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solutions

J.R. Marti, BEng, PhD, MEEPE

A.C. Soudack, PhD

transformers or reactors fed through capacitive

coupling from neighbouring phases or lines. Ritz's

method of harmonic balance is used to formulate

an analytical solution to the problem of fundamental frequency ferroresonance. A two-term

polynomial of order 11 is used to accurately represent the magnetisation characteristic of a typical

high-voltage power transformer in the ferroresonance region. The derived closed-form solutions permit construction of a map defining the

boundaries between safe and ferroresonant

regions as a function of the system parameters.

The transformer losses are included in the analysis

and are shown to be an important factor in the

demarcation of the ferroresonance regions.

Operation at point C in

Fig. 2 results in flux densities beyond the design values of

the transformer and in overvoltages in the transformer

and transmission system.

/ /I

a

introduction

in large high-voltage power transformers with very sharp

bending magnetisation characteristics is established. The

particular transformer studied is a 25 MVA 110/44/4 kV

power autotransformer with magnetisation characteristics (Fig. 3) obtained from field measurements by Dick

and Watson [l].

A number of situations can occur in a power system

where one or more of the supply conductors to an

unloaded (or very lightly loaded) power transformer are

interrupted, leaving a transformer coil energised through

the capacitive coupling with the other phases or with

parallel lines (Fig. 9). Examples of these situations are a

single-pole circuit breaker opening, a single fuse blowing,

a conductor rupture, or a disconnected transmission line

in the same right-of-way as an energised line C2-43.

With a transformer coil energised through a capacitance (Fig. l), a basic case of series resonance can occur

