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Volume 1

The Battle Over Begotten
T e B
r Beg
B got
rt 1
“Most of the found ders of Sevventh-day Adventism m would
not be ab ble to joiin the ch hurch todaay if theyy had to
subscribe to the denominat
d ion’s Funndamental Beliefs.
More speccifically, most
m wouldd not be ablle to agreee to belief
number 2, which deaals with thee doctrine of the Trinnity.”
George Knigght, Ministtry, Octobeer 1993

The transforrmation of Seventh- critical finaal steps in cementing
c thee
daay Adventiist doctrine from a Trinity into its rightfful place inn
widely held beelief in the SonS of God Adventist theology
t thuus securing a
beegotten of hiss Father (thatt remained welcome harmony withh the rest oof
unncontested foor more thann 50 years orthodox Chhristendom.
prrior to the deeath of Ellen White) to In contraast to Ellen’s alleged Trinii-
ouur current accceptance of an unbegot- tarian conveersion, some leaders
l withinn
ten second Person of a Trriune God- the fledglinng church are also chargedd
heead is a remaarkable recordd of deter- with promooting Arianism, the belieef
mination and opposition
o thaat extended that Christ was
w a createdd being ratheer
well into the 19940s. than the divvine begotten Son of God.
Here is the story of that battle.
b In Part 1 Theos exam mines the writt-
In recent decades thiss dramatic ings of the earliest Adveentist pioneerrs
reeversal in thee church’s fuundamental for evidencee of belief in either a creatt-
faaith has been credited
c to Elllen White. ed or begottten Son of Good. What’s thee
Shhe is said to have
h maturedd into a full difference between
b a diivinely begott-
triinitarian undderstanding inn her final ten Son andd a created one? Did thee
yeears. Publicaation of the Desire of church’s founders teachh error? Weree
Agges is cited as the watersshed event they perpetrrators of heresy? We willl
thhat propelledd the churchh into ac- explore botth the Scripptural witness
ceepting the “fuull deity” of Christ and and a candiid look at thee 19th centuryy
thhe personhoood of the Holy Spirit, evidence.

2 | Battle Ovver Begotten
mes White caan be found within the Advent
A Re- “Now, Christ
C being thhe Son of Mann,
Jaames White and
a Joseph BatesB are view and Sabbbath Herald issues be- the chief man,
m or second Adam, A the mann
comm monly impliccated as thee prime giinning with its debut in 18551. of God’s right hand, thhe heir of alll
things, is of right Lordd even of the
suspeects responssible for co ontamin-
Sabbath daay.” “As Chrrist proves the
atingg the early Advent Mo ovement resurrectionn, in Mark xii,, 26, 27, “I amm
with “Arianism.” The thesiss begins the God off Abraham, thee God of Isaacc,
with their prior membership in the the God off Jacob; I am not n the God oof
Chrisstian Connecction, a vocal anti- the dead, but
b of the livingg;” so Christ iis
trinittarian group prominent in the Lord of thee Sabbath day. He is not Lordd
earlyy 1800’s. As editor
e of the Present of the dead types and shadows,
s or oof
Truthh and laterr the Revieew and that which is not in being, but he is Lordd
Heraald, James White
W was able to of the livelyy oracles, of which
w I consideer
spreaad his “persoonal views” on the the Sabbatth to be one. Acts vii, 38.”
Review andd Herald, Septtember 2, 1851
naturre of Christ to the flledgling
p. 1
Adveentists. Becauuse of his “ouutspoken
and forceful” personality,
p he is “Christ is the “everlassting Father” oof
allegged to have dominated
d an
nd influ- his peoplee, [Isa ix, 6,] the New w
encedd his wife’s understanding
u g on this Jerusalem the
t mother, [G Gal. iv, 26.] andd
issuee for most of their marriied life. the members of the churcch of Christ are
the childrenn. Revew and Herald,
H June 99,
How wever, in his final years,, James
1851 p. 7.
Whitte supposedlly began to soften
and, in fact it is i claimed, actually James Springer White
e This smaall sampling of comments
convverted to Trinnitarianism beefore he dealing withh the personhhood and Godd-
died in 1881. “Two testim monies from the
t Eternal head of the Father and Son during jusst
The first prrinted exam mple of Father, and one
F o from his Son Jesus the first yeear’s publicattion give evii-
Jamees’ position ono the subjeect surf- C
Christ, are worth
w more to us than ten dence that there
t was noo objection too
aced in 1846. Hiis objection was w the t
thousand from
m the so calledd “Christian these believvers in sayinng that Chrisst
reducction of the literal
l Father and the F
Fathers,” howeever near the apostolic
ap age was divine, that he wass the Creatorr,
they might have
h lived.” Review
R and
Son persons to merem “spiritu
ualized” H
Herald, May 5,5 1851, p. 4.
the everlastting Father ofo his peoplee,
roles of a singlee being calleed “the heir of all things, the God of thee
eternnal God.” [Daniel 7::13,14 quoted]] “His com- living. How wever, there is also evii-
iing [Christ’ss], in this text, is to the dence that they placed a distinctionn
[Thhere is] “a certaain class who deny the between thee Eternal Fathher, the Ancii-
‘Ancient of Days,’
D God thhe Father.”
onlyy Lord God and our Lorrd Jesus

“Prophets of God have represented ent of Dayss, God the Faather, Jehovahh
Chrrist. This classs can be no otther than
Jehovah as dwwelling abovee the cheru- the Great Lawgiver,
Almighty Godd
thosse who spiritu ualize away th he exist-
bim, in the heeaven of heavvens, and as and His Sonn.
encce of the Fatheer and the Son n, as two
looking down from betweenn them. This It appearrs that there were some aat
disttinct, literal, tangible
t perso
ons, also
i the positionn of the ‘Ancieent of days’
is that time (as some still do
d today) whoo
a literal Holy cityy and throne of o David
i the heavenlyy Sanctuary.” Review and
….T The way spirittualizers this way
w have
Herald, June 9,
9 1851 p. 8.
promoted a blurring of the Godheadd,
dispposed of or dennied the only Lord
L God or as Geralld Wheeler calls
c it in his
andd our Lord Jesuus Christ is firrst using book on Jaames White, “merging thee
“Jehovah is the Great Law-giver.
the old unscriptuural trinitarian n creed, members off the Trinity into an amorr-
He alone couuld change or abolish his
viz,, that Jesus Christ
C is the eternal phous statee.” It was thist objectionn
o law, and he
own h has said “I am
a the Lord
God d, though theyy have not onee passage
I change not.” Jesus did not intimate the that produceed the oft quuoted examplee
to support
s it, whille we have plaain scrip-
least change in the Sabbatth law, but of James White’s annti-Trinitariann
turee testimony in abundance th hat He is
said, “I have kept my Fatther’s com- stance in 18852:
the Son of the etternal God” Day D Star,
mandments.” Review and Herald,
H Aug-
Januuary 24, 1846
u 18, 1851 p.. 3.
ust “To assert that the sayings
s of thee
Somee formulationns of the Trin nity inc- Son and his
h apostles are the com m-
“I live inn the midst ofo the most mandmentts of the Fathher, is as widee
ludedd expressionss such as “thrree per- eextravagant fabble preaching of
o these last
sons in one beinng.” James ev vidently from the trruth as the olld trinitariann
days, where the doctrines and com-
did not
n believe thhat the Son of God m
mandments off men are subbstituted for absurdityy that Jesus Christ is thee
was the same being
b as his eternal t
those of Almigghty God, Jessus and the very and d Eternal God.”G James
Fatheer. Even moore examples of the A
Apostles.” Geeorge Smith lettter, Review White, Revview and Herrald August 55,
languuage used durring these earrly years a Herald, Juune 26, 1851 p.. 7
and 1852, pagee 52 ‘The Faiith of Jesus’
Theos vol. 1 | 3
The assumptioon is that since James
Whitte did not acccept the Triinitarian
notioon of Christ and
a the Fatheer being
the same
s “Eternall God” then he h must
also deny Christ’’s equality with w the
Fatheer and hence deny Christ’s divin-
ity. But, as we haveh seen, he had no
probllem with Chrrist being equ ual with
his Father;
F his obbjection was in i mak-
ing thhe Son equal to the Father.
A editor of thhe Review & Herald,
he reeprinted a porrtion of the Catholic
Docttrinal Catechiism in 1854 to dem-
onstrrate the papal claims overr Scrip-
tural authority andd acceptance by Pro-
testannts of the pappal traditions.
“Q. Have youu any other pro oofs that
theyy [Protestants]] are not guideed by the
“A. Yes; so many that wee cannot
admmit more than a mere specim men into
thiss small work. They reject muchm that While we still
s prominenntly feature “Our opponen nts some--
is clearly
c containned in Scriptu ure, and thhe Catholic Catechism
C in our evan- times claim
c thatt no belieff
proffess more thaat is nowhere discov- geelistic presenntations to suupport the
erabble in that Diviine Book.” biiblical truth thhat the little horn
h power should be held dogmatic-
d -
“Q. Give som me examples off both?” would “think to change times and ally wh
hich is nott explicitlyy
“A. They shoould, if the Scripture
werre their only rule,
r wash thee feet of
laws” in changging the sancctity of the stated in Scriptuure… Butt
Saabbath to the first day of thhe week as the Prootestant Churchess
onee another, accoording to the command
of Christ,
C in the 13th chap. of Stt. John; - “aa mark of her h ecclesiasttical auth-
orrity,” it is noo longer accceptable to have thhemselve es accept--
theyy should keep,, not the Sund day, but
the Saturday, according to th he com- also quote thee same Catecchism as a ed succh dogma as as the e
manndment, ‘Rem member thou keeep holy reeference in coondemning thhe doctrine Trinity for which
h there is
the Sabbath-day;’ for this co ommand- off the Trinity “for which there t is no no such precise authorityy
mennt has not, in Scripture,
S been changed biiblical supporrt.” But Jam mes White
or abrogated.”
a coontinued to include thhe Trinity in the Gospels.
G ”
“Q. Have yoou any other way of ammong the basiic tenets of thhe Papacy. Graham Greene, “The Assump--
provving that the Church has power p to
tion of Mary,” Lifee Magazine,,
insttitute festivals of
o precept? “The greattest fault we can find in
“A. Had she not such pow wer, she tthe Reformatioon is, the Refoormers stop- Oct. 30, 1950, p. 51
couuld not have doned that in which
w all p reformingg. Had they goone on, and
moddern religionists agree with her;
h - she o
onward, till theey had left the last vestige
couuld not havve substituteed the o Papacy behind,
of b such as natural
obsservance of Su unday, the firsst day of i
immortality, spprinkling, the trinity, and
the week, for thee observance of o Satur- S
Sunday keepinng, the church would now
dayy, the seventh h day, a cha ange for b free from her unscriptuural error.”
whiich there is no n Scriptural author- R
Review & Heraald, Feb 7, 18556
“Q. Do you obbserve other necessary
n Significantlly, Catholicc doctrine
trutths as taught by the Chu urch, not stiill claims ownership of o Trinity
cleaarly laid down in Scripture? dooctrine and credit
c for devveloping it
“A. The docttrine of the Trinity, a ass can be seen in the sidebarr.
docctrine the knoowledge of which w is
This lack of
o scriptural authority
a is
certtainly necessarry to salvation n, is not
expplicitly and evvidently laid down
d in a recurring theeme, and is the reason
Scrripture, in thee Protestant sense of thhat Catholiciism must appeal to
privvate interprettation.” Revview and traadition ratherr than Scriptuure alone in
Herrald, August 222, 1854 suupport of theirr doctrines.

