)+((.228x3.35)+(.228x3.05))x1920 +((100x(6.1)x0.5)

W=

7215.769 Kg / m

81

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

No. of Half Bricks =

No. of Half Bricks =


Wall Thickness

Now Width of Footing =


L=

W xY
4500
7215.79 x 1.5
4500
2.40
342 mm
L

x 10F

F=1.35

qa - 10D
L=

7215.79 x10 x 1.35


100 - (10x1.2)

L=

1107 mm

L=

1107 mm
Now no. of Steps =

n=
n=
n=

L-2h-t
114
1107-(2x175)-342
114
3.64

No. of Steps = 4
Final adjusted Width is ,
=
=
L' =

n x 114 + 2h + t
( 4x 114 ) + ( 2x 175 ) + 342
1148 mm

82

CHAPTER 5

Design of Farm House

5 . 1.6 CONCLUSIONS
EXTERIOR WALL

Wall thickness = 342 mm


No of Steps = 6
Width of footing = 1376 mm
INTERIOR WALL

Wall thickness = 228 mm


No of Steps = 3
Width of footing = 920 mm

83

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 2 DESIGN OF COLUMN (C3) FOOTING


F 3:
DATA

qa = 100 Kpa
PD = 650 KN
PL = 300 KN
fc = 21 MPa
fy = 420 Mpa for foundation slab
= 420 MPa
Depth of footing = 1.2 m
Surcharge = 0.5 m
Avg backfill density = 2100 Kg/m3
Avg surcharge density = 1800 Kg/m3
Column size = 450 mm
Column steel = 6- #25
SOLUTION:
Size of footing:
Total service load = DL + L.L
= 650 + 300
= 950 KN
qa,n = 100 (1.2 x 2100 + 0.5 x 1800) x 9.81/1000
= 66.44 Kpa

84

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Area of footing = total service load


qanet
= 950/ 66.44
= 14.3 m2
For square footing
L=B
A = L X B = L2 = 14.3
L = 3.78m
= 3.8 m
W = 3.8 m
Apro = 3.8 x 3.8
= 14.44 m2
Trial depth of footing
H = (P + 1.5 Mx + 1.5My/0.01s fc')1/2 + 90
= (950 x1000+1.5x41.477 +1.5x70.1 / .01 x 30 x21) 1/2 + 90

(s = 30)

= 478.5 mm
H = 500 mm
D = 500- 60
= 440 mm
Calculation of qu,n
qu,n = factored load
Apro
= (1.2 x 650) + (1.6 x 350)/14.44

85

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

qu,n = 92.8 KPa


Check depth of two way shear
bo = 2 [C1 + C2 + 2d]
= 2 [450 + 450 + 2 x 440]
= 3560 mm
b1 = C1 + d = 450 + 440 = 890 mm
b2 = C2 + d = 450 + 440 = 890 mm
Vu = qu,n (L x B b1 x b2)
= 92.8 x [(3.8 x 3.8) 890/1000 x 890/1000]
Vu = 1267 KN
Shear capacity is lesser of the following ,
1 ) v Vc = v 1/3 fc' bo d
= 0.75 x 1/3 21 x 3560 x 440
= 1794.5 KN
2 ) v Vc = x 1/2 [ 2 + 4/c ] fc' bo d
= 0.75 x 1/12 [2+4/1] 21 x 3560 x 440
= 2691.8 KN
3 ) v Vc = v

X 1/12

[ 2 + s d/bo ] fc' bo d

= 0.75 x 1/12 [2 + 30 x 440/3560] 21 x 3560 x 440


= 1794.5KN > Vu
So depth is satisfied against two way shear.

86

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Check depth for one-way shear:


Applied one-way shear is given as
Vu = qu [(L- C1 - d) x B]
2
= 92.8 x[( 3.8 0.45) 0.44]x 3.8
2
= 435.51 KN
One-way shear capacity
v Vc = v x 1/6 x fc' Bd
= 0.75 x 1/6 x 21 x 3800 x 440
= 982.96 KN > Vu

(O.K)

Design of reinforcement:
As it is a square footing so calculate the reinforcement in one direction & provide same in
the other direction.
Mu = qu x (L1 C1) 2 / 8
= 92.8 x (3.8 0.45) 2 / 8
= 130.181 KN-M
= 0.85fc'/fy[1 (1 2.614Mu/fcbd2)1/2]
= 0.85 x 21/420 [ 1 ( 1 2.614 x 130.181 x 106 /21 x 1000 x 4402 ]
= .00191
As = bd = .00191 x 1000 x 440
= 842.13 mm2
As min = 0.0018 x bh
= 900 mm2

87

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

As = 900 mm2
Use #16 @ 200 mm c/c
S max is lesser of
1 ) 3h = 3 x 500 = 1500 mm
2 ) 450
(OK)
Check development of flexural reinforcement:
ld in tension for #16 bar
ld = 0.624 x fy/fc' x db for db 19 mm
= 0.624 x 420/21 x 16
= 915.048 mm
Available embedment length in both directions = L C - 60
2
1000
= 1.125 m
= 1125 mm > ld

(OK)

Design of column footing joint:


Total factored load applied on the column = Pu = 1340 KN
Bearing strength of column, Pn = (0.85 fc' A1)
= 0.65(0.85 x 21 x 4502/ 4 x 3.14)
= 1844.36 KN > Pu

(OK)

Bearing strength provided by footing:


Pn = (0.85 fc A1) (A2/A1)
(A2/A1) =

( 1330 X 1330)
/4 x 4502

88

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

3.33

2 (it can not be greater than 2)

Pn = 2 x 1844.36
= 3688.72 KN > Pu

(OK)

So no dowels are required but according to ACI 15.8.2.1 provide min dowels.
Min area of dowels = 0.005Ag
= .005 x /4 x 4502
= 794.8 mm2
Provide 6- #16 dowels each dowel as corner bar
Development of dowel reinforcement:
ldc = 0.04 fy db
= .04 x 420 x 16
ldc

= 268.8 mm

Available length for dowel development = 500 60 16 x 2 = 408 mm > ldc (OK)
Splice length:
L = 0.093 fy db
= .093 x 420 x 16
= 625 mm

89

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 3 DESIGN OF COLUMN (C2) FOOTING


F 2:
DATA

qa = 100 Kpa
PD = 450 KN
PL = 300 KN
fc = 21 MPa
fy = 420 Mpa for foundation slab
= 420 MPa
Depth of footing = 1.2 m
Surcharge = 0.5 m
Avg backfill density = 2100 Kg/m3
Avg surcharge density = 1800 Kg/m3
Column size = 300 mm
Column steel = 3- #16 + 3-# 13
SOLUTION:
Size of footing:
Total service load = DL + L.L
= 450 + 300
= 750 KN
q a,n = 100 (1.2 x 2100 + 0.5 x 1800) x 9.81/1000
= 66.44 Kpa

90

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Area of footing = total service load


qanet
= 750/ 66.44
= 11.29 m2
For square footing
L=B
A = L X B = L2 = 11.29 m2
L = 3.36m
= 3.4 m
W = 3.4 m
Apro = 3.4 x 3.4
= 11.56 m2
Trial depth of footing
H = (P + 1.5 Mx + 1.5My/0.01s fc)1/2 + 90
= (750 x1000 / .01 x 30 x 21) 1/2 + 90

(s = 30)

= 435 mm
H = 450 mm
D = 450- 60
= 390 mm
Calculation of qu,n
qu,n = factored load
Apro
= (1.2 x 450) + (1.6 x 300)/ 11.56

91

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

qu,n = 95.16 Kpa


Check depth of two way shear
bo = 2 [C1 + C2 + 2d]
= 2 [300 + 300 + 2 x 390]
= 2760 mm
b1 = C1 + d = 300 + 390 = 690 mm
b2 = C2 + d = 300+390 = 690 mm
Vu = qu,n (L x B b1 x b2)
= 95.16 x [(3.4 x 3.4) 690/1000 x 690/1000]
Vu = 1054.74 KN
Shear capacity is lesser of the following ,
1 ) v Vc = v 1/3 fc' bo d
= 0.75 x 1/3 21 x 2760 x 390
= 1233.17 KN
2 ) v Vc = x 1/2 [ 2 + 4/c ] fc' bo d
= 0.75 x 1/12 [2+4/1] 21 x 2760 x 390
= 1849.8 KN
3 ) v Vc = v

X 1/12

[ 2 + s d/bo ] fc' bo d

= 0.75 x 1/12 [2 + 30 x 390/2760] 21 x 2760 x 390


= 1923.5 KN > Vu
So depth is satisfied against two way shear.
Check depth for one-way shear:
Applied one-way shear is given as

92

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Vu = qu [(L- C1 - d) x B]
2
= 95.16 x[( 3.4 0.30) 0.39]x 3.4
2
= 375.31 KN
One-way shear capacity
v Vc = v x 1/6 x fc' Bd
= 0.75 x 1/6 x 21 x 3400 x 0390
= 759.56 KN > Vu

(O.K)

Design of reinforcement:
As it is a square footing so calculate the reinforcement in one direction & provide same in
the other direction.
Mu = qu x (L1 C1) 2 / 8
= 95.16 x (3.4 0.30) 2 / 8
= 114.31 KN-m
= 0.85fc'/fy[1 (1 2.614Mu/fcbd2)1/2]
= 0.85 x 21/420 [ 1 ( 1 2.614 x 114.31 x 106 /21 x 1000 x 3902 ]
= .002037
As = bd = .002037 x 1000 x 390
= 794.32 mm2
As min = 0.0018 x bh
=810 mm2
As = 810 mm2
Use #16 @ 240 mm c/c
S max is lesser of

93

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

1 ) 3h = 3 x 450 = 1350 mm
2 ) 450
(OK)
Check development of flexural reinforcement:
ld in tension for #16 bar
ld = 0.624 x fy/fc' x db for db 19 mm
= 0.624 x 420/21 x 16
= 915.048 mm
Available embedment length in both directions = L C - 60
2
1000
= 1.49 m
= 1.49 mm > ld

(OK)

Design of column footing joint:


Total factored load applied on the column = Pu = 1100 KN
Bearing strength of column, Pn = (0.85 fc' A1)
= 0.65(0.85 x 21 x 4502/ 4 x 3.14)
= 819.71 KN < Pu

(OK)

So the area of steel for dowel bar is


As = Pu - Pn
fy
As =667.341 mm2
According to ACI 15.8.2.1 min dowels dowel bars are
Min area of dowels = 0.005Ag
= .005 x /4 x 3002

94

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

= 353.25 mm2
So provide area of dowel steel = 667.341 mm2
Provide 6- #13 dowels each dowel as corner bar
Development of dowel reinforcement:
ldc = 0.04 fy db
= 0.04 x 420 x 16
ldc

= 268.8 mm

Available length for dowel development = 450 60 16 x 2 = 358 mm > ldc (OK)
Splice length:
L = 0.093 fy db
= .093 x 420 x 16
= 625 mm

95

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 4 DESIGN OF SLABS
5 . 4.1 DESIGN OF GROUND FLOOR SLAB SYSTEM

TWO WAY SLABS

Screed ( Brick ballast + 25 % sand ) = 75 . x 1800 x 9.81


1000
1000
P. C.C = 40 . x 2300 x 9.81
1000
1000

= 1.324 KN / m2

= 0.902 KN / m2

Terrazzo = 20 . x 2300 x 9.81 = 0.451 KN / m2


1000
1000
Live load = wL = 250 x 9.81 = 2.452 KN / m2
1000

SLABS

lx

ly

(m)

(m)

S3

4.495

6.154

S5

2.67

S6

hmin

hsel.

1.2 wD

1.6 wL

wu

( mm )

( mm )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

0.73

137.5432

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

5.123

0.521

103.86694

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

3.94

4.17

0.945

98.925038

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S8

5.105

5.715

0.893

133.95864

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S10

2.515

2.972

0.846

68.826703

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S11

6.934

8.86

0.783

201.44903

225

9.570636

3.924

13.4946

S13

4.8

6.553

0.732

146.56654

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S16

4.496

6.096

0.738

136.5828

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S17

4.496

5.639

0.797

128.78776

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S18

4.764

6.934

0.687

152.52132

225

9.570636

3.924

13.4946

S19

6.1

7.735

0.789

176.1948

225

9.570636

3.924

13.4946

S20

4.8

4.93

0.974

117.68255

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S21

5.03

6.02

0.836

139.00811

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S22

4.572

6.934

0.659

150.83141

225

9.570636

3.924

13.4946

S24

2.936

5.675

0.517

114.78363

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S25

2.972

5.123

0.58

107.40502

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

S26

3.276

3.6

0.91

84.724138

150

7.451676

3.924

11.3757

96

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Along Shorter Direction ( X Direction )

SLABS

C+x DL

M+DL

C+x LL

( KN-m)

M+LL

M+u

( KN-m)

( KN-m)

( mm )

S3

0.048

7.22694

0.066

5.23278

12.4597

123

S5

0.068

3.61231

0.09

2.51764

6.12996

123

S6

0.038

4.39572

0.044

2.68024

7.07596

123

S8

0.031

6.02015

0.044

4.49959

10.5197

123

S10

0.03

1.41401

0.046

1.14173

2.55573

123

S11

0.04

18.4064

0.06

11.32

29.7264

198

S13

0.045

7.7259

0.061

5.51495

13.2408

123

S16

0.035

5.27199

0.066

5.23511

10.5071

123

S17

0.033

4.97073

0.051

4.04531

9.01604

123

S18

0.038

8.25407

0.056

4.98724

13.2413

198

S19

0.033

11.7521

0.051

7.44661

19.1987

198

S20

0.036

6.18072

0.042

3.79718

9.97789

123

S21

0.03

5.65602

0.046

4.56691

10.2229

123

S22

0.04

8.00227

0.066

5.41359

13.4159

198

S24

0.111

7.12999

0.095

3.2134

10.3434

123

S25

0.046

3.02768

0.074

2.56483

5.5925

123

S26

0.033

2.6391

0.045

1.89509

4.53419

123

97

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SLABS

A+s

Asmin.