at the intersection of the linear V / l characteristic of the

capacitance with the flat region of the nonlinear V / l

C

I1 d

Fig. 1

~~~

received 26th June 1990

The authors are with the Department of Electrid Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2356 Main Hall, Vancouver, B.C. Canada

V6T 124

solution

oi A

"I i

soluilon

oi B

(unstable)

vc

soluilon

at C

Fig. 2

a Intersection of coil and capacitor characteristics

b Pbasordiagrams

Point A and C are stabk solutions,solution at point B is unstabk

case of 'harmonic resonance' where the source frequency

is dominant and subharmonics are very small is derived.

This situation is Characteristic of many instances of sustained ferroresonant conditions in power system transformers [8].

The circuit of Fig. 1 is analytically solved by first

approximating the transformer's magnetisation characteristic by a two-term polynomial of order 11

i = a4 + b4". Previous solutions [ 5 , 6 ] had been limited

to polynomials of order three to seven. These lower-order

polynomials may be adequate for smaller capacity transformers, but do not bend sharply enough at the knee

point to follow the magnetisation characteristic of

modern high capacity transformers (Figs. 3 and 4).

Ritz's method of harmonic balance is used to solve the

circuit's nonlinear differential equation. The resulting

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32 1

.. .

closed-form solution is then used to draw contour maps

of the system, showing the safe and ferroresonant regions

as a function of the circuits parameters.

To verify the validity of the analytical results, the

circuit was solved numerically with a Runge-Kutta integration routine. Excellent agreement was found between

the analytically-predicted steady-state values and the

numerical solution.

An important observation derived from this study is

the effect of the losses in determining the value of CcririCol

(proportional to the feeders length) beyond which ferroresonance can occur.

The methods of analysis presented are being extended

for the analytical prediction of harmonics and subharmonics in steady state solutions and for the characterisation of jump and chaotic phenomena in certain regions

of the parametric maps.

2

Problem description

The operation of a power transformer under ferroresonance can be illustrated with the diagrams of Fig. 2,

which show the relationship between the fundamental

frequency components of voltages and currents in the

circuit of Fig. 1 ignoring the losses R for simplicity. In the

development of the general case, losses are shown to be

an important consideration in the determination of the

critical feeder length. Upper case letters are used to indicate fundamental frequency phasor quantities.

In Fig. 2a, the intersection of the straight-line E, - V,

(representing the voltage applied to the transformer coil)

with the transformers magnetisation characteristic is

possible at three points: points A and C are stable operating points. Point B is unstable. The instability of point

B can be seen, for instance, by increasing the source

voltage by a small amount. In Fig. 2a, increasing E, displaces the line E, - V, upwards, parallel to itself. When

this happens, the current at intersection points A and C

also increases, as expected. For point 8, the current

decreases, which is not physically possible. Point A corresponds to normal operation in the linear region, with flux

and excitation current within the design limits. Point C

corresponds to the ferroresonant condition, characterised

by saturated flux and large excitation current. Phasor

diagrams for these operating conditions are shown in Fig.

2b.

Mathematically, both points A and C are equally valid

solutions to the circuit of Fig. 1. Which operating point

0.4

on the trajectory towards the final state. During normal

service, the transformer is supplied through inductive

lines and operation is only possible in the lower flux

region (line E, - V, in Fig. 2a becomes E, - AVfedrr with

a negative slope). Topological abnormalities in the

network, as for example, the disconnection of one or

more of the supply conductors, can result in the transformer being fed through the coupling capacitance from

adjacent lines or conductors. When these topological

changes occur, whether the operating point stays in the

linear region or jumps into the saturated region is a

random event which depends on the specific characteristics of the transient.

3

Transformer modelling

110 kV power autotransformer of Reference 1 for different ranges of magnetising current. During ferroresonance,

the operating point of the transformer is located in the

saturated region. An accurate description of the conditions of operation in this region involves the flux and

current ranges shown in Fig. 3c. At this scale, for the core

materials used in modern high-voltage power transformers, hysteresis loops are not significant and a singlevalued curve can be assumed.

For the analytical description of the circuit in Fig. 1,

it is convenient to fit the 4(i) characteristic of the

transformer by a polynomial. The notation 4 is used to

indicate total flux linkages. A good fit of the Hi) characteristic at the scale Fig. 3c can be accomplished by the