4 | Battle Ovver Begotten
However, therre were stron
ng con- tthe Spirit; embbracing the faiith that thus Howeverr, others treatted a begottenn
victioons expressed by the earrly Ad- t Lord will teach us from time to time.
the Son to be essentially thhe same as a
ventiist leadership in opposition
n to the A in this we
And w take a posittion against created onee because both b have a
estabblishment of a “human creed” that t formation of
the o a creed.” ibiid. beginning. For some reason, noot
mighht be based onn “the traditions and Since the Trinity was based in clearly defifined by Scrripture, “nonn-
fablees of men.” During the organiz-
o crreed rather than scriptuure, James inception” became a prerequisitee
ationn of the Sevventh-day Adventist W
White was releentless in his opposition criterium foor meeting thee definition oof
churcch in 1861, there wass much too the notion off a “three-onee God.” divinity. Coonsequently, it was a conn-
discuussion about coming up with a tinual strugggle to dispell the assumpp-
creedd. James Whhite opposed what
w he “Jesus praayed that hiis disciples tion that bellievers in the Begotten Sonn
saw as an attem mpt to be likke other might be onee as he was one with his
m also deniedd his divinityy. James obb-
churcches. F
Father. This prrayer did not contemplate
c jected to succh accusationns.
one disciple with twelve heads, but
“But the Seeventh-day Ad dventists t
twelve disciplees, made one inn object and “We do not deny the t divinity oof
havve no human creed or diiscipline, e
effort in the cause of thheir master. Christ. Wee delight in givving full crediit
therrefore give rooom for God to teach N
Neither are the
t Father an nd the Son to all thoose strong expressions
e oof
throough the giftss of the Spirrit. They p
parts of the “three-one
“ Good”.” James Scripture which
w exalt the Son of Godd.
ardeently desire too cast aside thet trad- W
White, ‘Life Incidents’ page 343 We believve him to be b the divine
itionns and fables of men, and keepk the C
Chapter ‘The Law
L and the Goospel’ 1868 person adddressed by Jehovah in the
commmandments of o God and thee faith of words, ‘Leet us make man.’” Jamees
Jesuus Christ. Theeir weekly praactice in “With this view of the subject
s [that White, Review & Herald, June 6, 1871
keepping the Sabbbath is a standing Christ is the very Son of Good] there are
rebuuke on the chhurches and th he world, m
meaning and force to languuage which Five yeaars later he again
a affirmedd
andd on almost every
e point ofo Bible s
speaks of the Father
F and the Son. But to the SDA position
p on Christ’s divv-
trutth they stand d in direct op pposition s that Jesuss Christ ‘is th
say he very and inity—the Son
S of the livving God—thee
to thhe popular docctrines of the churches.
c e
eternal God,’ makes him hish own son, same confesssion that Peeter made, noot
Andd, besides thiis, there has been an a his own father,
and f and th
hat he came a created being,
b but born
b of Godd.
uncceasing testimoony among us, warning f
from f, and went to himself.”
However, because
b this time
t it was inn
us to
t stand out sepparate from thee world.” J
James White, Review and Herald,
H June
6 1871
6, the setting of an exchhange with a
Jammes White, Revview and Hera ald, Oct- Trinitarian Seventh-day Baptist minii-
obeer 1, 1861 ster, his reemarks are now offeredd
Those whoo believed what
w Jesus
One week latter John Loughbor-
O mself (that he proceeded
saaid about him as evidencee that he was w “comingg
oughh gave the reason why: froom and camme out from hish Father) around” to accept
a Trinitaarianism.

“The firstt step of ap
postasy is to
t set up a creed,
tellingg us what wew shall beelieve.
The seconnd is, to make
m that crreed a test of fellowshhip.
The thirdd is to try members
m byy that creedd.
The fourtth to denou unce as herretics
those who
w do no ot believe thhat creed.
And, fifthh, to comm mence perseecution agaainst such..
I pleadd that we arre not patteerning afteer the churcches
in any unnwarrantablle sense, inn the step proposed.”
p ”
J. N. Loughhborough, Review
R and Herald,
H Octoober 8, 1861

John Norton
N Lough

Jaames White agreed
a and theen said, haad no difficuulty with alsoo believing “The S. D. Adventists hoold the divinityy
thhat the Son of God wass therefore of Christ so
s nearly with the
t Trinitarianns
“The Bible iss our creed. WeW reject that we appprehend no triaal here.” Jamees
everything in thhe form of a human fuully divine, haaving within him all the
fuullness of the Godhead boddily. White, Revview & Heralld, October 122,
creeed. We take thee Bible and thee gifts of 1876
Theos vol. 1 | 5
While most cuurrent Adventiist Trin-
itariaans exhibit thhis isolated sttatement
as prroof that Jamees had “soften ned” his
posittion and waas now “viirtually”
Triniitarian, the context
c of his entire
articlle is one of identifying common
grounnd between Seventh-day
S Advent-
ists and Seventhh-day Baptissts. He
beginns by acknowledging thaat “The
princcipal differennce between the two
bodiees is the im mmortality qu uestion.”
But he could hoonestly say that t the
divinnity of Christ— —on the basis of His
true Sonship, cooming out frrom the
Fatheer, inheriting the very sam me div-
ine nature
n of Godd—was no different.
The crux of the issue (then an nd now)
hingees on the definition of diviinity.

nity: the Natture of God
The Bible expplains the naature of
God in terms of His
H eternal exxistence
and creative
c poweer.
“Thhe LORD is the everlasting God,
G the
Creeator of the ends of the earth
h” Isaiah
““Known unto God are all things
t from It is thee divine charracter, as exx-
“O LORD, are you not fromm ever-
t beginningg of the world”” Acts 15:18
the pressed in His law, thhat does noot
lastting” Habakkuuk 1:12
change. Jesuus Christ is “tthe same yestt-
“Hee is blessed from everlassting to God is eternal because He is immor-
erday, todayy, and forever” (Heb 13:8)
ever-lasting” Psalm 12:13 tal—He cannott die.
because Hiss character never changes.
“Frrom everlastin
ng to everlastiing Thou ““The King eteernal, immorrtal” But, even though his divine naturee
art God”
G Psalm 900:2 1Tim 1:17 does not chhange, his foorm did: from m
being “madde so much better
b than thee
“Thhis God is ouur God forev
ver and ””Who only has immortaliity” angels” (Heeb 1:4) “being in the form m
ever” Psalm 48:144 1Tim 6:16 of God” (Phhil 2:6) he waas then “madee
The realm
r of eternnity is defined
d as that ““Who is, andd was, and iss to come” a little low
wer than the angels” (Hebb
which exists beforre Earth’s creeation. R 1:18
Rev 1:9; Ps 8:6) “being foundd in fashion aas
a man” (P Phil 2:8). Jesus “emptiedd
“Frrom everlastin ng, from thee begin- ““that the puurpose mighht not be himself” “and
“ the Word
W becamee
ning, or ever thee earth was… …”Before c
changed” Danniel 6:8, 12, 16,
1 17
the mountains werew settled, beefore the flesh” “Godd manifest in the
t flesh.”
hillss” Prov 8:23, 25
2 Thhis was true for
f an earthlyy king. God His formm is not immuutable; but his
is also distingguished by His
H immut- character is. Why shouldd Christ com m-
“Thhe high and loofty One who inhabits ing out from m his Father be a threat too
eterrnity” Isa. 57:115 abbility—God does
d not changge.
his unchanggeable divinee character oor
“Yoour years go on through alll gener- ””I am the LORD,
L I change not” to his eternaal immortalityy?
atioons. In the beeginning you laid the M
Malachi 3:6 His “goinngs forth are from the days
founndations of the earth, and the of eternity” Micah 5:2 margin.
m He was
The Glory of
o Israel doess not lie or
heavens are the work of you ur hands. “brought foorth” “in the beginning oof
Theey will perish, but you rem
main” Ps. c
change his mind.
m 1 Sam 15:29; Num
23:19 his way, beffore his works of old” Provv
1022:24-26 8:22, 24.
“Beefore the mou untains were brought ””My covenannt will I not break, nor James White
W never disputed thee
fortth, or ever thhou hadst formmed the a
alter the thinng that is gonee out of my divinity of Christ. He explained
e this
eartth and the worlld” Ps. 90:2 l
lips” Ps. 89:334 more fully the
t following year:

6 | Battle Ovver Begotten
Here we see that Jamees, once againn
within the last
l four yeaars of his lifee,
did not queestion the trutth of Christ’s
equality witth God the Father;
F it was
the Trinitarian notion off making him m
equal to his Father (destroying theiir
separate perrsonalities) thhat he fiercelyy
opposed. Inn this he waas in full acc-
cordance with
w Ellen. The
T only timee
she ever usedu the exppression “coo-
equal” was in the settingg of being thee
Son of Godd, an emphasiis that is difff-
icult to ignoore:
“It was to save the traansgressor from
ruin that he
h who was co-equal with h
God, offerred up his liffe on Calvaryy.
‘God so looved the worldd, that he gave
his only beegotten Son, thatt whosoeveer
believeth inn him should not perish, buut
have everllasting life.’ ” Review &
Herald Junne 28, 1892
James White
W rejectted both exx-
tremes of a physical onneness amongg
the Godheaad and an innferior humann
Christ, but especially physical
p onee-
ness. He never
n “softeened” in his
“Paul affirms of the Son of God that “True, Chrrist prayed to a superior. opposition to
t the conceppt of a threee-
he was
w in the form m of God, and d that he This is duringg the time of his humili-
T headed deityy.
wass equal with God.
G “Who beinng in the a
ation, when enfeebled
e by the
t seed of “When it can
c be proved that the objecct
formm of God thougght it not robbery to be A
Abraham. Theere was no such depend- of the prayyer of the Sonn of God wass,
equual with God.”” Phil. 2:6. Th he reason e
ence before hee humbled himmself that he that the diisciples mightt be one bodyy
whyy it is not robbbery for the Son to be m
might reach thhe feeble sinneer in all his with twelvee heads, then it can be shownn
equual with the Faather is the fact that he w
weakness and shame. Neitheer will there that we haave a Deity which
w has one
is equal. If the Soon is not equal with the b when Chriist shall be seeated at the
be body and three
t heads.” James Whitee,
Fathher, then it iss robbery for him to r
right hand of power
p in Heaveen.” Review andd Herald, Marcch 11, 1880
rannk himself with the Fatherr. James
Whhite, Review annd Herald November “The quesstion of the states of the And, finnally, in thee year of his
29, 1877, ‘Christ Equal
E with God’ ddead is not a practical
p subjeect. And yet death he once
o again confessed
c thee
w discuss it inn order to warnn the people
we equality of Christ.
This unmistakkable confession of a
against spirituualism. The question
q of
t trinity and
the d the unity is not practi- “In his exaltation, before he hum m-
equallity of the Soon with the Father
F is bled himseelf to the workk of redeemingg
cal, and yet we w call attentiion to it to
wed in the same article byb com- g
guard the peoople against th hat terrible lost sinnerss, Christ thougght it not robb-
mentting on h
heresy that takes
t from our
o all-con- bery to be equal with God,
G because inn
quering Redeeemer his divin ne power.” the work of
o creation andd the institutionn
“The inexplicaable Trinity thaat makes of law to govern
g createdd intelligencess,
the Godhead threee in one and d one in “We notice the steps leeading from he was equ ual with the Father.”
F James
threee, is bad ennough; but th hat ultra Christ’s posiition with the
C t Father White, Revview and Herrald January 44,
Uniitarianism thatt makes Christt inferior b
before the woorlds were madde…he was 1881 ‘The Mind
M of Christt’
to thhe Father is woorse.” e
equal with God… Redempption is then
“The great miistake of the Unitarian
U The twoo ways in whhich they aree
completed, annd again the Son
S is equal
is inn taking Chrisst when enfeebbled with equal is “in the work of creation” andd
w the Fatheer.” James White, Re-view
our nature as thee standard of what he a Herald Noovember 29, 18877
and the “instituttion of law.” Jesus said too
wass with the Fathher before the creation the Jews whho objected to t his healingg
t world, and what he will be when
of the “We belieeve that Chrrist was a on the Sabbbath, “My Father workks
all divine, seatedd beside the Father on divine being, not
d n merely in hish mission, hitherto, annd I work. Therefore
T thee
his eternal throne..” b in his perrson also;” Jaames White,
but Jews soughht the more to kill him m,
Review and Heerald, June 27,, 1878
because he not only haad broken thee
Theos vol. 1 | 7
Sabbath, but said also that God was This is an unfair characterization. The Catholic teaching of the be-
his Father, making himself equal with Those who reject the Trinitarian doc- gotten Son of God must, however, be
God.” John 5:17, 18. This is why trines of men do not necessarily reject made to harmonize with the dictates
Jesus also said, “I can of mine own the eternity of the Son nor the exist- of the Trinity tradition which requires
self do nothing.” “I do nothing of ence of the Holy Spirit. A divine Son three co-equal, co-eternal persons. In
myself” John 8:28. The Son and Fath- (Phi. 2:6; Col. 1:15; 2:9; John 5:23; order to achieve this, they postulate an
er work together. “We have an advo- John 14:9) who comes from (John eternal birth process that began “from
cate with the Father” 1 John 2:1. Both 7:29; 8:42; 16:27, 28) an Eternal all eternity” and will continue for all
of them are on our side. “The Father Father (1Tim 1:17) must inherently eternity. There is no scripture to sup-
Himself loves you” John 16:27. possess the same eternal immortality port such a mystical notion but the
He qualifies this equality as per- (John 5:26) and the same eternal fabricated concept resolves, at least in
taining to sharing “in the work of Spirit (Heb 9:14). This is the teaching their minds, the conflict between the
creation and the institution of law.” of scripture. sequential implications of a father-son
In the same 1881article, James again But Harker’s attempt to discredit relationship and the eternal parity
expressed his life-long conviction that belief in the Son begotten in eternity imposed by Trinitarian theory.
the Son of God was indeed born and because a distorted form (eternally Catholic and Biblical concepts of
begotten of God: begotten) is accepted by Catholicism the divinely begotten Son of God:
is surprising. At the same time he 1. Eternally Generated
“The Father was greater than the Son in
that he was first. The Son was equal intends to preserve belief in the
with the Father in that he had received Trinity which is not only accepted by SON
all things from the Father.” the Roman Church but claimed as the
foundation of all their doctrines.
It seems odd that this statement is 2. Generated in Eternity

