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PSYC1030 Lab Report Semester 2, 2014 - TASK SHEET!

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Impressions of Criminal Defendants!
Brief Requirements!

Important: Make sure you read the course profile (on the course website) for the full
assessment details. In the even of any contradiction between this information and the
course profile, the course profile takes precedence. Please note that this overview is not
intended as a replacement for attending tutorials.!

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Even though the draft introduction is not formally worth any marks, it is an excellent
opportunity to get feedback on your introduction so that you can improve it for the final
submission. In our experience, students who submit a draft and make use of the feedback
that their tutors provide tend to do up to a grade band better on the final submission
(obviously this is not a guarantee, but it a tendency that we have observed).!

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Word limit: The word limit is as indicated above. Your tutor will stop reading at the word
limit and you will not receive feedback or marks for any material in excess of the word limit.
Your word processing software will have a word count function, you should use it. Because
different software counts words differently, we make a small allowance for that, but you
should write to the limit as indicated by your software. Any references in the main text are
counted, as are headings and so on. The reference list at the end of your assignment is
not counted.!

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A note on using abbreviations: Please do not use abbreviations to save on words.
Theory names should be spelt out in full, and “and” should be spelt out in the main text of
your assignment. It is appropriate to use “&” in place of “and” only in references that
appear in brackets. For example, you could say:!

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Researchers have found some support for this idea (Smith & Jones, 2012). !
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Or you might say:!
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Smith and Jones (2012) found support for this idea.!
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How many papers should you cite? How long is a piece of string? There is no correct
answer to this question. You need to cite enough literature to support your argument. One
is too few. Two is a good start. If you cite a paper, make sure you read it too. The APA
format guide (see below) has detailed information about how to reference in your
assignment.!

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A note on using quotes: Please do not use quotes in your assignment. Because we want
you to demonstrate your own understanding of the material, and not just cut and paste
together a series of quotes, you will not receive marks for any quoted material (you will
simply use up your word count). If you are not sure how to paraphrase and rewrite to
demonstrate your own understanding, please speak to your tutor early in the semester. !

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Format and structure: A lab report follows a defined format. You should write your report
using the following information as a guide. You will also want to take a look at the example
report that is available on Blackboard.!
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Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons.pdf! ! You can access a basic tutorial here: ! ! ! http://www. the official style manual is:! ! APA (2010). method and results section.apastyle. which has been specified by the American Psychological Association (APA). which is important for making sense of the findings and in the discussion section. A refresher on how to write simply and clearly can be found here (please note that the first part of the recording talks about technical reports.)! ! An extract of the manual is available here: ! ! ! ! http://www.library. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.au/coursebank/get.edu. so that the research can be readily understood. A brief introduction to this style is provided separately on the website for this course.! A research report provides a written account of a piece of research. (2010). For example:! ! ! Burton. To help readers know where to look for the information they need from a report. and repeated or extended by others. There is also a quick start guide in the library. you are not writing a technical report. More information can be found in various writing guides.uq. A research report must tell the reader:! ! ! • • • • • • Why you did the research! What you expected to find! What you actually did! What you found! How you interpreted the results! The theoretical and practical implications of your results. You are given the method section text to help you understand what was done in the current study. Please do not include the method section text that is provided. L. It should be written in a clear and concise format. but these are not required for this assignment. If you want the definitive reference.! You should write your assignment in APA 6 style.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial. psychology reports are written in a standard format.aspx! ! What to include in your full submission:! • Title page! • Introduction! • Discussion! • Reference list! ! A full lab report would normally also include an abstract.   (There are several copies of this book in the UQ Library)! Please write as simply and clearly as possible.! ! We will give you detailed advice about how to write these parts of the lab report. An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology (3rd Edition).php?id=34067031843443. just skip this part):! ! 2 .