following two-term polynomial:

i = a+

+ b4

(1)

of the magnetisation curve. The higher-order term

approximates the saturation region. There is a strong

decoupling between the linear and nonlinear terms of

eqn. 1 because of the high order of the second term. The

coefficient a of the linear term corresponds closely to the

unsaturated magnetising inductance (a = l/L). Coefficient

b and the exponent of the nonlinear term are chosen to

provide a best fit of the saturation region.

Fig. 4 shows the detail of the saturation region for different exponents of the nonlinear term in eqn. 1. As can

be seen in the Figure, polynomials of order seven or less

0.4

I . . . . .

I. p.u.

Fig. 3

322

IEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No. 4, JULY 1991

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the circuit for operation in the linear region of the transformer (inductance L , = l/a). w2 is related to the nonlinear region.

With the variable 4 expressed as a polynomial of

degree n (n odd) and with the forcing function (source)

being sinusoidal, the steady-state solution for the flux in

eqn. 3 can be expressed as a s u m of sinusoidal components: a fundamental-frequency component (60 or

50Hz) plus odd harmonics up to degree n and subharmonics down to l/n.

For fundamental-frequencyferroresonance,the general

solution to eqn. 3 can be expressed as

01

0.2

0.4

0.6

I,

Fig. 4

0.8

1.0

p.u.

with both an 11th-order approximation and a seventhorder approximation of the transformer's magnetisation

characteristic. When compared with the results for the

1lth order approximation presented, the results with the

seventh-order approximation showed flux values about

20% higher for the solution in the ferroresonant region.

They differed by less than 2% for the solution in the

linear region.

4

+ 0)

(5)

terms of sine and cosine components

4(t) = CPx

sin w, t

+ mycos ost

(6)

where

CP=

~ CP

COS

e

(7)

eqn. 3 requires the evaluation of the term

=

@" sin"(o,t + e). The nth odd power of the sine function

can be expressed as a sum of odd multiples of the argument; that is

+"

Losses

equivalent circuit of Fig. 1, energy is supplied to the

transformer through a capacitance, usually the small

coupling capacitance to the other phases or to other

parallel lines. An example of this condition is shown in

Fig. 9.

Under normal system operation at rated voltage and

rated current, the series losses in the transformer (copper

losses) are the same order of magnitude as the shunt

losses (core losses). During ferroresonance, the R M S

current flowing through the capacitance is a small percentage of the system's rated current. The voltage across

the transformer coil is higher than the coil's rated

voltage. The series losses are therefore much smaller than

the shunt losses and can be neglected with little error.

The resistance R in the circuit of Fig. 1 considers the core

losses and can also include the effect of the load in the

case of ferroresonance in a lightly loaded transformer.

5

where

sin"(w, t

+ 0) = k, sin (U, t + 0)

+ k, sin [3(w,t + e)]

+ ... + k , sin [n(w, t + e)]

(8)

(9)

Substitutingeqn.6 into eqn. 3, then the steady-state solution (4 and 0 constant) is

Fundamental solutions

With the magnetisation curve of the transformer approximated by eqn. 1, with a general exponent 'n',

i = ~4 b @ , the differentia1 equation for the circuit in

Fig. 1 is

d24

dt2

1 d+

+- + -1 (a4 + b4")= w,E cos oat

RC dt C

1 d4

-- + CO:+

RC dt

(2)

(10)

Eqn. 10 cannot be exactly satisfied by the single-

(3)

terms cannot cancel out. The equivalent Ritz method of

harmonic balance [7] can be used to obtain a best

approximation of the assumed fundamental-frequency

form.

d24

-+

dt2

+ k , sin [3(o, t + e)]

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323

10 can be expressed (with eqn. 7) as

klw:Wsin(w,t+O)

= k,w$ V"-'[(@

cos 0) sin w,t (a sin 0) cos w,t ]

= klw: V"-l(aX

sin ost + aycos w,t)

Substituting into eqn. 10, the resulting equation can be

separated into sine and cosine terms and the following

relationships can be established:

[-(of - W@

0

Qr = 0

+ k1~:W"-']@, - RC

[-(of - w@

+ k,w:

@"-']ay

+ ax= w,E

(1 1)

1, = P l c - Po

I2 = p 2 p +1)/2 - 5"

(12)

(21)

(22)

curves is shown in Fig. 5. For curve I l there are three

with

az= @:

convergence of a numerical procedure to solve eqn. 14

can be difficult if the initial estimates of the roots are not

close enough to the solution. A single-point numerical

solution does not give any information on the position of

this solution with respect to the overall boundaries

between normal and ferroresonant regions.

A much better visualisation of the margins of safety for

a given solution point can be obtained with graphical

mappings of parametric solutions. One possible procedure is to express eqn. 14 as the intersection of a linear

function I , with a nonlinear function I, as follows:

+ a;

the solution 4(t)for the transformer flux (eqns. 5-7) in a

Ritz sense. A similar procedure can be. used to determine

the harmonics and subharmonics of the general solution.

Parametric maps of fundamental solution

In what follows, eqns. 11-13, which define the fundamental component of the transformer flux in the circuit of