so rarely quoted by those who would FATHER
like to suggest that James White had a
change of heart in his final years, that SON

he discarded his belief in a begotten
Son of God and in his final days came
to accept the Trinity, forsaking his Writing in the Rosary Crusade “The World Council of
earlier “Semi-Arian” position. This Clarion, Abbot Vonier appeals to Churches is a fellowship of
was clearly not the case. Psalm “109” in support of the divine churches which confess the
Jesus also expressed “greater” in birth of God’s Son. The scripture he Lord Jesus Christ as God and
the sense of “older” when he said, “he quotes is actually from the 110th Saviour according to the
that is greatest among you, let him be Psalm which begins, “The LORD said Scriptures and therefore seek
as the younger” Luke 22:26. This was unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right
perfectly consistent with his Father to fulfill together their common
hand.” But the focus of his comments
being greater or older than the Son. comes in verse 3: “Thy people shall
calling to the glory of one God,
But truth lies close to the track of be willing (beginning, margin) in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.”
error. One current Roman Catholic day of thy power …from the womb of So much in Common, (co-authored by the
Catechism describes the “Blessed the morning: thou hast the dew of thy Seventh-day Adventist Church and the
Trinity” to include the begotten Son. youth.” He quotes a different trans- World Council of Churches), p. 33,1968

“It is the Father who generates, the Son lation which renders it: “With Thee is
who is begotten, and the Holy Spirit the principality in the day of Thy
strength: the brightness of the saints: “While no single scriptural
who proceeds.” St. Paul’s Catachism of
the Roman Catholic Church, Strathfield, from the womb before the daystar I passage states formally the
New South Wales, 1998, Pocket Edit- begot Thee.” From this he concludes: doctrine of the Trinity, it is
ion, Complete and Unabridged assumed as a fact by Bible
“Birth is the only event in Christ’s
Dr. Barry Harker, writing in the career of which it can be said that it took writers and mentioned several
ALMA Torch of Nov. 2008 notes this place twice, once in eternity, and once times. Only by faith can we
is “virtually indistinguishable from in time…Christ is born in eternity from accept the existence of the
ideas being promoted in our midst the Father, and in time from Mary…of Trinity.”
today by those who reject the eternity Mary a Child was born who is the Son
of God, born of God from all eternity.” Adventist Review, Vol. 158, No. 31,
of the Son and the Holy Spirit.” Special Edition July 30, 1981, p. 4.
December 2002, No. 24

8 | Battle Over Begotten
Much derision is made about a those And Daaniel, the prophhet, teaches the
oof our compaany that havee joined the same doctrrine. ‘I saw in the night visii-
Shakers. I saay it is a sham me to them ons: and behold,
b one likke the Son oof
first, to have preached so clearly and man came with the clouuds of heavenn,
distinctly the speedy coming of our and came to t the Ancientt of days, (dess-
Lord Jesus Chhrist personallly to gather cribed in the ninth veerse) and theyy
h saints—and then to go and
his a join the brought him m near before him; and there
Shakers in thheir faith, thatt he (Jesus) was given himh dominion and glory, andd
came spirituallly in their Mother,
M Ann a kingdom,, never to be destroyed.’ Dann.
L more thann seventy yearrs ago. This,
Lee, 7:13,14. Noow we all adm mit this person n-
without doubt in my mind, is owing to age was Jeesus Christ; forf no being onn
their previouss teaching and d belief in a earth or inn heaven, hass ever had the
doctrine calledd the trinity. promise off an everlastingg kingdom buut
him. And does
d not the Ancient
A of dayys
How can you y find faultt with their give it to him? Would it not be absurd d
ffaith while yoou are teachinng the very to say thatt he gave it to himself? How w
essence of thaat never—no never
n to be then can it be said (or prooved) as it is byy
understood, d
doctrine? For their com- some, that the Son is the t Ancient oof
f and faith, and of coursee your own,
fort days; - thiss passage, and the one in fifthh
Joseph Battes 1792-1
1872 y
you say “Chrrist is God, and a God is Revelationss, distinctly prrove God and d
love.” As youu have given no explan- his Son to be two persoons in heaven n.
“My parents were
w memberss of long a
ation, we take it to come froom you as a Jesus sayss, ‘I proceeded forth and d
stannding in the Congregational
C l church, l
literal exposittion of the word;…
w We came from m God: neith her came I oof
withh all of their converted
c child
dren thus b
believe that Peter
P and his master set- myself, but he sent me.’’ John 8:42. ‘I
far, and anxiouslyy hoped that wew would t
tled this questtion beyond coontroversy, come forth h from the Faather, and am m
alsoo unite with theem. But they embraced
e M
Matt. 16:13-199; [where Peteer confessed come into the world; aggain, I leave the
somme points in their faith which h I could t
that Jesus wass “the Christ, the Son of world and gog to the Fatheer.’
not understand. I will name tw wo only: t living Godd.”] and I cannnot see why
It seems that he is arrguing againsst
theiir mode of bapptism, and doctrine of D
Daniel and Johhn has not fullyy confirmed
the trinity. My faather, who had d been a t
that Christ is the Son, and d, not God Unitarianism m as much as a the Trinityy.
deacon of long standing witth them, t Father. How
the H could Danniel explain Both take extreme possitions in att-
laboored to convinnce me that th hey were h vision of the
his t 7th chapterr, if “Christ tempting too resolve thee oneness oof
righht in points of doctrine. … Re- w God.” Heere he sees onne “like the
was God while accommodatin
a ng at least thee
specting the trin nity, I concludded that S (and it cannnot be provedd that it was
Son Father and Son. Unitarrianism elimii-
it was
w an impoossibility for me to a other persoon) of man, annd there was
any nates the peersons and seettles for perr-
beliieve that the Lord
L Jesus Chhrist, the g
given him Dom minion, and Glory,
G and a sonalities; Trinitarianism
T m likewise ell-
Son n of the Faather, was also a the k
kingdom;” by the ancient off days. Then iminates thhe true Fathher-Son relaa-
Almmighty God, the Father, one o and J
John describess one seated on o a throne tionship andd settles for just titles. Buut
the same being. I said to my faather, “If w
with a book in i his right haand, and he
Bates could accept neitheer.
youu can convince me that we arre one in d
distinctly w Jesus come up to the
thiss sense, that yoou are my fath
her, and I t
throne and take the book outt of the hand Like Jam mes White, Joseph Bates
youur son; and alsoo that I am youur father, o him that sat
of s thereon. NowN if it is rejected the spiritualization of thee
andd you my son, then I can beelieve in p
possible to maake these two entirely
e diff- distinctly seeparate personns of the Godd-
the trinity.” Thhe Autobiogra aphy Of e
erent transactioons appear in one person, head. Both Unitarians
U annd Trinitarians
Eldder Joseph Batees, 1868, page 204 t
then I could believe thatt God [the must rejectt the literall Sonship oof
Father] died and
a was buriedd instead of Christ and the literal fatherhood
f oof
Bates addresseed the paradox of the J
Jesus, and thatt Paul was misstaken when God becausse they confflict with thee
Triniity’s strugglle to main ntain a h said, “Now
he w the God off peace that definitions which each doctrine im m-
brought again from the deaad out Lord poses. He also
a complainned about thee
“singgleness” of God by assertin ng there
Jesus that greaat shepherd off the sheep”
is onnly one Beinng (a situatio on with efforts of “spiritualizers”” to deny thee
& and that Jesus also didd not mean
confuusing similaarities to Un nitarian- w
what he said when he asserrted that he literal seconnd coming off Jesus and thee
ism),, and a “threeeness” of a Trrinity by c
came from Good, and was gooing to God, kingdom of heaven. Being B the seaa
asserrting there are three persons &
&c.&c,; and much
m more, if necessary,
n to captain thatt he was, Batees graphicallyy
(distuurbingly simiilar to Tritheiism). In p
prove the uttter absurdity of such a described thhe dangers off such a philoo-
orderr to avoid falling into the error of f
faith.” Past And
A Present Experience, sophy.
polyttheism, the Trinity
T doctrin
ne must p
page 187 “I have been thus particular inn
mainntain that theere is only one God quoting thee Scriptures, inn answer to the
Beingg. In a letter to William Miller
M in Baates used the same arguument in a questions proposed, too endeavor iif
18488, Bates wrotee: paamphlet which he printed in
i 1846: possible too dispel somee of the thickk
Theos vol. 1 | 9
darkness and mist of Shakerism, Quak- Rise and Progress of Seventh-day Ad- the Father, for he proceeded from the
erism, Swedenborgianism, and all the ventists. Ellen White also wrote fre- Father.”
Spiritualisms that now seem to be quently of her confidence in him: In a letter written in 1890 to a
settling down all over the moral world, “layman in Fresno” who criticized
and shutting out even the very light “Elder Loughborough has stood Loughborough, she reproves this un-
from the horizon. To my mind this firmly for the testimonies... The
named person for holding “personal
spiritualizing system, when God's word influence of Elder Loughborough is
valuable in our churches. Just such a theories” that are not true. Apparently
admits of a literal interpretation, and—
according to rule —the literal first; is, to man is needed, one who has stood they dealt with the nature of Christ
use a sailor phrase, like a ship groping unwaveringly for the light that God because she states,
her way into Boston Bay in the night, has given to His people, while many “Christ did not seek to be thought
in a thick snow with the moon at full. have been changing their attitude toward great, and yet He was the Majesty of
Nothing could be more deceptive to the this work of God.--Letter 20 pp. 2-4 to heaven, equal in dignity and glory
mariner; the flying clouds at one mo- O. A. Olsen, Oct. 7, 1890 in 2MR p. 55 with the infinite God. He was God
ment light up the firmament by the manifested in the flesh.” “The divine
“Could Elder Loughborough use his
thinness of its vapor, (encouraging the nature in the person of Christ was not
talent in Michigan for a time, and in
mariner to believe that he shall now see transformed in human nature and the
other States, his firm position on the
the light house) the next moment it human nature of the Son of man was not
testimonies would revive the faith of
grows darker, and so it continues to changed into the divine nature, but they
those who have been misled.” Letter
deceive them, until of a sudden the were mysteriously blended in the Sav-
46 to O. A. Olsen, May 8, 1890 in 4MR
breakers are roaring all around them— iour of men. He was not the Father but
p. 260
the ship is dashed upon the rocks—one in Him dwelt all the fullness of the
general cry goes aloft for mercy! and all “While Elders Waggoner and Lough- Godhead bodily,..”
hope is forever gone—ship and mariners borough are here I let them do the “You feel at perfect liberty to
strewed all over the beach! Good God! work, and I keep all my strength for one complain of those whom God has
help us to steer clear of these spiritual purpose—to write.” Letter 59, To Sister ordained to work for the upbuilding of
interpretations of Thy word, where it is Lucinda, April 8, 1876 in 5MR p. 431. His cause. If their ideas conflict with
made so clear that the second coming your ideas, you criticize and condemn
and kingdom of Christ will be as literal In her dairy On Sabbath March 19, them; but you have no right to do this.”
and real, as the events that transpired at 1859, she made this entry:
the first Advent, now recorded in hist- Then she identifies who he was
“Attended meeting in the forenoon. criticizing.
Brother Loughborough preached with
Whether a spiritual interpretation great liberty upon the sleep of the dead “God is not all pleased with your
and the inheritance of the saints.” Ms speeches against Elder Loughbor-
of the second coming, or a spiritual
5, 1859, p. 20 in 6MR p. 290. ough.” Letter 8a, 1890.
interpretation of the Son of God,
Bates found no satisfaction in such This was the subject of a book Loughborough believed and taught
ideas. He preferred to sink his anchor Loughborough wrote just four years that Christ was begotten of God, that
into the solid Rock of God’s word. earlier. In 1855 he published An he “proceeded and came forth from
Examination of the Scripture Testi- Him,” that he was a separate and
John Norton Loughborough mony Concerning Man’s Present distinct person from the Father and
1832-1924 Condition and his Future Reward or not to be confused with Him. Ellen
Punishment. On page 13 he com- defended John Norton.
John Loughborough joined the ments on 1 Timothy 6:15,16 that Why? Because she herself believed
Seventh-day Adventists in 1852 at age Christ would show or manifest his and taught that Jesus in his pre-
20 after hearing a sermon by J. N. An- Father, “the blessed and only Poten- incarnate condition was the divinely
drews. Ellen White called him to the tate,” “Who only hath immortality,” begotten Son of God, born from his
ministry that same year. He traveled “Whom no man hath seen.” Father in “the days of eternity.” Theos
extensively with the Whites during the will examine all her comments in Part
1850s and personally observed over “God is the great source of life and 2 of this Series. But here we will
40 of Ellen’s visions. He worked with immortality. If any being ever has re-
review the biblical evidence.
Joseph Bates in Ohio, D. T. Bourdeau ceived or shall receive immortality, they
must receive it from Him; and it is in
in California and even spent seven Life for the Begotten Son
His power to give or withhold it.”
years in Great Britain. In 1890 Ellen “But, say you, Christ is immortal. Besides 1Tim 6:16 which identi-
White recommended him to the "He ever liveth to make intercession for fies the Father as the only one who
General Conference as a valuable his- us." If you claim that he was immortal has immortality, the following texts
torical resource. The result was a book prior to his mission on earth, he must reveal Him as the source of all life,
on denominational history called The have received that immortality from even for the Son.