( mm )

( mm )

Aprov

Spacing

Sprov

( mm )

( mm )

#10 @

C-x

M-u

( KNm)

A-s
( mm2 )

S3

0.0022

275.19

270

275.19

258.0035

250

0.059

13.5609

0.0024

300.25

S5

0.0011

133.53

270

270

262.963

250

0.078

6.32549

0.0011

137.847

S6

0.0013

154.45

270

270

262.963

250

0.05

8.82957

0.0016

193.46

S8

0.0019

231.35

270

270

262.963

250

0.039

11.562

0.0021

254.854

S10

0.0004

55.253

270

270

262.963

250

0.054

3.8855

0.0007

84.2365

S11

0.0021

406.96

405

406.96

174.4637

150

0.069

44.7691

0.0031

620.991

S13

0.0024

292.95

270

292.95

242.3593

225

0.055

14.4153

0.0026

319.782

S16

0.0019

231.06

270

270

262.963

250

0.062

14.2568

0.0026

316.153

S17

0.0016

197.63

270

270

262.963

250

0.059

13.5669

0.0024

300.388

S18

0.0009

178.79

405

405

175.3086

150

0.015

4.59405

0.0003

61.5983

S19

0.0013

260.51

405

405

175.3086

150

0.059

29.626

0.002

405.552

S20

0.0018

219.17

270

270

262.963

250

0.047

12.3185

0.0022

271.985

S21

0.0018

224.67

270

270

262.963

250

0.054

15.542

0.0028

345.659

S22

0.0009

181.18

405

405

175.3086

150

0.069

19.4636

0.0013

264.164

S24

0.0018

227.38

270

270

262.963

250

0.08

7.84475

0.0014

171.515

S25

0.001

121.68

270

270

262.963

250

0.077

7.73687

0.0014

169.117

S26

0.0008

98.435

270

270

262.963

250

0.061

7.44723

0.0013

162.684

98

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Along Longer Direction ( Y Direction )

SLABS

C+x DL

M+DL

C+x LL

( KN-m)

M+LL

M+u

( KN-m)

( KN-m)

( mm )

S3

0.015

4.233116

0.019

2.823564

7.05668

112

0.00152

S5

0.0055

1.075636

0.063

6.488111

7.56375

112

0.00163

S6

0.03

3.887293

0.036

2.456426

6.34372

112

0.00136

S8

0.024

5.841141

0.03

3.844879

9.68602

112

0.00209

S10

0.015

0.987286

0.024

0.831836

1.81912

112

0.00039

S11

0.016

12.02066

0.013

4.004422

16.0251

187

0.00123

S13

0.016

5.119815

0.02

3.370073

8.48989

112

0.00183

S16

0.011

3.046047

0.02

2.916412

5.96246

112

0.00128

S17

0.014

3.317311

0.021

2.620309

5.93762

112

0.00127

S18

0.02

9.203192

0.015

2.83001

12.0332

187

0.00092

S19

0.014

8.016586

0.021

4.93025

12.9468

187

0.00099

S20

0.032

5.795592

0.038

3.624152

9.41974

112

0.00204

S21

0.015

4.050776

0.024

3.412976

7.46375

112

0.0016

S22

0.008

3.681277

0.013

2.452675

6.13395

187

0.00047

S24

0.005

1.199929

0.063

7.961617

9.16155

112

0.00198

S25

0.005

0.977851

0.009

0.926873

1.90472

112

0.0004

S26

0.019

1.834901

0.028

1.423941

3.25884

112

0.00069

99

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SLABS

A+s

Asmin

Asel.

Spacing

Sprov

C-x

( mm )

M-u

( KN-m)

A-s

( mm2 )

S3

169.683

270

270

262.96296

250

0.029

12.4937

0.002722

304.825

S5

182.118

270

270

262.96296

250

0.013

3.88123

0.000826

92.5635

S6

152.256

270

270

262.96296

250

0.041

8.11023

0.001746

195.557

S8

234.534

270

270

262.96296

250

0.047

17.4625

0.003857

432.02

S10

43.1581

270

270

262.96296

150

0.028

2.81341

0.000597

66.915

S11

230.003

405

405

175.30864

250

0.013

13.7712

0.001055

197.242

S13

204.918

270

270

262.96296

250

0.032

15.6317

0.003435

384.725

S16

142.963

270

270

262.96296

250

0.018

7.60921

0.001636

183.235

S17

142.358

270

270

262.96296

250

0.024

8.68146

0.001872

209.648

S18

172.073

405

405

175.30864

150

0.015

9.7324

0.000743

138.878

S19

185.293

405

405

175.30864

150

0.024

19.3773

0.001492

278.989

S20

227.924

270

270

262.96296

250

0.043

11.8888

0.002586

289.589

S21

179.663

270

270

262.96296

250

0.028

11.5433

0.002508

280.907

S22

87.2437

405

405

175.30864

150

0.013

8.43475

0.000643

120.219

S24

221.524

270

270

262.96296

250

0.009

3.29725

0.000701

78.5191

S25

45.1987

270

270

262.96296

250

0.005

1.49278

0.000316

35.3867

S26

77.597

270

270

262.96296

250

0.023

3.39086

0.000721

80.7677

100

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

ONE WAY SLABS


= 1.324 KN / m2

Screed ( Brick ballast + 25 % sand ) = 75 . x 1800 x 9.81


1000
1000
P. C.C = 40 . x 2300 x 9.81 = 0.902 KN / m2
1000
1000
Terrazzo = 20 . x 2300 x 9.81 = 0.451 KN / m2
1000
1000
SLABS

lx

ly

(m)

(m)

S1

2.67

6.15

S2

2.287

S4

hsel.

1.2 wD

1.6 wL

wu

( mm )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( mm )

0.434

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

6.154

0.372

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

3.622

8.46

0.428

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

S12

4.65

10.21

0.455

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

S14

2.726

6.082

0.448

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

S15

2.287

6.096

0.375

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

S23

1.506

3.92

0.384

150

7.534

3.924

11.458

123

SLABS

Moments
Ext M

S1

Ext M

Int M

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

5.834

3.403

8.168

5.993

6.406

3.746

22.522

15.484

6.562

3.746

10.737

6.263

6.082

3.548

S15
S23

Int M

( KN - m )

15.031

S12
S14

( KN - m )

S2
S4

Ext. face of first int M

8.514
5.993

1.856

1.083

2.599

101

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SLABS

A+s
2

A-s.
2

Asmin
2

A+s

A-s

pro

prov
2

S+

Sprov

S-

Sprov

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

S1

0.001033

0.001453

127.01

178.71

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S2

0.000660

0.001135

81.18

139.63

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S4

0.001921

0.002715

236.23

333.91

270

270

333.91

262.96

250

212.63

S12

0.002799

0.004139

344.33

509.14

270

344.33

509.14

206.20

200

139.45

125

S14

0.001077

0.001516

132.46

186.43

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S15

0.000660

0.001163

81.18

143.08

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S23

0.000326

0.000457

40.07

56.19

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

200

102

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 4.2 DESIGN OF FIRST FLOOR SLAB SYSTEM

TWO WAY SLABS

Earth Filling = 100 x 1800 x 9.81 = 1.7658 KN / m2


1000
1000
Brick Tiles =

SLABS

38 x 1930 x 9.81 = 0.719 KN / m2


1000
1000
lx

ly

(m)

(m)

S3

4.495

6.154

S5

2.67

S6

hmin

hsel.

1.2 wD

1.6 wL

wu

( mm )

( mm )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

0.73

137.5432

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

5.123

0.521

103.86694

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

3.94

4.17

0.945

98.925038

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S8

5.105

5.715

0.893

133.95864

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S9

5.943

7.105

0.836

164.10279

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S10

2.515

2.972

0.846

68.826703

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S11

6.934

8.86

0.783

201.44903

225

9.33888

3.924

13.2629

S13

4.8

6.553

0.732

146.56654

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S16

4.496

6.096

0.738

136.5828

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S17

4.496

5.639

0.797

128.78776

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S18

4.764

6.934

0.687

152.52132

225

9.33888

3.924

13.2629

S19

6.1

7.735

0.789

176.1948

225

9.33888

3.924

13.2629

S20

4.8

4.93

0.974

117.68255

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S21

5.03

6.02

0.836

139.00811

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S22

4.572

6.934

0.659

150.83141

225

9.33888

3.924

13.2629

S23

2.936

5.675

0.517

114.78363

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S24

2.972

5.123

0.58

107.40502

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S25

2.972

5.123

0.58

107.40502

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S26

3.276

3.6

0.91

84.724138

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

S27

6.1

9.66

0.631

207.60775

225

9.33888

3.924

13.2629

S28

5.64

6.1

0.925

144.05024

150

7.21992

3.924

11.1439

103

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Along Shorter Direction ( X Direstion )


SLABS

C+x DL

M+DL

C+x LL

( KN-m)

M+LL

M+u

( KN-m)

( KN-m)

( mm )

S3

0.048

7.002176

0.066

5.23278

12.235

123

0.002195858

S5

0.068

3.499966

0.09

2.51764

6.01761

123

0.00106546

S6

0.038

4.259008

0.044

2.68024

6.93925

123

0.001231072

S8

0.033

6.209231

0.045

4.60186

10.8111

123

0.001934198

S9

0.031

7.905067

0.044

6.09808

14.0031

123

0.002523177

S10

0.03

1.370029

0.046

1.14173

2.51176

123

0.000441442

S11

0.04

17.96067

0.06

11.32

29.2807

198

0.002023772

S13

0.045

7.485613

0.061

5.51495

13.0006

123

0.002337255

S16

0.035

5.108025

0.066

5.23511

10.3431

123

0.001848572

S17

0.033

4.816138

0.051

4.04531

8.86145

123

0.001578633

S18

0.038

8.05419

0.056

4.98724

13.0414

198

0.000889216

S19

0.033

11.46749

0.051

7.44661

18.9141

198

0.001295904

S20

0.036

5.98849

0.042

3.79718

9.78567

123

0.001746801

S21

0.03

5.480114

0.046

4.56691

10.047

123

0.001794483

S22

0.04

7.808493

0.066

5.41359

13.2221

198

0.000901667

S23

0.111

6.908241

0.095

3.2134

10.1216

123

0.001808106

S24

0.046

2.933512

0.074

2.56483

5.49834

123

0.000972442

S25

0.033

2.104476

0.045

1.55969

3.66417

123

0.000645537

S26

0.033

2.55702

0.045

1.89509

4.45211

123

0.000785658

S27

0.04

13.89999

0.066

9.63679

23.5368

198

0.001618874

S28

0.0265

6.086063

0.041

5.11766

11.2037

123

0.002006182

104

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

A+s

Asmin.

( mm )

( mm )

S3

270.091

270

S5

131.052

S6

SLABS

Aprov

C- x

M-u

Sprov

( mm )

#10@

270.091

262.87485

250

0.059

13.2846

0.0024

293.951

270

270

262.96296

250

0.078

6.19662

0.0011

135.002

151.422

270

270

262.96296

250

0.05

8.64969

0.0015

189.445

S8

237.906

270

270

262.96296

250

0.061

17.7157

0.0032

395.975

S9

310.351

270

310.351

228.77343

250

0.039

15.3502

0.0028

341.245

S10

54.2974

270

270

262.96296

250

0.054

3.80634

0.0007

82.5066

S11

400.707

405

405

175.30864

150

0.069

44.0002

0.0031

609.91

S13

287.482

270

287.482

246.97164

225

0.055

14.1216

0.0025

313.059

S16

227.374

270

270

262.96296

250

0.062

13.9663

0.0025

309.509

S17

194.172

270

270

262.96296

250

0.059

13.2905

0.0024

294.086

S18

176.065

405

405

175.30864

150

0.015

4.51515

0.0003

60.5365

S19

256.589

405

405

175.30864

150

0.059

29.1172

0.002

398.414

S20

214.857

270

270

262.96296

250

0.047

12.0675

0.0022

266.295

S21

220.721

270

270

262.96296

250

0.054

15.2254

0.0028

338.373

S22

178.53

405

405

175.30864

150

0.069

19.1293

0.0013

259.555

S23

222.397

270

270

262.96296

250

0.08

7.68493

0.0014

167.963

S24

119.61

270

270

262.96296

250

0.077

7.57925

0.0013

165.616

S25

79.4011

270

270

262.96296

250

0.061

6.00434

0.0011

130.759

S26

96.6359

270

270

262.96296

250

0.061

7.29551

0.0013

159.318

S27

320.537

405

405

175.30864

150

0.069

34.0523

0.0024

467.921

S28

246.76

270

270

262.96296

250

0.047

16.6607

0.003

371.489

A-s

Spacing

( KN-m)

( mm2 )

105

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Along Longer Direction ( Y Direstion )


SLABS

C+x DL

M+DL

C+x LL

( KN-m)

M+LL

M+u

( KN-m)

( KN-m)

( mm )

S3

0.015

4.101461

0.019

2.823564

6.92503

112

0.00149

S5

0.0055

1.042183

0.063

6.488111

7.53029

112

0.00162

S6

0.03

3.766394

0.036

2.456426

6.22282

112

0.00133

S8

0.019

4.480417

0.028

3.588554

8.06897

112

0.00174

S9

0.024

8.747255

0.03

5.942626

14.6899

112

0.00322

S10

0.015

0.95658

0.024

0.831836

1.78842

112

0.00038

S11

0.016

11.72957

0.013

4.004422

15.734

187

0.00121

S13

0.016

4.960583

0.02

3.370073

8.33066

112

0.00179

S16

0.011

2.951311

0.02

2.916412

5.86772

112

0.00126

S17

0.014

3.214139

0.021

2.620309

5.83445

112

0.00125

S18

0.02

8.980334

0.015

2.83001

11.8103

187

0.0009

S19

0.014

7.822462

0.021

4.93025

12.7527

187

0.00098

S20

0.032

5.615342

0.038

3.624152

9.23949

112

0.002

S21

0.015

3.924792

0.024

3.412976

7.33777

112

0.00158

S22

0.008

3.592133

0.013

2.452675

6.04481

187

0.00046

S23

0.005

1.16261

0.063

7.961617

9.12423

112

0.00197

S24

0.005

0.947439

0.009

0.926873

1.87431

112

0.0004

S25

0.019

3.600267

0.028

2.883605

6.48387

112

0.00139

S26

0.016

1.497123

0.028

1.423941

2.92106

112

0.00062

S27

0.008

6.971706

0.013

4.760215

11.7319

187

0.0009

S28

0.019

5.104411

0.03

4.380361

9.48477

112

0.00205

106

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SLABS

A+s

Asmin

Asel.

