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Esien (U2011/30255)




This project has been read and approved as meeting the requirements
of the department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering
University of Port Harcourt

Engr. Dr. H. U. Nwosu




Engr. Dr. H. U. Nwosu












The success of this project would not have been met without the support
of some persons, hence the need for acknowledging them.
Foremost our gratitude to God Almighty whose grace was abundant to
us during the period of this research work.
We humbly express our profound gratitude to our parents,
My thanks go to my project supervisor Engr. Dr. H. U. Nwosu, who
devoted his time to our work with concern for our success may God
Almighty bless him richly.

Plastic has, quite literally, become the cornerstone of our society. We
make so many things from plastic that it is hard to imagine what our lives
would be like if it was never invented. The value of parameters should be
correct and exact so that the good and quality of product can be
produced. This Project gives the information about to design and
fabrication of pneumatically operated injection plastic moulding machine
by using plastic material. For increasing the production rate, designing
and manufacturing the multi cavity die and also using PP
(polypropylene) to overcome the existing plastic material drawbacks.
The injection moulding machine contains the core plate, cavity plate, top
and bottom supported plates, channels or runners, sprue, vents, injector,
ejector and its pins etc. The design and fabrication of the pneumatic
plastic injection moulding machine will enable us to produce a plastic
gasket. The gaskets are used to prevent leakages by provide a tight
fitting joint between two surfaces. Once developed the mould design
tool will guide the user in selecting an appropriate mould for his plastic
part based on various client specifications.




The most significant variation between human begins and the rest of the
animal world is our ability to design and fabricate machines.


machine enables us to perform tasks that would be difficult or impossible

to perform otherwise. The pneumatic plastic injection moulding machine
is one of such machine. A pneumatic plastic injection moulding machine
is widely used for manufacturing a variety of intricate parts, from the
smallest component to entire body panels.
Injection moulding is a process in which a polymer is heated to a highly
plastic state and forced to flow under high pressure into a mould cavity,
where it solidifies.

The moulded part, called a moulding, is then

removed from the cavity. Moulds are made from specific designs, giving
the user maximum flexibility and control over the end product. While the
process can be used for various metals and even glasses, its
considered a highly effective method for creating custom injection
molded plastics.
The process produces discrete components that are almost always net
shape. The production cycle time is typically in the range 10 to 30

seconds, although cycles of one minute or longer are not uncommon.

Also, the mould may contain more than one cavity; so that multiple
mouldings are produced each cycle.
We live in a world of plastic moulded products. Moulded plastics can be
crystal clear, opaque, colored and textured. They may be as disposable
as a toothpick or as durable as a plumbing fitting. They can be as hard
as a kitchen cutting board or as soft as a pencil eraser. They can be
found in products as inexpensive as a cereal box giveaway or as
expensive as a fine watch. They can be in items as ordinary as a
puppy's chew toy or as critical as a heart patient's pacemaker (an
implanted medical device developed for patients whose hearts beat too
slowly). Wire spools, packaging, bottle caps, automotive dashboards,
pocket combs, some musical instruments (and parts of them), storage
containers, mechanical parts (including gears) and most other plastic
products available today. Majority of these things are created using
plastic injection moulding machine.
Currently, global manufacturing trends and competition challenges every
industry to seek new and innovative manufacturing methods that can
improve their business processes and speed up the development cycle
of new products to compete more effectively. Injection moulding is the
most common method of part manufacturing. Plastic moulding machine

is widely used in manufacturing rubber or plastic parts and components.

Injection moulding is ideal for producing high volumes of same object.
Some advantages of injection moulding are high production rates,
repeatable high tolerance, the ability to use a wide range of materials,
low labour cost, minimal scrap losses, and little need to finish parts after

With the use of plastic parts on the rise in almost every

industry, combined with growing pressure to reduce costs and cut time to
market, the need for design and fabrication of plastic injection moulding
machines to meet parts demand has become imperative.


The aim of this project is to design and fabricate a pneumatically

operated injection plastic moulding machine that will be use to produce
plastic parts from a mould as an affordable cost with low energy

It is expected that the results and outcomes of the

research not only provide a potential manufacturing solution but also

provide benefits and profits to the mould maker and injection moulder as
end users.


This study will be of good source of revenue generation for young

technoprenuers. The study will also help to give anyone interested in
going into plastic moulding a good startup platform.