10 | Battle Over Begotten
John 5:26 He has life in himself Matt 4:4 He is the Word “that
and He has given this everlasting life proceedeth from the mouth of God”
to His Son that he might have it in Heb 1:5 My Son, this day I have
himself. begotten you (Ps 2:7; Acts 13:33).
1John 5:11 God has given us Prov 8:24-30 The LORD posses-
eternal life, and this life is in His Son. sed me, the beginning of His way,
John 5:21 the Father raises up the before His work of old, from ever-
dead and quickens (gives life to) lasting, from the beginning, or ever
them. the world was… I was brought forth
Eph 2:4-6 God the Father has before the mountains, before the hills
The Word
“quickened” us (given us life) togeth- was I brought forth. Deut 18:18 I [Jehovah] will put my
er with Christ Jesus. Micah 5:2 Whose going forth is words in his mouth; and he shall speak.
“…through the beloved Son, the from the days of eternity (margin).
Prov 30:4 Who has established the John 7:16 My doctrine is not mine, but
Father’s life flows out to all; through the
earth? What is his name, and what is his who sent me.
Son it returns, in praise and joyous
service, a tide of love, to the great his Son’s name? John 3:34 He whom God has sent
Source of all…the great Giver.” Desire Gal 4:4 God sent forth His Son. speaks the words of God.
of Ages p. 21 (1898) 1John 4:9 God sent His only be-
John 14:10 The words that I speak unto
“The Ancient of Days is God the Father gotten Son into the world you I speak not of myself, but the Father
...It is He, the source of all being, and Gal 4:6 God has sent forth the that dwells in me.
the fountain of all law, that is to preside Spirit of His Son into our hearts.
in the judgment.” GC p. 479 (1911) 1John 1:3 Our fellowship is with John 17:8 I have given unto them the
the Father and with His Son Jesus words that you have given me.
1Cor 8:6 To us there is but one
God, the Father. Christ. Heb 1:2 God has in these last days
Eph 4:4-6 One God and Father of The message of Scripture is that spoken unto us by His Son.
all who is above all, and through all, the Son of God was born in eternity, Ps 33:6 By the Word of the LORD were
and in you all. coming out of God, his Father, inher- the heavens made; and all the host of
John 17:3 Father…the only true God. iting His life, His authority, His power them by the breath of His mouth.
1John 5:20 the Son of God is come and His name—His character. John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word,
and has given us understanding that Ellen White made a clear distinc- and the Word was with God, and the
we might know…the true God. tion between created and begotten. To Word was God.
2Cor 1:3,4 Blessed be God, even her, a begotten Son, coming from and
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. proceeding forth out of the Father, The literal Greek reading is: kai
2John 1:3 God the Father, and the logically explains the oneness and theos hen ho logos (and God was the
Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father. equality. Word).
Mark 12:1-8 One Son, His well- The previous phrase, pros ton
“ ‘God so loved the world, that he theon, is literally “with the God.”
beloved, the heir.
gave his only-begotten Son,’—not a The difference is the definite article,
1John 5:5 He who overcomes the son by creation, as were the angels, nor
world is he who believes that Jesus is distinguishing between identity and
a son by adoption, as is the forgiven
the Son of God. sinner, but a Son begotten in the ex-
John 3:18 He is the only begotten press image of the Father’s person, The Word, God’s Son, was with
Son of God. and in all the brightness of his majesty the Father, identifying the Father as
John 1:14 the only begotten of the and glory, one equal with God in auth- the God; and God was the Word, the
Father. ority, dignity, and divine perfection. Word has the same God quality, the
1John 5:1 Every one that loves In him dwelt all the fullness of the same divine nature, the same theos,
Him that begat [God the Father] loves Godhead bodily.” Signs of the Times, the same “Godness” as his Father.
May 30, 1895 Theos was the Word, and obvi-
him also that is begotten [the Son of
God]. Scripture also provides a number ously, so was God the Father—both
John 8:42 the Son “proceeded of models for the begotten Son. He is are divine
forth” from his Father. the living Word, the Branch off the God speaks His Word.
John 16:27 he “came out from Root, the Arm of God, the Stone cut The Word is God’s word.
God” out of the Mountain, and the image of The Word come out from God.
verse 28 he “came forth from the God. The Word proceeds from God.

Theos vol. 1 | 11
The Arm of the Lord
Isa 53:1 To whom is the arm of the
Lord revealed?
The Branch John 12:37 Though he had done so
Zech 3:8 I will bring forth my servant many miracles yet they believed not
the BRANCH. The Stone Verse 38: That the saying of Esaias the
Zech 3:9 Behold the Stone which I have prophet might be fulfilled, he spake,
The Branch is used in Scripture to laid before Joshua the high priest. Lord, who hath believed our report and
denote royal descent. The king is the to whom hath the arm of the Lord been
root, the princes are the branches. Where does the Stone come from?
Eze 17:6 a vine whose branches turned Zech 4:7 O great Mountain before
Zerubbabel the governor…and he shall John identified Jesus as the Arm of
toward him, and the roots thereof were the Lord. So did David.
under him. Verse 12: the king and the bring forth a Headstone.
princes thereof. Joshua the high priest (Christ), and Psalm 44:1-3 We have heard with our
Zerubbabel the governor (his Father) ears, O God, how thou didst drive out
Zech 6:12 the man whose name is the the heathen with Thy Hand…Thy right
BRANCH shall grow up out of his are symbolized by the Stone (Christ)
Hand, and Thine Arm.
place and he shall build the temple of and the great Mountain (his Father).
the LORD and be a priest upon His Isa 63:5 Mine own Arm brought salva-
throne. Isa 28:16 the Lord God lays in Zion a tion unto Me.
Stone, a precious corner(stone).
Isa 11:1,2 a Branch shall grow out of his 1Pet 2:4 a living Stone, head of the Psalm 98:1 Sing unto the LORD… His
[Jesse’s] roots; and the Spirit of the corner. right Hand, and His holy Arm, hath
LORD shall rest upon him. Dan 2:45 the Stone was cut out of the gotten Him the victory.
Isa 4:2 He is the Branch of the LORD Mountain without hands.
Ex 31:18 the divine Word was written Jer 32:17 LORD God…Thou has made
Jer 23:5,6;33:14 the Branch of right-
with the finger of God on tables of stone the heavens and the earth by thy great
Ex 3:1 from the Mountain of God power and stretched out Arm
Rom 11:16 if the Root be holy, so are Eze 28:12 the holy Mountain of God has Isa 48:13 Mine Hand also has laid the
the branches. stones of fire (filled with His Spirit) foundation of the earth, and my right
Our Father is holy; He is the Root. Hand has spanned the heavens
Just like branches of the BRANCH, so
John 17:11 Holy Father, Jesus prayed we are also lively stones cut from the Deut 33:27 The eternal God is thy
Matt 6:9 Our Father which art in Living Stone 1Pet 2:5 refuge and underneath are the ever-
heaven, hallowed be Thy name lasting Arms.
Isa 51:1 the Rock you are hewn from
Jesus, the Branch, is also holy. Deut 32:18 of the Rock that begat you
Jesus is God’s glorious Arm, His right
2Sam 22:47 and the God of the Rock.
Mark 1:24 Jesus, the Holy one of God 1Cor 3:23 You are of Christ
Hand. He is not only our Saviour, but
and Christ is of God God’s Saviour as well. He has brought
We are branches of Jesus, the true salvation to the Father; he has gotten
vine. The Rock is just as old as the Moun- Him the victory. He is also the Crea-
John 15:1 His Father is the Gardener tain. The Rock has the same sub- tor of all by His Father’s power.
who planted the true vine; we bear fruit stance, the same nature, the same
character, it’s just as hard, just as Jesus is not only the Lamb of God,
as branches off the BRANCH, if we
abide in the Vine, Jesus. enduring as the Mountain because it he is the holy Arm of God.
came out of the Mountain. The Rock But the best model of all is the image
Rom 11:17 we partake of the Root and
fatness of the olive tree
and the Mountain are the same; they of God in man.
are one in quality, character, nature.

12 | Battle Over Begotten
Adam was at first alone. Jesus “came forth from the Father”
God wanted Adam to experience John 16:28. “They have known surely
what it was like to be incomplete. And that I came out from Thee” John 17:8.
as God had named all things in heaven Jesus is both human (life blood)
(Isa 40:26), he appointed Adam the and spirit (cleansing water).
task of naming everything on earth.
Zech 13:1 In that day there shall be
At the end of each day of creation,
a fountain opened to the house of
God said, “It is good.” But then He
David and to the inhabitants of Jeru-
made Adam in His own image and
salem for sin (his sinless life covers
God said, “It is not good—that man
The Image of God our sins) and for uncleanness (his
should be alone” Gen 2:18.
The Son is the image of his Father. Spirit washes us).
Adam was alone. And it was not
Col 1:15 Christ is the image of the in- Eve was the same substance as
good. So woman came forth “out of
visible God Adam. They were both equal in nat-
man” as part of his very own body.
2Cor 4:4 Christ is the image of God ure. She was just as human as he was.
Heb 1:3 the express image (Greek: 1Cor 11:12 the woman is made from the But Eve was begotten in a different
charakter, impress, stamp) of His (God man (margin). manner than all other human births.
the Father’s) person Gen 2:21,22 And the LORD God took So, too, the Son of God was begot-
one of Adam’s ribs and closed up the ten of his Father. They both had the
We can better understand God’s divinity flesh…and made (Hebrew: builded) a
by looking at man’s creation. same divine substance, both equal in
woman and brought her unto the man.
nature. Christ was just as divine as his
Rom 1:20 The invisible things of him Gen 2:23,24 Adam said, This is now Father.
from the creation of the world are bone of my bone and flesh of my But the Son was begotten in a diff-
clearly seen being understood by the flesh…She shall be called woman be-
erent manner in eternity than he was
things that are made, even his eternal cause she was taken out of man… and
they shall be one flesh. later born of Mary in time.
power and Godhead (divinity). Adam and Eve were essentially the
Gen 1:26 God said, Let us make man in Adam and Eve were two unique same age; both appeared on day six.
our own image. human beings. There has never been Father and Son are essentially of the
another two like them—both one of a same age; both are from eternity.
The Godhead agreed to make man just kind. We can understand something of
like themselves, to demonstrate to the Adam: the only human not begot- the relationship between the Father
universe their own relationship. ten. Eve: the only human begotten and the Son by studying the creation
Gen 1:27 So God made man in his own from another human’s side. She was of Adam and Eve.
image, in the image of God created he not created from nothing but was As Adam begat Eve, the Father
him. taken out of Adam’s side. She existed begat Christ, and Christ begets us,
Eph 3:9 God created all things by Jesus in Adam, a part of him, before she giving us His spirit, as Adam gave his
Christ. was taken out. rib. We are part of Christ, we “par-
Heb 1:2 by whom also he made the take” of his divine nature. We are
worlds. “Eve was created from a rib taken from
the side of Adam… to stand by his side born again; Christ is in us; we have
John 1:3 All things were made by him
as an equal, to be loved and protected his character.
The Father said to Jesus, “Let us make by him. A part of man, bone of his bone, As Christ is the Second Adam,
man.” Then Jesus made man “in his and flesh of his flesh, she was his so also Eve is also the Second Christ.
own image.” second self, showing the close union As Adam and Eve were one flesh,
and the affectionate attachment that so also the Father and Son are one
Gen 1:27 He created male and female should exist in this relation.” Patriarchs spirit. Ellen White recommended this
Matt 19:4 at the beginning he made and Prophets p. 46
them male and female creed for our church.
1Tim 2:13 Adam was first formed, then So also the Word is the unique Son “Christ’s prayer to His Father, con-
Eve of God begotten of the Father, taken tained in the seventeenth chapter of
Eph 5:23 husband is head of the wife from His bosom, His side, to be the John, is to be our church creed.” Signs
1Cor 11:3 as the head of Christ is God. Father’s Second Self. of the Times May 2, 1900
Gen 5:1 In the day that God created Adam’s side was opened and Eve
man, he made him in His likeness “This is life eternal that they might
came out from him. Jesus was pierced know Thee the only true God, and Jesus
Gen 9:6 in the image of God he made
in His side on the cross “and forthwith Christ…I came out from Thee…Thou
James 3:9 Men have been made in the came there out blood and water” John Father art in Me, and I in Thee…they
likeness of God 19:34 may be one as we are one” John 17