Spacing

Sprov

C-x

( mm )

M-u

( KN-m)

A-s
( mm2 )

S3

166.46

270

270

262.96296

250

0.029

12.2391

0.002664

298.407

S5

181.297

270

270

262.96296

250

0.013

3.80216

0.000809

90.6594

S6

149.307

270

270

262.96296

250

0.041

7.945

0.00171

191.49

S8

194.541

270

270

262.96296

250

0.023

8.3714

0.001804

201.994

S9

360.591

270

360.591

196.89893

250

0.047

26.4402

0.005999

671.856

S10

42.4263

270

270

262.96296

150

0.028

2.75609

0.000585

65.5422

S11

225.764

405

405

175.30864

250

0.013

13.5347

0.001036

193.812

S13

200.99

270

270

262.96296

250

0.032

15.3133

0.003362

376.55

S16

140.657

270

270

262.96296

250

0.018

7.45419

0.001602

179.428

S17

139.847

270

270

262.96296

250

0.024

8.50459

0.001833

205.281

S18

168.851

405

405

175.30864

150

0.015

9.56526

0.00073

136.473

S19

182.482

405

405

175.30864

150

0.024

19.0445

0.001466

274.112

S20

223.455

270

270

262.96296

250

0.043

11.6466

0.002531

283.503

S21

176.572

270

270

262.96296

250

0.028

11.3081

0.002455

275.009

S22

85.9689

405

405

175.30864

150

0.013

8.28989

0.000632

118.139

S23

220.6

270

270

262.96296

250

0.009

3.23007

0.000687

76.9063

S24

44.4736

270

270

262.96296

250

0.005

1.46237

0.000309

34.6632

S25

155.676

270

270

262.96296

250

0.023

6.72689

0.001443

161.614

S26

69.4945

270

270

262.96296

250

0.023

3.32178

0.000706

79.1083

S27

167.718

405

405

175.30864

150

0.013

16.0892

0.001235

230.938

S28

229.538

270

270

262.96296

250

0.035

14.5133

0.003179

356.081

107

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

ONE WAY SLABS

Earth Filling = 100 x 1800 x 9.81 = 1.7658 KN / m2


1000
1000
Brick Tiles =

SLABS

38 x 1930 x 9.81 = 0.719 KN / m2


1000
1000
lx

ly

hsel.

1.2 wD

1.6 wL

wu

(m)

(m)

( mm )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( mm )

S1

2.67

6.15

0.434

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S2

2.287

6.154

0.372

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S4

3.622

8.46

0.428

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S12

4.65

10.21

0.455

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S14

2.726

6.082

0.448

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S15

2.287

6.096

0.375

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

S23

1.506

3.92

0.384

150

7.302

3.924

11.226

123

SLABS

S1

Moments
Ext M+

Ext M-

Ext. face of first int M-

Int M-

Int M+

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

( KN - m )

5.716

3.335

8.003
6.277

3.670

22.067

15.171

6.430

3.670

S2
S4

5.872
10.519

6.136

14.727

S12
S14

5.959

3.476

S15
S23

8.342
5.872

1.819

1.061

2.546

108

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SLABS

A+s

A-s.

Asmin

A+s pro

( mm2 )

( mm2 )

( mm2 )

( mm2 )

A-s

S+

Sprov

S-

Sprov

( mm2 )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

prov

S1

0.00101

0.0014

124.41

175.03

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S2

0.00065

0.0011

79.523

136.77

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S4

0.00188

0.0027

231.34

326.93

270

270

326.93

262.96

250

217.17

200

S12

0.00274

0.0041

337.12

498.30

270

337.12

498.30

210.61

200

142.49

125

S14

0.00105

0.0015

129.75

182.59

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S15

0.00065

0.0011

79.523

140.15

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

S23

0.00032

0.0004

39.257

55.04

270

270

270

262.96

250

262.96

250

109

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 5 DESIGN OF BEAMS
5 . 5.1 NON STRUCTURAL BEAMS
Beams at the Roof Level and at Plinth Level
B 1 : At Exterior Wall
Size

342 x 375 mm

Asmin. = .0018 x 342 x 375 = 230.85 mm2


Reinforcement
(Steel Bar)

Use, 2 # 13 for bottom steel


& 2 # 10 for top steel

Clear Cover

40 mm

B 2 : At Interior Wall
Size
228 x 375 mm
Asmin. = .0018 x 229 x 375 = 154 mm2

Reinforcement
(Steel Bar )

Use , 3 # 10 for bottom steel


&
2 # 10 for top steel

Clear Cover

40 mm

5. 5.2 STRUCTURAL BEAMS


Design of B3:
Beam

B3

Span

Beam
Load

Slab
Load

wu

ln

dmin

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

(m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

( mm )

5.06

1.791696

5.576

7.3677

4.76

20.8668

139.24

350

min

As

_#_
2

( mm )

0.002983

0.0033

218.2

110

1#13+
2-#10

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Shear Check
Reaction of Beam Vu = 18.64 KN
Vc = .75 x fc' x b x d
6
= 37.84 KN > Vu

ok

Shear Check is satisfied


There fore, b = 228 mm
& h = 350 mm

Design of B4
Beam

B4

Span

Beam
Load

Slab
Load

wu

ln

dmin

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

(m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

( mm )

5.105

1.816

5.41643

4.876

16.0972

122.3

350

3.6

min

As

_#_
2

( mm )
0.00283

0.0033

218.2

Shear Check
Reaction of Beam Vu = 13.83 KN
Vc = .75 x fc' x b x d
6
= 37.84 KN > Vu

ok

Shear Check is satisfied


There fore, b = 228 mm
& h = 350 mm

111

1-#13+
2-#10

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Design of Concealed Beam


B5
Span

Beam
Load

Wall
Load

wu

ln

dmin

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

(m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

6.32

2.712

15.788

18.5

6.095

85.90712

282.525

Beam

B5

( 600-fy )/1600

As1

max

M1

M2

A's

( mm ) ( mm ) ( KN - m) ( KN - m) ( mm )

0.1125

As

d' / d

225

0.2162162

Tension Steel Compression Steel

( mm )

0.0135469 626.543 58.97 36.831 49.0759 895.381 1521.92

hreq.

_#_

_#_

2-#19+2-#16

3 - # 22 +4 - #16

Therefore, b = 250 mm
h = 225 mm

Design of B6

Beam

B6

Span

Self Load

Beam
Load

wu

ln

dmin

hreq.

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

(m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

( mm )

6.93

3.69

9.25

12.94

6.6

70.48

255.90

225

As

Tension
Steel

Compression
Steel

( 600-fy )/1600

max

As1

0.0135

0.2162

M1

M2

A's

( mm )

( mm )

( KN m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

( mm )

_#_

_#_

751.852

58.969

44.198

26.280

479.48

1231.33

2-#19+2-#13

3-#19+2-#16

0.1125

d' / d

112

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

There fore, b = 300 mm


h = 225 mm

Design of B7: (Continuous Beam)


Beam

B7

Span

Beam Load

Slab load

wu

ln

(m)

(KN / m )

(KN / m )

(KN / m )

(m)

6.1

3.78

61

64.78

5.63

Ext. M

Ext. M-

dmin

(KN - m )

( mm )

128.33282

291.84232

min

As
2

( mm )
0.0144585

0.0033333

525

M for Exterior face of first Int. support

M-

dmin

(KN - m )

( mm )

228.14724

389.1231

max

Asmax

0.0103214

1354.6875

( mm )

(KN - m )

91.071429

168.709

M for interior face of 1st int. support

dmin

(KN - m )

( mm )

186.67

351.98

0.02453552

2054.850

Ext M

(KN - m )

As
( mm )

dmin
( mm )

bE
( mm )

a
( mm )

As

a
2

( mm )

( mm )

113

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

146.66608

311.99257

1525

127.5

1430.4351

Int. M

dmin

bE

22.070358

As

a
2

(KN - m )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

128.33282

291.84232

1525

127.5

1251.6307

19.311563

So provide a beam having

b = 350 mm
h = 450 mm

Design of B8
Beam

B8

Span

Beam Load

Slab Load

wu

ln

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

(m)

5.37

2.142

11.88

14.022

5.11

dmin

( KN - m) ( mm )

45.77

206.22

min

_#_

( mm )

350

As

( mm )

0.00998 0.0033

724

4- #16

Shear Check
Reaction of Beam Vu = 37.65 KN
Vc = .75 x fc' x b x d
6
= 41.55 KN > Vu

ok

Shear Check is satisfied


Therefore, b = 250 mm
h = 350 mm

114

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 6 DESIGN OF LINTELS
Length

Self wt

Wall load

*
Extra load

Wu

(m)

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN / m )

( KN - m )

L1

3.05

1.62

6.29

11.38

19.28

22.42

L2

1.143

0.61

6.29

11.38

18.27

2.98

L4

2.29

1.21

6.29

11.38

18.88

12.38

L5

0.46

0.24

6.29

6.53

0.17

L6

1.83

0.97

6.29

11.38

18.64

7.80

L7

2.134

1.13

6.29

11.38

18.80

10.70

L9

2.745

1.45

6.29

11.38

19.12

18.01

L10

1.22

0.65

6.29

11.38

18.31

3.41

L11

2.44

1.29

6.29

11.38

18.96

14.11

L12

3.66

1.94

6.29

11.38

19.61

32.83

Description

dmin

dsel

Rho

Rho min

As

Bar No.

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

152.15

225.00

200

2.49

0.0071998

0.0033

323.99

2-#13+1-#10

55.50

225.00

200

0.33

0.0008862

0.0033

150.00

2-#13

113.04

225.00

200

1.38

0.003808

0.0033

171.36

2-#13

13.35

225.00

200

0.02

5.08E-05

0.0033

150.00

2-#13

89.74

225.00

200

0.87

0.0023583

0.0033

150.00

2-#13

105.10

225.00

200

1.19

0.0032707

0.0033

150.00

2-#13

( mm2 )

115

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

136.36

225.00

200

2.00

0.0056716

0.0033

255.22

2-#13

59.31

225.00

200

0.38

0.0010135

0.0033

150.00

2-#13

120.69

225.00

200

1.57

0.0043717

0.0033

196.73

2-#13

184.10

225

200

3.65

0.0110974

0.0033

499.38

4-#13

* Extra Load is considered due to the unavailability of the space above the lintel level

Doubly Reinforced Lintels


Span

Beam Load

Wall Load

*
Extra load

wu

d min

hreq.

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN - m)

( mm )

( mm )

L3

4.27

2.26

6.29

11.38

19.93

45.42

205.44

225

0.13

L8

4.88

2.59

6.29

11.38

20.26

60.31

236.72

225

0.13

Lintel

( 600-fy )/1600

max

As1

( mm )

( mm )

M1

M2

( KN - m) ( KN - m)

A's

As

d' / d

Tension Steel

Compression Steel

( mm )

( mm )

_#_

_#_

0.11

0.014

609.61

63.75

38.74

6.68

101.00

710.61

2-#16+2-#13

2-#10

0.11

0.014

609.61

63.75

38.74

21.57

326.05

935.66

2-#16+2-#13

3-#13

Corner window Lintels


Simply supported part
Description

Length

Self wt

Wall load

Extra load

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

CL1

2.134

1.130

CL2

1.22

CL3

2.744

D min

Wu

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN - m)

6.287

11.14

18.56

10.56

0.646

6.287

11.14

18.07

3.36

1.454

6.287

11.14

18.88

17.77

min

As

Bar No.

116

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

104.43

225

200

1.174

0.003

0.0033

150

2-#13

58.92

225

200

0.374

0.001

0.0033

150

2-#13

135.45

225

200

1.974

0.006

0.0033

251.6

2-#13

* Extra Load is considered due to the unavailability of the space above the lintel level

Cantilever part
Length

Self wt

Wall load

*
Extra load

Wu

(m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN / m)

( KN - m)

CL1

2.134

1.13

6.29

29.7

37.12

84.52

CL2

1.22

0.65

6.29

29.7

36.63

27.26

CL3

2.744

1.45

6.29

29.7

37.44

140.96

Description

d min

min

As

Bar No.

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

295.39

325

300

4.174

0.013

0.003

880.22

2-#19+2-#16

167.77

225

200

3.029

0.009

0.003

403.03

2-#16+1-#10

381.47

425

400

3.92

0.012

0.003

1086.4

4-#19

( mm )

* Extra Load is considered due to the unavailability of the space above the lintel level
RESULT:

We run the continuous Lintel Band through out along the wall having h = 250 mm

117

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 7 DESIGN OF COLUMNS
C4:
The Column C4 is not a structural column (these columns do not take any axial load or
(moment) , they are provided at each corner in the masonry design of farm house to
insure the box action. We provide the minimum area of steel in it
min = 0.01
As min = 0.01 x b x h
Size of C 4 = 342 x 342 mm
There fore , As min = 0.01 x 342 x 342
As min = 1169.64 mm2
So Provide , 4 - # 16 + 4 - # 13
C1:
The Column C 1 is also not a structural column ( these columns do not take any axial load
or ( moment ) , they are provided at each corner in the masonry design of farm house to
insure the box action.We provide the minimum area of steel in it
min = 0.01
As min = 0.01 x b x h
Size of C 1 = 225 x 225 mm

118

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

There fore, As min = 0.01 x 225 x 225


As min = 506.25 mm2
So Provide, 4 - # 13

Design of C 3
DATA

Load of beam = 57.65 + 325.4


Load of slab

= 2400 x 9.81 x 0.150 x 20/3.20 x 14.5/3.28


= 129.39 KN

PD =129.39 +325.4 + 57.65


= 512.44
PL = 1.6 (500) = 800 KN
Pu = 512.44 +800 = 1312.44 KN
Moment from perpendicular Beam (B8), Muy = 70.1 KN-m
Moment from parallel Beam (B7),

Mux = 41.477 KN-m

SOLUTION:
Step I

Ag
=

Pu +2Mux+2Muy
0.5fc + 0.01 fy
1312.44 x 1000+ (2x41.477 x 106 +2x70.1 x 106) .
0.43 x 21 + 0.008 x 300

= 142184.67 mm2

119

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

d 2 = 142184.67 mm2
4
d

= 425.6

dsel = 450 mm

Step II
#25 bars are used as longitudinal reinforcement & #10 bars as lateral reinforcement.
= 450-2 x40- 2 x10-25
450

= 0.72
Step III
Calculate ex , ey & eox
ey = Mux / Pu
= 31.603 mm
ex = Muy / Pu
=53.44 mm
eox = ex + ey x b
h
= 55.12 mm +
Moy = Pu x eox
= 72.34 KN-m

= 0.744

Step IV
Use interaction curves and charts to determine
Pu/Ag = 8.256 MPa
Moy/Ag x h =1.44