! ! A stereotype is pretty much a mental representation of information about a social category. And that information is represented by what we call a stereotype.edu. and not based on any prejudices or biases.uq. They decide what the facts of the case are. ! ! Imagine a defendant (the defendant is the person charged with a criminal offence) comes from a relatively negatively evaluated social category. A juror is a person who has been selected to represent the community in a court case. and then make a decision based on these facts.qld. In general. As you will know from the lectures on impression formation and stereotypes. there is some research which shows that sometimes the social category that the defendant belongs to influences how guilty they are judged to be. the more that they think about the type of person the defendant appears to be (because of the social category he belongs to). the jury hears a number of witnesses give evidence against the defendant. however.au/information-for-jurors! ! While the research does suggest that jurors are strongly influenced by the strength of the case against the defendant.! ! This is essentially a problem of how people form impressions of others. and after deliberating as a group. or does the match with the crime type matter?! ! A bit of background. however at first the jury is not convinced beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty. a juror has to be convinced that the defendant is guilty of the charge to a pretty high standard of proof— beyond reasonable doubt. ! ! You can find out more about being a juror here:! ! ! http://www. and also information about what people from that category are like (their attributes) and the sorts of behaviours they perform and roles they occupy. as best they can. Consider the following hypothetical scenario to illustrate how this might happen. The juror’s job is to hear the evidence that is presented during the trial and decide.gov. and not on any other information. Their doubts go away.courts.html?tid=11! Topic Overview! ! Our project asks the following question: Do people view male defendants as always more likely to be guilty compared to female defendants. what actually happened. say they come from a particularly poor community that has high crime rates.psy. and can include information about whether we feel positively or negatively about people from that category. ! ! The following paper nicely illustrates the idea that people from some social categories might be disadvantaged when charged and tried for a criminal offence:! ! 3 . and how these impressions can be influenced by stereotypes. jurors are meant to make this decision based only the evidence presented during the trial. people’s impressions of others are often influenced by what they know about the social categories that they think those others belong to. they convict the defendant.au/activity/tutorial.! ! ! ! http://www. As noted. At trial.

816-832. a lot of the research has focussed on social categories such as ethnicity/race and gender.! ! (As an aside. White. the vast majority (i. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. (The results for this study are pretty complicated in that they use quite a high level statistical technique.. K. racism.. Feingold (1994). There is some more research which suggests that the story is a bit more complicated than this. K. Mack. and the type of crime. (2000).. socioeconomic status. There was no effect of the defendant’s race. the base rate for offending is strongly skewed towards males. especially those involving violence.)! ! Now. Wayne. are males. jurors should make their decisions based only the evidence presented at the trial. they don't just choose any random person on the street and charge them with the offence. They found that participants thought the male defendants were more likely to be guilty of the alleged crimes compared to the female defendants.. you might be wondering. ! ! A good example of the effect of gender is given in:! ! Dean. race. or a witness’s identification.)! ! Ok. So it seems that the stereotype is based on accurate facts in this particular example—i.! ! In that study they asked participants to read a set of police reports that included alleged perpetrators (defendants) who were described as being either male or female. R. over 90%) of criminal people who are charged and convicted of crimes. 30(4). or Hispanic. When police investigate a crime. it would be completely rational to guess whether a black marble or a blue marble will be drawn out of a bag based on the base rate of black and blue marbles in the bag because the selection in this case is made at random if you select the marble without looking in the bag.Mazzella. so there is evidence that defendants from some categories are seen as being more likely to be guilty. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. M. Thus. J. D. The effects of physical attractiveness.! ! As you can probably see already. An examination of happiness. & Thomas.. and demographics on judgments of guilt.e. 24(15). Just focus on the very start of the results.! ! You can find this paper in the library (see the screen recording of how to access the library on the course website). Why can’t we just make a probabilistic judgement based on these base rates and convict the male defendant?! ! Well the problem arises because defendants are not selected at random. We will spend some time in the lecture going into this paper in more detail as well. 1315-1344. and A.e. H. and as either Black. This study is actually what is called a meta-analysis. and so the base rate information is actually irrelevant for deciding whether the defendant is guilty or not. This just means that the researchers have looked across a large number of previously published studies and done statistical analyses to look for consistent effects across all of those studies. isn’t it perfectly rational to think that a male defendant is more likely to be guilty than a female defendant? After all. Police investigate someone based on non-random factors. and gender of defendants and victims on judgments of mock jurors: A meta-analysis. They also varied the race and gender of the victim. for example a tip off. The short story is that defendants seem to be seen as being more likely to be guilty only when they come from social categories that are stereotypically 4 .

