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Ferroresonance in power systems : Fundamental

solutions
J.R. Marti, BEng, PhD, MEEPE
A.C. Soudack, PhD

Indexing terms: Ferronurgnetics, Resonance, Nonlinear systems

Abstract: Ferroresonance can occur in power


transformers or reactors fed through capacitive
coupling from neighbouring phases or lines. Ritz's
method of harmonic balance is used to formulate
an analytical solution to the problem of fundamental frequency ferroresonance. A two-term
polynomial of order 11 is used to accurately represent the magnetisation characteristic of a typical
high-voltage power transformer in the ferroresonance region. The derived closed-form solutions permit construction of a map defining the
boundaries between safe and ferroresonant
regions as a function of the system parameters.
The transformer losses are included in the analysis
and are shown to be an important factor in the
demarcation of the ferroresonance regions.

characteristicof the coil (Fig. h).


Operation at point C in
Fig. 2 results in flux densities beyond the design values of
the transformer and in overvoltages in the transformer
and transmission system.

/ /I
a

introduction

An analytical solution to the problem of ferroresonance


in large high-voltage power transformers with very sharp
bending magnetisation characteristics is established. The
particular transformer studied is a 25 MVA 110/44/4 kV
power autotransformer with magnetisation characteristics (Fig. 3) obtained from field measurements by Dick
and Watson [l].
A number of situations can occur in a power system
where one or more of the supply conductors to an
unloaded (or very lightly loaded) power transformer are
interrupted, leaving a transformer coil energised through
the capacitive coupling with the other phases or with
parallel lines (Fig. 9). Examples of these situations are a
single-pole circuit breaker opening, a single fuse blowing,
a conductor rupture, or a disconnected transmission line
in the same right-of-way as an energised line C2-43.
With a transformer coil energised through a capacitance (Fig. l), a basic case of series resonance can occur
at the intersection of the linear V / l characteristic of the
capacitance with the flat region of the nonlinear V / l
C

I1 d

Fig. 1

Basic ferroresomt circuit and 4-i' characteristic


~~~

Paper 8031C (W),


received 26th June 1990
The authors are with the Department of Electrid Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2356 Main Hall, Vancouver, B.C. Canada
V6T 124

solution
oi A

"I i

soluilon
oi B

(unstable)

vc
soluilon
at C

Fig. 2

Solution of the circuit simpli$ed case with M losses


a Intersection of coil and capacitor characteristics
b Pbasordiagrams
Point A and C are stabk solutions,solution at point B is unstabk

An analytical solution to the circuit of Fig. 1 for the


case of 'harmonic resonance' where the source frequency
is dominant and subharmonics are very small is derived.
This situation is Characteristic of many instances of sustained ferroresonant conditions in power system transformers [8].
The circuit of Fig. 1 is analytically solved by first
approximating the transformer's magnetisation characteristic by a two-term polynomial of order 11
i = a4 + b4". Previous solutions [ 5 , 6 ] had been limited
to polynomials of order three to seven. These lower-order
polynomials may be adequate for smaller capacity transformers, but do not bend sharply enough at the knee
point to follow the magnetisation characteristic of
modern high capacity transformers (Figs. 3 and 4).
Ritz's method of harmonic balance is used to solve the
circuit's nonlinear differential equation. The resulting

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32 1

.. .
closed-form solution is then used to draw contour maps
of the system, showing the safe and ferroresonant regions
as a function of the circuits parameters.
To verify the validity of the analytical results, the
circuit was solved numerically with a Runge-Kutta integration routine. Excellent agreement was found between
the analytically-predicted steady-state values and the
numerical solution.
An important observation derived from this study is
the effect of the losses in determining the value of CcririCol
(proportional to the feeders length) beyond which ferroresonance can occur.
The methods of analysis presented are being extended
for the analytical prediction of harmonics and subharmonics in steady state solutions and for the characterisation of jump and chaotic phenomena in certain regions
of the parametric maps.