Theos vol. 1 | 13
D.M. Canright In the 1914 edition of his book, James. M. Stephenson
Dudley Canright wrote frequently Canright was still describing the Ad- Stephenson was the author of the
in defense of the begotten Son within ventists as believing in the literal be- previous quotation taken from a book
the pages of the Review and Herald. It gotten Son of God. he authored called “The Atonement”
is a fact that he eventually left the “In doctrine they differ radically and also published in a series of arti-
Seventh-day Adventist Church to join from evangelical churches. The main cles which appeared in early issues of
the Trinitarian Baptists and wrote a points are these as taught in all their the Review and herald. He begins:
book called “Seventh-day Adventism books: They hold to the materiality of “The question now to be considered,
Renounced” which went through 14 all things; belief in the sonship of then, is not whether the only begotten
editions. Significantly, it was not his Christ…” Son of God was Divine, immortal, or
original (and quite outspoken) belief This is confirmed by an experience the most dignified and exalted being, the
in the begotten Son that led to his reported by a Brother Johnson and Father only excepted, in the entire
apostasy. In 1867 he was quite anti- printed in an 1867 Review issue. He Universe; all this has been proved, and
trinitarian. After quoting John 1:1, was on a train ride home from a but few will call it in question; but
John 1:18 and John 3:16 he wrote: whether this august Personage is self-
conference with another sister. They
existent and eternal, in its absolute, or
“According to this, Jesus Christ is were joined by two Congregational unlimited sense; or whether in his
begotten of God in a sense that no other preachers who, on learning that they highest nature, and character, he had an
being is; else he could not be his only were Seventh-day Adventists, asked if origin, and consequently beginning of
begotten Son. Angels are called sons of they believed in Christ’s divinity. days.” The Atonement p. 128; Review
God, and so are righteous men; but “I now thought it was my turn to & Herald Nov. 14, 1854.
Christ is his Son in a higher sense, in a join in; so I replied, Why, yes sir. We
closer relation, than either of these.” The prevailing belief in the be-
believe that Christ is all divine; that
gotten Son understood that his origin,
“God made men and angels out of in him dwelt ‘the fullness of the God-
head bodily;’ that he is ‘the brightness proceeding from the Father, would
materials already created. He is the
author of their existence, their Creator, of the Father’s glory, the express image endow him with innate divinity and
hence their Father. But Jesus Christ was of his person, up holding all things by immortality. This was not a problem
begotten of the Father's own sub- the word of his power,’ &c., &c.” for the Adventists. But the use of the
stance. He was not created out of mat- Review & Herald June 25, 1867. designations “Father” and “Son” was
erial as the angels and other creatures certainly problematic for Trinitarians.
were. He is truly and emphatically the James White had a similar encounter
with a Christian missionary three “The idea of Father and Son sup-
‘Son of God,’ the same as I am the son poses priority of the existence of the
of my father.” years later.
one, and the subsequent existence of
“Divinity alone is worthy of wor- “This missionary seemed very liberal in the other. To say that the Son is as old
ship, and to worship anything else his feelings toward all Christians. But as his Father, is a palpable contra-
would be idolatry. Hence Paul places after catechizing us upon the trinity, and diction of terms. It is a natural imposs-
Christ far above the angels, and makes a finding that we were not sound upon the ibility for the Father to be as young as
striking contrast between them. He asks, subject of his triune God, he became the Son, or the Son to be as old as the
‘For unto which of the angels said he at earnest in denouncing unitarianism, Father. If it be said that this term is only
any time, Thou art my Son, this day which takes from Christ his divinity, used in an accommodated sense, it still
have I begotten thee?’ The implied ans- and leaves him but a man. Here, as far remains to be accounted for, why the
wer is, that he was ‘made so much better as our views were concerned, he was Father should use as the uniform title
than the angels.’” combating a man of straw. We do not of the highest, and most endearing
deny the divinity of Christ.” James relation between himself and our
“But while the Son is so plainly White, Review & Herald June 6, 1871.
placed far above all created beings, he is Lord, a term which, in its uniform
at the same time just as plainly stated to signification, would contradict the
The Adventist position continually
be distinct and separate from the very idea he wished to convey. If the
battled against the two extremes: Uni- inspired writers had wished to convey
Father.” Review and Herald, June 18, tarianism and Trinitarianism.
1867 the idea of the co-etaneous existence,
“The former makes the ‘only and eternity of the Father and Son,
Early Canright was a believer in Begotten of the Father,’ a mere mortal, they could not possibly have used
the literal Son of God who was fully finite man; the latter makes him the more incompatible terms.” Review &
Infinite, Omnipotent, All-wise, and Herald, June 18, 1867
divine, yet a separate and distinct
Eternal God, absolutely equal with
person from the Father. But while If God wished to convey the notion of
the Everlasting Father. Now, I under-
Canright “converted” to a belief in the stand the truth to be in the medium an intimate union why didn’t he use
Trinity, Adventism did not, according between these two extremes.” James the terms husband and wife? They are,
to him, well into the 20th century. White, Review & Herald Nov. 21, 1854 after all, one flesh.

14 | Battle Over Begotten
Modern apoloogists dismissses the
languuage of Fatther-Son as merely
humaan attempts to t express th he close
relatiionship expperienced by b the
Godhhead. But we must remem mber that
it waas God Him mself who em mployed
thesee terms.
A Christ’s baaptism and hiis trans-
figurration, the Faather spoke audibly,
callinng Christ His beloved “Son n.” This
distinnction is discuussed by Step
as Waggoner
W wouuld later. Wisconsin in
W n June, 18544, that the “I believe all that the Sccriptures say oof
visions were of God; but they exam- him. If the testimony reppresents him aas
“…the Father alone is sup premely, i
ined them andd compared theem with the being in gloory with the Faather before the
or absolutely,
a goood; and that he alone is A to Come, and because the visions
Age world was,
immmortal in an absolute
a sense;; that he d not agreee with their views
did v of the I bellieve it.
alonne is self-exisstent; and, th hat, con- A
Age to Com me, they sacrrificed the If it is said that he was inn the beginningg
sequuently, every other being, however v
visions for thee Age to Comee.” Spiritual with God, that he was God, that alll
highh or low, is absolutely deependent G Vol. 4b 1864
Gifts 1 p. 4. things weree made by him m and for him m,
upoon him for life;; for being. Thiis idea is and that without
w him waas not anythingg
mosst emphaticallly expressed by our made that wasw made,
Savviour himself: ‘For as the Father R. F. Cotttrell 1869
I bellieve it.
hath life in himsself, so hath he h given If the Scripptures say he is the Son oof
to the Son to haveh life in himself.’
h God,
John v, 26.” ibid p.
p 131. I bellieve it.
He observed, as would Cottrell,
H C If it is decllared that the Father sent hiis
that the
t Father must
m first havee a Son Son into thee world,
I bellieve he had a Son to send.
to sennd.
mony says he is the beginningg
If the testim
“Paul says, ‘And again, when w he of the creattion of God,
brinngeth the firrst-begotten intoi the I bellieve it.
worrld, he saith, And
A let all the angels
a of If he is saiid to be the brrightness of the
Godd worship him m.’ Heb. i, 6. He
H must Father’s gloory, and the exxpress image oof
havve been his Son S before heh could his person,
send him into thee world. In verrse 2, the I bellieve it.
Fathher declares thhat he made the worlds And when Jesus says, ‘I and my Fatheer
t same Son he is here rep
by the presented are one,’
as sending
s into the world. His Son
S must I bellieve it;
havve existed beefore he crea ated the and when he h says, ‘My Father
F is greateer
worrlds; and he must have been b be- than I,’
gottten before he existed; heence the Roswell Feenner Cottrelll, a former I bellieve that too;
beggetting here spoken of, mu ust refer Seeventh-day Baptist
B joinedd the Ad- it is the word
w of the Soon of God, andd
to his
h Divine nature, and in reference
r veentists after hearing
h Josepph Bates in besides thiis it is perfecctly reasonable
to his
h order, he is the first-b begotten; 18849. He joineed the Revieww & Herald and seeminngly self-evidennt.”
hennce as a matterr of necessity he must edditorial staff in 1855. Coottrell con- “If I be
b asked how I believe the
havve been ‘the first born of o every feessed his belief
b conceerning the Father and Son are one, I reply, Theyy
creaature.’ Col. i, 15.”
1 ibid p. 132 2 diivinity and onneness of Chrrist and His are one in n a sense noot contrary too
Stephhenson later left the Ad dventists Faather while rejecting the t triune sense. If the ‘and’ in the sentence
s meanns
over the Sabbath,, believing th hat there cooncept of Deitty. anything, the
t Father an nd the Son are
woulld be no Sabbbath in the age to two beingss. They are onne in the same
“The Triniity, or the triuune God, is sense in which
w Jesus prayed
p that hiis
comee. James Whhite tried to befriend
b uunknown to thhe Bible; and I have en- disciples might
m be onee.” Review &
him by printing hish articles an nd pub- t
tertained the idea
i that doctrrines which Herald, Junne 1, 1869
lishinng his book. But
B Ellen, wh hile dis- r
require words coined in the human
h mind
approoving his possition on the Sabbath,
S t express them, are coinedd doctrines.”
to That the Faather and Sonn are two sepp-
did not
n condemn his h Christolog gy. R F. Cottrell, Review & Herrald, June 1,
R. arate identitties, acceptedd as a real faa-
“I was then shown the case of 1869 ther and soon because the t Bible dee-
Stepphenson and Hall
H of Wiscon nsin; that scribes themm that way, was the acc-
theyy were conviccted while we were at He believed jusst what the Biible says. cepted belieef of the earlyy Adventists.
Theos vol.
v 1 | 15
ah Smith 1832-1903
3 “But while
w as the Soon he does noot
Uriah Smith, who
w became one of possess a co-eternity
c of past existence
the most prominnent figures in the with the Father,
F the begginning of hiis
existence, as the beggotten of the
earlyy Adventist movement,
m joiined the
Father, anntedates the entire
e work oof
Sabbbatarians in 18852 at the age of 20, creation, inn relation to which
w he standds
followwing the leadd of his sister Annie as joint crreator with Good. John 1:33;
and parents
p who were first Millerites
M Heb. 1:2. Uriah Smith, Daniel
D and the
in thheir home sttate of New Hamp- Revelation,, 1897 edition p.
p 430.
shire. The folloowing year James
Whitte invited Uriah and Anniee to join Smith is clearly descrribing the truee
the staff
s of the Review
R and Herald
H in and literal Son
S of God, begotten
b from
Rochhester, New York.
Y Two years later the Father in a unique way prior too
he beecame editorr, a post he kept
k for their joint creative woork. That hee
over 40 years. should be labeled
l as Arian
A or evenn
Smmith was a prolific writter. His “Semi-Ariann” by modern critics foor
first year on the job allowed him to professing the
t statementts of Scripturee
publiish a 35,000 word poem he had God has creatted all things, but that he
G is akin to thhe unfair desccription of thee
compposed. In 18662 he began present-
p h
himself camee into existeence in a Biblical sevventh day asscribed by itts
ing a series of arrticles: “Thouughts on d
different mannner, as he is called ‘the present dayy detractors as “the Jewishh
Reveelation.” It iss of interest that
t this o
only begotten’ of the Fatheer. It would Sabbath.”
seem utterly innappropriate too apply this The Apoostolic belieff in Christ as
version made noo comment on o Rev.
expression to any being creeated in the the only beegotten Son of God pree-
3:14.. But when he
h published theset in o
ordinary sense of the term m.” Uriah
expannded book foorm three yeaars later, dated Arius by nearly thhree centuriess,
Smith 1882 and God’ss seventh day d Sabbathh
he inncluded the following
f comments
on thhe message to Laodicea: Even moree so “Uriahh Smith’s existed overr two millennnia before thee
Loooking Unto Jesus was the most first Jew.
“Moreover he [Christ] is ‘th he begin- The asseertion is freqquently madee
ningg of the creattion of God.’ Not the coomprehensivee and carefullly nuanced
exxposition of thet non-trinittarian view that Smith’s belief in a literally bee-
begginner, but th he beginning, of the
creaation, the firstt created beingg, dating ammong Advenntists.” (Jerrry Moon, gotten Son of God waas merely his
his existence far back before any a other ‘TThe Trinity’, chapter
c 13 ‘TTrinity and own person nal view, waas not sharedd
creaated being or thing,
t next to the self- annti-trinitarianiism in Seeventh-day by the majoority of Adveentists at thaat
exisstent and eternal
e God.”” Uriah Adventist history’ page 196, 2002). time, and particularly was at odds
Smiith, Thoughts Critical and Practical
P Thhat Uriah Sm mith was inndeed non- with Ellen White.
W Howeever, since hee
on the
t Book of Reevelation, Battlle Creek, triinitarian is clearly
c demonnstrated in employed the t very sam me texts thaat
Micchigan: Steam Press of the Seventh-
S thhe following samples:
s Ellen White did as suppport for his
dayy Adventist Puublishing Association, theology, itt is quite understandable
u e
18665/7, p. 59. “God alon ne is without beginning.
At the earliestt epoch when a beginning
A that Ellen White not only o failed too
Whether Uriahh equated “ccreated” c
could be, -- a period so remmote that to reprove hiim of his “error” buut
with “begotten (as many still s do f
finite minds it i is essentially eternity, strongly enndorsed the truths
t he pree-
todayy) or truly esppoused Ariannism (as —
—appeared thee Word.” “Thiss uncreated sented.
Word was thee Being, who, in the full-
he iss charged todday), at any rate, he “Especiially should thhe book Danieel
ness of time, was
w made fleshh, and dwelt
quickkly changed his expresssion (or a
among us.” and the Reevelation be brought
b before
posittion) and inn the next edition, people as thet very bookk for this timee.
which combined his work on n Daniel “His begiinning was noot like that This book contains the message
m which h
and Revelation,
R he clarified hiss under- oof any other being
b in the un
niverse. It is all need to read and d understand d.
s forth in the mysterious expressions,
set e Translated into many different
d langg-
standding of Christt as the begin
nning of ‘his [God's] only
o begotten Son’ (John
God’’s creation. Thoughts
T on Daniel uages, it wiill be a power to
t enlighten the
3:16; 1 John 4:9),
4 ‘the only begotten of
t Revelation published 15
and the 1 years world. Thiss book has hadd a large sale inn
the Father’ (John
( 1:14), and
a ‘I pro-
Australia annd New Zealaand. By readingg
later by Uriah Smith
S containned the c
ceeded forth and came from f God.’
John 8:42.” it many souuls have come to a knowledge
followwing statemeent: of the truthh. I have received many letterrs
“OOthers, howevver, and more properly “Thus it appears that by some expressing appreciation of this book.”
we thhink, take the word
w to mean ‘aagent’ or divine impulsse or process, not crea-
d Ellen G. White,
W Manusscript Releasees
‘efficcient cause,’ which
w is onee of the t
tion, known only
o to Omnisscience, and Volume one, o No. 26. page 600,
definiitions of the word, underrstanding p
possible only to Omnipotence, the Son “Thoughts on Daniel and a the Revell-
that Christ
C is the agent through h whom o God appearred.”
of ation,” MS 174 1899