whereas the opposite was true when the alleged crime was burglary. T. then there should also be crimes where we see a female defendant as more likely to be guilty because the crime is linked to stereotypes about women. A. 1(5).)! ! So there is reasonable evidence that the reason why people from some racial or ethic groups are sometimes seen as more likely to be guilty is because stereotypes about those groups are linked to particular types of crimes. L. Psychological Science. 319-322. they found that when the defendant’s race matched the type of crime the defendant was said to have committed. 128(2). ! ! You can find another example of exactly the same type of effect here (skip to Study 2 in this paper): ! ! Bodenhausen. (2013). you read about either a male or a female defendant. Perceptions of blue-collar and white-collar crime: The effect of defendant race on simulated juror decisions. R. V.! ! (Just ignore the part in that paper about circadian rhythms—which means how our arousal levels vary during the day. G. et al. as should the textbook chapters. if you are enjoying reading these papers and would like to try a more advanced paper on this topic. & Walden. 191. Stereotypes as judgmental heuristics: Evidence of circadian variations in discrimination.! ! Ok. L. the defendant was evaluated more negatively. If this is the case. We will also spend a lecture on the assignment itself. M. here is one you can start with:! ! McKimmie.! ! In that study. which was either male or female! 5 . so let’s talk about how we tried to test our ideas in this study…! ! As you might remember from the first tutorial. Your lectures should help with some general background. Stereotypical and Counterstereotypical Defendants: Who Is He and What Was the Case Against Her? Psychology Public Policy and Law. M. 343-354.linked to the features of the particular crime they are said to have committed. T. we have the following independent variables (which are the things that we have systematically varied):! ! Defendant gender. or whether male defendants are viewed as more likely to be guilty of those crimes seen as stereotypically committed by males. but first. ! ! So what we want to find out in this project is whether there is a general bias against male defendants.. a White defendant was punished more than a Black defendant when the alleged crime was embezzling money. ! ! I will describe how we are going to try and find this out shortly. So. we asked you to read a scenario describing either an alleged assault or an alleged shoplifting.19(3). The Journal of Social Psychology. McNicholas.. (1990). (1988)... A good example of this is:! ! Gordon. A. Bindrim. In particular. In this scenario. and you will have several tutorials about how to write the report.! ! Don’t worry if this all seems confusing at this stage. B.

we are looking at the continuous rating for this study because the statistics are easier and this type of measure tends to be more sensitive.Crime gender. Our main dependent variable (the variable that we look for change on as a function of the independent variables) was the perceived likelihood that the defendant was guilty. which was either male (assault) or female (shoplifting)! ! We then measured a number of different things.)! ! We also measured a number of things to check that our manipulations were successful. we asked what the gender of the defendant was and whether males or females were more likely to commit this type of offence. Namely. ! ! (While you would right in thinking we should really be looking at the binary decision about whether the defendant is guilty or not.! ! ! ! 6 .

you will want to briefly define them for the reader and then move on to consider what the research tells us about the topic. and also because you will need to interpret the results and relate them to the literature in your discussion section. say a couple of sentences at the most about how the study was conducted and what was measured (see the method section below for notes on this). First orient the reader to the literature by briefly describing the study. you should not necessarily set it up to be a battle between two or more theories. The prediction needs to say something about the direction of findings that you expect to observe.! In this example. This is where you get to display your ability to think critically about the literature that is relevant to the topic.! ! Before saying anything about your specific predictions. I have included it here to help you understand what we did in the first tutorial. Therefore. The aim can be thought of as a question that we seek to answer. A and B are the levels of the independent variable defendant gender. So. when you critically analyse the literature. This sets the context for the predictions to make sense. As a general example. An obvious reason for doing a study is to address an identified weakness/absence in the literature you have been discussing. You do not need to include this in your submission.! ! ! 7 . X is the change in the dependent variable that we expect to see when the particular level of the two IVs is met. then we would expect that the defendant will be seen as [X] when described as [A] compared to [B] and charged with [C]. make sure the identified weaknesses are relevant to the rationale you want to build.! ! Next you will want to describe and analyse the literature on this topic. you need to give an overview of the current study.! What To Put In Your Introduction! It is important to note that when writing your introduction. but rather what we want to find out.! ! Method and Results! ! Below. you might say something like:! ! ! If the match between the gender and the crime type matters. As you introduce new concepts. Why do we care about this topic? Your opening statement will want to also say something about what the current study is about. It is different from a hypothesis because it doesn’t necessarily spell out what we expect to observe. or things that have not been considered in those studies? ! ! You next need to link your critical analysis into the rationale for doing the study. and C and D are the levels of the independent variable crime gender. You should start off by saying something about the importance of the topic. and then critically analyse it. You finish by giving a specific prediction about what you expect to see in terms of your measures as a function of the independent variable. is the write up of the method and results for the class project. You should write the prediction in your own words. A study may have a specific aim that is developed from this rationale. Are the conclusions of the research well supported by the results? Are there possible alternative explanations? What sorts of things do you think are weaknesses. We expect that this pattern would be reversed when the defendant was charged with [D].