2

Problem description

The operation of a power transformer under ferroresonance can be illustrated with the diagrams of Fig. 2,
which show the relationship between the fundamental
frequency components of voltages and currents in the
circuit of Fig. 1 ignoring the losses R for simplicity. In the
development of the general case, losses are shown to be
an important consideration in the determination of the
critical feeder length. Upper case letters are used to indicate fundamental frequency phasor quantities.
In Fig. 2a, the intersection of the straight-line E, - V,
(representing the voltage applied to the transformer coil)
with the transformers magnetisation characteristic is
possible at three points: points A and C are stable operating points. Point B is unstable. The instability of point
B can be seen, for instance, by increasing the source
voltage by a small amount. In Fig. 2a, increasing E, displaces the line E, - V, upwards, parallel to itself. When
this happens, the current at intersection points A and C
also increases, as expected. For point 8, the current
decreases, which is not physically possible. Point A corresponds to normal operation in the linear region, with flux
and excitation current within the design limits. Point C
corresponds to the ferroresonant condition, characterised
by saturated flux and large excitation current. Phasor
diagrams for these operating conditions are shown in Fig.
2b.
Mathematically, both points A and C are equally valid
solutions to the circuit of Fig. 1. Which operating point

0.4

the system settles at depends on the initial conditions and


on the trajectory towards the final state. During normal
service, the transformer is supplied through inductive
lines and operation is only possible in the lower flux
region (line E, - V, in Fig. 2a becomes E, - AVfedrr with
a negative slope). Topological abnormalities in the
network, as for example, the disconnection of one or
more of the supply conductors, can result in the transformer being fed through the coupling capacitance from
adjacent lines or conductors. When these topological
changes occur, whether the operating point stays in the
linear region or jumps into the saturated region is a
random event which depends on the specific characteristics of the transient.
3

Transformer modelling

Fig. 3 shows the magnetisation curves of the 25 MVA,


110 kV power autotransformer of Reference 1 for different ranges of magnetising current. During ferroresonance,
the operating point of the transformer is located in the
saturated region. An accurate description of the conditions of operation in this region involves the flux and
current ranges shown in Fig. 3c. At this scale, for the core
materials used in modern high-voltage power transformers, hysteresis loops are not significant and a singlevalued curve can be assumed.
For the analytical description of the circuit in Fig. 1,
it is convenient to fit the 4(i) characteristic of the
transformer by a polynomial. The notation 4 is used to
indicate total flux linkages. A good fit of the Hi) characteristic at the scale Fig. 3c can be accomplished by the
following two-term polynomial:
i = a+

+ b4

(1)

The first term in eqn. 1 corresponds to the linear region


of the magnetisation curve. The higher-order term
approximates the saturation region. There is a strong
decoupling between the linear and nonlinear terms of
eqn. 1 because of the high order of the second term. The
coefficient a of the linear term corresponds closely to the
unsaturated magnetising inductance (a = l/L). Coefficient
b and the exponent of the nonlinear term are chosen to
provide a best fit of the saturation region.
Fig. 4 shows the detail of the saturation region for different exponents of the nonlinear term in eqn. 1. As can
be seen in the Figure, polynomials of order seven or less

0.4

I . . . . .

0.01 0.2 0.4 0.6 a8 1.0

I. p.u.

Fig. 3

322

Magnetisation characteristic of power transformer


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[5, 61 cannot give a good approximation of this operating zone.

Frequency wo is the natural frequency of oscillation of


the circuit for operation in the linear region of the transformer (inductance L , = l/a). w2 is related to the nonlinear region.
With the variable 4 expressed as a polynomial of
degree n (n odd) and with the forcing function (source)
being sinusoidal, the steady-state solution for the flux in
eqn. 3 can be expressed as a s u m of sinusoidal components: a fundamental-frequency component (60 or
50Hz) plus odd harmonics up to degree n and subharmonics down to l/n.