16 | Battle Over
O Begotteen
“Let our canvassers urge this book through which to communicate light his own work on the life of Christ,
upon the attention of all. The Lord has to direct minds to the truth. Shall we Looking Unto Jesus. Both books were
shown me that this book will do a good not appreciate this light, which points heavily promoted, side-by-side in the
work in enlightening those who become us to the coming of our Lord Jesus Review and Herald for years. The
inter-ested in the truth for this time. Christ, our King?”
1913 SDA Year Book inside front
Those who embrace the truth now, who “I speak of this book because it is a
have not shared in the experiences of means of educating those who need to cover shown here featured both Ellen
those who entered the work in the early understand the truth of the Word. This White and Uriah Smith books with
history of the message, should study the book should be highly appreciated. It Daniel and the Revelation at the top of
instruction given in Daniel and the covers much of the ground we have the list:
Revelation, becoming familiar with the been over in our experience. If the
truth it presents.” youth will study this book and learn for
“Those who are preparing to enter themselves what is truth, they will be
the ministry, who desire to become suc- saved from many perils.”
cessful students of the prophecies, will “Young men, take up the work of
find Daniel and the Revelation an canvassing for Daniel and the Revel-
invaluable help. They need to under- ation. Do all you possibly can to sell this
stand this book. It speaks of past, book. Enter upon the work with as much
present, and future, laying out the path earnestness as if it were a new book.
so plainly that none need err therein. And remember that as you canvass for
Those who will diligently study this it, you are to become familiar with the
book will have no relish for the cheap truths it contains.” Ibid page 63
sentiments presented by those who have
a burning desire to get out some-thing “The grand instruction contained in
new and strange to present to the flock Daniel and Revelation has been eager-
of God. The rebuke of God is upon all ly perused by many in Australia. This
such teachers. They need that one teach book has been the means of bringing
them what is meant by godliness and many precious souls to knowledge of
truth.” the truth. Everything that can be done
“The great, essential questions should be done to circulate Thoughts
which God would have presented to the on Daniel and the Revelation. I know
people are found in Daniel and the of no other book that can take the place
Revelation. There is found solid, eter- of this one. It is God’s helping hand.”
nal truth for this time. Everyone needs (Ellen G. White, Manuscript Releases
the light and information it contains.” Volume 21 No. 1595, 1901)
Ibid page 61 “Instruction has been given me
“God desires the light found in the that the important books containing the
books of Daniel and Revelation to be light that God has given regarding
presented in clear lines. It is painful to Her approval of Uriah Smith
Satan’s apostasy in heaven should be
think of the many cheap theories picked given a wide circulation just now; for continued until at least 1905, well
up and presented to the people by through them the truth will reach many after she wrote the Desire of Ages in
ignorant, unprepared teachers. Those minds. ‘Patriarchs and Prophets,’ 1898, her allegedly Trinitarian master-
who present their human tests and the ‘Daniel and the Revelation,’ and piece that is said to have dramatically
nonsensical ideas they have concocted ‘Great Controversy’ are needed now propelled the Adventist church into
in their own minds, show the character as never before.” Ellen G. White, conformity with the mainstream evan-
of the goods in their treasure house. Review and Herald February 16, 1905.
They have laid in store shoddy material. gelical world.
Their great desire is to make a There is no indication here in these E. D. Thomas, wrote the following
sensation.” recommendations by Ellen White that promotional in the March 15, 1938
“As they receive the knowledge con- Uriah Smith’s theology was wrong or edition of the Eastern Tidings, South-
tained in this book, they will have in the that he was teaching error. ern Asian Division, under the heading
treasure house of the mind a store from Quite the contrary. She said it ‘Sabbath School members, attention:’
which they can continually draw as they
contains the message all need to
communicate to others the great, essen- “The Sabbath school lessons for the
tial truths of God's Word.” Ibid, page understand as never before; it is God’s
second quarter of 1938 are on the sanc-
62 helping hand, presenting great, essent- tuary. These are important and much
“The interest in Daniel and the ial, eternal truths of God’s Word for needed lessons. Among the other vol-
Revelation is to continue as long as this time. umes are ‘Looking Unto Jesus,’ by
probationary time shall last. God used The same year that Desire of Ages Uriah Smith, and ‘The Cross and Its
the author of this book as a channel was published, Uriah Smith released Shadow,’ by S. N. Haskell.”

Theos vol. 1 | 17
As can be seen by these examples, The Fundamentals
belief in the begotten Son was per- Uriah Smith was also instrumental in
vasive and protracted throughout the setting forth “a synopsis” of the
years of Ellen White’s ministry. Adventist faith. As editor of the
Interestingly, today it is generally said Review and Herald, he wrote a list of
that this was only a “minority view” 25 “Fundamental Principles” which
and that Ellen White intentionally was first published in pamphlet form
steered the course of church thought in 1872. James White subsequently
Review & Herald Publishing House 1861
toward a solid belief in orthodox reprinted them in the very first June 4,
Trinitarian dogma by emphasizing the 1874 issue of the Signs of the Times.
In 1889 it was included in the SDA
eternal deity of Christ and explicitly His introduction carefully stressed
Yearbook with the first two items un-
identifying “the third person of the that the Advent people had no creed
changed and the introduction signifi-
Godhead.” Today’s version of Ad- “aside from the Bible” but their
cantly abbreviated but still declaring
ventist history pictures her primary system of faith enjoyed “entire
“no creed but the Bible” and “entire
protagonist to be Uriah Smith, later unanimity” among them. Below is a
unanimity throughout the body.”
editor of the Review and Herald, reproduction as they appeared in the
crafter of the Church’s 25 Funda- inaugural issue. The following propositions may be
mental Beliefs, and author of the taken as a summary of the principal
“Daniel and the Revelation,” an features of their religious faith, upon
embarrassingly non-trinitarian work which there is, so far as we know,
that was sold around the world and entire unanimity throughout the
body. (The 1889 SDA Yearbook p. 147)
promoted by the church’s three pub-
lishing houses and Ellen White herself
for at least 70 years.
Ellen White did not oppose Uriah
Smith’s theology or condemn his ex-
plicit statements regarding Christ’s In presenting to the public this synop- class in believing in the unconscious state
Son-ship “from the days of eternity” sis of our faith, we wish to have it dis- of the dead, and the final destruction of
the same expression she herself used tinctly understood that we have no articles the unrepentant wicked; from another, in
(see next section). She did, however, of faith, creed, or discipline, aside from believing in the perpetuity of the law of
single out Kellogg’s Living Temple the Bible. We do not put forth this as hav- God, as summarily contained in the ten
and openly denounced it at the 1905 ing any authority with our people, nor is it commandments, in the operation of the
designed to secure uniformity among Holy Spirit in the church, and in setting
General Conference. She also dealt
them, as a system of faith, but is a brief no times for the advent to occur; from all,
with Albion Ballenger advising him in the observance of the seventh day of
that he was misapplying scripture in statement of what is, and has been, with
great unanimity, held by them. We often the week as the Sabbath of the Lord, and
teaching that Christ’s atonement was in many applications of the prophetic
find it necessary to meet inquiries on this
finished at the cross and he directly subject, and sometimes to correct false scriptures.
entered the Most Holy place at His statements circulated against us, and to With these remarks, we ask the
ascension. remove erroneous impressions which attention of the reader to the following
But no words of reproof, censure, have obtained with those who have not propositions which aim to be a concise
or correction came from her pen to had an opportunity to become acquainted statement of the more prominent features
Uriah Smith. By this time he had with our faith and practice. Our only of our faith.
published numerous articles and object is to meet this necessity. 1. That there is one God, a person-
books clearly presenting the begotten As Seventh-day Adventists, we al, spiritual being, the creator of all things,
Son of the Father at “the earliest desire simply that our position shall be omnipotent, omniscient, and eternal, in-
epoch” of time for over 40 years. understood; and we are the more solici- finite in wisdom, holiness, justice, good-
tous for this because there are many who ness, truth, and mercy; unchangeable, and
Looking Unto Jesus had been off the
call themselves Adventists, who hold everywhere present by his representative,
press for 7 years. Yet Ellen White said views with which we can have no sym- the Holy Spirit. Ps 139:7.
nothing to discredit Uriah’s ideas pathy, some of which, we think, are sub- 2. That there is one Lord Jesus
about the “person and personality of versive of the plainest and most import- Christ, the Son of the Eternal Father, the
God.” ant principles set forth in the word of one by whom God created all things, and
God. As compared with other Advent-ists, by whom they do consist; that he took on
Seventh-day Adventists differ from one him the nature of the seed of Abraham…