120

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

For = 0.6

= 0.010

For = 0.75
= 0.012
Interpolating values to get corresponding to = 0.72
= 0.011
Step V
Compute Ast & select steel bars
Ast = 1748.56 mm2
Use 6 - # 25 bars

provided =

6 x 510 . = 0.0192
3.14 x 4502
4

So,

0.01 < provided < 0.03

Shear Stirrups
According to UBC 1921.4.4.2 the spacing of the confinement reinforcement is
S = h min / 4 = 110 mm
According to UBC 1921.4.4.4 confinement reinforcement is required over a distance of lo
From each joint face is given by,
lo = hn / 6

( hn = Column height )

lo = 1270 mm
So provide a shear stirrup # 10 @ 110mm C / C at a distance of 1270 mm from the top
and the bottom joint face.
Lap length
l = 0.093 fy d b
= 0.093 x 300 x 25
= 700 mm

121

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Lap is provide in the centre of the column height and there provide a shear stirrups
# 10 @ 110 mm C / C

Design of C 2
DATA

Load of beam = 37.28 + 18.64


Load of slab

= 2400 x 9.81 x 0.150 x 5.06 x 5.06/2


= 45.21 KN

PD =45.21 +37.28 + 18.64


= 101.13
PL = 1.6 (500) = 800 KN
Pu = 101.13 +800 = 901.13 KN
SOLUTION:

Ag
=

Pu +2Mx+2My
0.5fc' + 0.01 fy
901.13 x 1000
.
0.5 x 21 + 0.01 x 300

= 66750.4 mm2
d 2 = 66750.4 mm2
4
d

= 291.6 mm

dsel = 300 mm

122

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Pu = [(0.85 fc' Ag) + (fy 0.85fc') Ast]


901.13 x 1000 = 0.595 [(0.85 x 21x 3002 x /4) + (300 0.85 x 21) Ast]
Ast = 898.11 mm2
So provide 3 # 16 + 3 # 13

Shear Stirrups
According to UBC 1921.4.4.2 the spacing of the confinement reinforcement is
S = h min / 4 = 75 mm
According to UBC 1921.4.4.4 confinement reinforcement is required over a distance of lo
From each joint face is given by,
lo = hn / 6

( hn = Column height )

lo =4573.2/6
lo = 763 mm

So provide shear stirrups # 10 @ 75mm C / C at a distance of 763 mm from the top


And the bottom joint face.
Lap length
l = 0.093 fy d b
= 0.093 x 300 x 16
= 450 mm
Lap is provide in the centre of the column height and there provide a shear stirrups
# 10 @ 75 mm C / C

123

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

5 . 8 DESIGN OF STAIRS
fc' = 17.25 MPa
fy = 420 Mpa
Riser = 150 mm
Tread = 300 mm
Landing = 1.52 m
l = 1.52 + (10 x 0.3)
l = 4.52 m
h min = l / 30
= 4520 / 30
= 150.6 mm
= 160 mm
d = 160 27
= 133 mm
Load of waist of slab =160/1000 x 2400 = 384 Kg/m2
Load of steps = x (0.150 x 0.3) x 2400
= 54 Kg/m

124

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

54/0.3 = 180 Kg/m


Weight of plaster = 15/1000 x 2300
= 34.5 Kg/m2
Load of waist = 360 x (0.152 x 0.32)1/2
0.3

= 402.5 Kg/m2
Total dead load = 402.5 + 34.5 + 180
= 617 Kg/m2
Wu = [(1.2 x 617) + (1.6 x 300)] x 9.81/1000
= 11.972 KN/m2
= 12 KN/m
ln = 4.52 0.3 / 2
= 4.37 m
M = w ln2
10
= 12 x 4.372 /10
= 23 KN- m
d = 160 27 = 133 mm
d min = (Mu/ 0.205 fc' b)1/2
= (23 x 106/0.205 x 17.25 x 1000)
= 80.64 mm
= w [1 (1 2.614R/fc') 1/2]
= 0.85 x 17.25/420 x [1 (1 2.614 x 23 x 106 /1000 x 1332 x 21) 1/2]

125

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

= 0.0030
As = b d
= 0.003 x 1000 x 133
= 399 mm2
Provide ,

#10 @ 150 mm c/c

Check for Smax:


Lesser of
1 ) 2h = 2 x 160 = 320 mm
2 ) 300
3 ) 158300 / fy 2.5 C.C = 326.904 mm
4 ) 12600 / fy = 300 mm
Ther fore , Smax = 300 mm
Check for shear:
Vu = wu ( ln / 2 d )
= 12 (4.37 / 2 0.133)
= 24.624 KN
Vc = 0.75 x 1/ 6 x fc' x b x d
= 0.75/6 x 21 x 1000 x 133
= 76.185 KN > Vu

( OK )

126

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B)

COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS & RESULTS ( ETABS )

INPUT DATA :
STOREY DATA
Story

Height

Elevation

( mm )

( mm )

STOREY2

3048

7620

STOREY1

3352.8

4572

NSL

1219.2

1219.2

BASE

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
( N mm )
Material

Type

Mass

Weight

Dir

Plane

CONC21

Isotropic

2.40E-09

2.36E-05

All

All

21538.11

Poisson

ThermCoeff

DesignType

ConcFc

Long Fy

Shear Fy

0.2

5.50E-06

8974.2

Concrete

21

420

420

FRAME SECTION
BEAM SECTIONS
Width

Depth

Top Cover

Bottom Cover

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

( mm )

B 300X450

300

450

40

40

B 225X300

225

300

30

30

B 375X600

375

600

40

40

B 300X375

300

375

40

40

B 400X600

400

600

40

40

B 375X500

375

500

40

40

Section Name

127

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

COLUMN SECTIONS

Type

SectionName

Shear reinforcement

Cover
( mm )

C450X450

Rectangular

Ties

40

C300X300

Rectangular

Ties

40

CS300

Circular

Ties

30

CS375

Circular

Ties

40

C500X500

Rectangular

Ties

60

AUTO SEISMIC UBC-97

Case

Direction

EccRatio

Ct

TopStory

BotStory

SoilType

EQX

0.05

0.03

STOREY2

BASE

8.5

SD

0.4

EQY

0.05

0.03

STOREY2

BASE

8.5

SD

0.4

Source Type

Case

Ca

Cv

EQX

0.44

0.64

Na

Nv

TUsed

WeightUsed

BaseShear

0.2879

26135.19

3382.2

0.2987

26135.19

3382.2

B
EQY

0.44

0.64

128

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

ETABS LOAD COMBINATIONS


DCON1 = 1.4 Dead load + 1.4 Floor Finishes + 1.4 Wall load
DCON2 =1.4 D.L + 1.4 F.L + 1.4 W.L+ 1.7 L.L
DCON3 = 1.33 D.L + 1.4EQX + 1.33F.L+ 1.27 L.L+ 1.33W.L
DCON4 = 1.33 D.L +1.3 F.F + 1.33 W.L + 1.27 L.L 1.4QX
DCON5 = 1.33 D.L + 1.33 F.F + 1.33 W.L + 1.27 L.L + 1.4 EQY
DCON6 = 1.33 D.L + 1.33 F.F + 1.33 W.L + 1.27 L.L 1.43EQY
DCON7 =0 .614 D.L + 0.614 F.F + 0.614 W.L + 1.43 EQX
DCON8 = 0.614 D.L + 0.614 F.F + 0.614 W.L 1.43 EQX
DCON9 =0 .614 D.L + 0.614 F.F +0 .614 W.L +1.43 EQY
DCON10 = 0.614 D.L + 0.614 F.F+ 0.614 W.L -1.43 EQY