For fundamental-frequencyferroresonance,the general
solution to eqn. 3 can be expressed as

01

0.2

0.4

0.6
I,

Fig. 4

0.8

1.0

&) = @ sin (0, t

p.u.

Approximation of saturation region of test tramformer

For comparison purposes, the case study was analysed


with both an 11th-order approximation and a seventhorder approximation of the transformer's magnetisation
characteristic. When compared with the results for the
1lth order approximation presented, the results with the
seventh-order approximation showed flux values about
20% higher for the solution in the ferroresonant region.
They differed by less than 2% for the solution in the
linear region.
4

+ 0)

(5)

where osis the source frequency. Expressing eqn. 5 in


terms of sine and cosine components
4(t) = CPx

sin w, t

+ mycos ost

(6)

where
CP=
~ CP

COS

e
(7)

Substitution of 4(t) in eqn. 5 into the circuit's differential


eqn. 3 requires the evaluation of the term
=
@" sin"(o,t + e). The nth odd power of the sine function
can be expressed as a sum of odd multiples of the argument; that is

+"

Losses

During ferroresonance in a system represented by the


equivalent circuit of Fig. 1, energy is supplied to the
transformer through a capacitance, usually the small
coupling capacitance to the other phases or to other
parallel lines. An example of this condition is shown in
Fig. 9.
Under normal system operation at rated voltage and
rated current, the series losses in the transformer (copper
losses) are the same order of magnitude as the shunt
losses (core losses). During ferroresonance, the R M S
current flowing through the capacitance is a small percentage of the system's rated current. The voltage across
the transformer coil is higher than the coil's rated
voltage. The series losses are therefore much smaller than
the shunt losses and can be neglected with little error.
The resistance R in the circuit of Fig. 1 considers the core
losses and can also include the effect of the load in the
case of ferroresonance in a lightly loaded transformer.
5

where

sin"(w, t

+ 0) = k, sin (U, t + 0)
+ k, sin [3(w,t + e)]
+ ... + k , sin [n(w, t + e)]

(8)

Only k, is used, where

(9)
Substitutingeqn.6 into eqn. 3, then the steady-state solution (4 and 0 constant) is

Fundamental solutions

With the magnetisation curve of the transformer approximated by eqn. 1, with a general exponent 'n',
i = ~4 b @ , the differentia1 equation for the circuit in
Fig. 1 is

d24
dt2

1 d+
+- + -1 (a4 + b4")= w,E cos oat
RC dt C

1 d4
-- + CO:+
RC dt

+ w:#J" = w,E COS w,t

(2)

... + k , sin [n(w, t + e)]}


(10)
Eqn. 10 cannot be exactly satisfied by the single-

(3)

frequency solution assumed in eqn. 5, since the harmonic


terms cannot cancel out. The equivalent Ritz method of
harmonic balance [7] can be used to obtain a best
approximation of the assumed fundamental-frequency
form.

or, to simplify the notation


d24
-+
dt2

+ o:CP"{k, sin (o,t + 0)


+ k , sin [3(o, t + e)]

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323

Ignoring the harmonics the term w: a"{...} in eqn.


10 can be expressed (with eqn. 7) as
klw:Wsin(w,t+O)
= k,w$ V"-'[(@
cos 0) sin w,t (a sin 0) cos w,t ]

= klw: V"-l(aX
sin ost + aycos w,t)
Substituting into eqn. 10, the resulting equation can be
separated into sine and cosine terms and the following
relationships can be established:

[-(of - W@

0
Qr = 0
+ k1~:W"-']@, - RC

[-(of - w@

+ k,w:

@"-']ay
+ ax= w,E

(1 1)

1, = P l c - Po

I2 = p 2 p +1)/2 - 5"

(12)

(21)
(22)

A plot showing a given I, curve with several cases of I,


curves is shown in Fig. 5. For curve I l there are three

with

az= @:

Depending on the particular set of circuit parameters,


convergence of a numerical procedure to solve eqn. 14
can be difficult if the initial estimates of the roots are not
close enough to the solution. A single-point numerical
solution does not give any information on the position of
this solution with respect to the overall boundaries
between normal and ferroresonant regions.