18 | Battle Over Begotten
mental Principles. His reserve demon-
strates a desire to avoid provocation
and limit each statement to such as
could be accepted by all members.
The 1992 publication of “Issues”
authorized by officers and Union
Presidents of the North American
Division agreed:
“The nonbinding, noncreedal
status of the statement is of special
interest. Even more significant,
however, is the fact that the state-
ment is distinctly non-trinitarian.
Jesus is described as Creator and
Redeemer but is nowhere identified
as God or as eternal. He simply is
It did not appear again in a Year- redemption.” F.M.Wilcox, Review
“the Son of the eternal Father”
book until 1905 as shown here on and Herald, October 9, 1913
(‘Issues: The Seventh-day Adventist
page 188. The same list of Funda- Now three persons are prominent, Church and Certain Private
mental Principles was reprinted each yet, without stating that they share one Ministries’ p. 39, chapter, ‘Historic
subsequent year in the SDA yearbook “indivisible substance,” it falls short Adventism – Ancient Landmarks
until 1914 when it was attributed to of being fully Trinitarian—only and Present Truth’, 1992)
“the late Uriah Smith.” ambiguously Tritheistic: an eternal
But after Ellen White’s death, it Father being, a Son and a third per- Of course, their intent is to
did not appear in the Yearbook until son-agency. Some evidence therefore establish that Smith’s version was not
1931 as shown here on the right. This exists for the emergence of a different the majority view nor the authorized
time there is no mention of “entire opinion as to just how the Church position of the organized church,
unanimity” of these beliefs among the should express its belief in the “entire unanimity” notwithstanding.
body of believers. But dramatic Godhead. It is however a fact of history that
changes are noticed. The term Trinity Uriah Smith personally professed Uriah Smith’s Fundamental Principles
is introduced as an equivalent alterna- his belief in a begotten Son of God, remained unchanged from 1872 to
tive to “Godhead.” The Lord Jesus but chose not to incorporate “be- 1914, a period of 42 years. Besides
Christ is now emphasized as “very gotten” into his version of the Funda- the original Review and Herald
God.” What does that mean? Certain-
ly not that the Son is actually the
Father. This was objected to by every
Adventist since James White!
This version was constructed by
F.M. Wilcox, then editor of the
Review and Herald. His inclusion of
“Trinity” first appeared in a 1913
issue of the Review:
“Seventh-day Adventists believe, —
1. In the divine Trinity. This Trin-
ity consists of the eternal Father, a
personal, spiritual being, omni-
potent, omniscient, infinite in power,
wisdom, and love; of the Lord Jesus
Christ, the Son of the eternal Father,
through whom the salvation of the
redeemed hosts will be accomp-
lished; the Holy Spirit, the third
person of the Godhead, the one
regenerating agency in the work of

Theos vol. 1 | 19
printing in 1874, it also appeeared in Here are a few samplees of Has- of devotionnals which tw wo years lateer
the Signs
S of the Times of Feb. F 21, keell’s position published juust the year became a boook entitled Christ
C and Hiss
18788, and Review w and Herald of Aug. beefore on the begotten nature of Righteousneess (CHR).
22, 1912, each timet with thhe same Chhrist’s divine origin: LeRoy Froom,
F in his Movement of
proloog declaring that
t the belieefs were “Back in the ages, which w finite Destiny appplauds Wagggoner’s pree-
unannimously heldd among the Seventh-
S mind cannot fathom, the Father
m F and sentation ass a decisive change
c in Add-
day Adventist peeople. For over o 40 S were alon
Son ne in the univverse. Christ ventism’s concept off Christ byy
yearss God and Christ were prresented w the first begotten of the
was t Father, repeatedly featuring Hiim in whom m
as tw wo separatee and distin nct per- a to Him Jeehovah made known the
and “dwelleth all the fulllness of thee
sonagges. The “oone God” was w “a d
divine plan off Creation.” Godhead” Col 2:9 which w Froomm
persoonal, spirituall being.” Theere was “It was theen, in those earrly councils, accepts as His
H “full divinity.” Froom m
no cooncept of a thhree-in-one Godhead.
G tthat Christ’s heart
h of love was
w touched suggests thaat this was a radical, new w
Smithh’s list of Fundamental
F Beliefs a the only begotten
and b Son pledged
p His concept for the Advent believers.
were admittedly unauthorized d. They l to redeem man, should he
life h yield and In actuallity, Waggonner upheld thee
had not
n been voted upon for a reason.
r f
fall. Father and a Son, surrrounded by very same belief that hadh ever beenn
impenetrable g
glory, clasped d hands. It embraced frrom the beginnning: a literaal
w in apprecciation of thiss offer, that
ven Nelson
n Haskell begotten Soon of a real Faather, separatee
upon Christ was bestoweed creative
power, and the
t everlastinng covenant and distinctt beings, bothh divine, bothh
w made; and henceforth Father
was F and from the dayys of eternity.
Son, with onee mind, workeed together
t complete thhe work of creeation.” The
Story of the Seeer of Patmos, 1905 p. 94

s Christolo
ogy 1888
Thhe Minneapoolis General Conference
off 1888 feattured a spiirited and
diivisive confrrontation bettween the
agging champioons of God’s moral law
Ninety delegates, gathered from
f the 26,968
ass the Adventist defense in protecting world membersship, met in Minn
God’s seventhh-day Sabbathh and two
yoouthful thirtyy-somethings who de- The issue which drew w so much firee
sirred to promoote the all suffficiency of from “the old guard” waas Waggoner’s
Chhrist who cann not only savve us from application of this truth tot the impartt-
Like Uriah Smith,
S Haskeell also
sinn but, becausse “in him dwwells all the ation of Chhrist’s righteoousness in thee
wrotee commentarries on Dan niel and
fuullness of thhe Godhead,”” can also life of the Christian
C as the source oof
Reveelation. Thesee were publiished in
giive us divine power
p to overrcome sin. victory over sin—not thhe keeping oof
two books, The Story of Dan niel the
the 10 comm mandments. There was noo
Propphet (1901) and
a The Storyy of the
dispute overr the begottenn Son of God..
Seer of Patmos (11905). It wass at this
Waggoner begins byy providing a
time that Ellen White, who highly
wonderful collection
c of scripture
s from
regarrded Elder Haskell’s
H knoowledge
which he paaints a comprehensive pictt-
of thhe Bible andd his reliabiliity as a
ure of Chriist, the “onlyy name undeer
teachher and Bible instructor, wrote
heaven giveen among menn whereby wee
this endorsement:
can be saveed” Acts 4:122 for “no mann
“Beecause of thee importance of this can come unnto the Fatherr” but by Him m
worrk, I have urgged that Elder Haskell John 14:6 so s that when He is “liftedd
andd his wife, as ministers
m of God, shall up” all menn will be draawn unto Him m
givee Bible instrucction to those who
w will
John 12:32,, the “Authorr and Finisheer
offeer themselves for service.” (Ellen
( G.
Whhite, Review annd Herald, November of our faith”” Hebrews 122:2, “in whom m
29, 1906 are hid all thhe treasures of
o wisdom andd
knowledge”” Col 2:3 since “all poweer
It is evident that she had greeat con- Ellet J. Waaggoner, thenn editor of in heaven and
a earth is given”
g to Himm
fidennce in Elder Haskell
H and ap
pproved thhe new west coast publiccation, The Matt. 28:19, thus Christ is “the poweer
of hiss theology at this time in his
h life. Siigns of the Tiimes, presentted a series of God and the wisdom of o God” 1Corr.
20 | Battle Over
O Begotteen
1:24 “who of God is made unto us hension it is practically without begin- (Job 38:7; Luke 3:38), by creation;
wisdom, and righteousness, and sanc- ning.” p. 22. Christians are the sons of God by
tification, and redemption” 1Cor 1:30. adoption (Rom. 8:14, 15); but Christ is
At the very beginning of his dis- the Son of God by birth.” CHR p. 12
Waggoner considered this the “one course Waggoner plunges into the
text which briefly sums up all that eternal origins of God’s Son. He does
Christ is to man.” CHR pp. 6, 7. not shy away from invoking the word
Waggoner also concurred with “begotten.” In fact, he exploits it to
James and Uriah that Christ is fully establish the undeniable fact that
divine by quoting John 5: 22, 23 “For Christ, the Word, is both God and
the Father judgeth no man, but hath eternal. To bolster this, he displays a
committed all judgment unto the Son: host of scriptural evidence.
that all men should honor the Son,
even as they honor the Father.” He “The mighty God… Our God shall
then concludes “To Christ is com- come, and shall not keep silence” Ps.
mitted the highest prerogative, that of 50:1-6. For “the Lord Himself shall
descend from heaven with a shout, with
judging. He must receive the same
the voice of the archangel, and with the
honor that is due to God, and for the trump of God” 1Thess. 4:16. The voice
reason that He is God.” The Bible of the Son of God will be heard by all John Gill 1697-1771
says so. “In the beginning was the that are in the grave. John 5:28, 29. And
Word, and the Word was with God, “His name shall be called Wonderful, This last statement was not orig-
and the Word was God.” John 1:1. Counselor, the mighty God, the ever- inal with Waggoner. The English
This “Divine Word is none other than lasting Father, the Prince of Peace” Isa. Baptist-Calvinist, John Gill said much
Jesus Christ.” “And the Word was 9:6. “Thy throne, O God, is forever and the same thing over one hundred years
made flesh, and dwelt among us (and ever.” Ps. 45:6. When “we turn to the earlier in his commentary on Hebrews
we beheld His glory, the glory as of New Testament” “We find that God the 1:5 (thou art my Son, this day have I
Father is the speaker, and that He is begotten thee):
the Only-begotten of the Father), full
addressing the Son, calling Him God.”
of grace and truth” vs 18. Heb. 1:1-8. “Christ is the Son of God, not by Crea-
Waggoner next probes the mean-
tion, nor by adoption, nor by office, but
ing of two words: beginning and Waggoner next examines the signifi-
by nature; he is the true, proper, natural,
begotten. cance of the title “Son of God” by and eternal Son of God; and as such is
focusing on Heb. 1:4. “He hath by in- owned and declared by Jehovah the
The Word was “in the beginning.”
heritance obtained a more excellent Father, in these words; the foundation of
The mind of man cannot grasp the ages
that are spanned in this phrase. It is not name than they,” the angels. Wag- which relation lies in the begetting of
given to men to know when or how the goner italicized these words to make him”
Son was begotten; but we know that He this point.
was the Divine Word, not simply before
Nor was Waggoner the last to employ
“A son always rightfully takes the this same logical-literary pattern. As
He came to this earth to die, but even name of the father; and Christ, as “the
before the world was created. Just we saw earlier, Ellen White echoed
only begotten Son of God,” has right-
before His crucifixion He prayed, “And his same words five years later in the
fully the same name. A son, also, is, to a
now, O Father, glorify thou Me with greater or less degree, a reproduction of very periodical he was editing.
Thine own self with the glory which I the father; he has, to some extent, the
had with Thee before the world was.” “‘God so loved the world, that he
features and personal characteristics of gave his only-begotten Son,’—not a
John 17:5. And more than seven his father; not perfectly, because there is
hundred years before His first advent, son by creation, as were the angels, nor
no perfect reproduction among man- a son by adoption, as is the for-given
His coming was thus foretold by the kind. But there is no imperfection in
word of inspiration: “But thou, Beth- sinner, but a Son begotten in the ex-
God, or in any of His works; and so press image of the Father’s person...”
lehem Ephratah, though thou be little Christ is the “express image” of the
among the thousands of Judah, yet out Signs of the Times May 30, 1895
Father’s person. Heb. 1:3. As the Son of
of thee shall He come forth unto Me that the self-existent God, He has by nature
is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings all the attributes of Deity.” To Waggoner, Christ was God
forth have been from of old, from the “It is true that there are many sons of because He said, “I and My Father are
days of eternity.” Micah 5:2, margin. God; but Christ is the “only begotten one” John 10:30. Because “when the
We know that Christ “proceeded forth Son of God,” and therefore the Son of Father brought the First-begotten into
and came from God” (John 8:42), but it God in a sense in which no other the world, He said, ‘And let all the
was so far back in the ages of eternity as being ever was or ever can be. The
to be far beyond the grasp of the mind
angels of God worship Him’ Heb.
angels are sons of God, as was Adam 1:6.”
of man.” CHR p. 9 To “finite compre-
Theos vol. 1 | 21
Christ is the “Beginning of the from the semi-Arian views” (Move-
creation of God” in that He is “head” or ment of Destiny p. 271) and instead
“chief” (Greek arche) as in “arch- “clearly used the word Godhead in the
bishop, and the word archangel. Take sense of Trinity” (ibid p. 273).
this last word. Christ is the Archangel.
Because Waggoner confirms the
See Jude 9; 1 Thess. 4:16; John 5:28,
29; Dan. 10:21. This does not mean that oneness of two (the Father and Son),
He is the first of the angels, for He is not Froom claims he espouses three! But
an angel, but is above them. Heb. 1:4. It this is quite different from Wag-
means that He is the chief or prince of goner’s own conclusion:
“Because that Thou, being a man, the angels, just as an archbishop is the “Finally, we know the Divine unity
makest Thyself God” John 10:33. head of the bishops. Christ is the of the Father and the Son from the fact
Because “the only-begotten Son, which commander of the angels. See Rev. that both have the same Spirit. Paul,
is in the bosom of the Father, He hath 19:14. He created the angels. Col. 1:16 after saying that they that are in the
declared Him.” John 1:18. “He has His …He is Alpha and Omega, the begin- flesh cannot please God, continues: ‘But
abode there, and He is [sic] there as a ning and the end, the first and the last. ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit,
part of the Godhead, as surely when on Rev. 21:6; 22:13. He is the source if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in
earth as when in heaven. The use of the whence all things have their origin.” you. Now if any man have not the Spirit
present tense implies continued exist-
Here Waggoner pauses to restore of Christ, he is none of His.’ Rom. 8:9.
ence. It presents the same idea that is
Here we find that the Holy Spirit is
contained in the statement of Jesus to balance. The Father must not be
both the Spirit of God and the Spirit
the Jews (John 8:58), ‘Before Abraham ignored. “Let no one imagine that we of Christ. Christ ‘is [sic] in the bosom
was, I am.’” CHR p. 13-15 would exalt Christ at the expense of of the Father;’ being by nature of the
More than any other text, Waggon- the Father.” “We honor the Father in very substance of God, and having life
er featured the “fullness” statements honoring the Son. We are mindful of in Himself, He is properly called
of Paul in Col. 1:19; 2:9: “it pleased Paul’s words, that ‘to us there is but Jehovah, the self-existent One, and is
one God, the Father, of whom are all thus styled in Jer. 23:56, where it is said
the Father that in Him [Christ] should
things, and we in Him; and one Lord that the righteous Branch, who shall
all fullness dwell” for “in Him dwell- execute judgment and justice in the
eth all the fullness of the Godhead Jesus Christ, by whom are all things,
and we by Him” 1 Cor. 8:6. He then earth, shall be known by the name of
bodily.” To Waggoner “This is most Jehovah-tsidekenu—THE LORD, OUR
absolute and unequivocal testimony to ends by hoisting up the epitome of
the fact that Christ possesses by begotten proof texts, John 8:42.
nature all the attributes of Divinity.” Waggoner is thus seen to continue
“All things proceed ultimately from
CHR p. 16. God, the Father; even Christ Himself in the same belief of the begotten Son
proceeded and came forth from the who shares the same Spirit with His
“And since He is the only-begotten Father; but it has pleased the Father Divine Father. The two are one. Be-
Son of God, He is of the very substance that in Him should all fullness dwell, cause He “came out” from God, as
and nature of God, and possesses by and that He should be the direct, Eve came out from Adam, He has the
birth all the attributes of God.” “So He immediate Agent in every act of “very substance of God” and thus the
has ‘life in Himself;’ He possesses creation.” CHR p. 19
immortality in His own right, and can same self-existent life within Himself.
confer immortality upon others.” CHR He is the Branch from His Father, the
This beautiful and logical conclu-
p. 22. Divine Root, the great Source of life,
sion that Christ is the self-existent Son
power and all righteousness.
But Waggoner is careful to assure of God because he was begotten and
his readers that a “begotten” Son is born from God is dismissed by Froom
not a “created” Son. as a “regrettable venture into unsound
speculation,” that Waggoner was
“He is begotten, not created” p. 21. “confused” by the words “proceeded
Although Revelation 3:14 calls forth,” so that he “ventured out onto
Christ “the Amen, the faithful and true the thin ice of speculation.” Froom
Witness, the Beginning of the creation prefers to attribute all “proceeded
of God” it does not mean “that God’s forth” “problem statements” regarding
work of creation began with Him. But the origins of the Son to that of His
this view antagonizes the scripture incarnation. Froom then indulges in
which declares that Christ Himself
his own speculation stating that
created all things.” CHR p. 20.
Waggoner is “clearly breaking away