The average age of participants was 19. which was the only evidence of the actual crime being committed. Procedure Participants took part in the study during class tutorials and were informed that the activity would form part of their assignment. To check the manipulation of the independent variables. female) and crime gender (male. The scenario described the trial. The defendant was named either John (male defendant) or Jane (female defendant). ! 8 . The defence argued that the evidence was weak because the identifications of the defendant were unreliable. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four conditions made up by the between-subjects manipulation of defendant gender (male.42 years (SD = 3. and whether the type of crime that the defendant was charged with was generally more likely to be committed by a man or a woman.Method Participants and Design Participants were 460 female and 210 male undergraduate psychology students who participated as part of a class activity (and additional 4 did not report their gender). participants were asked to indicate how likely it was that the defendant was guilty. After reading the scenario. There was also a closedcircuit television recording of the crime. participants were also asked to indicate whether the defendant had been a man or a woman. female). Participants were asked to read a hypothetical scenario describing a defendant charged with either assault (male oriented crime) or shop lifting (female oriented crime). during which evidence from two eyewitnesses who had identified the defendant at the location the crime had allegedly been committed. and because the there was no conclusive evidence that it was the defendant who committed the crimes.93).

SD = 1. Likewise.70% of participants correctly reported the gender of the female defendant. t(352) = -0. the female defendant was seen as being equally likely to be guilty (M = 4.02.44% of participants correctly reported the type of crime in the female crime condition.Results Manipulation Checks To check the manipulation of defendant gender.001—97. t(316) = 1.91. p < . participants were asked to report whether the defendant was a man or a woman.52% of participants correctly reported the gender of the male defendant.07) defendants when the crime was male-oriented (assault).88. p = . A similar analysis for the type of crime that the defendant was alleged to have committed suggested that the manipulation of crime gender was also successful.10. SD = 1. SD = 1. SD = 1.48% of participants correctly reported the type of crime in the male crime condition. For the female-oriented crime (shoplifting).00.001.03).46. p = . A Chi-square analysis. suggested that the manipulation was successful as 97. 𝒳2(2)= 655.64.05) and male (M = 4.16) as the male defendant (M = 4. ! ! ! ! 9 .44. Main Analysis Likelihood of guilt was analysed via between-groups t-tests for each crime type. there was no difference in guilt likelihood between the female (M = 3.33.10. p < . 𝒳2(1)= 608. and 99. and 97.

.g. one limitation (and why)! Deliberate on the implications of the key findings by: (the concluding statement/s):! • • State the practical implications of the research results.! • Restate the research aim ! • Restate hypothesis and whether or not the results supported the hypothesis! • Briefly restate results! • Give explanations for the results.’ or ‘relationship’! • Do not use quotes! • Paraphrase and use your own words to demonstrate your understanding ! • Be concise and ensure your discussion flows! • Do be sure to interpret the results in some detail before moving on to the strengths and limitations of the study! ! ! 10 .! ! Structure! Like an Introduction.! ! Tips:! • Do not overstate the results ! • Do not include the statistics (e. consider methodological strengths and limitations. your Discussion begins more specifically about the support or non-support for the research hypothesis. In contrast to the Introduction. ! • Suggest a possible future avenue for research in this area! ! There are some examples of how to interpret findings in the video on the course website.Discussion! Purpose! The purpose of the Discussion section is to discuss the conclusions that can be drawn from the results.’ ‘propensity.’ ‘association. supported by research:! • Do the current results provide support for earlier findings (reported in the literature)?! • Any alternative interpretations (include if you think so)?! Give critical analysis of the findings/study! • • List one strength of your study (and state why it is).describe! • Do not use the words ‘proves’ or ‘causes’! • Alternatives for ‘proves‘ > ‘suggests’ or ‘indicates’! • Alternative for ‘causes’ > ‘tendency. a Discussion follows a structure. so it is almost the mirror image of the Introduction. In your Discussion. and consider possible future research directions. comment on the broader implications of your findings. the mean) . you need to discuss the results and main findings. consider alternative interpretations.

5cm margins. 2. just to check that your assignment covers all of the dimensions that it will be assessed against.! ! Good Luck!! ! ! Blake McKimmie! ! 11 . title of assignment. headings in bold. it’s a good idea to check the assignment criteria once more when you have finished your assignment. indenting paragraphs. correct referencing (see the APA formatting document for full details) ✔️ ✔️ Clear writing: Use paragraphs with topic sentences ✔️ ✔️ ! Finally. course details ✔️ ✔️ Introduction ✔️ ✔️ Discussion ✖️ ✔️ Reference list ✔️ ✔️ APA Format: Double spaced.! Lab Report Checklist! Draft Final Word count 500 1000 Title page: Who you are.