A much better visualisation of the margins of safety for
a given solution point can be obtained with graphical
mappings of parametric solutions. One possible procedure is to express eqn. 14 as the intersection of a linear
function I , with a nonlinear function I, as follows:

+ a;

Eqns. 11-13 determine the values of mX and a,, and thus


the solution 4(t)for the transformer flux (eqns. 5-7) in a
Ritz sense. A similar procedure can be. used to determine
the harmonics and subharmonics of the general solution.
Parametric maps of fundamental solution

In what follows, eqns. 11-13, which define the fundamental component of the transformer flux in the circuit of
Fig. 1, are manipulated into a more convenient form for
the graphical location of the solution points. The effects
of the circuit parameters, e,, C and R, in the location of
the borders separating the normal and ferroresonant
regions are investigated.
Eqns. 11 and 12 can be combined by squaring and
adding. After some algebraic manipulations (Appendix),
the following single relationship is obtained:

5" - p z , p + l ) / Z + P l t - Po = 0

(14)

where

c = az

(15)

Fig. 5

solutions points, A, B and C. Solutions A and C are


stable. Solution B is unstable (a small disturbance at B
would shift the operating point to either A or C). Solution C is the ferroresonant state. Solution A is the normal
linear state. Curve 2 of I, corresponds to the critical case
beyond which ferroresonance is no longer possible.
Ferroresonance is not possible for curve 3.
The effect of the parameters e,, C and R in the circuit
of Fig. 1 on the possible regions of operation of the
system is investigated with the help of graphical solutions.
7

Eqn. 14 can be solved numerically using a root-finding


routine for polynomials. Once the roots t are found, the
amplitude of the transformer flux fit) in eqn. 5 is given
by
=
Jt. The phase angle 8 is given by 0 =
tan-'(@,&.), where axand ayare obtained from eqns.
11 and 12 as follows:

in which

+ k,w:W"-'

A =(wf - wt)

B=O"
RC
324

Graphical solution of circuit

o = +Jc;

Critical values of shunt losses

Of the coefficients p o , p1 and p 2 defining the 1, and dz


functions of Fig. 5, only the slope p1 of I, depends on the
shunt losses (eqns. 21 and 22 with eqns. 16-18). Fig. 6
illustrates the effect of the shunt losses in terms of
G = 1/R on the location of the solution points. Fig. 6a
corresponds to Fig. 5. The plots in Fig. 6 correspond to
the actual parameters of the test system studied with
E = 1.0 pa. Increasing the losses (increasing G) will
increase the slope of I, and beyond a certain value of p1
the intersection of I, and I, will occur only outside the
ferroresonantregion.
Figs. 6b and c show a general case of possible variation of transformer flux with shunt conductance G. In
Fig. 6b, the values G, and G , of shunt conductance
delimit the possible regions of operation of the circuit.
For G < Gl (region 111 in the Figure), operation is only
possible in the ferroresonant region. For G, < G < G,
(region 11), ferroresonance may or may not occur,
depending on the initial conditions and type of transient.
For G > Gz (region I), ferroresonance cannot occur. Fig.
6c shows the special case in which the numerical solution
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for G , is less than zero and, therefore, only regions I and


I1 exist.
6r

G-12

551

mS

As in the case of the shunt losses, there are in general


two critical values of the source voltage that delimit three
possible zones of operation: zones I, I1 and 111 in Fig. 7b.
Fig. 7c shows the special case in which El i0 and only
regions I1 and 111exist.