22 | Battle Over Begotten
orge Butlerr “The Lord in His great mercy
m sent a but rich inn faith. Theyy studied withh
most preciouss message to His people
m wonderful intensity
i the book of God foor
through Elderrs Waggoner and Jones. light in thatt dark hour of disappointmennt
This message was to bring more
m prom- and sorrow w, and it came to their mindss,
inently beforee the world th he upliftted bringing grreat relief, andd joy unspeakk-
Saviour, the sacrifice for thee sins of the able. Oh! how preciouss did the truthh
whole world.” Testimonies too Ministers, seem as thee beautiful sysstem which we
p 91
p. denominatee “present tru uth” unfolded d
before theeir minds, thee fog of trad d-
But the debate was noot over the ition cleariing away, and the firm pillarrs
naature of God or the pre-exxistence of of eternal truth appeaaring, securelyy
Chhrist. Belief in
i the divinelly begotten resting upoon the living rock of God’s
Soon remained unchanged duringd and holy word.”” ibid.
affter the historic meetinggs. Butler,
And thesse pillars didnn’t change foor
hiimself, wrotee the followinng year of
the next fortty years.
thhe amazing sttability of thee Adventist
dooctrines in a Review
R & Herrald article It is certainly
c rem
markable thaat
enntitled “A Harrmonious Faith.” thus far we
w have not haad to change a
single posiition decidedlly taken after
“IN things of religion, thhe heart re- faithful investigation.
i Every one
qquires somethiing stable. It reaches out stands firmmly after moore than fortyy
Also present ata the 1888 General a
after that whicch is reasonabble, consist- years of op
pposition fromm bitter oppon
Confference and then Presideent was e and endurring, upon whiich to found
ent, ents, growiing more and more bright aas
Georrge I. Butler. He sided witth Uriah a abiding faithh.”
an these gems of truth arre rubbed andd
Smithh in opposiition to Jon nes and “Truth willl always be in i harmony scoured in the
t conflict.” ibid.
Wagggoner but for a different reason. w itself. Wee may be suree that if one
The pair made a perfect match. p
portion of ourr doctrinal beelief contra- Uriah Smmith’s Fundam mental Princii-
dicts some other
o portion, there is a ples had beeen in print foor over twentyy
Wagggoner was then editor of the t west
fallacy—a fallse-hood—som mewhere in- years. Butleer now brieflyy summarizes
coastt Signs of the Times; Sm mith was v
volved. Error isi contradictoryy and multi-
editoor of the easst coast Reviiew and them.
form in its varrious efforts to adapt itself
Heraald. Jones caame to pressent his t varying shaddes of belief”
to “Let us consider brieffly some of the
discoovery that thee Alemanni and not “One potennt reason why manym quest- truths heldd by this peopple, as parts oof
the Huns
H (as propposed by Smitth) were i
ioning minds reject the Chrristian relig- their religioous system of doctrine. Theyy
one ofo the horns of Daniel ch hapter 7. i
ion, and becom me chronic douubters, is the believe inn the generral truths oof
Butleer was oppoosed to Wag ggoner’s l
lack of harmony in the theoology of the inspiration held by Christian denominn-
posittion on the law in Gaalatians, o
orthodox churrches.” Review w & Herald ations in alll parts of the world;
w such ass,
O 1, 1889, p.
Oct. p 9 the existence, sovereiggnty, holinesss,
fearinng an admisssion that the school-
and perfeection of Good the greaat
master was indeeed the moral law of He then lists some examples: Creator, anda the pre--existence and d
the ten
t commanddments woulld be a etternal tormennt in hell veersus com- glory of his Son Jesu us Christ, byy
concession to thee church’s op pponents pllete destruction of the wicked,
w im- whom the worlds were createdc before
who insisted thatt the law waas abol- m
mortality of thhe soul or soul
s sleep, man had an a existence on this earth h;
ishedd at the crosss thus destroyying the diifferent days of worship. In contrast man’s creaation by the Saviour;
S man’s
ms of the seveenth day Sabb bath. too the current revisionist
r ideeas that our subsequent fall, and the introduction oof
Butler and Sm mith were convinced thheological deevelopment was slow the plan of salvation, an essential
e part oof
that both Jones and a Waggoner were which was the Saviour’s giving himsellf
annd progressive, Butler marrvels at the
preseenting heresyy and threatened the to die a sacrifice for sinneers…” ibid.
sppeed with whiich the early Adventists
doctrrinal foundattions of the church. reeached compleete doctrinal maturity.
m Interestinngly, the Saabbath Schoool
The young troubblemakers were w not Notes for Sabbath, Oct. 12 in this
welcoome, sides werew taken, division
d “We can reegard it little short
s of the
miraculous th
m hat the systeem of doc- same issue commented on Hebrews
brewwed. Debate ennsued and Jo ones and chapter 1:
trine held by S. D. Adventtists was so
Wagggoner prepareed. They pressented a s
soon developeed into its prresent com-
purelly biblical support,
s which was “The anngels are sonss by creation n,
pleteness afteer the great disappoint- just as Adaam was, who was created a
approoved by Elllen White. She S de- m
ment of 18444. It was broought about little lower than they. Buut Christ is the
scribed their messsage as a balanced
b t
through the agency
a of peersons then ‘only begootten Son of God,’ havingg
treatmment of Reveelation 14:12, respect u
unknown to fame—humblle, earnest, “by inherittance a more excellent name
for the
t commanddments of God G and d
devoted souls, who loved thhe appearing than they.” ibid.
the faaith of Jesus: o Jesus. Theyy were poor inn this world,

Theos vol.
v 1 | 23
Let’s Review Proceeded and came forth from him These are the confessions of faith
In summary, we have seen that the The Father has life in himself and made by the ten pioneers featured in
early Adventists consistently believed gave the Son to have life in himself volume 1. Their remarkably coherent
in the Son of God, begotten in the Possesses immortality as his own right understanding of the begotten Son, of
days of eternity, who was fully divine, He is the Son of the Eternal Father God the Father and their shared Spirit
one with his Father, equal in power He is Son of the self-existent God certainly is consistent with the con-
and authority, one in character, mind, He has all the attributes of Deity viction that these beliefs were held
and Spirit. We examined the words of He inherited them with “entire unanimity by the entire
ten pioneers. He is by nature God body” of early Adventist believers for
He is the Son of God by birth more than 40 years.
James White
Joseph Bates There are thus two persons in heaven
J.N. Loughborough In Part 2, Theos continues the
The Father and Son are two distinct,
D.M. Canright Battle over Begotten by tracing the
literal, tangible persons
J.M. Stephenson consistent Christology of
The Son of God is a divine person
R.F. Cottrell This they did not deny
Uriah Smith • R.A. Underwood
He is the wisdom and power of God
Steven Haskell He is in the bosom of the Father • J.N. Andrews
E.J. Waggoner Through him all things were created • J.G. Matteson
George Butler By him all things consist • W.H. LittleJohn
Father and Son worked together • H.C. Blanchard
They agreed that: They created man in their own image • C.W. Stone
The Bible was their creed • D.T. Bourdeau
The prayer of Christ to the Father in The Son of God was sent to the world • A.T. Jones
John 17 is to be our church creed He was God manifested in the flesh • J.H. Waggoner
The Trinity or the triune God is not In him dwelt the fullness of the God- • W.W. Prescott, and
explicitly “laid down” in Scripture head bodily • E.G. White
Trinity and Unity diminish the divine Christ’s divinity and humanity were
power of Jesus mysteriously blended Theos brings together over 50
years of doctrinal unity in one
There is one God, the Father But Christ is the ‘everlasting Father’ compact collection, the testimony
God the Father is the Ancient of Days of his people of 21 pioneers in their own words.
The great Source of all being. The Father is Lord God Almighty
The great Creator The Son is the mighty God
He alone is without beginning. The Father and Son are not part of a
There is one Lord Jesus Christ “three-one” God
Going forth from the days of eternity Son is equal in rank with the Father
Practically without beginning Equal in dignity, glory, authority, and
He had an origin or beginning of days divine perfection
He appeared in the beginning. with the infinite God
He was the first-begotten of the Father Christ isn’t equal to the eternal Father
Begotten of the Father’s substance They are not the same being or person
The very substance and nature of God
He was begotten not created Christ is also Michael, the archangel
A Son begotten of God He is not an angel, but above them
In the image of the Father’s person He is commander of the angels
In a sense that no other being is
The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God
The Father was greater than the Son The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Christ
because He was first. The medium of their power
He had priority of existence The representative of them both
The Son is equal with the Father Both have the same Spirit
for he received all things from Him This is the source of their Divine unity
He received his immortality from Him Jesus is thus properly called Jehovah

24 | Battle Over Begotten