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Management Definitions

Chapter 15: Individual Behavior

Perception process through which people receive, organize, and interpret info from
the environment
Psychological contract set of individual expectations about the employment
Attribution process of explaining events
Fundamental attribution error over estimates internal factors and underestimates
external factors as influences on someones behavior
Self serving bias explains personal success by internal causes and personal
failures by external causes
Stereotype occurs when attributes commonly associated with a group are
assigned to an individual
Halo effect occurs when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a
person or situation
Selective perception tendency to define problems from ones own point of view
Projection - assignment of personal attributes to other individuals
Impression management is the systematic attempt to influence how others
perceive us
Personality profile of characteristics making a person unique from others
Extraversion being outgoing, sociable, and assertive
Agreeableness- being good natured cooperative and trusting
Conscientiousness being responsible dependable and careful
Emotional stability being relaxed, secure and unworried
Openness to experience being curious, receptive to new ideas, and imaginative
Locus of control extent to which one believes that what happens is within ones
Authoritarianism degree to which a person tends to defer to authority
Machiavellianism describes the extent to which someone is emotionally detached
and manipulative
Self monitoring degree to which someone is able to adjust behavior in response to
external factors
Type A personality person oriented toward extreme achievement, impatience, and

Attitude predisposition to act in a certain way

Cognitive dissonance discomfort felt when attitude and behavior are inconsistent
Job satisfaction degree to which an individual feels positive or negative about a job
Withdrawal behaviors occur as temporary absenteeism and actual job turnover
Employee engagement strong positive feeling about ones job and the
Job involvement extent to which an individual feels dedicated to a job
Organizational commitment loyalty an individual feels toward the organization
Organizational citizenship willingness to go beyond to the call of duty or go the
extra mile in ones work
Emotional intelligence ability to understand emotions and manage relationships
Emotions strong feelings directed toward someone or something
Moods generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind
Mood contagion spillover of ones positive or negative moods onto others
Stress state of tension caused by extraordinary of demands, constraints, or
Stressor anything that causes stress
Constructive stress acts in a positive way to increase effort, stimulate creativity,
and encourage diligence in ones work
Destructive stress impairs the performance of an individual
Job burnout physical and mental exhaustion from work stress
Workplace rage aggressive behavior toward coworkers or the work setting
Personal wellness pursuit of ones full potential through a personal health
promotion program