//G=lOmS

5-

4-

3-

E=O

0
1

--22 y
0.0

0.5

1.5

1.0

2.5

2.0

5
0

0.0

1.0

0.5

1.5

2.5

2.0

I
0

GI

Fig. 6

62

G2
G

E2

Effect of losses on circuit solution

b General cax
e Gemral case

Fig. 7

The critical values G , and G , in Fig. 6b can be found


by taking dG/dr = 0 in eqn. 14 (G = l/R).
From eqn. 14, solving for GZ

E
b

a Teal system E = 1.0 p.u.

Effect of source voltage on circuit solution

a Teat system
b Gcncralcase
e

cicncraluae

The critical values of E can be found from eqn. 14 with


dE/d< = 0:Solving eqn. 14 for E'

Taking dE/d< = 0 gives a function A(<) defined by

(n + l)K10:(0f

Taking dG/dr = 0 gives

[y](n

p$'

-(U:

= Io

where

- 03 (n - l)<("+')/'
- E' = 0 (24)

Solving eqn. 24 for and then substituting into eqn. 23


gives the critical values of G , and G , in Fig. 6b.
8

~@r("-~)/'
- n(K, o:) r

(26)

Critical values of source voltage

The graphical analysis of Fig. 5 can also be used to assess


the effect of the source voltage on the circuit's operating
regions. In eqns. 21 and 22, the magnitude of the source
voltage E affects only the parameter p o of AI. Curve I ,
does not change and the slope of I, is also fixed. The
curves of Fig. 7a were obtained with the parameters of
the test system. As illustrated in this Figure, the effect of
changing E is to displace I, parallel to itself.

Solving eqn. 26 for and substituting into eqn. 25 gives


the critical values of El and E, in Fig. 7b. For E < E ,
there is no possibility of ferroresonance. For E > E,
ferroresonance will always occur.
9

Critical values of series capacitance

Changing the value of the capacitance C affects coeficients pi and p 2 in eqns. 21 and 22 and, therefore, both
curves I, and 1, in Fig. 5. A plot of q5 against C, similar
to the ones previously obtained for G and E (Figs. 6b and
7b), can be obtained more directly starting from the original form of the solution to the circuit (eqn. 14). After

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325

some algebra
(a:[ - E2)C2- 2(a[

+ klb[("+')'Z)C

(28)
For a given value of [ (or of the transformer flux
4 = +,/<), eqn. 28 gives a second-order equation for C
of the form aCz + /?C + y = 0. Since C has to be real, the
discriminant of this equation, A = /?' - &y, has to be
positive. With this constraint considered, the graph of {
(or 4 = + J [ )against C has the form indicated by the
solid curves in Fig. 8. The dashed curves in this Figure
are the asymptotes of 4 against C for the case with no
damping (G = 0).

open. If the operating point of the system is located near


this area, a very small change in the system parameters
can move the operating point from safe to ferroresonant
operation or conversely from ferroresonant to safe operation.
Depending on the value of the voltage source in the
equivalent circuit, consideration of the shunt losses (G #
0) can have a large influence in the location of C, compared with the location of Cg and, therefore, in the permissable length of feeder supplying the transformer. In
the test system presented, the inclusion of the transformer
core losses in the analysis resulted in an increase of the
safe zone (C below C,) from a maximum feeder length of
less than 2.6 km to a maximum feeder length of 65 km.
Numerical example

10

A typical power system configuration that can result in


ferroresonance is shown in Fig. 9. The transmission line

I
c:i

2
I

ccr

C
Effect of capacitance on circuit solution
damping
_ _ ~ _no damping
Fig. 8

Branch 1 in the curves of Fig. 8 corresponds to the


solution in the linear region, low values of 4. Branch 2
corresponds to the unstable solution in the nonlinear
region. Branch 3 corresponds to the ferroresonant operation in the nonlinear region.