SELF DEFINED LOAD COMBINATIONS


SERVICE = DEAD LOAD + FLOOR FINISHES+WALL LOAD + LIVE LOAD
FACTORED = 1.2 D.L + 1.2 F.F + 1.2 W.L + 1.6 L.L

RESULTS
BASE REACTION

Total

Story

Point

Load

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

0, 0, Base

DEAD

0.01

27550.22

622578295.9

-57484066.8

-113.47

0, 0, Base

LIVE

8406.94

189979644.8

-17540324.01

-5.841

0, 0, Base

FLOORFINISHES

8858.18

200176670.2

-18481879.33

-5.058

0, 0, Base

WALLLOAD

20077.96

453749425.6

-41886626.1

-106.193

0, 0, Base

EQX

-3381.03

-0.01

0.04

-20690.559

76404086

0, 0, Base

EQY

0.01

-3381.84

20696.065

0.084

-7056488.5

129

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

STOREY SHEAR

Story

Load / Comb

DEAD
LIVE

Loc

VX

VY

MX

MY

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

Top

8990.26

-88.725

203160544 -18758245

Bottom

11068.36

-88.725

250120613 -23094087

Top

4239.5

-2.824

95803973

-8844138

Bottom

4239.5

-2.824

95803973

Top

4307.33

-2.287

97336836

Bottom

4307.33

-2.287

97336836

Top

-76.355

-8844138
8985644.2
8985644.2
0

Bottom

-76.355

-0.001

0.01

Top

-1847.95

41759655

Bottom

-1847.95

41759655

0.012

-5632.563

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD
EQX
EQY

STOREY 2

SERVICE
FACTORED
DCON1
DCON2
DCON3
DCON4
DCON5
DCON6
DCON7
DCON8
DCON9
DCON10

Top

0.01

-1848.55

-3857307.9

Bottom

0.01

-1848.55

-3857307.9

5634.393

0.031

Top

17537.1

0.01

-170.192

396301353 -36588027

Bottom

19615.19

0.01

-170.192

443261422 -40923869

Top

22740.32

0.01

-205.36

513883213 -47443288

Bottom

25234.03

0.01

-205.36

570235296 -52646298

Top

18616.64

0.01

-234.314

420696332 -38841445

Bottom

21525.97

0.01

-234.314

486440429 -44911623

Top

25823.79

0.01

-239.116

583563086 -53876479

Bottom

28733.12

0.01

-239.116

649307183 -59946658

Top

23097.82

-2591.74

58567690

521961830 -48189520

Bottom

25862.72

-2591.74

58567690

584442202 -53966258

Top

23097.82

2591.76

0.01

-58568143

521961830 -48189520

Bottom

25862.72

2591.76

0.01

-58568143

584442202 -53950458

Top

23097.82

0.02

-2592.6

-5410100.6 521961830 -48189520

Bottom

25862.72

0.02

-2592.6

-5410100.6 584450104 -53958358

Top

23097.82

2592.6

5409648.1

521961830 -48189520

Bottom

25862.72

2592.6

5409648.1

584434300 -53958358

Top

8164.72

-2642.57

-0.01

59716204

184505391 -17034748

Bottom

9440.67

-2642.57

-0.01

59716204

213338874 -19705009

Top

8164.72

2642.58

0.01

-59716410

184505391 -17034748

Bottom

9440.67

2642.58

0.01

-59716410

213338874 -19688900

Top

8164.72

0.02

-2643.43

-5516053.1 184505391 -17034748

Bottom

9440.67

0.02

-2643.43

-5516053.1 213346931 -19696955

Top

8164.72

-0.01

2643.43

5515847.6

184505391 -17034748

Bottom

9440.67

-0.01

2643.43

5515847.6

213330817 -19696955

130

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

DEAD

LIVE

FLOORFINISHES

WALLLOAD

EQX

EQY

STOREY 1

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

Top

21773.59

0.01

-113.47

492037624

-45428964

Bottom

24059.5

0.01

-113.47

543693701

-50198390

Top

8406.94

-5.841

189979645

-17540324

Bottom

8406.94

-5.841

189979645

-17540324

Top

8858.18

-5.058

200176670

-18481879

Bottom

8858.18

-5.058

200176670

-18481879

Top

9663.36

-106.193

218384821

-20159515

Bottom

9663.36

-106.193

218384821

-20159515

Top

-3261.7

-0.01

73707440

0.012

-5632.563

Bottom

-3261.7

-0.01

73707440

0.033

-16568.402

Top

0.01

-3262.51

-6807437.2

5634.393

0.031

Bottom

0.01

-3262.51

-6807437.2

16572.928

0.07

Top

48702.08

0.01

-230.562

1.101E+09 -101610682

Bottom

50987.98

0.01

-230.562

1.152E+09 -106380109

Top

61805.27

0.01

-279.011

1.397E+09 -128948948

Bottom

64548.36

0.01

-279.011

1.459E+09 -134672260

Top

56413.19

0.01

-314.61

1.275E+09 -117698502

Bottom

59613.46

0.01

-314.61

1.347E+09 -124375698

Top

70705

0.01

-324.539

1.598E+09 -147517053

Bottom

73905.26

0.01

-324.539

1.67E+09

Top

64331.53

-4574.53

-0.01

103374378

1.454E+09 -134227425

Bottom

67372.93

-4574.53

-0.01

103374378

1.523E+09 -140588484

Top

64331.53

4574.55

0.01

-103374991 1.454E+09 -134211625

Bottom

67372.93

4574.55

0.01

-103374991 1.523E+09 -140542009

Top

64331.53

0.03

-4575.67

-9547737.1

1.454E+09 -134219525

Bottom

67372.93

0.03

-4575.67

-9547737.1

1.523E+09 -140565246

Top

64331.53

4575.67

9547124.2

1.454E+09 -134219525

Bottom

67372.93

4575.67

9547124.2

1.522E+09 -140565247

Top

24741.21

-4664.23

-0.01

105401501

559107857

-51627255

Bottom

26144.76

-4664.23

-0.01

105401501

590824688

-54571321

Top

24741.21

4664.24

0.01

-105401777 559107857

-51611146

Bottom

26144.76

4664.24

0.01

-105401777 590824688

-54523935

-154194249

Top

24741.21

0.02

-4665.39

-9734773.1

559115914

-51619200

Bottom

26144.76

0.02

-4665.39

-9734773.1

590848387

-54547628

Top

24741.21

-0.01

4665.39

9734497.2

559099800

-51619200

Bottom

26144.76

-0.01

4665.39

9734497.2

590800989

-54547628

131

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

DEAD

LIVE

FLOORFINISHES

WALLLOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

NSL

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

Top

26721.01

0.01

-113.47

603840124

-55753916

Bottom

27550.22

0.01

-113.47

622578296

-57484067

Top

8406.94

-5.841

189979645

-17540324

Bottom

8406.94

-5.841

189979645

-17540324

Top

8858.18

-5.058

200176670

-18481879

Bottom

8858.18

-5.058

200176670

-18481879

Top

20077.96

-106.193

453749426

-41886626

Bottom

20077.96

-106.193

453749426

-41886626

Top

-3381.03

-0.01

76404086

0.033

-16568.402

Bottom

-3381.03

-0.01

76404086

0.04

-20690.559

Top

0.01

-3381.84

-7056488.5

16572.928

0.07

Bottom

0.01

-3381.84

-7056488.5

20696.065

0.084

Top

64064.09

0.01

-230.562

1.448E+09 -133662745

Bottom

64893.3

0.01

-230.562

1.466E+09 -135392896

Top

80239.69

0.01

-279.011

1.813E+09 -167411424

Bottom

81234.74

0.01

-279.011

1.836E+09 -169487605

Top

77920.01

0.01

-314.61

1.761E+09 -162571390

Bottom

79080.9

0.01

-314.61

1.787E+09 -164993601

Top

92211.81

0.01

-324.539

2.084E+09 -192389940

Bottom

93372.71

0.01

-324.539

2.11E+09

Top

84770.69

-4741.89

-0.01

107156424

1.916E+09 -176888032

Bottom

85873.95

-4741.89

-0.01

107156424

1.941E+09 -179195779

Top

84770.69

4741.91

0.01

-107157037 1.916E+09 -176841557

Bottom

85873.95

4741.91

0.01

-107157037 1.941E+09 -179137742

Top

84770.69

0.03

-4743.03

-9897031.6

1.916E+09 -176864794

Bottom

85873.95

0.03

-4743.03

-9897031.6

1.941E+09 -179166760

Top

84770.69

4743.03

9896418.7

1.916E+09 -176864795

Bottom

85873.95

4743.03

9896418.7

1.941E+09 -179166761

Top

34173.49

-4834.87

-0.01

109257705

772268459

-71322859

Bottom

34682.62

-4834.87

-0.01

109257705

783773697

-72391067

Top

34173.49

4834.88

0.01

-109257981 772268459

-71275474

Bottom

34682.62

4834.88

0.01

-109257981 783773696

-72331892

Top

34173.49

0.02

-4836.03

-10090917

772292158

-71299167

Bottom

34682.62

0.02

-4836.03

-10090917

783803292

-72361479

-194812152

Top

34173.49

-0.01

4836.03

10090641

772244759

-71299167

Bottom

34682.62

-0.01

4836.03

10090641

783744101

-72361480

132

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

BEAM FORCES
Storey

Beam

B32

B32

B32

STOREY 2

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

Load / Comb

DEAD

LIVE

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

Location

V2

V3

M2

M3

( mm )

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

150

-4.65

-31.05

0.01

3011.77

-4.65

3.2

0.01

0.424

-8.679

32712

5873.54

-4.65

38.26

0.01

0.424

-43.703

-33934.723

( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm )


0.424

26.346

-14942.298

150

-2.35

-15.76

0.01

0.205

12.87

-7846.186

3011.77

-2.35

1.68

0.01

0.205

-4.847

17708.003

5873.54

-2.35

19.69

0.01

0.205

-22.564

-17961.921

150

-2.44

-16.02

0.01

0.209

13.417

-8040.72

3011.77

-2.44

1.71

0.01

0.209

-5.077

17925.16

5873.54

-2.44

20.01

0.01

0.209

-23.571

-18312.66

150

-1.08

-0.02

0.045

4.305

-1445.106

3011.77

-1.08

-0.02

0.045

-2.063

-1392.183

5873.54

-1.08

-0.02

0.045

-8.431

-1339.259

150

1.85

3.55

0.01

-0.159

10.083

8718.575

3011.77

1.85

3.55

0.01

-0.159

-8.841

-1442.249

5873.54

1.85

3.55

0.01

-0.159

-27.765

-11603.072

150

2.9

0.06

0.05

-0.822

91.956

123.49

3011.77

2.9

0.06

0.05

-0.822

-36.859

-45.492

5873.54

2.9

0.06

0.05

-0.822

-165.673

-214.474

150

-10.52

-62.85

0.03

0.883

56.938

-32274.309

3011.77

-10.52

6.57

0.03

0.883

-20.666

66952.98

5873.54

-10.52

77.94

0.03

0.883

-98.269

-71548.563

150

-13.57

-81.72

0.04

1.142

73.473

-41867.646

3011.77

-13.57

8.56

0.04

1.142

-26.738

87426.778

5873.54

-13.57

101.41

0.04

1.142

-126.949

-93043.044

150

-11.44

-65.92

0.03

0.949

61.694

-34199.373

3011.77

-11.44

6.84

0.03

0.949

-22.146

68942.968

5873.54

-11.44

81.55

0.03

0.949

-105.987

-75021.298

133

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B32

B32

B32

STOREY 2

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

150

-15.44

-92.72

0.04

1.298

83.574

-47537.889

3011.77

-15.44

9.7

0.04

1.298

-30.386

99046.574

5873.54

-15.44

115.02

0.04

1.298

-144.346

-105556.57

150

-11.27

-77.77

0.05

0.941

89.182

-30277.703

3011.77

-11.27

13.63

0.05

0.941

-39.626

86075.393

5873.54

-11.27

107.59

0.05

0.941

-168.435

-110471.79

150

-16.46

-87.72

0.03

1.387

60.9

-54733.307

3011.77

-16.46

3.67

0.03

1.387

-14.827

90120.9

5873.54

-16.46

97.63

0.03

1.387

-90.555

-77925.168

150

-9.8

-82.66

0.1

0.011

204.009

-42332.31

3011.77

-9.8

8.73

0.1

0.011

-78.921

88034.344

5873.54

-9.8

102.69

0.1

0.011

-361.852

-94499.276

150

-17.94

-82.83

-0.03

2.316

-53.927

-42678.701

3011.77

-17.94

8.56

-0.03

2.316

24.468

88161.948

5873.54

-17.94

102.52

-0.03

2.316

102.862

-93897.677

150

-2.37

-23.83

0.02

0.189

41.476

-2531.305

3011.77

-2.37

8.08

0.02

0.189

-22.355

28174.001

5873.54

-2.37

40.84

0.02

0.189

-86.186

-49494.592

150

-7.66

-33.99

0.644

12.639

-27466.431

3011.77

-7.66

-2.08

0.644

2.93

32298.831

5873.54

-7.66

30.69

0.644

-6.779

-16309.804

150

-0.87

-28.83

0.08

-0.759

158.554

-14822.277

3011.77

-0.87

3.08

0.08

-0.759

-62.421

30171.363

5873.54

-0.87

35.85

0.08

-0.759

-283.396

-33208.895

150

-9.17

-29

-0.05

1.592

-104.44

-15175.459

3011.77

-9.17

2.92

-0.05

1.592

42.995

30301.469

5873.54

-9.17

35.68

-0.05

1.592

190.43

-32595.501

134

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B32

B32

B32

STOREY 1

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

DEAD

LIVE

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

150

5.13

-37.6

-0.02

0.783

-44.549

-15954.108

3011.77

5.13

3.72

-0.02

0.783

8.817

40316.94

5873.54

5.13

45.87

-0.02

0.783

62.183

-37972.78

150

2.83

-15.78

-0.01

0.327

-32.07

-7403.132

3011.77

2.83

1.66

-0.01

0.327

10.093

18210.092

5873.54

2.83

19.67

-0.01

0.327

52.256

-17400.797

150

2.87

-17.23

-0.02

0.355

-33.048

-7872.125

3011.77

2.87

1.82

-0.02

0.355

10.462

20095.621

5873.54

2.87

21.48

-0.02

0.355

53.971

-18793.365

150

-1.87

-34.64

0.02

0.734

46.852

-10594.06

3011.77

-1.87

3.14

0.02

0.734

-16.652

34478.34

5873.54

-1.87

40.91

0.02

0.734

-80.156

-28553.663

150

-1.72

10.53

-0.02

-0.35

-52.578

21859.617

3011.77

-1.72

10.53

-0.02

-0.35

1.558

-8276.105

5873.54

-1.72

10.53

-0.02

-0.35

55.695

-38411.827

150

-0.6

0.11

-0.01

-2.077

-0.589

218.076

3011.77

-0.6

0.11

-0.01

-2.077

29.064

-98.087

5873.54

-0.6

0.11

-0.01

-2.077

58.716

-414.251

150

8.97

-105.26

-0.03

2.199

-62.814

-41823.426

3011.77

8.97

10.34

-0.03

2.199

12.72

113100.99

5873.54

8.97

127.94

-0.03

2.199

88.254

-102720.61

150

11.9

-132.62

-0.04

2.77

-88.205

-53149.364

3011.77

11.9

13.07

-0.04

2.77

19.301

143005.23

5873.54

11.9

161.39

-0.04

2.77

126.807

-130225.04

150

8.59

-125.26

-0.02

2.621

-43.042

-48188.411

3011.77

8.59

12.15

-0.02

2.621

3.678

132847.26

5873.54

8.59

151.57

-0.02

2.621

50.398

-119447.73

135

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B32

B32

B32

STOREY 1

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

150

13.41

-152.1

-0.04

3.177

-97.561

-60773.736

3011.77

13.41

14.98

-0.04

3.177

20.836

163804.42

5873.54

13.41

185.01

-0.04

3.177

139.232

-149029.09

150

9.36

-124.4

-0.06

2.418

-155.535

-24577.081

3011.77

9.36

28.43

-0.06

2.418

18.549

137862.98

5873.54

9.36

183.89

-0.06

2.418

192.634

-189576.61

150

14.19

-153.94

-0.01

3.399

-8.054

-85893.308

3011.77

14.19

-1.1

-0.01

3.399

14.178

161077.45

5873.54

14.19

154.36

-0.01

3.399

36.41

-81831.433

150

10.94

-139.01

-0.05

-0.005

-82.62

-54929.343

3011.77

10.94

13.82

-0.05

-0.005

57.125

149332.64

5873.54

10.94

169.28

-0.05

-0.005

196.871

-136285.01

150

12.61

-139.32

-0.02

5.821

-80.969

-55541.046

3011.77

12.61

13.51

-0.02

5.821

-24.398

149607.78

5873.54

12.61

168.97

-0.02

5.821

32.172

-135123.03

150

1.3

-39.88

-0.03

0.649

-94.064

10125.192

3011.77

1.3

20.39

-0.03

0.649

3.842

46428.183

5873.54

1.3

81.53

-0.03

0.649

101.747

-107315.28

150

6.23

-70

0.02

1.65

56.31

-52393.313

3011.77

6.23

-9.73

0.02

1.65

-0.615

70097.843

5873.54

6.23

51.41

0.02

1.65

-57.541

2542.551

150

2.91

-54.78

-0.02

-1.82

-19.719

-20822.212

3011.77

2.91

5.49

-0.02

-1.82

43.174

58122.748

5873.54

2.91

66.63

-0.02

-1.82

106.067

-52978.741

150

4.62

-55.1

0.01

4.12

-18.035

-21445.909

3011.77

4.62

5.17

0.01

4.12

-39.948

58403.278

5873.54

4.62

66.32

0.01

4.12

-61.861

-51793.983

136

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B32

B32

B32

NSL

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

DEAD

LIVE

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

150

0.73

-8.55

-0.02

0.02

-72.189

-5829.503

3011.77

0.73

0.55

-0.02

0.02

-15.603

5614.306

5873.54

0.73

9.65

-0.02

0.02

40.984

-8990.131

150

2.34

0.05

-0.01

-0.002

-18.59

-114.608

3011.77

2.34

0.05

-0.01

-0.002

-2.366

-267.061

5873.54

2.34

0.05

-0.01

-0.002

13.857

-419.515

150

2.63

0.06

-0.01

-0.002

-21.362

-130.629

3011.77

2.63

0.06

-0.01

-0.002

-2.796

-300.468

5873.54

2.63

0.06

-0.01

-0.002

15.771

-470.306

150

-15.88

-39.35

-0.04

0.166

-163.809

-25460.979

3011.77

-15.88

2.14

-0.04

0.166

-51.368

27785.981

5873.54

-15.88

43.64

-0.04

0.166

61.074

-37718.108

150

2.67

5.16

-0.04

-0.055

-150.418

13856.663

3011.77

2.67

5.16

-0.04

-0.055

-49.295

-906.264

5873.54

2.67

5.16

-0.04

-0.055

51.828

-15669.19

150

-0.15

0.05

-0.02

-0.891

-59.073

125.692

3011.77

-0.15

0.05

-0.02

-0.891

-1.543

-4.394

5873.54

-0.15

0.05

-0.02

-0.891

55.987

-134.48

150

-10.18

-47.79

-0.07

0.183

-275.951

-31535.72

3011.77

-10.18

2.81

-0.07

0.183

-72.132

32832.758

5873.54

-10.18

53.4

-0.07

0.183

131.686

-47598.06

150

-11.28

-57.33

-0.09

0.218

-338.577

-37888.707

3011.77

-11.28

3.39

-0.09

0.218

-87.505

39292.486

5873.54

-11.28

64.11

-0.09

0.218

163.566

-57285.478

150

-17.52

-66.98

-0.09

0.258

-360.305

-43989.557

3011.77

-17.52

3.85

-0.09

0.258

-97.672

46339.748

5873.54

-17.52

74.69

-0.09

0.258

164.961

-66049.963

137

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

B32

B32

B32

NSL

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

B32

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

150

-13.55

-66.89

-0.1

0.255

-391.908

-44184.39

3011.77

-13.55

3.94

-0.1

0.255

-101.695

45885.744

5873.54

-13.55

74.78

-0.1

0.255

188.518

-66763.138

150

-9.93

-56.35

-0.14

0.165

-577.083

-22517.945

3011.77

-9.93

10.97

-0.14

0.165

-164.977

42427.772

5873.54

-9.93

78.29

-0.14

0.165

247.128

-85281.975

150

-17.41

-70.82

-0.04

0.321

-155.159

-61385.884

3011.77

-17.41

-3.5

-0.04

0.321

-26.704

44969.842

5873.54

-17.41

63.82

-0.04

0.321

101.75

-41329.897

150

-13.89

-63.53

-0.12

-1.007

-448.97

-41775.631

3011.77

-13.89

3.79

-0.12

-1.007

-98.005

43692.644

5873.54

-13.89

71.12

-0.12

-1.007

252.961

-63494.544

150

-13.45

-63.65

-0.07

1.493

-283.271

-42128.198

3011.77

-13.45

3.67

-0.07

1.493

-93.677

43704.97

5873.54

-13.45

70.99

-0.07

1.493

95.918

-63117.327

150

-3.87

-22

-0.09

0.034

-373.118

522.465

3011.77

-3.87

9.07

-0.09

0.034

-113.328

19027.332

5873.54

-3.87

40.13

-0.09

0.034

146.461

-51374.568

150

-11.5

-36.75

0.01

0.192

57.079

-39107.59

3011.77

-11.5

-5.69

0.01

0.192

27.656

21619.246

5873.54

-11.5

25.38

0.01

0.192

-1.767

-6560.685

150

-7.9

-29.31

-0.07

-1.161

-242.494

-19112.823

3011.77

-7.9

1.76

-0.07

-1.161

-45.043

20317.006

5873.54

-7.9

32.82

-0.07

-1.161

152.408

-29159.934

150

-7.46

-29.44

-0.01

1.387

-73.545

-19472.302

3011.77

-7.46

1.63

-0.01

1.387

-40.63

20329.573

5873.54

-7.46

32.69

-0.01

1.387

-7.714

-28775.32

138

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

COLUMN FORCES
Story

Column

C 25

C 25

STOREY 2

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

Load / Comb

DEAD

LIVE

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

Location

V2

V3

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

M2

M3

( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm )

-75.45

24.65

8.22

0.21

12177.882 32493.786

1299

-69.26

24.65

8.22

0.21

1504.124

2598

-63.06

24.65

8.22

0.21

-9169.635 -31554.352

-27.45

12.51

3.72

0.107

5465.357

15729.073

1299

-27.45

12.51

3.72

0.107

634.242

-525.106

2598

-27.45

12.51

3.72

0.107

-4196.873 -16779.284

-27.83

12.98

3.87

0.111

5721.315

16720.279

1299

-27.83

12.98

3.87

0.111

699.346

-136.059

2598

-27.83

12.98

3.87

0.111

-4322.623 -16992.398

1.74

5.38

1.97

0.01

4060.877

15068.056

1299

1.74

5.38

1.97

0.01

1505.615

8077.159

2598

1.74

5.38

1.97

0.01

-1049.646

1086.263

469.717

-2.96

7.18

3.42

0.156

5499.505

9468.85

1299

-2.96

7.18

3.42

0.156

1055.484

147.813

2598

-2.96

7.18

3.42

0.156

-3388.536 -9173.224

10.43

0.14

28.32

0.274

44372.31

205.131

1299

10.43

0.14

28.32

0.274

7590.069

20.63

2598

10.43

0.14

28.32

0.274

-29192.172 -163.872

-128.98

55.52

17.77

0.439

27425.431 80011.193

1299

-122.78

55.52

17.77

0.439

2598

-116.59

55.52

17.77

0.439

-165.76

71.63

22.81

0.569

4343.327

7885.711

-18738.777 -64239.771
35096.66

102305.06

5465.689

9252.811

1299

-158.32

71.63

22.81

0.569

2598

-150.88

71.63

22.81

0.569

-24165.282 -83799.439

-142.15

60.22

19.67

0.464

30744.104 89994.969

1299

-133.47

60.22

19.67

0.464

5192.719

2598

-124.8

60.22

19.67

0.464

11775.143

-20358.666 -66444.682

139

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 25

C 25

C 25

STOREY 2

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-188.81

81.49

25.99

0.646

40035.211

116734.39

1299

-180.13

81.49

25.99

0.646

6270.93

10882.464

2598

-171.46

81.49

25.99

0.646

-27493.35

-94969.465

-174.24

83.24

28.23

0.796

43899.264

118861.99

1299

-166

83.24

28.23

0.796

7223.913

10728.39

2598

-157.75

83.24

28.23

0.796

-29451.439

-97405.212

-165.93

63.12

18.64

0.359

28473.154

92301.867

1299

-157.69

63.12

18.64

0.359

4263.28

10313.774

2598

-149.44

63.12

18.64

0.359

-19946.594

-71674.318

-155.46

73.38

63.15

0.961

98418.373

105869.63

1299

-147.22

73.38

63.15

0.961

16388.668

10550.015

2598

-138.97

73.38

63.15

0.961

-65641.038

-84769.596

-184.71

72.98

-16.28

0.194

-26045.955

105294.23

1299

-176.47

72.98

-16.28

0.194

-4901.475

10492.149

2598

-168.22

72.98

-16.28

0.194

16243.005

-84309.935

-66.58

36.67

13.52

0.426

21347.777

53009.677

1299

-62.77

36.67

13.52

0.426

3786.72

5375.614

2598

-58.97

36.67

13.52

0.426

-13774.336

-42258.45

-58.11

16.15

3.73

-0.019

5619.194

25928.766

1299

-54.3

16.15

3.73

-0.019

768.036

4952.869

2598

-50.5

16.15

3.73

-0.019

-4083.122

-16023.028

-47.43

26.61

49.12

0.595

76935.888

39762.559

1299

-43.63

26.61

49.12

0.595

13131.176

5193.742

2598

-39.82

26.61

49.12

0.595

-50673.535

-29375.076

-77.26

26.21

-31.86

-0.188

-49968.917

39175.884

1299

-73.45

26.21

-31.86

-0.188

-8576.42

5134.741

2598

-69.65

26.21

-31.86

-0.188

32816.077

-28906.402

140

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 25

C 25

C 25

STOREY 1

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

DEAD

LIVE

-167.89

6.93

3.38

0.041

5213.114

7263.157

1376.4

-161.32

6.93

3.38

0.041

565.707

-2272.966

2752.8

-154.75

6.93

3.38

0.041

-4081.7

-11809.088
1537.274

-54.06

2.28

0.73

0.001

1058.357

1376.4

-54.06

2.28

0.73

0.001

58.306

-1604.19

2752.8

-54.06

2.28

0.73

0.001

-941.746

-4745.655

FLOOR
FINISHES

-57.02

2.58

0.8

0.003

1156.999

1730.343

1376.4

-57.02

2.58

0.8

0.003

53.272

-1822.991

2752.8

-57.02

2.58

0.8

0.003

-1050.455

-5376.324

-89.16

13.07

6.53

0.078

10727.283

20788.154

WALL LOAD

1376.4

-89.16

13.07

6.53

0.078

1733.961

2802.908

2752.8

-89.16

13.07

6.53

0.078

-7259.362

-15182.338
30878.111

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

-13.13

18.55

1.45

-0.005

2340.143

1376.4

-13.13

18.55

1.45

-0.005

344.542

5346.851

2752.8

-13.13

18.55

1.45

-0.005

-1651.059

-20184.409

30.71

0.02

33.96

-0.005

53957.016

-173.593

1376.4

30.71

0.02

33.96

-0.005

7213.363

-198.374

2752.8

30.71

0.02

33.96

-0.005

-39530.289

-223.154

-368.13

24.86

11.44

0.122

18155.753

31318.928

1376.4

-361.56

24.86

11.44

0.122

2411.245

-2897.239

2752.8

-355

24.86

11.44

0.122

-13333.264

-37113.406

-463.38

30.74

14.02

0.147

22210.246

38197.623

1376.4

-455.5

30.74

14.02

0.147

2916.816

-4118.363

2752.8

-447.62

30.74

14.02

0.147

-16376.615

-46434.349
41694.315

-439.7

31.61

15

0.17

23936.354

1376.4

-430.5

31.61

15

0.17

3294.115

-1810.268

2752.8

-421.31

31.61

15

0.17

-17348.125

-45314.851
44307.681

-531.6

35.49

16.23

0.171

25735.561

1376.4

-522.41

35.49

16.23

0.171

3393.234

-4537.392

2752.8

-513.22

35.49

16.23

0.171

-18949.093

-53382.465

-505.21

58.96

17.21

0.156

27379.541

84891.066

1376.4

-496.47

58.96

17.21

0.156

3688.145

3733.215

2752.8

-487.74

58.96

17.21

0.156

-20003.251

-77424.636

141

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 25

C 25

STOREY 1

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-468.38

6.93

13.15

0.169

20815.44

-1722.036

1376.4

-459.65

6.93

13.15

0.169

2752.8

-450.91

6.93

13.15

0.169

-443.72

32.97

62.81

0.156

99772.205 41341.051

1376.4

-434.98

32.97

62.81

0.156

13321.667

-4043.963

2752.8

-426.25

32.97

62.81

0.156

-73128.871

49428.976

-529.88

32.92

-32.45

0.169

-51577.224 41827.979

1376.4

-521.14

32.92

-32.45

0.169

-6911.817

-3487.525

2752.8

-512.4

32.92

-32.45

0.169

37753.59

48803.029

-211.61

40.39

8.65

0.068

13844.205 62441.634

1376.4

-207.58

40.39

8.65

0.068

1937.399

6852.065

2752.8

-203.55

40.39

8.65

0.068

-9969.407

48737.503

-174.06

-12.66

4.5

0.081

7151.396

25869.764

1376.4

-170.03

-12.66

4.5

0.081

952.01

-8439.929

2752.8

-166

-12.66

4.5

0.081

-5247.377

8989.906

-148.92

13.89

55.14

0.068

87656.333 18037.697

1376.4

-144.88

13.89

55.14

0.068

11759.814

-1077.606

2752.8

-140.85

13.89

55.14

0.068

-64136.705

20192.909

11264.703
-15372.029
20807.369
2721.705

-236.76

13.84

-41.99

0.081

-66660.732 18534.173

1376.4

-232.73

13.84

-41.99

0.081

-8870.405

-510.257

2752.8

-228.7

13.84

-41.99

0.081

48919.921

19554.688

142

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

NSL

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

DEAD

LIVE

FLOORFINISHES

WALLLOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

-193.77

6.15

3.52

-0.008

2873.141

3514.977

384.6

-191.93

6.15

3.52

-0.008

1517.657

1150.739

769.2

-190.1

6.15

3.52

-0.008

162.173

-1213.498

-53.59

-0.08

0.09

-0.018

368.778

1005.739

384.6

-53.59

-0.08

0.09

-0.018

335.731

1037.259

769.2

-53.59

-0.08

0.09

-0.018

302.683

1068.78

-56.52

-0.08

0.09

-0.02

398.732

1146.865

384.6

-56.52

-0.08

0.09

-0.02

365.302

1178.312

769.2

-56.52

-0.08

0.09

-0.02

331.871

1209.76

-186.05

28.91

13.08

0.1

7147.886

8128.673

384.6

-186.05

28.91

13.08

0.1

2116.072

-2988.948

769.2

-186.05

28.91

13.08

0.1

-2915.743 -14106.569

-17.75

16.65

1.38

0.094

1563.8

34347.045

384.6

-17.75

16.65

1.38

0.094

1032.615

27943.626

769.2

-17.75

16.65

1.38

0.094

501.431

21540.207

48.31

0.26

36.97

0.166 42046.482

384.6

48.31

0.26

36.97

0.166 27829.568

-98.96

769.2

48.31

0.26

36.97

0.166 13612.654

-200.043

-489.93

34.89

16.78

0.054 10788.538 13796.254

2.123

384.6

-488.09

34.89

16.78

0.054

4334.761

769.2

-486.26

34.89

16.78

0.054

-2119.015 -13041.528

377.363

-609.35

41.84

20.17

0.057 13093.757 16957.801

384.6

-607.15

41.84

20.17

0.057

5336.006

769.2

-604.95

41.84

20.17

0.057

-2421.745 -15222.321

867.74

-610.87

48.96

23.37

0.101 14587.664 17906.721

384.6

-608.3

48.96

23.37

0.101

5598.643

769.2

-605.73

48.96

23.37

0.101

-3390.378 -19754.431

-923.855

-701.98

48.82

23.52

0.07

15214.587 19616.477

384.6

-699.41

48.82

23.52

0.07

6169.385

769.2

-696.84

48.82

23.52

0.07

-2875.816 -17937.505

839.486

-673.77

69.78

24.26

0.205 16526.912 66471.827

384.6

-671.32

69.78

24.26

0.205

7197.01

39635.449

769.2

-668.88

69.78

24.26

0.205

-2132.892

12799.07

143

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 25

C 25

NSL

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

C 25

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-623.99

23.08

20.38

-0.06

12140.453 -29871.633

384.6

-621.55

23.08

20.38

-0.06

4300.524 -38746.421

769.2

-619.1

23.08

20.38

-0.06

-3539.405 -47621.21

-581.12

46.79

74.17

0.305

73303.874 18303.074

384.6

-578.68

46.79

74.17

0.305

44779.736

769.2

-576.24

46.79

74.17

0.305

16255.598 -17691.63

-716.63

46.06

-29.52

-0.16

-44636.509 18297.121

384.6

-714.19

46.06

-29.52

-0.16

-33282.202

769.2

-711.75

46.06

-29.52

-0.16

-21927.896 -17130.51

-293.29

45.28

12.23

0.179

8633.966

56969.65

384.6

-292.16

45.28

12.23

0.179

3932.045

39554.208

769.2

-291.03

45.28

12.23

0.179

-769.877

22138.767

-242.53

-2.34

8.28

-0.091

4161.499 -41262.898

384.6

-241.41

-2.34

8.28

-0.091

978.765

769.2

-240.28

-2.34

8.28

-0.091

-2203.969 -39466.224

-198.83

21.85

63.11

0.281

66524.202

7856.411

384.6

-197.7

21.85

63.11

0.281

42251.687

-546.689

769.2

-196.57

21.85

63.11

0.281

17979.172

-8949.79

-336.99

21.1

-42.61

-0.193

-53728.737 7850.341

384.6

-335.87

21.1

-42.61

-0.193

-37340.877 -263.663

769.2

-334.74

21.1

-42.61

-0.193

-20953.018 -8377.667

305.722

583.305

-40364.561

144

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Story

Column

C 102

C 102

Load / Comb

DEAD

LIVE

STOREY 2

C 102 FLOOR FINISHES

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

Location

V2

V3

M2

M3

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

-59.1

-11.32

-0.37

0.03

1299

-56.34

-11.32

-0.37

0.03

89.039

-158.258

2598

-53.59

-11.32

-0.37

0.03

570.079

14540.763

( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm ) ( KN-mm )