The scope and limitations of this project are as follows:

A repetitive and cyclical process in which melted plastic at high
pressure is injected into a mould cavity, cooled and under pressure
until it can be ejected, duplicating the shape of the mould cavity.
The process consists of; clamping the mould, injection the molten
plastic and ejection of the cast from the cavity forming a plastic
The mould was fabricated with low cost material for the purpose of
this project, due to high cost of buying to meet custom


The road map of the study towards the design and fabrication of a
pneumatically plastic injection moulding machine was carried out by
looking at the parts of an existing machines at several factories visited.
Owing to the fact that some of the components of this machine could not
be fabricated. Information from an existing design on how it was made,
with a view to modifying it to suit our objective was adopted. The use of
computer aided design using AutoCAD was effectively utilized.
Consequently, the parts that could not be fabricated were bought at a
reasonable price.



The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1851 by Alexander

Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition
in London; calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived from
cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when
cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and
highly flammable (Ballman 1959).
In 1865 American inventor John W. Hyatt patented a process for
combining cellulose nitrate and camphor into a compound he termed
"celluloid" which was used as a replacement material for ivory in the
production of billiard balls. John Wesley Hyatt invention on plastic
material was an improvement on Parkes' invention so that it could be
processed into finished form (Avery, 1998).
The first moldable material was introduced in 1907 by Leo Hendrick
Baekeland which was a phenolic material he named "Bakelite". Bakelite
was such a versatile and durable material that it could be used to
produce many useful domestic, industrial and military products.
Throughout the early 20th century many new plastic materials were

developed including the following important benchmarks: Cellophane in

1913; Nylon in 1920; Polyvinylchloride (PVC) in 1933; Teflon in 1938;
Polyethlene in 1933.

The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s

because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive, massproduced products (Rubin 1972).
In 1946, American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw
injection machine, which allowed much more precise control over the
speed of injection and the quality of articles produced (Avery, 1998). This
machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection, so that
colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed
thoroughly before being injected. Screw injection machines account for
the vast majority of all plastic injection machines (Rubin 1972).
James Watson Hendry in the 1970s, went on to develop the first gasassisted injection moulding process, which permitted the production of
complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved
design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts
while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste (Gastrow, 1993).


Plastic injection moulding (PIM) is a major manufacturing method in the

plastic industry. Plastic injection moulding is basically a repetitive and

cyclical process in which melted plastic at high pressure is injected into a
mould cavity, cooled and held under pressure until it can be ejected,
duplicating the shape of the mould cavity (Rubin, 1972).
Plastic Injection molding is a high production method of producing a vast
variety of thermoplastic parts into shapes ranging from fairly simple to
quite complex. Injection mold cavities are fed with melted plastic material
which is forced under high pressure through a sprue which feeds a
runner system then through a gate into the cavity. The material is then
cooled to the point that the material is solid and then ejected from the
mold as a finished part. Certain thermoset materials can also be injection
molded after several modifications to the standard injection molding
machine are affected (Rosato, 2000).
The plastic injection molding machine consists of two basic components:
the clamp unit and the injection unit. The clamp unit holds and clamps
the tool into position while the injection unit plasticizes and injects the
material into the mold which has been positioned by the clamp unit. The
clamp force must be sufficient to hold the mold closed against the
hydraulic pressure of the material being injected under high pressure by
the injection unit. Both units are coordinated by a computer controller on
machine which is programmed to efficiently to produce high quantities of

consistent quality parts on an automated cycle.

Injection moulding

machines can fasten the molds in either a horizontal or vertical position.

The majority of machines are horizontally oriented, but vertical machines
are used in some position applications such as insert moulding, allowing
the machine to take advantage of gravity (Rosato, 2000).
Today, plastic injection machines account for the vast majority of all
injection machines. This machine also allowed material to be mixed
before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to
new material and mixed thoroughly before being injected.
After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an
engineer, molds are made by a mould maker or tool maker from metal,
usually either steel or aluminium, and precision-machined to form the
features of the desired part. Injection moulding is widely used for
manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire
body panels of cars. (Urquhart, 2002).
2.2.1 Key Improvements in Injection Moulding
The following are some of the key improvements in injection moulding:
Multiple component injection technologies and Dual-Shot Injection
Moulding Multiple component injection technologies:

Under the range of multiple component injection technologies are the
sandwich technologies. Sandwich technologies comprise co-injection,
mono-sandwich, gas injection technique and water injection technique
(Menges 2001). In the co-injection method, two melts are injected into
the machines cavity through one gate, one after the other. In monosandwich method, two materials are injected with one injection unit via
one passage into the cavity. In gas injection technique, the gas used is
mostly nitrogen, which is injected into the part to replace the melt in the
core and create a hollow space.