The critical points 4aand 4b in Fig. 8 can be analytically determined by making the determinant of eqn. 28
equal to zero (C is single-valued at those points), thus
resulting in the equation

(29)
In Fig. 8, the point of vertical tangency C,, which is
slightly different from the value of C at + b , separates the
possible regions of operation of the circuit. For values of
C less than C, no ferroresonance can occur. The value
of C, could be exactly determined from eqn. 28 with
dC/d[ = 0. The expression for C, is rather elaborate in
this case. The value of C at 4b is much easier to determine (eqn. 29) and is very close to C, . Point C, can also
be determined graphically from a 4 against C plot, as in
Fig. 14 for the test system.
In the case of the capacitance, there are only two possible regions of operation (as opposed to three regions for
the conductance G or the source voltage E). In region I
there is only one solution point. In region I1 ferroresonance may or may not occur. There is no region 111,
as for G (Fig. 66) or for E (Fig. 7 4 , where ferroresonance
will always occur.
When losses are ignored (dashed curves in Fig. 8), the
criticd capacitance value (Cg) occurs at a smaller value
of C than when losses are considered (Cm). As losses
increase from zero, the dashed curves in Fig. 8 'strangle'
the zone around Cm and at some value of G they split
326

"1
N

"2
r

b
Fig. 9

Test system

a Systemdiagram

b Circuit fading dismnnated coil

feeding the transformer is 100 km long with a capacitance


to ground C, = 5.41 nF/km and a mutual capacitance
between phases C, = 1.18 nF/km. The transformer is the
25 MVA unit of Reference 1, which magnetisation characteristics are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. It is assumed that
the transformer is connected in wye on the line side and
that there are no delta windings (or that the delta windings are open). The transformer is assumed unloaded or
very lightly loaded.
If one of the phases supplying the transformer
becomes disconnected (Fig. 9a), the open transformer coil
is still being supplied energy through the capacitance to
the energised phases. Under these conditions, the circuit
feeding the open transformer coil is shown in Fig. 9b. The
circuit of Fig. 96 can be further reduced to the simpler
circuit of Fig. 10, which which corresponds to the basic
ferroresonant circuit of Fig. 1.
The voltages applied to the line are assumed to be
equal to the rated voltage of the transformer VI = V, =
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V, = KO,,,. The transformer core losses are taken as 1%


of the rated transformer capacity. With these values, the
parameters in the reduced equivalent circuit of Fig. 10
are C = 777 nF, E = O.15Km,, and R = 48.4 kR

conditions for the numerical simulation were chosen so


as to drive the circuit into ferroresonance.

0
x
Fig. 10

=-,

Reduced equivalent circuit

= 0.5 v, A
c, + 2c.
c = c, + ZC,

10.1 Magnetisation curve

The magnetisation curve of the transformer is approximated by the 11th order two-term polynomial of eqn. 1.
The resulting approximation,shown in Fig. 4, is

i = 0.28 x 10-'1$

+ 0.72 x

10-2Q1'

(30)

for i and Q in per unit. I = 1 p.u. corresponds to the


transformer's rated current of 131 A and Q = 1 p.u.
corresponds to the transformer's phase-to-neutral rated
voltage of V = 63.5 kV.
The coefficients of the approximation in eqn. 30 were
chosen for a best fit of the high current region of the
magnetisation curve of Fig. 4.
702 Fundamental solutions
The solution for the fundamental-frequencycomponent
of the transformer flux can be obtained from eqn. 14,
which, for this case study, is given by

- 85.6916 + 18451; - 42.98 = 0

-0.51
0.0

10.3 Critical values of system parameters

The plots in Figs. 12-14 show the transformer flux as a


function of conductance, source voltage, and capacitance
for the circuit of Fig. 9. Table 2 lists the critical values of
R, E and C that delimit the possible regions of operation
of the system as defined in Figs. 68.

1.21

The coefficients of eqn. 31 were evaluated from eqns.