Fig. 1, are manipulated into a more convenient form for

the graphical location of the solution points. The effects

of the circuit parameters, e,, C and R, in the location of

the borders separating the normal and ferroresonant

regions are investigated.

Eqns. 11 and 12 can be combined by squaring and

adding. After some algebraic manipulations (Appendix),

the following single relationship is obtained:

5" - p z , p + l ) / Z + P l t - Po = 0

(14)

where

c = az

(15)

Fig. 5

stable. Solution B is unstable (a small disturbance at B

would shift the operating point to either A or C). Solution C is the ferroresonant state. Solution A is the normal

linear state. Curve 2 of I, corresponds to the critical case

beyond which ferroresonance is no longer possible.

Ferroresonance is not possible for curve 3.

The effect of the parameters e,, C and R in the circuit

of Fig. 1 on the possible regions of operation of the

system is investigated with the help of graphical solutions.

7

routine for polynomials. Once the roots t are found, the

amplitude of the transformer flux fit) in eqn. 5 is given

by

=

Jt. The phase angle 8 is given by 0 =

tan-'(@,&.), where axand ayare obtained from eqns.

11 and 12 as follows:

in which

+ k,w:W"-'

A =(wf - wt)

B=O"

RC

324

o = +Jc;

functions of Fig. 5, only the slope p1 of I, depends on the

shunt losses (eqns. 21 and 22 with eqns. 16-18). Fig. 6

illustrates the effect of the shunt losses in terms of

G = 1/R on the location of the solution points. Fig. 6a

corresponds to Fig. 5. The plots in Fig. 6 correspond to

the actual parameters of the test system studied with

E = 1.0 pa. Increasing the losses (increasing G) will

increase the slope of I, and beyond a certain value of p1

the intersection of I, and I, will occur only outside the

ferroresonantregion.

Figs. 6b and c show a general case of possible variation of transformer flux with shunt conductance G. In

Fig. 6b, the values G, and G , of shunt conductance

delimit the possible regions of operation of the circuit.

For G < Gl (region 111 in the Figure), operation is only

possible in the ferroresonant region. For G, < G < G,

(region 11), ferroresonance may or may not occur,

depending on the initial conditions and type of transient.

For G > Gz (region I), ferroresonance cannot occur. Fig.

6c shows the special case in which the numerical solution

IEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No. 4, JULY 1991

I1 exist.

6r

G-12

551

mS

two critical values of the source voltage that delimit three

possible zones of operation: zones I, I1 and 111 in Fig. 7b.

Fig. 7c shows the special case in which El i0 and only

regions I1 and 111exist.

//G=lOmS

5-

4-

3-

E=O

0

1

--22 y

0.0

0.5

1.5

1.0

2.5

2.0

5

0

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.5

2.5

2.0

I

0

GI

Fig. 6

62

G2

G

E2

b General cax

e Gemral case

Fig. 7

by taking dG/dr = 0 in eqn. 14 (G = l/R).

From eqn. 14, solving for GZ

E

b

a Teat system

b Gcncralcase

e

cicncraluae

dE/d< = 0:Solving eqn. 14 for E'

(n + l)K10:(0f

[y](n

p$'

-(U:

= Io

where

- 03 (n - l)<("+')/'

- E' = 0 (24)

gives the critical values of G , and G , in Fig. 6b.

8

~@r("-~)/'

- n(K, o:) r

(26)

the effect of the source voltage on the circuit's operating

regions. In eqns. 21 and 22, the magnitude of the source

voltage E affects only the parameter p o of AI. Curve I ,

does not change and the slope of I, is also fixed. The

curves of Fig. 7a were obtained with the parameters of

the test system. As illustrated in this Figure, the effect of

changing E is to displace I, parallel to itself.

the critical values of El and E, in Fig. 7b. For E < E ,

there is no possibility of ferroresonance. For E > E,

ferroresonance will always occur.

9

Changing the value of the capacitance C affects coeficients pi and p 2 in eqns. 21 and 22 and, therefore, both

curves I, and 1, in Fig. 5. A plot of q5 against C, similar

to the ones previously obtained for G and E (Figs. 6b and

7b), can be obtained more directly starting from the original form of the solution to the circuit (eqn. 14). After

325

some algebra

(a:[ - E2)C2- 2(a[

+ klb[("+')'Z)C

(28)

For a given value of [ (or of the transformer flux

4 = +,/<), eqn. 28 gives a second-order equation for C

of the form aCz + /?C + y = 0. Since C has to be real, the

discriminant of this equation, A = /?' - &y, has to be

positive. With this constraint considered, the graph of {

(or 4 = + J [ )against C has the form indicated by the

solid curves in Fig. 8. The dashed curves in this Figure

are the asymptotes of 4 against C for the case with no

damping (G = 0).

this area, a very small change in the system parameters

can move the operating point from safe to ferroresonant

operation or conversely from ferroresonant to safe operation.

Depending on the value of the voltage source in the

equivalent circuit, consideration of the shunt losses (G #

0) can have a large influence in the location of C, compared with the location of Cg and, therefore, in the permissable length of feeder supplying the transformer. In

the test system presented, the inclusion of the transformer

core losses in the analysis resulted in an increase of the

safe zone (C below C,) from a maximum feeder length of