-392.001 -14857.279

-26.76

-5.74

-0.18

0.013

-170.379

-7289.798

1299

-26.76

-5.74

-0.18

0.013

58.872

168.255

2598

-26.76

-5.74

-0.18

0.013

288.123

7626.308

-27.11

-5.94

-0.18

0.014

-183.047

-7669.408

1299

-27.11

-5.94

-0.18

0.014

56.074

49.54

2598

-27.11

-5.94

-0.18

0.014

295.194

7768.487

2.57

-2.31

-0.39

0.005

-636.05

-5599.256

1299

2.57

-2.31

-0.39

0.005

-132.084

-2595.447

2598

2.57

-2.31

-0.39

0.005

371.882

408.361

0.22

6.33

1.18

0.022

1795.842 10055.037

1299

0.22

6.33

1.18

0.022

257.021

1827.85

2598

0.22

6.33

1.18

0.022

-1281.8

-6399.336

-6.78

0.08

9.55

0.009

14577.575

109.345

1299

-6.78

0.08

9.55

0.009

2165.986

6.475

2598

-6.78

0.08

9.55

0.009

-10245.603

-96.396

-1381.477 -35415.74

-110.4

-25.31

-1.12

0.062

1299

-107.65

-25.31

-1.12

0.062

2598

-104.89

-25.31

-1.12

0.062

1525.277 30343.921

-143.18

-32.67

-1.41

0.08

-1725.924 -45414.807

1299

-139.88

-32.67

-1.41

0.08

109.829

2598

-136.57

-32.67

-1.41

0.08

1945.581 39463.228

-117.1

-27.4

-1.32

0.069

-1695.536 -39376.319

1299

-113.24

-27.4

-1.32

0.069

2598

-109.39

-27.4

-1.32

0.069

71.9

18.24

-2535.91

-2975.789

-3785.831

1732.016 31804.657

145

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 102

C 102

C 102

STOREY 2

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-162.59

-37.16

-1.62

0.091

-1985.181 -51768.976

1299

-158.73

-37.16

-1.62

0.091

118.321

2598

-154.87

-37.16

-1.62

0.091

2221.824 44769.382

-145.1

-24.48

0.18

0.112

690.07

-32613.87

1299

-141.43

-24.48

0.18

0.112

452.868

-819.806

2598

-137.77

-24.48

0.18

0.112

215.666

30974.258

-145.71

-42.24

-3.14

0.052

-4347.267 -60818.247

1299

-142.04

-42.24

-3.14

0.052

-268.077

2598

-138.38

-42.24

-3.14

0.052

3811.114 48924.395

-154.91

-33.25

11.92

0.095

18616.45 -46562.702

1299

-151.24

-33.25

11.92

0.095

3130.191

2598

-147.58

-33.25

11.92

0.095

-12356.069 39814.132

-135.9

-33.47

-14.88

0.069

-22273.647 -46869.415

1299

-132.23

-33.47

-14.88

0.069

-2945.399 -3392.447

2598

-128.57

-33.47

-14.88

0.069

16382.848 40084.521

-51.04

-2.96

1.12

0.061

1824.44

-2890.626

1299

-49.35

-2.96

1.12

0.061

375.54

953.469

2598

-47.66

-2.96

1.12

0.061

-1073.361

4797.564

-51.67

-21.07

-2.27

-0.001

-3311.668 -31648.031

1299

-49.98

-21.07

-2.27

-0.001

-359.541

2598

-48.29

-21.07

-2.27

-0.001

2592.586 23099.664

-61.05

-11.9

13.08

0.043

20102.318 -17112.965

1299

-59.36

-11.9

13.08

0.043

3105.359

-1651.098

2598

-57.66

-11.9

13.08

0.043

-13891.6

13810.768

-41.66

-12.13

-14.24

0.017

1299

-39.97

-12.13

-14.24

0.017

2598

-38.28

-12.13

-14.24

0.017

-3499.797

-5946.926

-3374.285

-4274.183

-21589.545 -17425.692
-3089.36

-1669.616

15410.825 14086.46

146

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 102

C 102

DEAD

LIVE

C 102 FLOOR FINISHES

STOREY 1

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

-124.71

-3.37

0.02

0.023

222.295

-4503.442

1376.4

-121.79

-3.37

0.02

0.023

198.495

134.628

2752.8

-118.88

-3.37

0.02

0.023

174.695

4772.698

-50.35

-1.06

-0.09

0.005

-56.354

-1059.134

1376.4

-50.35

-1.06

-0.09

0.005

71.115

393.682

2752.8

-50.35

-1.06

-0.09

0.005

198.585

1846.497

-53.09

-1.19

-0.1

0.006

-57.122

-1192.716

1376.4

-53.09

-1.19

-0.1

0.006

76.348

440.896

2752.8

-53.09

-1.19

-0.1

0.006

209.819

2074.508

-56.31

-6.56

0.34

0.053

599.998

-11660.557

1376.4

-56.31

-6.56

0.34

0.053

137.945

-2634.512

2752.8

-56.31

-6.56

0.34

0.053

-324.107

6391.532
11518.195

3.14

7.42

0.59

0.041

904.102

1376.4

3.14

7.42

0.59

0.041

90.841

1298.494

2752.8

3.14

7.42

0.59

0.041

-722.42

-8921.208

-22.55

0.04

10.29

0.008

16952.807

15.38

1376.4

-22.55

0.04

10.29

0.008

2789.305

-41.911

2752.8

-22.55

0.04

10.29

0.008

-11374.198

-99.202

-284.47

-12.17

0.16

0.087

708.816

-18415.848

1376.4

-281.55

-12.17

0.16

0.087

483.904

-1665.307

2752.8

-278.63

-12.17

0.16

0.087

258.991

15085.235

-361.5

-15.03

0.16

0.107

828.038

-22522.672

1376.4

-358

-15.03

0.16

0.107

609.131

-1840.895

2752.8

-354.5

-15.03

0.16

0.107

390.223

18840.881

-327.76

-15.56

0.36

0.115

1071.239

-24299.4

1376.4

-323.68

-15.56

0.36

0.115

577.904

-2882.583

2752.8

-319.59

-15.56

0.36

0.115

84.569

18534.233

-413.36

-17.35

0.2

0.124

975.436

-26099.928

1376.4

-409.27

-17.35

0.2

0.124

698.8

-2213.325

2752.8

-405.19

-17.35

0.2

0.124

422.163

21673.279

-371.28

-5.72

1.05

0.173

2214.211

-8289.235

1376.4

-367.39

-5.72

1.05

0.173

767.292

-416.402

2752.8

-363.51

-5.72

1.05

0.173

-679.628

7456.431

147

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 102

C 102

STOREY 1

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-380.1

-26.55

-0.61

0.059

-321.795 -40597.773

1376.4

-376.22

-26.55

-0.61

0.059

512.483

2752.8

-372.33

-26.55

-0.61

0.059

1346.761 32480.419

-407.31

-16.07

14.65

0.126

24722.52 -24421.933

1376.4

-403.43

-16.07

14.65

0.126

4551.887

2752.8

-399.55

-16.07

14.65

0.126

-15618.746 19829.294

-344.06

-16.19

-14.21

0.105

-22830.104 -24465.075

1376.4

-340.18

-16.19

-14.21

0.105

-3272.113

2752.8

-336.3

-16.19

-14.21

0.105

16285.879 20107.556

-139.25

3.79

0.109

1762.681

5813.997

1376.4

-137.46

3.79

0.109

383.355

592.628

2752.8

-135.67

3.79

0.109

-995.971

-4628.742

-148.24

-17.44

-0.69

-0.008

-823.051 -27128.042

1376.4

-146.45

-17.44

-0.69

-0.008

123.55

-3121.065

2752.8

-144.66

-17.44

-0.69

-0.008

1070.15

20885.912

-175.99

-6.76

14.87

0.061

24712.329 -10635.028

1376.4

-174.2

-6.76

14.87

0.061

4242.158

2752.8

-172.41

-6.76

14.87

0.061

-111.5

-6.88

-14.56

0.04

-23772.7 -10679.017

1376.4

-109.71

-6.88

-14.56

0.04

-3735.253 -1204.286

2752.8

-107.92

-6.88

-14.56

0.04

16302.193 8270.444

-4058.677

-2296.319

-2178.76

-1324.151

-16228.014 7986.727

148

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 102

C 102

DEAD

LIVE

C 102 FLOOR FINISHES

C 102

EQX

NSL

C 102

WALL LOAD

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

-141.98

-2.8

0.25

-0.036

365.942

-771.579

384.6

-141.16

-2.8

0.25

-0.036

269.351

305.702

769.2

-140.35

-2.8

0.25

-0.036

172.76

1382.983

-49.52

1.25

-0.009

59.042

571.831

384.6

-49.52

1.25

-0.009

57.602

91.037

769.2

-49.52

1.25

-0.009

56.161

-389.757

-52.22

1.41

0.01

-0.01

66.228

646.288

384.6

-52.22

1.41

0.01

-0.01

62.271

104.642

769.2

-52.22

1.41

0.01

-0.01

58.314

-437.004

-129.33

-22.95

0.18

-0.097

515.591

-8122.774

384.6

-129.33

-22.95

0.18

-0.097

444.65

704.772

769.2

-129.33

-22.95

0.18

-0.097

373.71

9532.319

6.96

10.27

0.83

-0.094

459.139

9411.036

384.6

6.96

10.27

0.83

-0.094

140.272

5460.828

769.2

6.96

10.27

0.83

-0.094

-178.595

1510.62

-35.87

0.13

18.05

0.031

11820.941

36.572

384.6

-35.87

0.13

18.05

0.031

4878.422

-11.907

769.2

-35.87

0.13

18.05

0.031

-2064.096

-60.385

-373.04

-23.1

0.45

-0.152

1006.804

-7676.234

384.6

-372.23

-23.1

0.45

-0.152

833.874

1206.153

769.2

-371.41

-23.1

0.45

-0.152

660.944

10088.54

-467.46

-27.21

0.54

-0.186

1231.781

-8982.749

384.6

-466.48

-27.21

0.54

-0.186

1023.689

1483.798

769.2

-465.5

-27.21

0.54

-0.186

815.598

11950.346

-452.93

-34.08

0.62

-0.201

1326.865 -11547.291

384.6

-451.79

-34.08

0.62

-0.201

1086.781

1561.163

769.2

-450.65

-34.08

0.62

-0.201

846.697

14669.616

-537.12

-31.96

0.63

-0.216

1427.238 -10575.179

384.6

-535.97

-31.96

0.63

-0.216

1184.704

1715.925

769.2

-534.83

-31.96

0.63

-0.216

942.171

14007.029

149

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

C 102

C 102

C 102

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

NSL

C 102

DCON3

C 102

C 102

C 102

C 102

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

-483.82

-16.39

1.76

-0.334

1980.218

2954.012

384.6

-482.73

-16.39

1.76

-0.334

1303.004

9258.546

769.2

-481.65

-16.39

1.76

-0.334

625.791

15563.079

-503.35

-45.2

-0.56

-0.071

692.333

-23443.945

384.6

-502.27

-45.2

-0.56

-0.071

909.541

-6059.077

769.2

-501.18

-45.2

-0.56

-0.071

1126.749

11325.79

-543.9

-30.62

25.91

-0.159

17915.144 -10193.674

384.6

-542.81

-30.62

25.91

-0.159

769.2

-541.73

-30.62

25.91

-0.159

-2018.625 13359.744

-443.27

-30.97

-24.72

-0.246

-15242.594 -10296.258

384.6

-442.19

-30.97

-24.72

-0.246

-5735.715

769.2

-441.1

-30.97

-24.72

-0.246

3771.165 13529.124

-188.68

-0.26

1.46

-0.223

1238.494

8393.47

384.6

-188.18

-0.26

1.46

-0.223

677.22

8493.666

769.2

-187.68

-0.26

1.46

-0.223

115.947

8593.861

-208.6

-29.64

-0.91

0.046

-74.644

-18522.094

384.6

-208.1

-29.64

-0.91

0.046

276.042

-7124.303

769.2

-207.6

-29.64

-0.91

0.046

626.728

4273.488

-249.94

-14.77

26.09

-0.044

17485.87

-5012.014

384.6

-249.44

-14.77

26.09

-0.044

7452.775

667.655

769.2

-248.94

-14.77

26.09

-0.044

-2580.32

6347.324

-147.34

-15.13

-25.54

-0.133

-16322.02 -5116.609

384.6

-146.84

-15.13

-25.54

-0.133

-6499.513

701.708

769.2

-146.34

-15.13

-25.54

-0.133

3322.995

6520.025

7948.26

1583.035

1616.433

150

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

SUPPORTS REACTIONS

BASE

Story

Point

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

Load / Comb

FX

FY

FZ

MX

MY

MZ

( KN )

( KN )

( KN )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

( KN-m )

DEAD

-6.15

-3.52

193.77

2.873

-3.515

LIVE

0.08

-0.09

53.59

0.369

-1.006

FLOORFINISHES

0.08

-0.09

56.52

0.399

-1.147

WALLLOAD

-28.91

-13.08

186.05

7.148

-8.129

EQX

-16.65

-1.38

17.75

1.564

-34.347

EQY

-0.26

-36.97

-48.31

42.046

-0.002

SERVICE

-34.89

-16.78

489.93

10.789

-13.796

FACTORED

-41.84

-20.17

609.35

13.094

-16.958

DCON1

-48.96

-23.37

610.87

14.588

-17.907

DCON2

-48.82

-23.52

701.98

15.215

-19.616

DCON3

-69.78

-24.26

673.77

16.527

-66.472

DCON4

-23.08

-20.38

623.99

12.14

29.872

DCON5

-46.79

-74.17

581.12

73.304

-18.303

DCON6

-46.06

29.52

716.63

-44.637

-18.297

DCON7

-45.28

-12.23

293.29

8.634

-56.97

DCON8

2.34

-8.28

242.53

4.161

41.263

DCON9

-21.85

-63.11

198.83

66.524

-7.856

DCON10

-21.1

42.61

336.99

-53.729

-7.85

DEAD

2.8

-0.25

141.98

0.366

0.772

LIVE

-1.25

49.52

0.059

-0.572

FLOORFINISHES

-1.41

-0.01

52.22

0.066

-0.646

WALLLOAD

22.95

-0.18

129.33

0.516

8.123

EQX

-10.27

-0.83

-6.96

0.459

-9.411

EQY

-0.13

-18.05

35.87

11.821

-0.037

SERVICE

23.1

-0.45

373.04

1.007

7.676

FACTORED

27.21

-0.54

467.46

1.232

8.983

DCON1

34.08

-0.62

452.93

1.327

11.547

DCON2

31.96

-0.63

537.12

1.427

10.575

DCON3

16.39

-1.76

483.82

1.98

-2.954

DCON4

45.2

0.56

503.35

0.692

23.444

DCON5

30.62

-25.91

543.9

17.915

10.194

DCON6

30.97

24.72

443.27

-15.243

10.296

DCON7

0.26

-1.46

188.68

1.238

-8.393

DCON8

29.64

0.91

208.6

-0.075

18.522

DCON9

14.77

-26.09

249.94

17.486

5.012

DCON10

15.13

25.54

147.34

-16.322

5.117

151

Design of Farm House

CHAPTER 5

Point

Load

UX

UY

UZ

RX

RY

RZ

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

DEAD

-0.1153

0.4078

-0.2239

0.00002

-0.00041

0.00001

LIVE

-0.0523

0.1492

-0.0757

0.00001

-0.00023

0.00001

FLOOR FINISHES

-0.0551

0.1571

-0.0791

0.00001

-0.00023

0.00001

STOREY 1

Story

STOREY 2

POINT DISPLACEMENT ( mm )