16-18, with the frequencies in eqns. 4 and 9 given by

0.8-

o0= 53 rad/s (8.5 Hz)

ki = 0.451
o2= 85 rad/s (13.5 Hz)

Eqn. 31 was solved using a root-finding numerical


routine. The results obtained are shown in Table 1
(@ = +,/<) in phasor notation, with the magnitude of
the phasor equal to the peak value of the corresponding
time domain quantity. The equation was also solved

2.5

1.0-

os= 377 rad/s (60Hz)

2.0

1.5

1.0

Fig. 11 Solution paints


Test systm

(31)

111

0.5

0.40.6

0.00

IO

15

20

25

30

G . pu.x IO-'

Fig. 12 Flux against shunt conductance


Test system

Tabla 1 : Fundamental-frwuencv solutions


Solution in linear region
Unstable solution
Solution in saturated region

cb, = 0.15~ -86" p.u.


cbB= 1.44L-36" p.u.
cb, = 1.47L +47" P.U.

graphically using the procedure of Fig. 5 with the same


results. The corresponding plot is shown in Fig. 11. Solution point A is the solution in the linear region. Point C
is the solution in the saturated region (ferroresonance
point).
To verify the accuracy of Ritz's approximation for the
fundamental-frequency solution, eqn. 3 was solved
numerically with a Runge-Kutta integration routine. The
results of this simulation are shown in Fig. 15. The simulation results closely match the analytical solution at
point C in the saturated region of operation. The initial

0.0

0.5

1.0

15

2.0

2.5

E , P.U.

Fig. 13 Flux against source voltage


Test system

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321

Table 2: Critical values of resistance, source voltage and


capacitance

Critical resistances
Critical source voltages
Critical capacitance

R, = n/a
E, = n/a
C,,

R , = 21.4 kfl
E, = 1.02 P.U.

= 509 nF

n/a: not applicable to this case (analytical solution is negative)

2.4~

The critical value C, for the capacitance C was read


directly from Fig. 14 as C, = 509 nF (0.093 P.u.). This
value of C corresponds for the test system to a line length
of 65 km. For line lengths less than 65km, ferroresonance cannot occur in this system. For the test case
value of 100 km, ferroresonance can occur. The critical
value of the line length was also calculated for the case
with no losses (line length for Cg in Fig. 8). This value
was only 2.6 km. The large difference in critical line
lengths with and without losses shows the importance of
considering the losses in ferroresonance predictions.
11

-6

Y
1.2

1.0

0.0

0.5

0.01

1.0

1.5

2.0 2.5
c. p.u.

0.02

3.0

0.03

3.5

4.0

Fig. 14 Flux against series capacitance


Test system
Upper inset: detail around C critical
Lower inset: Solution in lincar region

The critical values of the shunt conductance G (= 1/R)


were found from eqn. 24 using a root-finding routine.
There was no positive solution for GI, and the plot of q5
against G is as in Fig. 6c.The plot for the test system is
shown in Fig. 12. For values of R smaller than Rz =
1/G, = 21.4 kR, i.e., for losses Larger than 2.3% of the
rated transformer capacity, ferroresonance does not
occur. In the test system, R = 48.4 kR (losses = 1%) and
therefore ferroresonance can occur, as shown in the
results of Table 1.
The critical values for the equivalent source voltage E
were found from eqn. 26 using a root-finding routine. The
plot of CD against E is shown in Fig. 13. This plot corresponds to that of Fig. 7c in the general analysis. The @-E
plot indicates that for the parameters of this system ferroresonance can always occur, no matter how small the
source voltage. For values of E larger than E2=
1.02 P.u., operation is only possible under ferroresonant
conditions. For values of E smaller than 1.02 p.u. ferroresonance may or may not occur. This is the case for the
value of E = 0.15 p.u. in the test system.