less than 2.6 km to a maximum feeder length of 65 km.

Numerical example

10

ferroresonance is shown in Fig. 9. The transmission line

I

c:i

2

I

ccr

C

Effect of capacitance on circuit solution

damping

_ _ ~ _no damping

Fig. 8

solution in the linear region, low values of 4. Branch 2

corresponds to the unstable solution in the nonlinear

region. Branch 3 corresponds to the ferroresonant operation in the nonlinear region.

The critical points 4aand 4b in Fig. 8 can be analytically determined by making the determinant of eqn. 28

equal to zero (C is single-valued at those points), thus

resulting in the equation

(29)

In Fig. 8, the point of vertical tangency C,, which is

slightly different from the value of C at + b , separates the

possible regions of operation of the circuit. For values of

C less than C, no ferroresonance can occur. The value

of C, could be exactly determined from eqn. 28 with

dC/d[ = 0. The expression for C, is rather elaborate in

this case. The value of C at 4b is much easier to determine (eqn. 29) and is very close to C, . Point C, can also

be determined graphically from a 4 against C plot, as in

Fig. 14 for the test system.

In the case of the capacitance, there are only two possible regions of operation (as opposed to three regions for

the conductance G or the source voltage E). In region I

there is only one solution point. In region I1 ferroresonance may or may not occur. There is no region 111,

as for G (Fig. 66) or for E (Fig. 7 4 , where ferroresonance

will always occur.

When losses are ignored (dashed curves in Fig. 8), the

criticd capacitance value (Cg) occurs at a smaller value

of C than when losses are considered (Cm). As losses

increase from zero, the dashed curves in Fig. 8 'strangle'

the zone around Cm and at some value of G they split

326

"1

N

"2

r

b

Fig. 9

Test system

a Systemdiagram

to ground C, = 5.41 nF/km and a mutual capacitance

between phases C, = 1.18 nF/km. The transformer is the

25 MVA unit of Reference 1, which magnetisation characteristics are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. It is assumed that

the transformer is connected in wye on the line side and

that there are no delta windings (or that the delta windings are open). The transformer is assumed unloaded or

very lightly loaded.

If one of the phases supplying the transformer

becomes disconnected (Fig. 9a), the open transformer coil

is still being supplied energy through the capacitance to

the energised phases. Under these conditions, the circuit

feeding the open transformer coil is shown in Fig. 9b. The

circuit of Fig. 96 can be further reduced to the simpler

circuit of Fig. 10, which which corresponds to the basic

ferroresonant circuit of Fig. 1.

The voltages applied to the line are assumed to be

equal to the rated voltage of the transformer VI = V, =

I E E PROCEEDlNGS-C, Vol. 138, NO.4, JULY 1991

of the rated transformer capacity. With these values, the

parameters in the reduced equivalent circuit of Fig. 10

are C = 777 nF, E = O.15Km,, and R = 48.4 kR

as to drive the circuit into ferroresonance.

0

x

Fig. 10

=-,

= 0.5 v, A

c, + 2c.

c = c, + ZC,

The magnetisation curve of the transformer is approximated by the 11th order two-term polynomial of eqn. 1.

The resulting approximation,shown in Fig. 4, is

i = 0.28 x 10-'1$

+ 0.72 x

10-2Q1'

(30)

transformer's rated current of 131 A and Q = 1 p.u.

corresponds to the transformer's phase-to-neutral rated

voltage of V = 63.5 kV.

The coefficients of the approximation in eqn. 30 were

chosen for a best fit of the high current region of the

magnetisation curve of Fig. 4.

702 Fundamental solutions

The solution for the fundamental-frequencycomponent

of the transformer flux can be obtained from eqn. 14,

which, for this case study, is given by

-0.51

0.0

function of conductance, source voltage, and capacitance

for the circuit of Fig. 9. Table 2 lists the critical values of

R, E and C that delimit the possible regions of operation

of the system as defined in Figs. 68.

1.21

16-18, with the frequencies in eqns. 4 and 9 given by

0.8-

ki = 0.451

o2= 85 rad/s (13.5 Hz)

routine. The results obtained are shown in Table 1

(@ = +,/<) in phasor notation, with the magnitude of

the phasor equal to the peak value of the corresponding

time domain quantity. The equation was also solved

2.5

1.0-

2.0

1.5

1.0

Test systm

(31)

111

0.5

0.40.6

0.00

IO

15

20

25

30

G . pu.x IO-'

Test system

Solution in linear region

Unstable solution

Solution in saturated region

cbB= 1.44L-36" p.u.

cb, = 1.47L +47" P.U.

results. The corresponding plot is shown in Fig. 11. Solution point A is the solution in the linear region. Point C

is the solution in the saturated region (ferroresonance

point).

To verify the accuracy of Ritz's approximation for the

fundamental-frequency solution, eqn. 3 was solved

numerically with a Runge-Kutta integration routine. The

results of this simulation are shown in Fig. 15. The simulation results closely match the analytical solution at

point C in the saturated region of operation. The initial

0.0

0.5

1.0

15

2.0

2.5

E , P.U.

Test system

321

capacitance

Critical resistances

Critical source voltages

Critical capacitance

R, = n/a

E, = n/a

C,,

R , = 21.4 kfl