Gas injection technique enables




accumulations. It provides increased strength and stiffness at lower or

equal part weight. It enables reduction of weight up to 50% and
decreasing of the material costs. Likewise it enables reduction of the
cooling/cycle time up to 50%, lowers clamp force and machine costs.
Many consider water injection technique to have relatively more
advantages than the gas injection technique. Water injection technique
provides lesser cycle times, smaller and constant wall thickness, large
part diameters, and smoother inner surfaces. Additionally, water is
cheaper than gas and is incompressible. Dual-Shot Injection Moulding

Two-Shot injection moulding or dual-shot injection moulding is a method
to produce simple to complex parts comprising two different polymers
even with two different colours during one machine cycle.
The Two-Shot mould consists of two separate cavities that are used for
making a single part. The first step in the process is to create a substrate
in the first cavity, which receives material from one of the two injection
units. The tool then opens to allow for a 180 rotation to a secondary
position after the finished part is removed from the second stage cavity.
As the tool closes, the second step commences by positioning the
previously molded substrate into the second cavity. The second cavity
receives the material from the second injection unit completing a finished
part, this occurs simultaneously as the substrate for another part is being
molded. When the tool opens again, the finished part is ejected, and
another substrate is ready to receive its over-mold. Therefore by
applying alternating rotary motion of the tool, this simultaneous process
enables continuous manufacturing operation.
2.2.2 Applications of Modern Injection Moulding
Plastic injection mouldings account for nearly most of all plastics
products. Almost all manufacturing sectors use injection moulded parts

due to their flexibility in size and shape. The following is a list of basic
products that can be injection moulded:

Telephone handsets and DVDs
Television cabinets
Electrical switches
Automotive bumpers and dash boards
Battery casings
Disposable razors and syringes
Washing-up bowls
Bottle lids/closures

However, this list is not comprehensive as there are many more products
that can be created using injection moulding.


Pneumatically operated plastic injection moulding machine moulding

operation is done with the help of compressed air. It is cheaper than
hydraulic machine and more efficient as compared to manual machine.
So it solves the problem of small and medium scale industries very well.
In pneumatically operated plastic injection machine two pneumatic
cylinders are used. One for injection of plastic and other for automatic
opening of the die.
The expected contribution in this project was to design and fabricate a
pneumatic plastic injection moulding machine that will enable us to
produce plastic gasket, using local materials and how this type of

machine can be produced massively with respect to performance and/or

cost. Providing molders with increases in productivity and reductions in
materials and energy usage.




The design considerations of this pneumatic plastic injection moulding

machine is based mainly on the scope of this project. The machine is
designed to produce plastic gasket in mass quantity by action of
injection and extraction.

Low cost materials are used to design this

machine. More considerations are also given to the machine

components. The components are designed to fit their purpose.
Therefore the machine is designed to be used in small scale workshop.


The pneumatically operated injection plastic moulding machine is

fabricated using various components. The components are pneumatic
cylinders, upper cylinder (100160mm) and lower cylinder (5080mm),
pressure regulator, 5/2 direction control valve, flow control valve, FRL
unit, frame, barrel, temperature controller, compressor, mounting table,
angle plates, Allen bolts.
The upper cylinder is used for up and down motion of the plunger which
injects the plastic material in to barrel. Lower cylinder is used for

automatic opening of the die. In manual machine the provision for

automatic removal of product is not present. In pneumatic machine it is
made available using lower cylinder.
The compressor provides compressed air to both the cylinders, which
causes movement of the plunger. FRL unit is used for filtration,
regulation, of the compressed air. Air filter removes all foreign materials
and allow dry, clean air to flow without restriction. Once the compressor
air has been properly cleaned, it is necessary to regulate it to the
required level of pressure regardless of fluctuations in compressed air
main line. Different pneumatic systems work efficiently at different
operating pressure. Hence selection of pressure regulator of right range
is important for efficient working of pneumatic system. Pneumatic
automation components extensively use sealing material made out of
rubber compounds. For efficient and trouble free working of these seals,
they need to be oiled or lubricated to reduce friction and corrosion. To
lubricate compressed air actuated equipment, the most efficient and
economical method adopted is to inject the lubricant in to the cylinder.
5/2 direction control valve is used to control the direction of the air.
The components include;

Upper cylinder
Lower cylinder
5/2 Direction control valve
FRL Unit
Flow control valve
Pressure Regulator

Die Assembly
Mounting table
Mounting plates
Hexagonal nuts & bolts

3.2.1 Design of Cylinder

Following points are needed to be considered while selecting a
pneumatic cylinder.
Cylinder thrust.
Air consumption.
Type of mounting. Cylinder thrust
The cylinder thrust is a function of piston diameter, operating air
pressure and the frictional resistance (though in the case of static thrust,
the frictional resistance is zero). Cylinder thrust can be calculated by the
following formula.
Let, FW = Cylinder thrust for forward stroke in kg.
FR = Cylinder thrust for return stroke in kg.
D = Diameter of piston in cm.
d = Diameter of piston rod in cm.
P = Operating air pressure in bar.
Thrust in Forward Stroke:Thrust in Return Stroke:-