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

WALL LOAD

-0.057

0.32

-0.1193

-0.00002

0.00008

0.00001

EQX

3.7953

0.268

-0.0171

-0.00002

0.00033

0.00001

EQY

-0.0565

4.2975

0.0444

-0.00024

-0.00001

0.00002

SERVICE

-0.2797

1.034

-0.498

0.00002

-0.00079

0.00003

FACTORED

-0.3565

1.3005

-0.6279

0.00003

-0.00103

0.00004

DCON1

-0.3184

1.2387

-0.5913

0.00002

-0.00079

0.00004

DCON2

-0.4072

1.4924

-0.72

0.00004

-0.00117

0.00005

DCON3

4.9537

1.7433

-0.6825

-0.00057

0.00006

DCON4

-5.6921

0.9916

-0.6344

0.00006

-0.0015

0.00003

DCON5

-0.4485

7.3948

-0.5962

-0.0003

-0.00105

0.00007

DCON6

-0.2899

-4.6598

-0.7207

0.00036

-0.00102

0.00002

DCON7

5.2876

0.9265

-0.2838

-0.00002

0.00013

0.00003

DCON8

-5.5669

0.16

-0.2348

0.00004

-0.00082

DCON9

-0.2205

6.6888

-0.1958

-0.00033

-0.00036

0.00005

DCON10

-0.0588

-5.6022

-0.3228

0.00035

-0.00033

-0.00001

DEAD

-0.019

0.175

-0.1763

0.00001

-0.0002

LIVE

-0.0033

0.0414

-0.0565

-0.00009

FLOOR FINISHES

-0.0042

0.0446

-0.0596

-0.0001

WALL LOAD

-0.0393

0.2591

-0.1205

0.00002

-0.00021

0.00001

EQX

2.4518

0.1095

-0.0151

-0.00001

0.00039

EQY

-0.0244

2.6836

0.0371

-0.00019

-0.00001

SERVICE

-0.0657

0.5202

-0.413

0.00004

-0.0006

0.00001

FACTORED

-0.0802

0.6408

-0.5182

0.00005

-0.00075

0.00001

DCON1

-0.0874

0.6703

-0.499

0.00005

-0.00071

0.00001

DCON2

-0.093

0.7407

-0.5951

0.00005

-0.00086

0.00001

DCON3

3.3514

0.8434

-0.5675

0.00004

-0.00024

0.00001

DCON4

-3.526

0.5362

-0.5252

0.00006

-0.00134

0.00001

DCON5

-0.1215

4.4536

-0.4943

-0.00021

-0.0008

0.00002

DCON6

-0.0531

-3.074

-0.5984

0.00031

-0.00077

0.00001

DCON7

3.4678

0.4505

-0.2404

0.00001

0.00025

0.00001

DCON8

-3.5445

0.1374

-0.1973

0.00003

-0.00087

DCON9

-0.0732

4.1315

-0.1658

-0.00025

-0.00033

0.00001

DCON10

-0.0035

-3.5436

-0.2719

0.00029

-0.0003

152

Design of Farm House

BASE

NSL

CHAPTER 5

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

DEAD

0.0152

0.0174

-0.0534

-0.00001

LIVE

0.0104

0.0034

-0.015

-0.00001

0.00002

FLOOR FINISHES

0.0119

0.0037

-0.0158

-0.00001

0.00002

WALL LOAD

-0.0133

0.029

-0.052

0.00001

-0.00016

EQX

0.2919

0.0112

-0.005

-0.00001

0.0004

EQY

-0.0008

0.3027

0.0135

-0.00032

SERVICE

0.0242

0.0536

-0.1361

-0.00001

-0.00012

FACTORED

0.0332

0.0657

-0.1694

-0.00001

-0.00014

DCON1

0.0193

0.0702

-0.1696

-0.00001

-0.0002

DCON2

0.037

0.0761

-0.1951

-0.00001

-0.00017

DCON3

0.4411

0.0869

-0.1873

-0.00003

0.0004

DCON4

-0.3778

0.0554

-0.1733

-0.00073

DCON5

0.0305

0.4956

-0.1614

-0.00047

-0.00017

0.00001

DCON6

0.0328

-0.3534

-0.1992

0.00044

-0.00016

DCON7

0.4259

0.0469

-0.0815

-0.00002

0.00049

DCON8

-0.409

0.0147

-0.0673

0.00001

-0.00066

DCON9

0.0073

0.4636

-0.0551

-0.00046

-0.00009

0.00001

DCON10

0.0097

-0.402

-0.0937

0.00046

-0.00008

DEAD

LIVE

FLOOR FINISHES

WALL LOAD

EQX

EQY

SERVICE

FACTORED

DCON1

DCON2

DCON3

DCON4

DCON5

DCON6

DCON7

DCON8

DCON9

DCON10

153

Design of Farm House

STOREY 1

STOREY 2

CHAPTER 5

32
32

DEAD

-0.1056

0.3359

-0.3859

-0.0001

0.00084

0.00001

LIVE

-0.0473

0.1228

-0.1603

-0.00005

0.00045

32

FLOOR FINISHES

-0.05

0.1293

-0.1673

-0.00005

0.00046

32

WALL LOAD

-0.0547

0.275

-0.1747

-0.00003

-0.0001

0.00001

32

EQX

3.7914

0.2139

0.0102

0.00003

0.00013

0.00001

32

EQY

-0.0626

4.2497

-0.0722

-0.00002

0.00001

32
32

SERVICE

-0.2576

0.8629

-0.8882

-0.00023

0.00166

0.00003

FACTORED

-0.3281

1.0846

-1.13

-0.00029

0.00217

0.00004

32

DCON1

-0.2944

1.0362

-1.0191

-0.00025

0.00168

0.00003

32

DCON2

-0.3749

1.2449

-1.2916

-0.00034

0.00246

0.00004

32

DCON3

4.9773

1.4414

-1.1586

-0.00027

0.00237

0.00005

32

DCON4

-5.6576

0.8412

-1.1871

-0.00034

0.00199

0.00003

32
32

DCON5

-0.4279

7.1015

-1.2742

-0.00031

0.00215

0.00005

DCON6

-0.2523

-4.8189

-1.0716

-0.0003

0.00221

0.00003

32

DCON7

5.2926

0.7604

-0.4324

-0.00007

0.00093

0.00003

32

DCON8

-5.5508

0.1485

-0.4615

-0.00015

0.00055

32

DCON9

-0.2187

6.5315

-0.5502

-0.00012

0.00071

0.00003

32

DCON10

-0.0396

-5.6226

-0.3436

-0.00011

0.00076

32

DEAD

-0.0251

0.1523

-0.298

-0.00006

0.00034

32

LIVE

-0.0066

0.0367

-0.1182

-0.00003

0.00015

32

FLOOR FINISHES

-0.0076

0.0394

-0.1247

-0.00003

0.00017

32

WALL LOAD

-0.0371

0.2248

-0.1787

-0.00004

0.00034

0.00001

32

EQX

2.4539

0.0919

0.0098

0.00002

0.00005

32
32

EQY

-0.0237

2.6509

-0.0616

-0.00002

0.00001

SERVICE

-0.0763

0.4532

-0.7197

-0.00016

0.00099

0.00001

32

FACTORED

-0.0942

0.5585

-0.9109

-0.00021

0.00125

0.00001

32

DCON1

-0.0976

0.5831

-0.842

-0.00019

0.00119

0.00001

32

DCON2

-0.1088

0.6455

-1.043

-0.00023

0.00144

0.00001

32

DCON3

3.3404

0.7299

-0.9372

-0.00018

0.00139

0.00002

32
32

DCON4

-3.5427

0.472

-0.9648

-0.00025

0.00125

0.00001

DCON5

-0.1344

4.3188

-1.0373

-0.00021

0.00129

0.00002

32

DCON6

-0.068

-3.1169

-0.8646

-0.00021

0.00134

0.00001

32

DCON7

3.4663

0.3872

-0.3553

-0.00005

0.00059

0.00001

32

DCON8

-3.5518

0.1243

-0.3833

-0.00012

0.00045

32

DCON9

-0.0766

4.0465

-0.4573

-0.00008

0.0005

0.00001

32

DCON10

-0.0089

-3.535

-0.2813

-0.00008

0.00054

154

Design of Farm House

BASE

NSL

CHAPTER 5

32

DEAD

0.0137

0.0139

-0.0885

-0.00002

0.00008

32

LIVE

0.0055

0.0029

-0.0311

-0.00002

32

FLOOR FINISHES

0.0063

0.0032

-0.0328

-0.00001

-0.00002

32

WALL LOAD

0.02

0.0229

-0.0813

-0.00003

0.00049

-0.00001

32

EQX

0.2863

0.0077

0.0044

0.00026

-0.00001

32

EQY

-0.0005

0.262

-0.0226

-0.00007

32

SERVICE

0.0456

0.0429

-0.2338

-0.00006

0.00054

-0.00002

32

FACTORED

0.0569

0.0527

-0.293

-0.00008

0.00064

-0.00002

32

DCON1

0.0561

0.056

-0.2837

-0.00008

0.00077

-0.00002

32

DCON2

0.0654

0.061

-0.3367

-0.00009

0.00075

-0.00003

32

DCON3

0.4619

0.0678

-0.3032

-0.00008

0.00109

-0.00004

32

DCON4

-0.3413

0.0461

-0.3155

-0.00009

0.00034

-0.00001

32

DCON5

0.0596

0.4244

-0.341

-0.00018

0.00071

-0.00002

32

DCON6

0.061

-0.3104

-0.2777

0.00001

0.00072

-0.00003

32

DCON7

0.434

0.0356

-0.1182

-0.00003

0.00072

-0.00003

32

DCON8

-0.3849

0.0135

-0.1307

-0.00004

-0.00004

0.00001

32

DCON9

0.0238

0.3992

-0.1567

-0.00013

0.00033

-0.00001

32

DCON10

0.0253

-0.3501

-0.0922

0.00006

0.00034

-0.00002

32

DEAD

32

LIVE

32

FLOOR FINISHES

32

WALL LOAD

32

EQX

32

EQY

32

SERVICE

32

FACTORED

32

DCON1

32

DCON2

32

DCON3

32

DCON4

32

DCON5

32

DCON6

32

DCON7

32

DCON8

32

DCON9

32

DCON10

155

Conclusions and Recommendations

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions:
All the design work carried out in the project is based on the seismic code
provisions given by UBC-97 and ACI-318-05 so, the conclusions regarding theproject are
also based on the seismic design provisions. Some design procedures and theory have
been taken from different books (Detail in References). There are some conclusions
discussed below from the project.

The application of seismic provisions on the structure makes the structure


uneconomical but always safety is given first preference and then the
economy.
Different techniques are used in the masonry construction but choose the one
which is equally economical.
Unsymmetrical plans are avoided in the earth quake prone areas.
Joints (e.g. joint between beam and column) must be so strong that it can
resists the earth quake forces because it is seen that cracks are always
developed at the joints when an earth quake comes.
We cannot access the direction of earthquake waves so we must strengthen the
structure in both the direction

156

Conclusions and Recommendations

Openings in buildings must be small and less in number as far as possible in


the earthquake resistant structures.
We used various cracked versions of SAP and ETABS, due to problem in
these cracked versions several times we had to carry out modeling from the
beginning.
It was observed that the some features to show the results of analysis and
Design disabled after the analysis has been carried out.
Many times it happened that the program gave RUN TIME ERROR and the
whole effort was ruined
Computer results cannot be blindly relied upon rather some manual checks
should be applied before finalization of the computer aided results.
An effort has been made in this project to collect and arrange the relative
design information for the design of farm house in the seismic region.

The difference in analysis result by manual and computer aided design is


obviously due to number of reasons

9 Redistribution of negative moments


9 Approximate analysis (ACI) and FEM
9 2-D & 3-D model difference especially in EQ loading
9 Meshing of slab panels etc.

157

Conclusions and Recommendations

Recommendations :
The following points must be considered while designing the structures ( especially in the
earthquake areas )

Safety is given first preference rather than the economy.


Some engineers lack in knowledge of Design Code, even some of them
carry design without going through the Code. This practice should be
avoided.
Seismic detailing must be used in the earth quake areas.e.g in the
columns lap must be provided at the centre of the column heights.
Box action must be insured in the structures.
Seismic provisions must be applied on the structures according to the
codes and also according to the zone in which we are constructing our
building.
Discontinuous shear walls are avoided in the seismic regions.
Low torsional stiffness buildings are avoided so it is preferably to
provide a shear wall along the four sides of the structures ( N , S , E ,
W)
There should not be vertical and horizontal geometrical irregularities in
the buildings.
Avoid large water tanks on the roof.
158

Conclusions and Recommendations

Avoid long cantilever balconies


It is not preferable to provide unreinforced parapets at roof level.
Avoid free standing walls which fall under lateral loading.
Avoid having canopy structures in the earthquake prone areas.
Do not place services through corners of buildings inside masonry units
as these can weaken corners. Equally do not put rain water pipes into
the corner walls.
Purchased versions of the design software should be used. Use of crack
version is strongly discouraged. Cracked versions of softwares may be
non-reliable.
The students are less familiar with fps units because most of the time
they are using SI units, but persons in field are following all types of
units.so it is recommended that students should be well familiar with
both system of units.
Some Structural engineering software are inter related like SAP,
ETABS and SAFE. AUTOCAD is also linked with programming as
well as structural engineering softwares. So they should be learned
from mutual interaction point of view.
All the computer-aided results should be verified manually to ensure
the reliability of results in computer aided design.

159

Conclusions and Recommendations

A very import step is to keep in mind the construction practice, so it is


also advised that the structural engineer should also familiarize him
with local construction practice where the project is to be executed
rather all time following the international standards.

160