Fig. 15

Transient simulation of circuit

E = 0.15 P.u.; C = 777 nF; R = 48.4 kC2

328

Conclusions

An analytical technique for obtaining steady-state ferroresonant conditions in iron core transformers supplied
through capacitive coupling was presented. The analysis
proposed is general for the type of circuit considered and
includes the effect of the system losses.
The solution to the circuits nonlinear differential
equation is based on Ritzs method of harmonic balance.
To apply this technique, the transformer saturation curve
is approximated by a two-term 11th-order polynomial.
This 11th order polynomial provides a much better fit to
the saturation region than can be obtained with seventh
and lower order approximations. Differences of about
20% in the magnitude of the transformer flux were
observed in comparisons of the 11th order against
seventh order approximations.
Graphical solutions were used to map the boundaries
between normal and ferroresonant regions and to locate
the possible operating points as a function of the circuits
equivalent source voltage, series capacitance and shunt
losses.
A practical example of a system under ferroresonant
conditions was presented. The solution points as well as
parametric maps were calculated for this system. One
interesting observation from this study is the importance
of considering the transformer core losses in determining
the margin of safety before fenoresonance can occur.
This margin went from less than 2.6 km with no losses to
65 km when losses were considered. Another interesting
observation is that for certain combinations of circuit
parameters, ferroresonance can occur even for very small
values (E + 0) of the source voltage.
12

References

1 DICK, E.P., and WATSON, W.: Transforma models for transient


studies based on field measurements, IEEE Trans.,1981, PAS-100,
(1). PP. 409-417
2 GERMAY, N.,MASTERO, S., and VROMAN, J.: Review of ferroresonance phenomena in high-voltage power systems and pmentation of a voltage transformer model for predetermining the.
CIGRE, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric
Systems, 21-29 August 1974.
3 W L A N , EJ, GILLIES, D.A., and KIMBARK, E.W.: Ferroresonance in a transformer switched with an EHV line, JEEE
Trans., 1972, PAS-91,pp. 12731280
4 PRUSTY, S., and PANDA, M.: Predetermination of lateral length to
prevent overvoltage problems due to open conductors in three-phase
systems, IEE Proc. C 1985,132, (I), pp. 4S55
5 SWIFT,G.W.: An analytical approach to ferroresonance, IEEE
Trans., 1969, PAS-88, (l), pp. 42-46
6 PRUSTY, S., and RAO, M.V.S.: New method for determination of
true saturation characteristics of transformem and nonlinear reactors, IEE Proc. C, 1980, 127, (2), pp. 106-110
7 CUNNINGHAM, W.J.: Introduction to nonlinear analysis
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958$, pp. 157-168
8 TEAPE, J.W.. SLATER, R.D., SIMPSON, R.R.S., and WOOD,
W.S.: Hysteresis effects in transformers, including ferroresonana,
JEE Proc., 1976,123, (2),pp. 153158

JEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. J38, No. 4, JULY 1991

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13

Appendix

and
H=o,E

Derivation of eqn. 14 for transformer flux

Eqns. 11 and 12 for the fundamental-frequency solution


of the transform flux components (QX,my)can be written,
simplifying the notation, as
ux - by = 0

(32)

+ bx = H

(33)

ay

Squaring eqns. 32 and 33, and adding

a2(x2 y 2 ) + b2(x2 + y 2 ) = H 2

with eqn. 13, (x2 + y 2 ) = (@:


original variables
[(U: - U;)'

where
x=

(34)
= cPZ, and with the

+ k:o:@2"-2 - Yo: - 03
x klog W-' + O,'/(RC)~]@
-~U: E'

(k:o:)@'

- 0;)
+klo;w-l]

= [-CO,'

b = oJ(RC)

- 2(of

- o@k,w:@"+'

+ [(U,' which with 5

= @'

+ o . Z / ( R C ) ~ ] @-~0,'E'

=0

gives eqn. 14 in the text.

IEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, NO. 4, JULY 1991

ir I

=0

Rearranging

Y=
a

+ @);

II

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329