F w = D2 v
F R= ( D 2d 2 ) P

For Upper Cylinder (10 16cm) :-

FW = 102 3.1=247.47 kgf

FW = ( 10 22.52 ) 3.1=228.25 kgf

For lower cylinder (58cm)

FW = 52 1.7=33.37 kgf
FW = ( 5 222 ) 1.7=28.03 kgf

The aim is to reduce manual pressure which is maximum 20kg, therefore

by selecting 10 bar (10.19kgf/cm2) from standard piston thrust chart.
Form that 100mm dia. Cylinder is suitable, from standard table we got
the values for thrusts are, 628kgs in forward stroke and 590kgs in return
stroke. This values are maximum from calculated therefore design is
safe. Air consumption
The air consumption data for cylinder is required in order to estimate the
compressor capacity. The calculations include air consumption during
forward as well as return stroke. The theoretical air consumption
calculated from following formula,
Let, CW = Air consumption for forward stroke in liters.
CR = Air consumption for return stroke in liters.
D = Diameter of piston in cm.
d = Piston rod diameter in cm
L = Stroke length in cm.

P = Air pressure in bar.

Free air consumption in liters for forward stroke:CW = D2 ( P+1 ) L 1000

Free air consumption in liters for return stroke:2

C R= ( D d ) ( P+ 1 ) L 1000

For upper cylinder (1016cm)

CW = 102 ( 3.1+1 ) 16 1000
=5.15 Liters

CW = ( 1022.52 ) ( 3.1+1 ) 16 1000

=4.83 Liters

Hence for one complete cycle of operation for this cylinder

(i.e. forward stroke + return stroke) the free air consumption will be
5.15 + 4.83 = 9.98 Liters.
This much of free air consumption in number of stroke per minute is
done by upper cylinder.
For lower cylinder (58cm)
CW = 52 ( 1.7+1 ) 8 1000
= 0.42 Liters

CW = ( 5222 ) ( 1.7+1 ) 8 1000

= 0.35 Liters

Hence for one complete cycle of operation for this cylinder

(i.e. forward stroke + return stroke) the free air consumption will be
0.42 + 0.35 = 0.77 Liters.

This much of free air consumption in number of stroke per minute is

done by lower cylinder. Design of die
Upper die is the upper portion of a die set that corresponds with the
lower die via blank holder and move down onto the work piece. The
dimensions of the upper die and material specifications are as follows:
Length = 1650 mm
Width = 1170 mm
Height = 485 mm
Upper ribs = 230 200 mm
Side ribs = 460 200 mm
Material Used = High Strength Steel
Density of Steel = 7.82708e-09 ton/mm3
Poissons ratio = 0.27
Youngs Modulas = 19.98 Mpa
The Blank holder is used to prevent the edge of a sheet metal blank
from wrinkling during deep drawing operations.
Length = 1650 mm
Width = 1215 mm
Height = 220 mm
Bottom ribs = 215 155 mm

Material Used = High strength Steel

Density of Steel = 7.82708e-09 ton/mm3
Poissons ratio = 0.27
Youngs Modulas = 19.98 Mpa.
Lower Punch die is bottom part of the die assembly. It is the fixed part in
die assembly and it is firmly fixed at the bottom.
Width = 1215 mm
Height = 160 mm
Bottom ribs = 265 265 mm
Material Used = High strength Steel
Density of Steel = 7.82708e-09 ton/mm3
Poissons ratio = 0.27
Youngs Modulas = 19.98 Mpa Design of Hexagonal bolt & nut

For mounting the cylinders 8 hexagonal nuts and bolts are used.
Hexagonal nut and bolt is designed using appropriate design procedure.
Design of nut
Height of nut = T =D
Width across flats, W = 1.5D + 3 mm
Angle of chamfer = 30
Radius of chamfer = R = 1.4D
Design of bolt

All parameters are same as design of nut .

Length of bolt <= 5D


The fabrication of the component was carried out in a workshop. This

3.3.1 Fabrication of Mounting Plates for Installing Cylinder
The fabrication of mounting plates for installing cylinder is done with the
plate of size 176.5 114.2 7mm for upper plate and 156.6 131.2
7mm for lower plate. The fabrication is done with electric arc welding
3.3.2 Fabrication of mounting table and selection of frame
The fabrication of mounting table have been done with 35 3mm size of
angle plate having 12 in numbers and the wooden plate is placed above
the table for getting proper base to the machine. Electrode arc welding
is used for welding purpose. The frame of manually operated injection
molding machine is used.

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technology in Molding: Emerging Technologies In Plastics Injection

Molding. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.