E, = 1.02 P.U.

= 509 nF

2.4~

directly from Fig. 14 as C, = 509 nF (0.093 P.u.). This

value of C corresponds for the test system to a line length

of 65 km. For line lengths less than 65km, ferroresonance cannot occur in this system. For the test case

value of 100 km, ferroresonance can occur. The critical

value of the line length was also calculated for the case

with no losses (line length for Cg in Fig. 8). This value

was only 2.6 km. The large difference in critical line

lengths with and without losses shows the importance of

considering the losses in ferroresonance predictions.

11

-6

Y

1.2

1.0

0.0

0.5

0.01

1.0

1.5

2.0 2.5

c. p.u.

0.02

3.0

0.03

3.5

4.0

Test system

Upper inset: detail around C critical

Lower inset: Solution in lincar region

were found from eqn. 24 using a root-finding routine.

There was no positive solution for GI, and the plot of q5

against G is as in Fig. 6c.The plot for the test system is

shown in Fig. 12. For values of R smaller than Rz =

1/G, = 21.4 kR, i.e., for losses Larger than 2.3% of the

rated transformer capacity, ferroresonance does not

occur. In the test system, R = 48.4 kR (losses = 1%) and

therefore ferroresonance can occur, as shown in the

results of Table 1.

The critical values for the equivalent source voltage E

were found from eqn. 26 using a root-finding routine. The

plot of CD against E is shown in Fig. 13. This plot corresponds to that of Fig. 7c in the general analysis. The @-E

plot indicates that for the parameters of this system ferroresonance can always occur, no matter how small the

source voltage. For values of E larger than E2=

1.02 P.u., operation is only possible under ferroresonant

conditions. For values of E smaller than 1.02 p.u. ferroresonance may or may not occur. This is the case for the

value of E = 0.15 p.u. in the test system.

Fig. 15

328

Conclusions

An analytical technique for obtaining steady-state ferroresonant conditions in iron core transformers supplied

through capacitive coupling was presented. The analysis

proposed is general for the type of circuit considered and

includes the effect of the system losses.

The solution to the circuits nonlinear differential

equation is based on Ritzs method of harmonic balance.

To apply this technique, the transformer saturation curve

is approximated by a two-term 11th-order polynomial.

This 11th order polynomial provides a much better fit to

the saturation region than can be obtained with seventh

and lower order approximations. Differences of about

20% in the magnitude of the transformer flux were

observed in comparisons of the 11th order against

seventh order approximations.

Graphical solutions were used to map the boundaries

between normal and ferroresonant regions and to locate

the possible operating points as a function of the circuits

equivalent source voltage, series capacitance and shunt

losses.

A practical example of a system under ferroresonant

conditions was presented. The solution points as well as

parametric maps were calculated for this system. One

interesting observation from this study is the importance

of considering the transformer core losses in determining

the margin of safety before fenoresonance can occur.

This margin went from less than 2.6 km with no losses to

65 km when losses were considered. Another interesting

observation is that for certain combinations of circuit

parameters, ferroresonance can occur even for very small

values (E + 0) of the source voltage.

12

References

studies based on field measurements, IEEE Trans.,1981, PAS-100,

(1). PP. 409-417

2 GERMAY, N.,MASTERO, S., and VROMAN, J.: Review of ferroresonance phenomena in high-voltage power systems and pmentation of a voltage transformer model for predetermining the.

CIGRE, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric

Systems, 21-29 August 1974.

3 W L A N , EJ, GILLIES, D.A., and KIMBARK, E.W.: Ferroresonance in a transformer switched with an EHV line, JEEE

Trans., 1972, PAS-91,pp. 12731280

4 PRUSTY, S., and PANDA, M.: Predetermination of lateral length to

prevent overvoltage problems due to open conductors in three-phase

systems, IEE Proc. C 1985,132, (I), pp. 4S55

5 SWIFT,G.W.: An analytical approach to ferroresonance, IEEE

Trans., 1969, PAS-88, (l), pp. 42-46

6 PRUSTY, S., and RAO, M.V.S.: New method for determination of

true saturation characteristics of transformem and nonlinear reactors, IEE Proc. C, 1980, 127, (2), pp. 106-110

7 CUNNINGHAM, W.J.: Introduction to nonlinear analysis

(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958$, pp. 157-168

8 TEAPE, J.W.. SLATER, R.D., SIMPSON, R.R.S., and WOOD,

W.S.: Hysteresis effects in transformers, including ferroresonana,

JEE Proc., 1976,123, (2),pp. 153158

13

Appendix

and

H=o,E

of the transform flux components (QX,my)can be written,

simplifying the notation, as

ux - by = 0

(32)

+ bx = H

(33)

ay

a2(x2 y 2 ) + b2(x2 + y 2 ) = H 2

original variables

[(U: - U;)'

where

x=

(34)

= cPZ, and with the

+ k:o:@2"-2 - Yo: - 03

x klog W-' + O,'/(RC)~]@

-~U: E'

(k:o:)@'

- 0;)

+klo;w-l]

= [-CO,'

b = oJ(RC)

- 2(of

- o@k,w:@"+'

= @'

+ o . Z / ( R C ) ~ ] @-~0,'E'

=0

ir I

=0

Rearranging

Y=

a

+ @);

II

329

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